Demons and Demonology



Also by Rosemary Ellen Guiley

The Encyclopedia of Angels, Second Edition The Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits, Third Edition The Encyclopedia of Magic and Alchemy The Encyclopedia of Saints The Encyclopedia of Vampires, Werewolves, and Other Monsters The Encyclopedia of Witches, Witchcraft and Wicca, Third Edition


Demons and Demonology



Rosemary Ellen Guiley

The Encyclopedia of Demons and Demonology Copyright © 2009 by Visionary Living, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Facts On File, Inc. An imprint of Infobase Publishing, Inc. 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Guiley, Rosemary. The encyclopedia of demons and demonology / Rosemary Ellen Guiley ; foreword by John Zaffis. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-8160-7314-6 (hardcover : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-8160-7314-7 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Demonology—Encyclopedias. I. Title. BF1503.G85 2009 133.4'203—dc22 2008052488 Facts On File books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755. You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at Text design by Cathy Rincon Cover design by Takeshi Takahashi Printed in the United States of America VB Hermitage 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on acid-free paper and contains 30 percent postconsumer recycled content.

For John Zaffis





But Ed was a stickler for the proper education. Connecticut. and twins have been known to be more psychically sensitive than the average person. I was impatient back then. Lorraine Warren. but Ed. in his wisdom.FOREWORD S I have spent more than 30 years dealing with the shadow side of the paranormal. and many others have been resolved with intervention. not having much understanding of what they are dealing with or the ramifications and consequences of this kind of work. and dark forces are at work in the world. I never actually intended to become so deeply involved. I have worked on more than 7. He refused to allow me to go along on cases before I turned 18. The work is never easy. my deceased grandfather standing at the foot of my bed. I was so shaken that it was several days before I could return to the case. The intensity of the evil was astonishing. but as most of us in this field are. As Rosemary Ellen Guiley states in her introduction to this book. As a kid I was always fascinated by the work Ed and Lorraine did in the paranormal. knew what he was doing. and clergy. I had never before experienced anything like it. a former funeral parlor in Southington. A few of them have been full-blown demonic infestations and possessions. and there is the constant danger of S . I was drawn in and called to it. the demonic—always fascinating—has acquired a media glamour that has encouraged people to want to become involved as “demonologists. he had died when I was three years old. a clairvoyant. including negative hauntings and demonic cases. the demonic exists.” Many of them jump in not properly prepared. I do not perform exorcisms—that is a role for clergy—but I have assisted at dozens of these rites. I have been privileged to work with some of the best names in the field. Perhaps you could say my calling was “in the blood. and he spent a lot of time transmitting his knowledge to me. Dealing with the paranormal. Plus.000 cases: Many of them have had natural explanations (that is. I was related by blood to one of the most prominent investigators of the demonic: Ed Warren. But my mother verified my description of him. and discernment. and I have to admit. especially the dark side. I did not know him. and came at me down a staircase. became household names in the paranormal and were in media headlines on some of the most famous modern cases on record. is not child’s play and requires grounding. I was about 15 years old when I awoke one night and saw my first apparition. my mother’s twin brother and my uncle. not paranormal or demonic). like me. and Lorraine still works in the field. Ed and his wife. I know from my own experience on this case and others that evil is real. I ix had to have a base in all of those in order to be properly prepared. Ed has passed on now. One of the demonic cases brought me face to face with genuine evil: a reptile-like entity that manifested in an infested home. The first sign of calling came in my teens. both laypersons. Actually.” as my mother was a twin. education. I wanted to be part of it too. I learned a great deal from my uncle and aunt and eventually went out on my own.

We became good friends and colleagues. and I can tell you that it will be one of my most valuable resources. The forces of evil know who you are and will try to prevent you from interfering in their activities. this book will broaden your knowledge.x The Encyclopedia of Demons and Demonology repercussions. there is a need for the average person to become more informed about the demonic. I met Rosemary several years ago at a conference in New Jersey hosted by L’Aura Hladik. refer to them frequently. That is why education is so important. founder of the New Jersey Ghost Hunters Society. Rosemary points out that many people ignore the topic altogether. your home. your family.” I assure you. —John Zaffis . hoping that the demonic will just “go away. As a whole we are undereducated on the topic. If I had had a book like The Encyclopedia of Demons and Demonology when I was getting started. I have all of her encyclopedias. which add dimension to the overall picture. Beyond paranormal investigation. Rosemary Ellen Guiley has gained a well-earned reputation in the paranormal for her thorough research and investigation. I guarantee you that it would have been well thumbed in a hurry. and insight in addition to experience. In fact. You. and recommend them to others. Everyone who picks up this book will learn something new. and your friends all become targets. I mentioned earlier the importance of education. we in the field are seeing an increase in intensity and frequency of activity. assisting each other in our work in whatever ways possible and collaborating on projects. Many of us get our ideas from Hollywood. maybe combined with a few religious teachings. how Ed did his best to make sure I was armed with information. We sometimes have different viewpoints. I welcome the addition of this one to my set. the forces of evil have no intention of disappearing. That is one of the many things I appreciate so much about Rosemary’s work: She looks at everything from different angles. Whether you are serious about paranormal investigation or are a casual reader intrigued by a fascinating subject. knowledge. The Encyclopedia of Demons and Demonology covers an amazing amount of material and from different perspectives. I was already quite familiar with her work.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS S S I am deeply indebted to John Zaffi s and Adam Blai. Imbrogno. I am also indebted to Philip J. for sharing his expertise on djinn. who have shared their knowledge and expertise on demons and demonology with me. Thanks also go to the very talented Richard Cook and Scott Brents for creating some original artwork in this book and especially for putting faces on some most unusual demons. xi .


and folklore the forces of both good and evil are personified. and death. and bad luck. and the once-good angel Lucifer. art. making unending assaults on human beings in an attempt to subvert souls to the Devil’s domain. Outside monotheism. satan. Destruction. literature. They want their homeland returned. and Satan obliges Christianity in that sense. and the ultimate darkness of death have often overshadowed the presence of goodness and light. In myth. seek to avoid these torments as much as possible. we see it as the deserved consequence of evildoing. have many guises and operate under many names and with many purposes. is the thoroughly evil counterpart to the all-good God. understandably. In the Christian view. and rebirth. they are evil—fallen angels who. demons have a long history of interfering in the affairs of the physical world and the lives of people. They are doomed to eternal hell and serve the Devil. they cause illnesses. We console ourselves with the explanation that evil serves to test and demonstrate our moral fiber and spiritual worthixiii ness. and pop culture. When evil strikes the wicked. Human beings have dealt with evil in three principal ways: by meeting it head on in battle. the Devil. ruination. They are an essential part of the eternal cycle of life. religion. they are seldom completely evil. we look for satisfactory explanations. When evil strikes the righteous. decay. death. of Hebrew lore. Monotheism creates a sharper polarization between good and evil. disease. Some hold long-standing grudges against humanity. especially to good people. Our fate in the afterlife—eternal heaven or eternal hell—hangs in the balance.INTRODUCTION S Dealing with evil has occupied center stage in human affairs since our earliest times. as Lucifer did. all of which attempt to explain why bad things happen. the lower agents of evil. insanity. S . In the pagan view. chaos. by warding it off before it strikes. entities of moral ambivalence who mostly deceive and interfere. and though some are mostly evil. Everyone feels the touch of evil at some point in life. Demons. In the pantheons of deities there are gods and goddesses of benevolence and malevolence. often in vain. The djinn of Arabian lore. evolving from the neutral adversary. folklore. regardless of his or her moral striving. disasters. philosophy. Human beings. Their job is to tear things down via disaster. Every army needs a wholly evil enemy. In Christianity. More seriously. for example. say they were the original inhabitants of Earth and were evicted by God in favor of humans. and by trying to avoid it altogether through denial. who chose pride and fell from grace. and some of them carry out guerrilla warfare and terrorism against humans to that end. The one Creator is all-good but permits evil to exist under the direction of an archfiend. Concepts of the Devil developed over centuries. chose pride over obedience to God and were cast out of heaven. Satan. they are a part of the natural order. The how and why of evil have been debated and discussed for centuries in religion. They act as tricksters and create annoying disturbances. illness. though not always with the goal of subverting souls.

In this volume. Several years ago. champion it. The world in its original state was pristine. and film. many Christians think. To know evil does not mean to embrace it. expressions of the demonic in folklore. mayhem. such as possession by the zar of Middle Eastern lore and the kitsune of Japanese lore. Consequently. for example.xiv The Encyclopedia of Demons and Demonology Whatever the guises. For the next several centuries. but they deny malevolent beings. I also believe in demons. Genuine demonic possession. The forces of evil entered the world. “See no evil” means to them “avoiding all evil. The early church fathers of Christianity tackled the questions of the origins of evil. Meanwhile. was gathering momentum. Beliefs about possession are universal and ancient. still exists today. and agendas. One does not exist without the other. One conquers an enemy by knowing it inside and out. but “demonology” as a study of the demonic did not gel until about the 15th century. oppression. possessing demons caused illness and insanity. though there were some genuine possessions. and perfection will be restored. Information shines a powerful light. At some point. Ignorance. to minimize its impact in the world. the existence of the Devil. and outright fraud were part of many of these cases. Some common themes. I have explored numerous avenues of thought on the demonic. they will not be bothered by them. however. The exorcisms were more like circus acts than religious proceedings. religious and nonsecular authorities on demons wrote with great conviction on the diabolical and the relationship between witchcraft and demons. Ignorance breeds fear. possessing them. and personal experience is that what you fear will find you. and it is important that we shine that light into the darkness. demonic forces are constantly at play in the world. good will vanquish evil. contorting. names. for example. France—who put on displays of writhing. and personalities who have influenced our views on the demonic. and fear is evil’s greatest weapon. One of the things I have found to be true in my paranormal research. they are relatively rare among all the ways the demonic forces operate. While such events do happen. concern the origins and fate of evil. media attention on the demonic has prompted individuals to call themselves . All of my encyclopedias emphasize the Western tradition. in the murder. Sexual repression. and the stories of human dealings with demons are colorful and mesmerizing. all for huge audiences. I have been puzzled by people who adamantly insist that demons do not exist. Rather. examples of demonic and spirit possessions and exorcisms. I have included entries on many individual demons. Everywhere in the ancient world. demonized pagan deities. By then. and making green slime run down walls and stairs. wreaking havoc. or glorify it. It is rare relative to other forms of demonic interference. and violence people wreak on one another. and will to lead the righteous life. in my introduction to my Encyclopedia of Angels. perfect. revenge. Some of them naively think that if they do not believe in demons. Thanks to the exaggerations of film and fiction. including the heavyweights of hell. My purpose in writing this encyclopedia is to provide one of those lights. the forces of evil have been having their day. Evil often operates through people. Evil is insidious. from a Christian perspective. I have had personal experience of both. is no protection. One demonic activity that fascinates people most is possession. types and classes of demons. there are many ways to counter evil. degrading people’s thoughts. Since then. and good. which automatically meant being in league with the Devil in order to harm people and destroy everything good. a Trojan horse that destroys from within. and other outrageous behavior. the Inquisition. literature. intentions. shouting obscenities. There was little or no evidence to support the claims. I affirmed my belief in angels. it became the instrument of the Devil’s subversion of souls. The content is not intended to validate any particular religious view. Jesus gained attention for his ability to heal these conditions by expelling the demons. with the inclusion of some cross- cultural entries for comparison. who demand attention and gifts. Some of the most famous possession cases on record concerned the alleged possession of nuns—such as at Loudun and Louviers. They readily believe in angels and other representatives of the forces of light and good. The evolution of the Devil in Christianity narrowed the focus on possession. established by the Roman Catholic Church to suppress heresy. both religious and lay authorities on the subject say it is on the increase. There is much diversity but also some common threads and themes. that demonic attacks occur in the form of hideous beings assaulting people. In my years of researching the paranormal. often through the actions of humans. it is important to be informed about demons and evil. The Protestant Reformation in the early 1500s was followed in Europe by a period in which Catholics and Protestants used possession as one of their battlegrounds on which to demonstrate religious superiority and sway the faithful. investigation. and the operations of demons. as adherents to Wicca well know. turning people away from God and the church. however. but public fears of the demonic were easily warped to believe in wild nights of demonic orgies and blasphemous activities. In the field of lay paranormal investigation. Some of these ideas linger today. Denying their existence only makes human beings easier targets. The Catholic Church developed formal rites of exorcism to combat this evil.” Ignorance is their protection. They would rather not know anything about the demonic in order not to “dignify” it. Thousands of people were accused of witchcraft. Demons are the front lines of evil. The lore about demons is rich and varied.

Regardless of religious perspective. They offer humans gifts of wealth. demons play roles in occultism and magic. The greatest price is one’s soul.Introduction xv “demonologists” and offer their services. Outside religion. occupation. In many respects. becoming a spiritual warrior against evil is a calling. The demonic are masters of deceit and disguise. knowledge. it is far more important to be informed about demons than it is about angels. In magical lore. some demons have good dispositions and some do not. controlled. how will you recognize them? —Rosemary Ellen Guiley . and pleasure—but always at a price. They are one of numerous types of entities with whom adepts can traffic. Real exorcists and deliverance ministers know that battling evil on its own turf is perilous and rarely glamorous. The Encyclopedia of Demons and Demonology is intended to open further avenues of inquiry on the subject of the dark side. not a profession. and assigned tasks. They are conjured. sometimes for a fee. Few of them are demonologists in the truest sense of the word. or job description. If you know little or nothing about them. power.




Abaddon is associated with Sheol. and the netherworld. Abaddon is primarily a place of destruction and a name for one of the regions of Gehenna (see HELL). who govern powers of evil. In rabbinic writings and the Old Testament. Abaddon was a place and not an angel or being. France. Revelation also cites the Greek version of the name. 2nd ed. Bob Becking. Mich. the bottomless pit of hell. or Furies. Originally. Job 28:22 names Abaddon and Death together. Apollyon.: William B. Greek god of pestilence and destruction. In MAGIC Abaddon is often equated with SATAN and SAMAEL. In Proverbs 15:11 and 27:20. The name Abaddon is derived from the Hebrew term for “to destroy” and means “place of destruction. destruction. Apollyon. eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible.” 1 . and devastation. The term occurs six times in the Old Testament. and Pieter W. 1999. 1582) French sorcerer believed to be under the influence of a DEMON in the form of a black dog. In Psalm 88:11. Abaddon is associated with the grave and the underworld. implying personified beings. His name is evoked in conjuring spells for malicious deeds. Grand Rapids. Eerdmans. Abaddon is the prince who rules the seventh hierarchy of DEMONs. he was also known as “The Smasher.A Abaddon (Apollyon) Angel of death. war. discord. Abaddon is personified as the king of the abyss. In Job 26:6. from Francis Barrett’s The Magus (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) Abel de Larue (d. Karel. FURTHER READING: van der Toorn. the ERINYES. it is named with Sheol as a region of the underworld. Living in Coulommiers. In REVELATION 9:10. Later.” Apollyon is the Greek name. probably a reference to Apollo. van der Horst.

The rooster represents wakefulness and is related to the human heart and the universal heart. and is the enemy of Moses. ascending to the unknowable God. the shield usually inscribed with the name Iao. or ANGELs. or articulated thought. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. Edited and translated by Wade Baskin. Abel confessed that a black spaniel appeared to him and promised to help him and always go to his aid if he would surrender himself to the dog. until the demon EPHIPPAS arrives to take him to King SOLOMON. Abigor appears as a handsome man on a horse. Numerical values of Mithra’s and Abraxas’ names each total 365. Abezethibou is trapped with the pillar of air. Abel was found guilty and sentenced to be hanged and garroted and his body burned. Isis. FURTHER READING: Plancy. Abel was arrested on charges of sorcery and spell casting. The whip denotes the relentless driving power of life. Abraxas was associated with the Mithraic mystery religion of Persian origin. New York: Philosophical Library. He is often mounted on a chariot drawn by four white horses. Reprint. New York: Doubleday. or sphere. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Dictionary of Witchcraft. He knows all the secrets of war and sees the future. Abraxas also was the name of a sun mounting an ouroborus (a snake biting its tail) held by the highest Egyptian goddess. Abraxis) Gnostic name for the demigod who rules the 365th (highest and final) aeon. The seven letters of the name of Abraxas represent the seven creative powers and planetary spheres. His hands hold a shield and a whip. the creator of the Sun and mistress of all the gods. 1985. Orthodox Christians viewed Abraxas as a demon. 1965. holding a standard or scepter. At his trial. plots against every wind under the heavens. Isis mythology found its way into Gnosticism. Abigor DEMON who is a grand duke in HELL. Gnosticism. the head of a rooster (or occasionally a hawk). Vols.2 Abezethibou Abel was placed in a Franciscan monastery by his mother. 1983. Abezethibou One-winged DEMON who lives in the Red Sea. He was present when Moses was taken before the pharaoh of Egypt and was summoned to the aid of the Egyptian magicians when they sought to discredit Moses. reminiscent of the Jewish four-letter name of God. in whom light and darkness are both united and transcended. The demon never made good on his promise of rescue. He teaches leaders how to win the loyalty of soldiers. He became enraged at the instructor of novices for beating him. Mithraism featured a complex astrology and numerology. Originally published as Dictionary of Demonology. The snake legs indicate prudence. Collin de. He is the supreme power of being. which he admitted. The four horses symbolize the four ethers by which solar power is circulated throughout the universe. In the Testament of Solomon. When the parted Red Sea falls in on the Egyptians. named Amelouth. In addition. Abezethibou takes credit for turning the pharaoh against Egypt and for inciting the Egyptians to pursue the Israelites in their exodus. Gnostic talismans made of carved opal show Abraxas as a figure with a human body. the great protector of divine warriors. The shield is symbolic of wisdom. The Gnostic Abraxas created the material world and also had demonic qualities. the Sun. As did Abigor (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) . He was executed on July 20. In 1582. The letters add up to a numerological value of 365. he commands 60 LEGIONs of demons. the number of days and powers of the year. The human torso embodies the principle of logos. recognized in the ancient world. In turn. with both Sun and Moon overhead. 1 & 2. Abraxas (Abrasax. Abezethibou states that he once sat in the first heaven. Abraxas became a favorite deity of heretical sects of the Middle Ages. and SERPENT legs. In hell. Christian demonologists put Abraxas in the ranks of DEMONs. 1582. the chief rival of Christianity in Rome in its first 400 years. Solomon binds Abezethibou and Ephippas to the pillar (perhaps a reference to the Milky Way) and commands that they hold it up in the air until the end of time. and he plotted revenge.

Edited by James H. rage. Acaph Achaos See LOUDUN POSSESSIONS.Aeshma 3 Devil’s wardrobe. Hyatt. Adramalech is the grand chancellor of DEMONs. Adramelech (Adramalek) A chieftain of HELL. and governor of the Adramelech (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) . Jung called Abraxas the “truly terrible one” because of his ability to generate truth and falsehood. Possibly he was derived from a Samarian Sun god worshipped by the Sepharvites. 1982. Aeshma’s epithet is “of the bloody mace. FURTHER READING: Hyatt. Ill. 1974. one must not only fight on the side of the angels but occasionally join the host of the FALLEN ANGELs. Stephan A. and Joseph W. The Book of Demons. 1974. The princes have dukes and myriad ministering spirits or demons under their command. The princes cannot be summoned by magic unless the magician wears their special SEALs as a lamen. water. The Book of Demons. upon the chest.” He is the fiercest of demons and is responsible for all acts of Carl G. FURTHER READING: Hoeller. light and darkness with the same word and in the same deed. The aerial spirits are both good and evil. and fire. also known as The Lesser Key of Solomon. president of the DEVIL’s general council. Victoria. Abraxas (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) aerial spirits of Solomon DEMONs associated with the four elements who were commanded by the legendary King SOLOMON. and liberation. including kings. air. or gnosis.: Quest Books. the DEMON of wrath. 1 & 2. the Lemegeton. Charlesworth. New York: Doubleday. He works under the command of SAMAEL. 1983. Vols. and Joseph W. The aerial spirits are governed by 31 princes who are aligned to points on a compass. and fury. is achieved by not resisting. New York: Simon & Schuster. New York: Simon & Schuster. See LOUDUN POSSESSIONS. who burned children as a sacrificial offering to him. good and evil. Reprint. and do anything contained in the four elements of earth. 1985. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. According to Jung. Aeshma In ZOROASTRIANISM. Adramalech is of uncertain origin. The conjurations of the aerial spirits are given in a grimoire. They can show anything in the world that is hidden and can fetch. carry. fear of Abraxas is the beginning of wisdom. See SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Charles. Victoria. They can be summoned by directing one’s self to their compass position. Charles. Wheaton. In Jungian psychology there is no easy way out of psychic conflict. or pendant. Adramelech himself is often portrayed as a peacock (see IBLIS) or as a mule. The Gnostic Jung and the Seven Sermons to the Dead. They can discover the secrets of anyone. He is the eighth of the 10 evil demons of the sephirot of the Tree of Life (see K ABBALAH).

again in disguise. the DEMON of all demons and the source of all evil. Ahriman asked only to kiss his shoulders. The son ruled for a thousand years and finally was destroyed. pestilence. When he did so. when she and her mother devour victims. The battle between the two forces continues and will last for thousands of years. a Zoroastrian text. Prior to his fall. whom he trained to be evil. Violence. Every time Zohak cut them off. Ahriman originally was a primordial desert spirit who became the personification of evil in Zoroastrianism. In Jewish demonology. Zurvan declared that the fi rstborn would be supreme ruler. the good god. that is why there are drought. He makes those who run stand still. Agrath commands 18 myriads (LEGIONs) of evil spirits and rides in a big chariot. Ahriman and Ormazd (a contraction of Ahura Mazda) were twins born to Zuvan. Aeshma can be driven away by the recitation of a prayer from the Vendidad. the creator deity. In medieval texts. He told Zohak to kill his own father. and he can retrieve runaways. Truth. The creator God. the Amesha Spenta. or good spirit. In HELL he is the first duke of the power of the east and rules 31 LEGIONs of DEMONs. and told Zohak that he had to feed the serpents human brains every day. Zurvan was bound by his promise. In the hierarchy of Zoroastrian DAEVAs that mirrors a similar hierarchy of divinities. a powerful female Agrath (beating) and her mother. divided into eras. He has seven powers that he can use for the destruction of humanity. To aid him in his rule. Ormazd would take over and reign in goodness and light.4 Agares aggression and malice. M AKHLATH. The demon ASMODEUS of Hebrew lore may be based in part on Aeshma. who will destroy Ahriman and all his forces of evil. Aeshma is made a commander of dark forces by Angra Mainyu (later AHRIMAN). and destroys spiritual dignities. as a doctor. Ahriman. causes earthquakes. whether committed in war or drunkenness. and Life) and Angra Mainyu (the spirit of Darkness. Zohak complied and became Ahriman’s pride. In one. called Evil Mind. and Falsehood. As such. Spenta Mainyu became absorbed into Ahura Mazda.” Ahriman tried to maim the prophet Zarathustra but failed. After the fourth era. famine. He also created a female demon named A Z and a dragon. created Sraosha to counter Aeshma’s mischief and protect people from his attacks. they grew back. created the universe and twins called Spenta Mainyu (the spirit of Light. Ahura Mazda. Deceit and Death). however. He teaches all languages. Enmity. Aeshma’s chief adversary is Sraosha (Obedience). Zohak was so impressed with him that he offered to reward him. the principle of religious devotion and discipline. and Zohak killed someone he thought was his father. war. Ahriman entered in another disguise. but he limited the time that Ahriman could rule. Agares FALLEN ANGEL and the second of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Aeshma is opposed to Asha Vahishta. Agares was a member of the angelic order of Virtues. Ahriman ripped himself out of the womb in order to be fi rst. Tyranny. SERPENTs sprang from the spots. The archdemons struggle against the six archangel amarahspands. became chef of the palace.999 diseases. Wrath. are in constant struggle against LILITH. He disguised himself. or “Bounteous Immortals. Over time. the demon of avarice. According to another legend. Ahura Mazda (later Ohrmazd). especially people who are out alone. In a variation of this legend Ahura Mazda created Angra Mainyu in a moment of doubt when he was making the universe. Agares (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) . He interferes with the souls of the dead as they approach the Chinvat Bridge to the underworld. He appears as a handsome man riding a crocodile and carrying a goshawk on his fi st. three saviors will appear. Ahriman In ZOROASTRIANISM. Aeshma distracts people from proper worship. He is swallowed by AZ. Agrath DEMON. Sraosha ultimately will overthrow Aeshma. disease. Ahriman created 99. At the end of that. he is not immortal. and Angra Mainyu became Ahriman. There are different legends about the origins of Ahriman as the evil god. and eventually his reign of terror will be conquered by the forces of good. The twins fight for supremacy and their battleground is Earth. and other ills. She is most powerful on the nights of Wednesday and Saturday. The Earth is presently under the rule of Ahriman. A legend about Ahriman says that he had a son named Zohak. who embodies Truth. and six archdemons.

Five more nuns became infected. at age 12.. On December 15. 1998. Maximin. Gaufridi had a much lower class background but was popular among the wealthy. but nothing was found. and visions of DEMONs. He was a most determined inquisitor. the nuns were still affl icted. The witnesses. Romillon took the two young women to see the grand inquisitor in Avignon. There she was visited by a family friend who sought to help her. After about two years. He imparts cunning and gives true answers to questions about “private matters. and then Madeleine began suffering convulsions. she was sent in 1605. Aiwass See CROWLEY. Madeleine. She claimed he gave her a special powder to drink that would cause any babies she bore not to look like him. BAALBERITH. without success. shaking fits. FURTHER READING: Hyatt. Deeply religious from childhood. since most clerics believed that any words spoken by one possessed by the Devil were utterances from “the father of lies” (John 8:44) and would not stand up to accepted rules of evidence. François Domptius. Mary Magdalene in the grotto at SteBaume.666. vain girl from a wealthy and aristocratic Provençal family. in 17thcentury France. The Book of Demons. with which he spreads much destruction and fire. Still. spoke through her in a deep bass voice. Nothing happened for nearly two years. to the new Ursuline convent in Aix-enProvence. she said she was nine when they began their affair). accusations from a demoniac were considered unreliable. Exasperated. Madeleine became severely depressed and was sent home. Warnings about this inappropriate behavior were issued to Gaufridi and to Madeleine’s mother by the head of the Ursuline convent in Marseilles. and Other Subversive Spirits. so he would not fall under suspicion. Before Christmas 1609. speaking again through Louise. calling him a magician. 1974. Gaufridi had no knowledge of exorcisms. and his good looks appealed to women. Louise Capeau. Aix-en-Provence Possessions (1609–1611) Sensational case of possessed Ursuline nuns. she smashed a crucifi x during confession. In response. New York: Simon & Schuster. loose behavior by clergy was tolerated. which led to the torture and execution of a priest. New York: Owl Books/Henry Holt. and the two nuns mocked him. Mother Catherine sent her back to Aix-en-Provence. Verin. Aim (Aini) FALLEN ANGEL and 23rd of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. He visited often. The Aix-en-Provence case is one of the first in France to produce a conviction based on the testimony of a DEMONIAC. A Field Guide to Demons: Fairies. his quarters were searched for evidence of witchcraft. There she was one of only six nuns. intending that he perform an exorcism. a Flemish Dominican priest at the Royal Convent of St. Verin. ALEISTER. One of them. He rides on a viper and carries a blazing firebrand. Thus it was no surprise that 14-year-old Madeleine fell violently in love with him. Father Romillon tried to exorcise Madeleine. unless WITCHCRAFT was suspected. Meanwhile. the founder of anthroposophy. While he languished in jail. alleged immoral sex. I would certainly give my soul to a thousand devils!” Michaelis pounced on this and had Gaufridi arrested and jailed in the grotto. not to be outdone by Lou- . As with the LOUDUN POSSESSIONS. Charles. ASMODEUS. Madeleine and Louise were then sent to another EXORCIST. He was personable and entertaining. a handsome priest 20 years her senior. Victoria. however. Father Romillon confronted Gaufridi in June about his affair with Madeleine. He retorted. and Joseph W. were convinced beyond doubt that the women were genuinely possessed. who began having the same symptoms and lost their speech.661 other demons. but without explanation to the priest. The central figure—and perpetrator—of the case was Sister Madeleine de Demandolx de la Palud. Louise stole center stage. He appears as a handsome man with three heads: a SERPENT. Madeleine went to the convent in Marseille as a novice. Madeleine. Father Louis Gaufridi. In HELL Aim is a strong duke. Prior to the 17th century in France. a man who had gotten on in years but was quite feared: He had sent 18 witches to their death at the stake in Avignon. a man with two stars on his forehead. identified Gaufridi as the cause of Madeleine’s possession. Romillon conducted secret EXORCISMs on Madeleine.” He governs 26 LEGIONs of DEMONs. LEVIATHAN. clever spirits that seek to keep people mired in materialism. for a grand total of 6. and A STAROTH —all important in HELL—plus 6. which the priest denied. She accused Gaufridi of denying God. Michaelis sent for Gaufridi. including the exorcists. all of them from wealthy families. Carol K. They taunted Madeleine with possession by BEELZEBUB. In 1607. and where Gaufridi could not visit her. “If I were a witch. sexual themes dominated the manifestations of the nuns’ POSSESSION. became her rival in performance. and Sonnillon. Sebastian Michaelis. Mack. and a cat. and gossip flew when he once spent an hour and a half with her without her family present. It failed. Madeleine screamed obscenities. had become quite vocal about their indiscretions during her fits. Three demons who possessed her. Michaelis’ approach was a public exorcism of the nuns at the shrine of St. which was more remote. By Easter 1610. and having sex with her since she had been 13 (later.Aix-en-Provence P ossessions 5 RUDOLF STEINER. Gresil. giving her a green devil for a FAMILIAR. and a PACT with the DEVIL. said Ahrimanic forces are intelligent. and Dinah Mack. Mother Catherine de Gaumer. her possession infected three other nuns. Fallen Angels. She confessed to Mother Catherine that she had been intimate with Gaufridi. Their spiritual director was Father Jean-Baptiste Romillon. a highstrung.

was their day off. Michaelis was ecstatic at Gaufridi’s breakdown and wrote a phony confession of 52 points. The marks mysteriously disappeared and reappeared repeatedly. He also sought to suppress the Ursuline convents and jail the offending nuns. First. Bridget’s in Lille. the court found him guilty of sorcery. he was subjected to horrible torture. There. His last appearance before the court was on April 28. so that his bones were severely and painfully dislocated. laughed. 1670. two years later. apparently. He was taken before the court in March. they practiced sodomy on Thursdays and bestiality on Saturdays and sang litanies to the Devil on Wednesdays and Fridays. algul Arabian vampire night DJINN. disrupted services. As soon as he was executed. still denying intimacy with Madeleine but confessing to more sensational crimes. had visions. she was released to a relative in Chateauvieux. Even so. Sunday. Physicians examined her and agreed she was not a virgin. there were no grounds to continue to hold Gaufridi. She danced. While he awaited his turn in court. On April 18. weak and dispirited. she was accused of witchcraft. Madeleine’s troubles recurred later in life. Madeleine was “cured.6 algul ise. Beelzebub made her bones crack and disrupted her bowels. Michaelis at last was able to pressure the Parliament of Aix to bring Gaufridi to trial in civil court in February 1611. in which he was strung up on a rope with his hands bound behind his back and dropped. she would fall into lethargy or a deathlike sleep. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. expanded on her accusations. 1611. Her behavior worsened. Algul means “horse leech. FURTHER READING: Baroja. Most notable about Sister Marie’s testimony. See LILITH. vomited froth. Madeleine and Louise were the star witnesses against the priest. Michaelis continued to look for ways to convict him on charges of sorcery.” But the Aix-en-Provence affair was not over by any means. Although this type of evil djinn lives in cemeteries. and the Lille possessions died down. He was sentenced to be burned on a pile of bushes. After these manic episodes. it prefers fresh BLOOD. and fornication. Twice she attempted suicide in bouts of deep depression. Claire’s in Aix and. and many witnesses testified against her. the marks did not bleed or cause her pain. saying he had been forced under torture to confess. She displayed the DEVIL’S MARKs on the bottom of her feet and under her left breast. Gaufridi was kept in heavy chains in a rat-infested dungeon. without hard evidence. Gaufridi was executed on April 30. At last. 1975. When pricked with a pin. In 1642. neighed like a horse. which led to a blind girl’s being accused and convicted of witchcraft and burned at the stake on July 19. Gaufridi became deranged. Julio Caro. in which heavy weights were attached to his feet. But Gaufridi had no names of fellow witches or sorcerers to give. and he was strangled to death before his body was put on the burning bushes. she may have become manic-depressive. saying the priest did not pray with a “clean heart” and accusing him of every obscene act possible. Michaelis confined Madeleine to the Ste-Baume convent. She was sentenced to pay a large fine and spend the rest of her life in prison. the witches copulated with devils and each other in a natural fashion. with inherited money. was her detailed description of the witches’ sabbat: On Mondays and Tuesdays. Madeleine alternated this daily display with assertions that she was making everything up. St. and he was hoisted on a rope and dropped sharply to within inches of the floor. magic. three nuns accused Sister Marie de Sains of bewitching them. It enters homes to prey upon sleeping children. St. and told wild stories of SABBATs at which sodomy was performed and participants ate babies. He was then forced to ask God for forgiveness and was bound to a wooden sled and dragged through the streets of Aix for five hours. 1611. where she died at age 77 on December 20. the bishop of Marseilles had granted him a special dispensation. idolatry. He described sabbats. it drinks the blood of dead infants in cemeteries. a slower way to die by fire than by being burned on a pile of faggots. When fresh blood is not available. Louise continued to have visions of witches. he was subjected four times to the squassation. Devil’s marks were found on her. and he had eaten roasted babies. Her relatives abandoned her. He undertook a campaign to clear his name. and three Devil’s marks were found. at which he said the truth no longer mattered. Marie was put away out of sight by the archbishop of Malines. . It was a significant mercy.” The algul lives in cemeteries and takes the form of a woman in order to gain the trust of untended children. appealing even to the pope. His body was shaved. He was defrocked and degraded and subjected three times to the strappado. The World of the Witches. Still. Fortunately for Gaufridi. taking their blood and their breath. The possession infection spread to two other convents. sang love songs. recounting in graphic detail their possessions and going into fits before the court. and he returned to his parish in a rage. Michaelis reluctantly freed him. and she was forced to prepare her own defense. continuing a relentless interrogation to obtain names of accomplices. the priest surrendered to relentless prosecution and confessed to being “Prince of the Synagogue” and to signing a pact with the Devil in his own BLOOD in exchange for the promise that all women would follow him. the court was not done with the priest. though not as luridly as had Madeleine. She was accused again in 1652. His many friends went to his defense. in many ways a copy of Madeleine’s performance. It lures untended children into dark places in order to vampirize them. After 10 years. Gaufridi rejected it. at age 49. Then. She claimed great love for Gaufridi and actually writhed on the floor imitating the sexual acts they had done.

in Deer Park. The alp has an odd way of sexually molesting men and women: It enters through the victim’s mouth as a mist or a SERPENT. He appears first as a unicorn. pigs. A duke in HELL. but his dukes will only appear at certain hours.100. Lamael. but their efforts had no effect. New York. Clothing. shape-shifting spirit associated with nightmare DEMONs. Kathy had nightmares about the murders. Amityville Haunting House in Amityville. with Kathy’s three children by a previous marriage: Daniel. Amenadiel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. the apparition of a little girl became Melissa’s playmate. books and films.Amityville Haun ting 7 Alloces (Allocen. and the freezer was stocked with food.880 servants. Long Island. when it was purchased by newlyweds. unseen presences embraced Kathy. including the EVIL EYE. Curifas. Christopher. A third son. It may be disguised as a butterfly released by the breath of the horerczy. 23-year-old Ronald “Butch” DeFeo. Amduscias FALLEN ANGEL and 67th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. the BOGEY. Six members of the DeFeo family—parents. Parapsychologists and psychical researchers had gone to the house. Amenadiel’s chief dukes are Vadros. In folklore. a vampiric. Each duke has 3. They moved in on December 18. Almesiel. Regardless of its form. Amenadiel is the great emperor of the west and governs 300 great dukes. children are doomed to become alps if their mothers use horse collars to ease childbirth. and went to the home of Kathy’s mother. Balsur. and so on. but among the phenomena were bangings and a hooded apparition that appeared on the stairs and pointed at George. The alp can assume different forms. Luziel.000. five. jewelry. It drinks BLOOD through the nipples of both men and women and consumes the milk of women and cows. claims and counterclaims. Voices told them to “get out”. and Nadroc. from seductive humans to animals. nine. and he gives people the power to make trees fall and also gives excellent FAMILIAR s. birds. Folklore holds that women can prevent the alp from bothering them at night by sleeping with their shoes at the side of the bed and pointing toward the door. a crucifix hanging on a wall was turned upside down. and two daughters—were found shot to death with a . Musiriel. Finally.300. and other personal belongings were left in place. Trees sway at the sound of his voice. Kathy’s face transfigured before George into a horrid hag.35-caliber rifle. Campiel. Amduscias is a great duke of HELL who rules over 29 LEGIONs of DEMONs. and the sexual predator demons. and lecherous dogs. based on his history of drug abuse. The haunting phenomena of the house at 112 Ocean Street are believed to be related to a grisly multiple murder on November 13. The house was empty until December 1975. The Amityville Horror® was deemed demonic by ED AND LORRAINE WARREN. the alp likes to wear a magical hat. He teaches astronomy and the liberal sciences and gives beneficial FAMILIAR s. Laundry was folded. they knew they had to get out. intense publicity. lawsuits. was charged with the murders. the SUCCUBUS and INCUBUS. such as cats. DeFeo pled insanity. Their behavior and mood deteriorated. . According to the Lutzes. who asked them to check the house and story. Allocer) FALLEN ANGEL and 52nd of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. the apparition of a “demon boy” who could shape-shift into a demonic pig was seen. His lion face is red with flaming eyes. The producer asked the Warrens to hold a séance at the house. family photos. New York. Rapsiel. Zoeniel. but this will cause musical instruments to be heard but not seen. The Lutzes refused to reenter the house but asked the Warrens to fi nd and take the deed to them. Amenadiel can be conjured anytime day or night. green slime oozed from walls. On their walk-through. 1976.M. Their estimated time of death was 3:00 A. The children could not attend school. which confers upon it invisibility and supernatural power. The alp can be either a demon or a malevolent ghost of a dead person. and Melissa. They left most of their belongings behind and sent a mover to collect them later. there were swarms of flies in the cold of winter. where a family experienced horrifying phenomena in the 1970s. Allocen appears as a soldier who rides a large horse. A gingerbread house from Christmas still sat on the dining room table. Ed and Lorraine Warren were contacted by a New York City television producer. and attempts to debunk it. and he speaks in a loud and hoarse voice. cloven hoofprints appeared in the snow outside the house. The Warrens visited the Lutzes where they were staying and obtained keys. In late February. the Warrens found a house evacuated in a hurry.000. They were informed of the murders but bought the house anyway. mysterious noises sounded in the middle of the night. 1974. they were subjected to events that terrified them so badly. He rules over 36 LEGIONs of DEMONs. and 400. They left the house in a rush on January 14. 500 lesser dukes. they immediately experienced horrible phenomena. another vampiric demon. The Lutzes never disclosed all that happened on their last terror-filled night. and George was unable to work. seven. It sucks the life breath from victims. He will take on human shape if commanded to do so. but he was convicted of six counts of second-degree murder and sentenced to 25 years to life in prison. locks and doors were damaged. two sons. alp In German lore. Codriel. but what happened there remained a mystery. The case remains one of the most controversial on modern records and has been the subject of numerous investigations. George and Kathy Lutz.000 ministering spirits. The Lutzes tried to bless the house with prayer themselves.

alleging fraud and breach of contract. George. but it did not depart the home. articles. the Lutzes filed a lawsuit against William Weber. he thought it was Lorraine giving him coffee. in 1979.        Amityville Haunting The Warrens conducted a séance and then returned at a later time to conduct a nighttime séance for television. who had moved to Las Vegas. Then a howling wind started. Even the Warrens and George Lutz acknowledged that Anson’s book was not entirely accurate but attributed it to Anson’s lack of familiarity with demonology and not any deliberate acts by George Lutz. The judge dismissed their suit. DeFeo’s attorney. and Good Housekeeping. The demon entered the room. misappropriation of names for trade purposes. Ed used religious provocation to test for the presence of demons. unable to react or scream.m. The Amityville Horror was published in 1977 and was adapted to film in 1979. which had published articles on the haunting. At first. who was working alone in his office in a cottage attached to the main house. swirling black mass. could not have fabricated. and Burton countersued for $2 million. transforming itself into a horrible. In 1977. The Amityville case has gone on to become a miniindustry. Ed ran in. She was able to break the paralysis and called out to God for protection. died on May 8. The demonic encounter was not the first that the Warrens said they experienced while pursuing their investigations of places such as the Amityville house. Amityville 4: The Evil Escapes (1989. of heart disease. the Warrens said they were assaulted by a demonic force at about 3:00 a. The Lutzes’ case went to trial in district court in Brooklyn. She felt herself being drawn into the black mass. two clairvoyants who had been to the house. The Lutzes’ claims against the news organizations were dropped. The Demonologist (1980). A smell of sulfur manifested. and the Hearst Corporation. including one purporting to show the face of the demon boy peering out from a bedroom. It departed. Details of the attack were published in their autobiography. Prior to the start of the séance. It con- tained numerous errors and embellishments but became a media sensation. Ed suffered from intense heart palpitations. Books by John G.” The couple who purchased the house from the Lutzes said nothing unusual happened to them. Alberta Riley and Mary Pascarella. Amityville II and Amityville: The Final Chapter. For years. A loud pounding sounded and the temperature in the room dropped. Amityville 3D (1983). 2004. and mental distress. Many more points of controversy surfaced. and the mass left. Weber. The desk lamp dimmed and the temperature in the room plummeted. The Lutzes stuck to their story for the rest of their lives. He heard the door open and three footsteps sound. the Lutzes. commanding it to leave in the name of Jesus Christ. “it appears to me that to a large extent the book is a work of fiction. They received a settlement for an unspecified lesser amount. going into the next room and up the chimney. However. The sound of wind rose up the stairs. After returning home to Connecticut. Native Americans refuted Anson’s assertion that part of the problem was due to the house’s location on a place where Shinnecock Indians had once abandoned mentally ill and dying people. changed the names of the principles and added other details. who was consulted by the Lutzes for help. debunked. who knew nothing of demonology. films. saying that from testimony. spawning books. Approximately half the persons present were physically assaulted. broad at the top and pointed at the bottom. Bernard Burton and Frederick Mars. which the Lutzes. sued the Lutzes and Prentice Hall for invasion of privacy and distortion of his involvement in the case. Hoffman. the case was repeatedly debunked. including two trance mediums. Amityville: A New Generation (1993). validated. Father Pecoraro said he did not go to the house to bless it (Lutz always asserted that he did). The Warrens determined that the events at Amityville were demonic phenomena. New York. The Amityville Curse (1990). She made the sign of the cross in the air. building in intensity. Kathy died of emphysema on August 17. Ed armed himself with a vial of holy water and a crucifix and found himself confronted by a triangular. and Paul Hoffman. The Warrens took numerous photographs. Jones. who was reading in bed with their two dogs present. Ed threw the holy water at it and held up the crucifix. The Lutzes sought $5. The demon then visited Lorraine. Additional films are Amityville II: The Possession (1982). Anson died of a heart attack in 1980. and Web sites. that stopped the mass from advancing. Weber. Father Pecoraro is no longer living. the New York Sunday News. The Lutzes wondered whether something wrong about the house itself might have influenced DeFeo to commit the murders. which affected him for three weeks. They divorced in the 1980s. . There was no snow in Amityville on the day that the cloven hoofprints were supposed to have been seen. Amityville 1992: It’s About Time (1992). He received an out-of-court settlement. they were so annoyed by the publicity and steady stream of curiosity seekers that they sued Anson. The mass grew denser. They moved to San Diego. hooded figure that moved aggressively toward him. relying in a large part upon the suggestions of Mr. made for television). Skeptics used the errors as a way to try to debunk the case. where they struck a deal with the author Jay Anson to write a book. California. 2006. Father Pecoraro.1 million. Anson never visited the house but wrote the book from taped interviews. The demon backed off but transmitted an image to Ed of him and Lorraine involved in a deadly automobile accident. The malevolent presence first assaulted Ed. and endless debates. and validated.4 million in damages for invasion of privacy. a writer working on the story. and the publisher Prentice Hall for $1. and Lorraine was paralyzed. In attendance were 17 people.

1980. and dabbling in in 1986. 1992. most usually the trials endured by the saints that prove their holiness. “The Warrens Investigate: The Amityville Horror. When a victim of the Devil petitions Amorth for spiritual cleansing. and having contact with satanic ritual and content—open the door for demonic POSSESSION. Jay. Brittle. Amorth. at age 78. writing. encircled by dark rings. Amorth’s eyes are intense and piercing. for if the prayers have any impact at all on the victim. When Father Amantini passed away on his saint’s day. He rules over 40 LEGIONs of DEMONs. lecturing. and a remake of the original The Amityville Horror (2005). Downloaded November 1. “The Amityville Horror: Interview with George Lutz. Gerald Daniel. on May keeping a full calendar of appointments.” He tried unsuccessfully to have the Potter books banned from Italy. as many of his fellow exorcists do. but immediately begins prayers of deliverance and liberation—a small exorcism—even over the telephone or by e-mail. Loyd. the other two ways are foisted upon the unwary. Father Gabriele Amorth has per- Amon (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) sonally handled more than 30. listening to rock music with satanic lyrics and a hypnotic rhythm. claiming that they teach sorcery to children. and as a test of the victim’s faith. Auerbach. He received the faculty of exorcist by Cardinal Ugo Poletti. He makes men and women fall in love with each other. studying under Father Candido Amantini. the pope’s vicar for the Diocese of Rome. He accurately tells about the past and the future. 2006. 1986. He appears first as a wolf. Amorth believes that many modern-day pastimes and games—such as conjuring. The Amityville Horror. fortune telling and card reading.: Prentice Hall. and he settles disputes between friends and enemies. He has warned against the popularity of the author J. the priest does not wait for proof of demonic presence. but on a magician’s command. Warner Books. New York: Prentice Hall. 1925. K. claiming in an interview for a Catholic news source that behind the boy wizard “lies the signature of the king of darkness. and. listening to rock music.htm. He dresses in black.html. Amon is a strong and powerful marquis. Amorth works tirelessly at his calling. 1977. ridding sufferers of the evils he sees all around him.amityvillehorror truth. by continuing a life of sin. conjuring. The Demonologist: The Extraordinary Career of Ed and Lorraine Warren. Tim. by practicing occultism. participation in satanic groups or rituals. most importantly. He sees his first efforts as a research tool in themselves. Amorth was born in Modena. according to Amorth: through a curse by another. September 22. Their unwavering gaze appears more than capable of staring down DEMONs. Yancey. Amon FALLEN ANGEL and the seventh of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. reading. New York: . The possessed person invites SATAN into his or her life by choosing the paths of sin and occultism. Downloaded November 1. F ather Gabriele 9 Amityville Dollhouse: Evil Never Dies (1996). 2006. Englewood Cliffs.” Available online. In HELL. he will take on the shape of a man with a raven’s head and dog’s teeth. Demonic possession can happen in one of four ways.Amorth. then inhuman entities are at work. N. FURTHER READING: Anson. much less have any training in the rites of EXORCISM.J. conversing with a OUIJA™.000 exorcisms around the world.” Available online. He says there are too few priests who believe in casting out devils (although JESUS bequeaths that ability to the apostles in his name: Mark 3:5. he despaired of how few exorcists were available. Father Amorth succeeded him. ESP Hauntings and Poltergeists. Italy. Early in his career. playing with MAGIC (not illusion). Dedicated to the abolition of satanic evil. One reporter described Amorth as more like the genial Uncle Fester on The Addams Family than the stern priest depicted by Max von Sydow in the fi lm THE EXORCIST (Amorth’s favorite movie). attempting to commune with the dead. a Passionist priest. URL: http://www. He is most concerned about the rise he perceives in satanic activity through the practice of WITCHCRAFT. Rowling’s popular Harry Potter novels. 10:8). Father Gabriele (1925– ) EXORCIST of Vatican City in the Archdiocese of Rome. URL: http://www. but Amorth . who served as chief exorcist for 36 years.

The book of Tobit tells how the archangel Raphael taught a young man. especially of a supernatural nature. Portugal. church bells traditionally are rung to protect the journey of the dead from demonic attack as it travels into the afterlife. and sashes increase the protective power of the bells. Tracy. other evil spirits. anyway. that revisions of the Roman Rite were unnecessary since they would never use it. evil. According to Father Amorth.C. An Exorcist: More Stories. 2007. and Germany. Most insulting to Father Amorth was the refusal by church officials to allow 150 members of the INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF EXORCISTs. An Exorcist: More Stories (2002). are effective. Father Amorth asserted that the church’s refusal to acknowledge demonic activity could mean that the Evil One has infiltrated even the innermost circles of the Vatican. but repellent to demons. places. such as Samhain (All Hallows’ Eve) and Beltane (also known as Walpurgisnacht). the Rituale was scheduled for revision.” and they are repelled by it with great indignation. 2002. gongs. ribbons. Amulets are used to ward off DEMONs. the church hierarchy regards the exorcists as fanatic “demonologues. and the EVIL EYE. is a preservative. including the countries of Spain. which are caused by witches and demons. which is under demonic control.E. Father Amorth uses small exorcisms to prove the presence of inhuman spirits and believes this approach to be valuable in terms of diagnosing whether genuine possession has occurred. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. He is involved in the training of those exorcists. New York: Warner Books. misfortune. as well as fumes. FURTHER READING: Amorth. Noise.” and it even exhibits hostility toward them and their work. disease. Universal Amulets Some objects have enjoyed widespread use as protections against a variety of evils. During the Second Vatican Council under Pope John XXIII. Others worked on the New Ritual. Remy said. Father Amorth outlined his objections to the revised rite. Amorth revealed that entire episcopates refused to acknowledge the need for exorcists. accused witches testified about being transported through the air to a SABBAT on the back of a demon or the DEVIL and of being thrown off to fall to the ground when a church bell sounded in the night. and songs. Most common are natural stones and crystals. Peter’s Square. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. Bells are attached to clothing. and anything harmful. Amulets include objects made and imbued with protective power via prayer or magic and written inscriptions—prayers and CHARMs—carried on the person or placed in an environment. an organization founded by Amorth and representing exorcist priests internationally. German bishops went so far as to inform Cardinal Ratzinger. Bells summon people to prayer and clear the air of odious presences. witches. and need medical treatment. Amulets also can be sounds. forbidding its use in such circumstances—and the commands that exorcism not be used unless demonic activity can be absolutely certified. At the time of the interview. The Vatican’s Exorcists: Driving Out the Devil in the 21st Century. Wilkinson. In witch trials. and hung in doorways.10 amulet is encouraged that the number of practicing exorcists in Italy alone has grown 10-fold to more than 300. Gabriele. Fumes Burned incense and herbs and sacrificed animals are not only pleasing to the gods. to produce fumes from the burned liver of a fish in order to exorcize the demon A SMODEUS. ———. yet many years passed before Father Amorth and his colleagues saw any of the changes. NICHOLAS REMY said that demons consider bell ringing to be “the barking of those mad witches. As noted. sorcerers. He remains steadfast in his faith. noting that while Satan may win battles. bad luck. Amulets to protect people. as it is called. Gospel of Mary: A Month with the Mother of God (2000). and Pater Pio: Lebensgeschichte eines Heiligen. amulet An object believed to have protective power. Salt Salt repels demons and evil things because it is pure in its whiteness. Switzerland. Red ties. a German biography of Padre Pio published in 2003. bells should be rung during storms. The revulsion of demons is evidenced in the fact that many bell ringers are struck by lightning. the Holy Spirit will win the war. In 2000. to join in a public audience with Pope John Paul II in St. not exorcism. An Exorcist Tells His Story. Bell ringing to drive away evil spirits is described in Assyrian magical texts dating to the first millennium B. Father Amorth has written four books: An Exorcist Tells His Story (1999). chants. In lore. church bells were rung to prevent the witches and their demon FAMILIAR s from flying over a village. Tobias. On nights when witches were believed to be about. now Pope Benedict XVI. Amorth and his colleagues submitted carefully worded amendments to the New Ritual. to no avail. he says. Most people who think they are demonically possessed are not. and is linked to life . He was especially scornful of strictures on using the New Ritual against evil spells and CURSEs—in reality. Metals such as iron and silver have special protective powers. tied to children and domestic animals. especially regarding the changes in the RITUALE ROMANUM. 1999. the liturgy of prayers and exhortations in the name of Jesus Christ used to exorcise demons and devils. Among them are: Bells Bells are used in many cultures as a powerful way to repel demons. bells. and animals against demonic attack and influence have been used universally since ancient times. ignoring the input of those who depended on it. When a person dies. Bells are associated with the divine and have been used in magical and religious rites since antiquity.

” Moonlets Moon-shaped amulets were once worn as necklaces by both men and women and were placed on the necks of animals. One set of 10th-century instructions were “It is to be written only on Monday. and death. Yofiel. If she is a witch. In the European witch hunts. Strict procedures were followed for the making of a mezuzah. Christian Amulets against Demons Christian amulets against evil include holy objects and chants. names of angels. in the fourth hour. hand. and his instructions to obey them—to remind Jews of the principle of monotheism. the salt will melt and cause her dress to stick to the chair. biblical inscriptions attached to doorposts.amulet 11 and health. In American Ozark lore. Uriel. The other is a head tefillin. If they floated. held to be especially powerful in repelling demons. or on Thursday. the mezuzah on his door. So powerful was the mezuzah in its ability to keep demons away that Gentiles and Jews alike used it. women who complain of food being too salty are suspected of being witches. it served primarily to ward off evil. Other additions were names of God. One of the pair is a hand tefillin. over which the Sun and the angel Raphael preside. Frequently named angels were Michael. It was believed also to prevent premature death. who are intent upon corrupting and destroying. Mezuzot are in still in use as both religious objects and amulets. or run out of salt. The Bible tells of Jacob’s burying earrings beneath an oak tree. The Talmud states that the “threefold cord” of mezuzah. People also carried small mezuzot as personal protective charms. It was forbidden to alter the face of the mezuzah but was permissible to write on the back of the parchment. Salt is a magical remedy for evil spells. may feel sure that he cannot sin. in popular usage. If they sank—and usually drowned—it meant that the water accepted them. crossing running water will enable a person to evade pursuing evil spirits and witches. They are worn during weekday morning prayer services. The tsitsith and the tefillin especially are amulets against accidents. Spilling salt makes one vulnerable to the Devil. Small windows were cut in the backs of the mezuzot cases so that the name Shaddai would show. One popular medieval addition was the name Shaddai.” Mezuzot were encapsulated in cases. Azriel. Salt repels witches and the evil eye. it meant that the water rejected them because they were evil.” However. perhaps because in times past. the bad luck may be negated by tossing a pinch of salt with the right hand over the left shoulder.” or dunked into deep water with their hands and feet bound. Tefillin are also called phylacteries. tefillin. . In superstition it is considered bad luck to spill. and will prevent them from accessing a place. it had acquired great power as a protector against demons. Jewish Amulets against Demons Major Jewish religious objects with amuletic properties against evil are: Mezuzah One of the most important amulets is the mezuzah. illness. including: Cross and crucifix The cross is one of the oldest amulets in the world. Many homes had mezuzot in every room. pressed into a disk of blessed wax. In folklore. strapped above the forehead. by the Middle Ages. Tefillin Other important antidemonic amulets are tefillin. and tsitsith on his mantle. predating Christianity by many centuries. Raphael. and tsitsith is a powerful combination against evil: “Whoever has the tefillin on his head. including evil ones. sprinkling it with salt and urine. a pair of black leather boxes containing parchment inscribed with biblical verses. The inscriptions are verses in Deuteronomy 6:4–19 and 11:13–20—the delivery of the commandments from the one and only God. The mezuzah may have originated as a primitive charm. Crooked paths Crooked paths and bridges confuse all spirits. other Bible verses. and survives in the modern day as the fringe on prayer shawls. suspected witches were sometimes “swum. and fingers. It should be avoided in magical rituals for conjuring demons. Other amulets are earrings. and Hasdiel. Anael. worn wrapped by a strap around the arm. One means of torturing accused witches was to force-feed them heavily salted food and deny them water. Running water Water represents purity and will reject evil. It was to be written on deer parchment according to an amulet table in the angelic Sefer Raziel and under certain astrological and angelic influences. and they were innocent. An old recipe for breaking an evil spell calls for stealing a tile from a witch’s roof. borrow. presided over by Venus and the angel Anael. Gabriel. A test for bewitchment is the inability of a person or animal to eat anything salted. and then heating it over fire while reciting a charm. based on Deuteronomy 6:9: “And you shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates. Salt is contrary to the nature of demons. in the fi fth hour. The tefillin serve as a “sign” and “remembrance” that God led the children of Israel out of Egypt. and so they were guilty of WITCHCRAFT. they guard homes and are worn on the person. In Christianity. Rabbinic leaders tried to give it more religious significance. salt was a valuable and scarce commodity. Zadkiel. Tsitsith The tsitsith consists of fringe attached to outer garment. and magical symbols. blessed salt is mixed with blessed water to make holy water (see below). Sarfiel. Inquisitors in the European witch hunts protected themselves by wearing a sacramental amulet that consisted of salt consecrated on Palm Sunday and blessed herbs. One way to detect a witch is to sprinkle salt on her chair.

Nicholas. Benedict with a cross and raven. Benedict medals are carried on a person and placed in homes. are used to quell demons in some possession cases. People crossed themselves routinely. Benedict medal The medal of St. Demoniacs spit on crosses and destroy them.J. even if it had been wrapped and concealed. The Catholic rituals of the benediction and BAPTISM with holy water ensure physical health and the exorcism of evil spirits. Some suffer stigmata in the shape of a cross. where it is still preserved in the Vatican. See INCANTATION BOWL. In the fourth century. Trachtenberg. He possesses perfect knowledge of the liberal sciences and astrology. the world axis placed in the center of the universe. a manuscript dating to 1415 was found at the Abbey of Metten in Bavaria. nothing unholy can stand up to its presence.” . It is the medal of exorcism and protection against SATAN and the forces of evil.200 years. God sent to his angels a Cross of Light inscribed with the names of the Trinity. so did the cross. Cele could not bear to be in the presence of even a small piece of cross. N. The front of the medal shows St. Benedict was struck. Helena reburied the rest of the cross. Clara Germana Cele. Helena sent part of the cross to Constantine. In 1647. it still retains aspects of an amulet. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. Joshua. ward off the INCUBUS and SUCCUBUS. In the Catholic rite of EXORCISM. his army scattered God’s ANGELs twice. just in case an evil presence was near. The cross also is represented by the Y-shaped Tree of Life. 1974. the cross was a weapon against the dark forces. He is a president in HELL. cars. prevent bewitchment of man and beast. salt traditionally is placed in a newborn baby’s cradle until the infant can be baptized.S M Q L I V B. The cross in hot cross buns is a remnant of a medieval custom of carving crosses in the dough of bread to protect it against evil. Chant Gregorian chant. During the Middle Ages. In 1. as in the case of a 16-year-old girl. As an extra precaution against demons. Church sites were consecrated with holy water. Christ’s wooden cross was allegedly found in excavations in Jerusalem by Empress Helena. At some point in history. Two crosses had no effect upon the body. V R S N S M V . the priest protects himself and the victim with the sign of the cross. protecting against the forces of evil. The cross. 1939. yet. Amy FALLEN ANGEL and 58th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. and the sign of the cross. In Christianity. to the place before God that is reserved for the highest of angels. Helena is said to have found three buried crosses at the site of the crucifi xion but did not know which belonged to Christ. where he governs 36 LEGIONs of DEMONs. He gives good FAMILIAR s. inquisitors often wore crosses or made the sign of a cross while in the presence of accused witches. and force vampires to flee. salt is left in a coffin to help protect the soul from demons during its transition from Earth to the spirit plane.12 Amy Its most common form is four arms of equal length rather than in a T shape. At death. Upon seeing this cross. In cases of demonic POSSESSION. Benedict (ca. will help exorcise demons and devils. in order to ward off any evil spells they might cast with the help of their demons. that is. who sent a portion to Rome. the bridge between Earth and the cosmos. prayers sung in Latin. Surreptitiously placing a cross behind the head of a DEMONIAC is one of the tests of possession. before the smallest task. Ipse venena bibas! (Begone Satan! Never tempt me with your vanities! What you offer me is evil. Demonolatry. when LUCIFER declared war upon God in an attempt to usurp his power. mother of Constantine I. Amy was a member of the angelic order of powers.: University Books. the physical and the spiritual. Lucifer’s forces lost strength and were driven into HELL. protect crops from being blasted by witches. She tested all three with the corpse of a man. The cross has been associated with Sun deities and the heavens and in ancient times may have represented divine protection and prosperity. was placed around the large figure of the cross on the reverse side of the medal. New York: Berhman’s Jewish Book House. Early Christians made the sign of the cross for divine protection and as a means of identification to each other. According to belief.” that is. Bits of the cross that were fashioned into amulets became highly prized. eternity. Drink the poison yourself!) St. Benedict. the cross transcends the amulet to become symbolic of the religion and of the suffering of Christ’s crucifi xion. but the third caused it to return to life. Amy reveals hidden treasures guarded by other spirits. As the church grew in power. No one knows when the first medal of St. He appears first as a huge fl aming fire and then as a man. in 1906. and water symbolizes purity. Holy water Holy water is a mixture of water and salt blessed by a priest. and divine wisdom. FURTHER READING: Remy. The rite requires that numerous signs of the cross be made on the victim’s forehead. explaining the letters as the initials of a Latin prayer of exorcism against Satan: Vade retro Satana! Nunquam suade mihi vana! Sunt mala quae libas. and other places as an amulet against Satan and a reminder to resist temptation. Even before the crucifi xion of Christ. Salt symbolizes incorruptibility. 480–ca. The demonologist JOHANN WEYER called this claim “not credible. victims recoil from a cross. Prior to his fall. a series of capital letters. Secaucus. Other victims recoil from the cross. and to cleanse spaces. According to legend. Demons are believed to find Gregorian chant unbearable. 457) has always been associated with the cross and is sometimes called the Medal-Cross of St. he hopes to be restored to the “seventh throne.

angel A being who mediates between God and mortals. Angels are prominent in Jewish magic and preside over every aspect of creation. Antaura is thwarted by the goddess Artemis. Angra Mainyu See AHRIMAN. and reveals hidden treasures. He teaches people how to kill their enemies. rides a black wolf. See THWARTING ANGELS. Andras FALLEN ANGEL and 63rd of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. 1985. The Jewish angel passed into Christian and Islamic mythology. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. lightning. who turns humans away from virtue. sometimes with wings and sometimes without. Christianity. and brilliant light. He creates discord and kills those who are not careful and wary. Andrealphus FALLEN ANGEL and 65th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. influenced by the mythologies of the Babylonians. They also appear as beings of fire. and functions of angels. they derive from concepts of helping and tutelary spirits that exist in mythologies the world over. servants. reveals thieves. and carries a gleaming and sharp sword. according to the book of REVELATION. who rises up out of the sea.Anthony 13 Andra (Indra) In ZOROASTRIANISM. His fearful parents kept him at home. and over all things in the cosmos. The greatest confrontation between angels and demons will occur in Armageddon. Among their duties are battling DEMONs and the DEVIL. Angels evolved from the mythology of the Jews. and Islam. In lore Artemis diverts Antaura into the head of a bull in the mountains. . abilities. moves like the wind. He teaches perfect geometry and everything pertaining to measurements. shouts like a deer. He appears in the form of an ANGEL with either a raven head or a wooden owl head. He first appears as a noisy peacock and then as a human. The church fathers of Christianity gave extensive consideration to the duties. She enters into people’s heads to cause intense pain. Theological interest peaked by the Middle Ages and began to decline in the Renaissance. The Angels of Mastemoth are “Enemy Angels” and “Angels of Darkness.” Saint Anthony is also known as Anthony or Antony of Egypt. and all forces of evil. however. are involved in rituals given in magical books and GRIMOIRES. Sumerians. whether it is to aid or to punish humans. He returns stolen goods.” The Qumran text 4Q390 refers to sinners being delivered into the power of the Angels of Mastemoth. The term angel is from the Greek angelos. Persians. including the master. Andrealphus is a mighty marquis. Angels minister over all living things and the natural world. Anthony). Life Anthony was born in 251 to Christian parents in the village of Coma (or Koman) south of Memphis in Upper Egypt. as well as astronomy. Anthony (251–356) Christian saint credited as a founder of monasticism. Andras is a great marquis in HELL who rules over 30 LEGIONs of DEMONs. The Bible presents angels as representatives of God who exist in a celestial realm and are numberless. numbers. Egypt. Antoni (Life of St. Various classes of angels are mentioned in the Bible. Antaura Greek DEMON of migraine headaches. Charlesworth. unread and ignorant of any languages except his own. Angels of Mastemoth In the Dead Sea Scrolls. in Vita S. these were organized into hierarchies. Anthony means “inestimable. See MASTEMA. FALLEN ANGELS who cohabited with women and begat giants. Vols. a name for the WATCHERS. famous for his temptations by the DEVIL and his DEMONs. of Artvahisht. patriarch of the church at Alexandria. along with demons. They also can act according to their own free will.” Acting as a messenger between realms—humans and God—is one of the angels’ primary duties. and others with whom the Jews had contact. nature. She commands other headache demons to do the same. during a time of persecutions ordered by the Roman emperor Decius. Angels mete out the will of God. and cries like an ox. They are incorporeal but have the ability to assume form and pass as mortals. 1983. the archDEMON known as the Slayer and Fighter. which forms a significant part of the Western magical tradition. which means “messenger. 1 & 2. Athanasius. He rules 36 LEGIONs of DEMONs. The temptations of Anthony were a popular subject for medieval artists. who rules 30 LEGIONs. Angels. Angels are specific to Judaism. Egyptians. Armies of angels led by the archangel Michael will battle and defeat the forces of SATAN. and all assistants of any household. New York: Doubleday. and Anthony the Abbott. They play an important role in MAGIC. Andromalius is a great earl in HELL. by the sixth century. although they do not sin. discovers wicked deeds and underhanded dealings. who rules the woodlands and the waxing moon. He appears as a man holding a SERPENT. They are featured in K ABBALAHbased magic. Reprint. He also punishes the souls doomed to HELL. who will rule them. Edited by James H. Andra opposes the good spirit. Antaura is a female demon. Anthony of the Desert. Angels are sent by God in response to prayer and need. The account of his life and demonic torments was recorded by his friend St. He can transform people into birds and make them very cunning. or amesha spenta. Andromalius FALLEN ANGEL and 72nd of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON.



His parents died when he was about 20, leaving him a large estate and charged with the care of his younger sister. About six months later, Anthony was moved by the Christian Gospels to change his life radically. He took to heart Matthew 19:21, “Go, sell what thou hast, give it to the poor and thou shalt have treasure in heaven,” and so sold all of his estate except what he and his sister needed to live on, and distributed the proceeds to the poor. Then he acted upon Matthew 6:34, “Be not solicitous for tomorrow,” and gave away the rest. He placed his sister in a house of maidens and pious women, the first recorded description of a nunnery, and around 272 began a life of solitude. Anthony’s first retreat was in the Libyan desert, not far from his home, where he lived in an abandoned tomb. He usually ate only after sunset, his meal consisting of bread with a little salt, and water to drink. Sometimes he would not eat for three or four days. He slept on a rush mat or the bare floor and spent his days in prayer, reading, and manual labor. He endured fierce demonic assaults. After emerging triumphant from the temptations, in about 285, Anthony crossed the Nile River to live in the abandoned ruins of a mountain fort, where he stayed in almost total isolation for 20 years. He rarely had human

contact except for the man who delivered bread to him every six months, but nevertheless he attracted the faithful and the curious. Anthony finally went down from the mountain in 305, at age 54, to respond to the entreaties of his followers and founded the first monastery, at Fayum. Anthony spent the remainder of his life working for the Christian cause, punctuated with periods of solitude. In 311, he went to Alexandria to comfort martyrs prior to their executions, somehow escaping arrest himself. He founded another monastery, Pirpir, in the desert and then went to Mount Kolzim to live in a cell in isolation with his disciple, Macarius. He wore a hair shirt and did not bathe. He then joined a company of followers to give them instruction in the monastic life. In 355, he returned to Alexandria to oppose the Arian heresy, which held that JESUS was not divine but human. He was hugely popular with Christians and pagans alike. In 356, at age 105, he returned to his refuge at Mount Kolzim. He fell ill and directed his disciples to bury him secretly at Kolzim beside his followers Macarius and Amathas and send his cloak to Athanasius. Anthony then lay down, assured his disciples that his body would rise incorruptible in the Resurrection, and stopped breathing. In 561, his remains supposedly were discovered and moved first to Alexandria, then to Constantinople, then finally to Vienne, France, during the Crusades. Demonic Temptations As soon as Anthony decided to give away his wealth and retreat into the desert, he was beset by the Devil, who spoke to him and tried to lure him back to a life of material comfort and glory. Anthony resisted, and the Devil increased his torments, by day and night, so much so that others became aware of what was happening. Anthony held to his fasting and prayer. Most severe were the sexual seductions attempted. According to Athanasius, his biographer:
And the devil, unhappy wight, one night even took upon him the shape of a woman and imitated all her acts simply to beguile Antony [sic]. But he, his mind filled with Christ and the nobility inspired by Him, and considering the spirituality of the soul, quenched the coal of the other’s deceit. Again the enemy suggested the ease of pleasure. But he like a man filled with rage and grief turned his thoughts to the threatened fire and the gnawing worm, and setting these in array against his adversary, passed through the temptation unscathed. All this was a source of shame to his foe. For he, deeming himself like God, was now mocked by a young man; and he who boasted himself against flesh and blood was being put to flight by a man in the flesh.

Demons tempting St. Anthony (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION)

The Devil did not give up easily, however, and then appeared in the form of a black boy, who seemed humble and apologetic. He identified himself as “the friend of whoredom” and “the spirit of lust” and acknowledged that Anthony had often bested him. Anthony rebuked



him, saying, “Thou art very despicable then, for thou art black-hearted and weak as a child. Henceforth I shall have no trouble from thee, ‘for the Lord is my helper, and I shall look down on mine enemies.’ ” The Devil left. Once the Devil sent a horde of hyenas to attack Anthony. He told them that if they had genuine power over him, he was ready to be devoured, but if they had been sent by the Devil, they could not harm him. The hyenas departed. One day while he wove baskets, a man with the feet and legs of an ass appeared with other evil spirits. Anthony repelled them with the sign of the cross and the name of Christ. They fled into the desert, and the assfooted leader fell and died. On another occasion, the frustrated Devil arrived with a multitude of demons and beat Anthony so severely that he lay on the ground senseless from the excessive pain; he was found after several days by a friend who arrived with his bread. At first, the friend thought he was dead. Seeing him still alive, the friend carried Anthony to the village church and laid him on the ground. A group of people gathered around and kept vigil as though by a corpse. At midnight, the saint roused and asked to be returned to his tomb. Anthony said that “the torture had been so excessive that no blows inflicted by man could ever have caused him such torment,” according to Athanasius. But worse was to come. The tomb shook as though in an earthquake, and demons in the forms of animals and insects poured in: lions, bears, leopards, bulls, serpents, asps, and scorpions. They made a ferocious racket and feigned as if to attack him. According to Athanasius:
But Antony, stricken and goaded by them, felt bodily pains severer still. He lay watching, however, with unshaken soul, groaning from bodily anguish; but his mind was clear, and as in mockery he said, “If there had been any power in you, it would have sufficed had one of you come, but since the Lord hath made you weak you attempt to terrify me by numbers: and a proof of your weakness is that you take the shapes of brute beasts.” And again with boldness he said, “If you are able, and have received power against me, delay not to attack; but if you are unable, why trouble me in vain? For faith in our Lord is a seal and a wall of safety to us.” So after many attempts they gnashed their teeth upon him, because they were mocking themselves rather than him.

a snare of the Devil, it vanished, “like smoke from the face of fire.” The Devil next tried real gold strewn about, but Anthony hurried past it. Anthony would allow no one inside the fort; his followers left his food outside. Often, it was reported, they would hear a horrible din of voices inside, telling Anthony he could not withstand their attack and he should leave. Anthony told them the voices belonged to demons, but he was not troubled by them. Anthony’s Views on Demons When Anthony emerged from the mountain fort after 20 years in isolation, he was in perfect health and spoke to the public with compelling grace. He taught people about demons. Anthony described them as beings of the air not far from humans, great in number, and with many distinctions among them. They were not originally evil:
The demons have not been created like what we mean when we call them by that name for God made nothing evil, but even they have been made good. Having fallen, however, from the heavenly wisdom, since then they have been groveling on earth. On the one hand they deceived the Greeks with their displays [of foretelling the future], while out of envy of us Christians they move all things in their desire to hinder us from entry into the heavens; in order that we should not ascend up thither from whence they fell. Thus there is need of much prayer and of discipline, that when a man has received through the Spirit the gift of discerning spirits, he may have power to recognize their characteristics: which of them are less and which more evil; of what nature is the special pursuit of each, and how each of them is overthrown and cast out. For their villainies and the changes in their plots are many.

Anthony said that demons attacked all Christians, and particularly monks, first with evil thoughts, then with sexual seduction, and then with fearsome monsters and animalistic shapes. Demons lie in concealment and enter homes stealthily through the air. They can appear in deceitful guises, including as ANGELs, monks, and holy men, who rouse sleeping people and exhort them to prayer—but then claim that prayer is useless. If lower demons do not succeed, they call in a leader. He described more examples from his own experiences:
Once a demon exceeding high appeared with pomp, and dared to say, “I am the power of God and I am Providence, what dost thou wish that I shall give thee?” But I then so much the more breathed upon him, and spoke the name of Christ, and set about to smite him. And I seemed to have smitten him, and forthwith he, big as he was, together with all his demons, disappeared at the name of Christ. At another time, while I was fasting, he came full of craft, under the semblance of a monk, with what seemed to be loaves, and gave me counsel, saying, “Eat and cease from thy many labors. Thou also art a man and art like to fall sick.” But I, perceiving his

After a period of these assaults, the roof of the tomb suddenly opened and a ray of light appeared, and the demons vanished. Anthony was free of pain. He asked God why he was so slow to respond to him. God replied that he wanted to see Anthony’s fight. Now that Anthony had won, God said, “I will ever be a succor to thee, and will make thy name known everywhere.” Still Anthony was not free of demonic assault. When he journeyed to the abandoned mountain fort to take up isolation, the Devil tempted him with a beautiful silver dish lying in his path. As soon as Anthony pronounced it



device, rose up to pray; and he endured it not, for he departed, and through the door there seemed to go out as it were smoke.

Anthony warned others who healed and cast out demons not to boast about it, for they would make themselves vulnerable to demonic attacks. Importance of Anthony’s Experiences The account of Anthony’s triumphs over demons, and his descriptions and advice, laid an important foundation for the Christian perspective on demons. In subsequent centuries, as cases of POSSESSION were treated by the church, the demons performed as described by Anthony, increasing the intensity of their assaults and calling in higherranking leaders as assaults continued. They lied, shape shifted, and made accurate prophesies and clairvoyant observations. They were ultimately banished by the name of Christ. FURTHER READING:
Athanasius, St. Vita S. Antoni (Life of St. Anthony). Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Available online. URL: http://www. Downloaded on January 31, 2000. Ankarloo, Bengt, and Stuart Clark, eds. The Athalone History of Witchcraft and Magic in Europe. London: Athlone Press, 1999.

Athanasius said he was often beaten by demons, as when he was found in his mountain fort, but when he proclaimed his love of Christ, the demons beat each other. Once SATAN appeared as a tall man, who knocked at the cell of his door. Satan demanded to know why Christians cursed him undeservedly, for he was weak and they were the source of their own troubles. Anthony called him a liar in the name of Christ, and Satan disappeared. Christians need have no fear of demons, Anthony said, for they are cowards and liars. They have no power to carry out their threats, but are like actors on a stage. They are overcome with prayer, fasting, the sign of the cross, and faith. Demons, he said, “fear the fasting, the sleeplessness, the prayers, the meekness, the quietness, the contempt of money and vainglory, the humility, the love of the poor, the alms, the freedom from anger of the ascetics, and, chief of all, their piety towards Christ.” But if a person reacts with fear to them, the demons will increase their attacks. He said that demons will often accurately foretell the future, but this is a ploy to make the unwary victim trust them. Demons led Greek oracles astray in this manner. He recommended a test that would reveal demons:
Whenever there is any apparition, be not prostrate with fear, but whatsoever it be, first boldly ask, Who art thou? And from whence comest thou? And if it should be a vision of holy ones they will assure you, and change your fear into joy. But if the vision should be from the devil, immediately it becomes feeble, beholding your firm purpose of mind. For merely to ask, Who art thou? and whence comest thou? is a proof of coolness.

Anthony’s Exorcism Skills Athansius gives examples of Anthony’s ability to exorcise demons from others. While he was in isolation, people would bang on his cell door to ask for his help. Many times he would not answer, and the people camped on his doorstep, often becoming healed in the process of maintaining a prayerful vigil there. Sometimes he answered and told people they would be healed by their own prayer and faith. A soldier who had a demon-infested daughter sought his help and was sent away with this advice. When the soldier arrived home, he found his daughter free of demons. When he was out among the public, Anthony cast out demons by invoking the name of Christ. Once, he was invited aboard a ship to pray with monks. He noticed a rank smell from the fish and meat—he was the only one who did—and discovered a stowaway, a young man who was possessed by a demon. He cast it out. Another young man was taken to him, so badly possessed that he ate his own excrement. Anthony cast out the demon and made the man whole and healthy again.

Antichrist The ultimate opponent of Christ. The Antichrist is associated with the Second Coming and the Apocalypse. Originally a man, the Antichrist in more modern times is seen as half-human and half-DEMON, the son of SATAN, brought forth into the world by a woman. The only references in the Bible specific to the Antichrist are found in the epistles of John. The term is ambiguous and could mean “opponent of Christ,” “false Christ,” “against Christ,” or “instead of Christ.” The references assume the Antichrist to be an existing tradition, knowledge that the opponent will precede the Second Coming in an effort to seize control of the world. The verse 1 John 2:18:22 states, “Who is the liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? This is the antichrist, he who denies the Father and the Son.” In 4:3, the author says that “every spirit which does not confess Jesus is not of God. This is the spirit of the antichrist, of which you heard that it was coming, and now it is in the world already.” The verse 2 John 7 states, “For many deceivers have gone out into the world, men who will not acknowledge the coming of Jesus Christ in the flesh; such a one is the deceiver and the antichrist.” Here the Antichrist seems more like a spirit or attitude that infects many people, the disbelievers (and thus heretics), and not a single individual. Other passages in the New Testament mention opponents of Christ without using the term Antichrist. The Gospels of Mark and Matthew refer to false prophets, and Paul’s 2 Thessalonians 2:3–12 refers to the “Lawless One” or “the man of lawlessness” who will precede the Second Coming:
Let no one deceive you in any way; for that day will not come, unless the rebellion comes first, and the man



of lawlessness is revealed, the son of perdition, who opposes and exalts himself against every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, proclaiming himself to be God. Do you not remember that when I was still with you I told you this? And you know what is restraining him now so that he may be revealed in his time. For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work; only he who now restrains it will do so until he is out of the way. And then the lawless one will be revealed and the Lord Jesus will slay him with the breath of his mouth and destroy him by his appearing and his coming. The coming of the lawless one by the activity of Satan will be with all the power and with pretended signs and wonders, and with all wicked deception for those who are to perish, because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. Therefore God sends upon them a strong delusion, to make them believe what is false, so that all may be condemned who did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

In 1928, Lucifer was a principal demon possessing a woman in Earling, Iowa (see E ARLING POSSESSION). Father Theophilus, the EXORCIST, became convinced that the hour of the Antichrist was near. However, he did not think that the Antichrist would be a son of the Devil, but Lucifer himself, who would fashion a body out of earthly matter in order to operate in the world. The Antichrist as son of the Devil is the most popular view in modern times, represented in fiction and in fi lms such as ROSEMARY ’S BABY, THE OMEN, and THE DEVIL’S A DVOCATE. FURTHER READING:
Augustine. The City of God. Translated by Marcus Dods, George Wilson, and J. J. Smith; introduction by Thomas Merton. New York: Modern Library, 1950. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. 2nd ed. Edited by Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 1999. Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity. Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press, 1977. ———. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press, 1984. ———. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition. Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press, 1981. Vogel, Rev. Carl. Begone, Satan! A Soul-Stirring Account of Diabolical Possession in Iowa. Rockford, Ill.: TAN Books and Publishers, 1973.

REVELATION makes reference to other opponents, chiefly the Beasts of the Land and the Sea, and the Dragon or SERPENT, the Devil himself. The concept of the Antichrist was more fully developed in the second century C.E., chiefly by the church father Irenaeus, who argued that the best defense against the DEVIL is Christ. Christian prayers and the uttered name of Christ cause DEMONs to flee. However, the Antichrist, a human, will appear as an apostate, murderer, and robber. He will have “all the Devil’s power,” Irenaeus said, and will attract followers and worshippers. The Antichrist ultimately will be defeated, and Satan and his demons will go to everlasting torments in HELL. Origen, another father of the early church, termed the Antichrist “the son of the evil demon, who is Satan and the Devil.” He will be supported in his final confrontation with Christ by Satan and his demons, who were imprisoned at the time of the Passion. Augustine, one of the most influential early fathers, assumed the Antichrist to be a single individual rather than groups of wicked men. By early medieval times, the Antichrist was increasingly regarded as a person rather than a personification of evil. The Antichrist would be fostered by LUCIFER or would be the form that Lucifer himself would take, at the end of the world. This form became more and more entrenched in theological writings, in folklore, and in theater and literature. One common story line held that Lucifer would beget the Antichrist with a Babylonian whore. After the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, the pope was often called the Antichrist, while Catholics said MARTIN LUTHER would beget the Antichrist. In 1848, the Blessed Virgin Mary, appearing in apparitional visions at La Salette, France, predicted that the seat of Rome would serve the Antichrist: “How I warned and warned that Satan would enter into the highest realms of the hierarchy in Rome. The Third Secret, My child, is that Satan would enter into My Son’s Church.”

apple The fruit of the Tree of Knowledge that led to the fall of Adam and Eve became, during the witch hysteria, one of the favored ways for DEMONS and the DEVIL to enter a person and cause POSSESSION. Eating almost any food might invite possession, especially if cursed by a witch or sorcerer, but apples were held to be especially dangerous. Demonologists, among them the ruthless Henri Boguet, preached warnings about them. One famous apple possession is the “Vienna Possession” case, in which a 16-year-old girl claimed that her grandmother sent her demons into an apple and gave it to her to eat. The girl was supposedly afflicted by more than 12,000 demons. Apples, cultivated in Britain as early as 3000 B.C.E., have had a long association with MAGIC and WITCHCRAFT. In mythology, they are the fruit of heaven, longevity, and immortality. In folklore, they are love charms and have been used in divination and spells to reveal lovers and future spouses and to cause people to fall in love. In 1657, Richard Jones, a 12-year-old boy in Shepton Mallet in the county of Somerset in England, was said to be bewitched by Jane Brooks, who gave him an apple. Jones suffered fits, and neighbors said they saw him fly over his garden wall. Brooks was charged with witchcraft, convicted, and hanged on March 26, 1658. The apple is associated with enchantment and FAIRIES. According to English folklore, it is bad luck to pick all the



apples in a harvest, and some must be left for the fairies. In the Arthurian legends, Avalon, the magical fairy isle where time is suspended, is “Isle of the Apples.” FURTHER READING:
Lea, Henry Charles. Materials toward a History of Witchcraft. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1939.

Armadiel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Armadiel rules as a king in the northeast. His 15 chief dukes each have 1,260 servants, who are goodnatured but must be summoned at the appropriate hour. Armadiel’s 15 major dukes are Nassar, Parabiel, Lariel, Calvamia, Orariel, Alferiel, Oryn, Samiet, Asmaiel, Jasziel, Pandiel, Carasiba, Asbibiel, Mafayr, and Oemiel. asag (asakku) A type of Sumerian DEMON that attacks humans and kills them with head and fever diseases. Asag also is the proper name of a monstrous demon in the Sumerian poem Lugale. Asag is the offspring of An, the sky god, and Ki, the earth goddess. He is hideous and has the power to make fi sh boil in their rivers. His allies are the stones of mountains. The poem relates how Asag battles the hero god Ninurta and is defeated. This allows Ninurta to organize the world and use stones to construct the mountains so that streams and lakes flow into the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, thereby aiding irrigation for agriculture. Aseliel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Aseliel is the fourth-ranking spirit under the governance of CARNESIEL in the south, and the east. He has 10 spirit attendants during the day and 20 at night, each of which has 30 servants. All the spirits appear beautiful and act in loving ways. Asmodeus (Aeshma, Ashmedai, Ashmodai, Asmoday, Asmodius, Hasmoday, Sydonay) The DEMON of lust, the third of the SEVEN DEADLY SINS, and of jealousy, anger, and revenge, and the 32nd of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Asmodeus’ chief objectives are to prevent intercourse between husband and wife, wreck new marriages, and force husbands to commit adultery. He is also one of the chief demons involved in cases of POSSESSION. Throughout history, he has been regarded as one of the most evil of SATAN’s infernal demons. He is usually portrayed as having three heads, those of an ogre, a ram, and a bull, all sexually licentious creatures; having the feet of a cock, another sexually aggressive creature; and having wings and the tail of a SERPENT. He rides on a dragon and breathes fire. Asmodeus has his roots in ancient Persia. His name is derived from AESHMA, one of the seven archangels, or amarahspands, of Persian mythology. The Hebrews absorbed him into their mythology, where he attained the highest status and most power of all his legends. According to the


Hebrews, he is the son of Naamah and Shamdon. Prior to his fall from heaven, he was part of the seraphim, the highest order of ANGELs. In other Hebrew legends, he is either associated with or the husband of LILITH, the demon queen of lust. Sometimes he is said to be the offspring of Lilith and Adam. The book of Tobit tells how Asmodeus lusted after a young woman named Sarah and killed each of her seven husbands before the marriages could be consummated. With an eighth suitor, Tobias, in her life, Sarah prayed to God for help. God sent down the archangel Raphael, who instructed Tobias in how to make an incense of the heart and liver of a glanos fi sh, which would drive away Asmodeus. After Tobias and Sarah were married, Asmodeus appeared in their wedding chamber to kill Tobias, but the incense forced him to flee. He went to Egypt, but Raphael tracked him down and bound him. According to the pseudepigraphical Testament of Solomon, Asmodeus lives in the constellation of the Great Bear (Ursa Major). He spreads the wickedness of men, plots against newlyweds, spreads madness about women through the stars, ruins the beauty of virgins, and commits murders. He is forever thwarted by Raphael and the smoking liver and gall of a fish, especially the sheatfish, which lives in Assyrian rivers. He has knowledge of the future. Asmodeus is taken into the presence of King SOLOMON by the Prince of Demons, BEELZEBUB. Sullen, arrogant, and defiant, he tells the king he was born of a human mother and an angel father. He also says that Solomon will have only a temporary hold over the demons; his kingdom eventually will be divided, and demons will go



out again among men and will be worshipped as gods because humans will not know the names of the angels who thwart the demons. He admits that he is afraid of water. Solomon binds Asmodeus with care. He orders the demon to be flogged and orders him to state his activities. Asmodeus says, “I am the renowned Asmodeus; I cause the wickedness of men to spread throughout the world. I am always hatching plots against newlyweds; I mar the beauty of virgins and cause their hearts to grow cold. . . . I spread madness about women through the stars and I have often committed a rash of murders.” Solomon puts him in IRON chains and surrounds him with 10 jars full of water, which make the demon complain bitterly. Asmodeus is forced to make clay vessels for the temple. Solomon also burns the liver and gall of a fish and a branch of storax beneath the demon, quelling his nasty tongue. Solomon uses his magic ring to force Asmodeus and other demons to build his magnificent temple. After its completion, Solomon tells Asmodeus that he cannot understand why demons are so powerful when he, their leader, could be so easily chained. Asmodeus says he will prove his greatness if Solomon will remove his chains and lend him the magical ring. Solomon does so, only to be hurled far away from Jerusalem. Asmodeus steals the ring, forces Solomon into exile, and becomes king himself. He throws the ring into the sea. But Solomon’s lover, the Ammonite Namah, finds the ring in a fish belly, and the king regains his power. He is immediately transported to Jerusalem when he puts on the ring. As punishment, he puts Asmodeus in a jar. Asmodeus was absorbed into Christian lore, becoming one of the Devil’s leading agents of provocation. Witches were said to worship him, and magicians and sorcerers attempted to conjure him to strike out at enemies. GRIMOIRES of magical instruction sternly admonish anyone seeking an audience with Asmodeus to summon him bareheaded out of respect. JOHANN WEYER said Asmodeus rules gambling houses. According to the Lemegton, a major grimoire, Asmodeus is the “first and chiefest” under AMAYMON and goes before all other demons. He gives the ring of virtues and teaches arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and all handicrafts. When properly summoned, he gives full and true answers to all questions. He can make a person invisible and will reveal all treasures under the guard of Amaymon. He was one of the infernal agents blamed for the obscene sexual possession of the Louviers nuns in 17thcentury France (see LOUVIERS POSSESSIONS). FURTHER READING:
Henson, Mitch, ed. Lemegeton: The Complete Lesser Key of Solomon. Jacksonville, Fla.: Metatron Books, 1999. Hyatt, Victoria, and Joseph W. Charles. The Book of Demons. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 1 & 2. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. 1983. Reprint, New York: Doubleday, 1985.

Astaroth (Ashtaroth) A male DEMON who evolved from the ancient Phoenician mother goddess of fertility, Astarte or Ashtoreth. Astaroth is also a FALLEN ANGEL and 29th of 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. According to Judaic lore, he was a high-ranking ANGEL, either one of the seraphim or a prince of thrones, prior to his fall. Astaroth is a grand duke and treasurer of HELL and commands 40 LEGIONs of demons. He is one of the three supreme evil demons, with BEELZEBUB and LUCIFER, in the Grimoire Verum and Grand Grimoire, which date from about the 18th century. In the Lemegeton, he appears as either a beautiful or an ugly angel, riding a dragon and holding a viper. He possesses a powerful stench and stinking breath. Magicians who desire to conjure him must hold a magical ring in front of their faces to protect themselves against his smell. Astaroth teaches all the sciences and is keeper of the secrets of the past, present, and future. He is invoked in necromantic rituals of divination. When conjured in magical rites, which must be performed on Wednesday nights between 10:00 and 11:00, he will give true answers to questions about the past, present, and future. He discovers secrets and is skilled in liberal sciences. He encourages slothfulness and laziness. The demon is said to instigate cases of demonic POSSESSION, most notably that of the Loudun nuns in France in the 16th century (see LOUDUN POSSESSIONS). The nuns accused a priest, Father URBAIN GRANDIER, of causing their possession. At Grandier’s trial, a handwritten


In Manichaeism. She formed the human body and imprisoned the soul in it. Originally published as Dictionary of Demonology. He was tortured and on the rack and confessed. gluttony. Charles. the principal demon of evil. Pierre Aupetit. Dictionary of Witchcraft. the man made a DEVIL’S MARK upon his hand. Edited and translated by Wade Baskin. and is sometimes associated with DRUJ. Az is not the demon of death. She is Hyle. and Joseph W. De Aueiran was arrested and tried in Bordeaux and was executed by burning on May 8. In Zurvanite theology. Carga. Jewish custom called for the offering of two goats.20 Astovidotu “confession” of his was produced detailing his PACT with the Devil. 1609) Young Frenchman executed for WITCHCRAFT and having a PACT with the DEVIL. Autak is a female demon who also is associated with incest. Az leads the demonic hordes. Aupetit was burned on May 25. Plancy. Collin de. shape of a black sheep. blamed with the sins of the people. In the Bundahisn text. Collin de. but he is never fulfilled. Beelzebub had taught him how to procure the love of any woman or girl of his choosing. Buniet. the red DEMON who binds the soul at death and separates it from the body. and urged him to stay. and lust. 1965. where a SABBAT was in progress and men and women were shouting and dancing. and the other. who lived in Fossas. Rabas. Aupetit had read from a book of spells. where witches had kissed the anus of the Devil. Azazel (Azael) Archdemon of the Judean desert and king of the seirim. New York: Philosophical Library. In 3 Enoch. He believes he was punished unjustly by God. Omiel. and who interferes in their physical labors. Originally published as Dictionary of Demonology. Az is a female demon who is the mother of all demons and sin. Budar. He commands 20 dukes under the day and 20 under the night. he will eat his own body. insatiability. was taken alive to the wilderness to be released for Azazel (Leviticus 16:8). Pierre (d. Maroth. the DEMON of avarice. Az and Ahriman will be the last demons to be defeated by the forces of light and good. He is called the “creation of the demons” in Pahlavi texts. Aupetit. He is behind everything disastrous that happens to human beings. and had the demon’s little finger. 1609. Isaac de (d. was 50 years old when he was arrested and tried. The pair is considered supremely powerful.” He agreed and found himself carried through the air to a distant place. At the same time. He had been given a FAMILIAR. and the faults of angels. She is half human and half monster. On the Day of Atonement. One day the black man appeared and took him back to a sabbat. Asyriel serves under C ASPIEL as a king ruling the southwest. witnessed and signed by Astaroth and several other demons. He taught witchcraft and revealed eternal secrets. and Hamas. the creator god. 1598) French priest executed on charges of sorcery and trafficking with the DEVIL. Cusiel. FURTHER READING: Hyatt. The eight major dukes of the day under Asyriel are Astor. who was in the Autak (Udai. goatlike spirits. A big black man—the Devil—walked up to him. Astaroth can be thwarted by calling upon St. Az (Azi) In ZOROASTRIANISM. Aueiran. the DEMON BEELZEBUB. Aariel. Cusriet. and that someday he will be restored to his rightful place in heaven. One was sacrificed to Yahweh. Astaroth loves to talk about the Creation and the Fall. If nothing is available. The name . and Maguel. Faseua. New York: Simon & Schuster. As punishment. Az is the opponent to Atar. Asyriel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. 1965. Aupetit said that he had attended SABBATs. hit him on the shoulder. who showed him how to staunch the flow of BLOOD and how to use levers. but he brings about death through his corruption. Arcisat. New York: Philosophical Library. where he ate and danced with the others. He went to a neighbor’s house for fire and was asked by the woman who lived there whether he wanted to see “the grand master of sabbats. Astovidotu In ZOROASTRIANISM. 1598. the DEMON who makes men speak when they should be silent. Azazel is one of the WATCHERS who lust after mortal women and descend from heaven to cohabit with them. Bartholomew for help. the fi re god son of Ahura Mazda (later Ohrmadz). Az is often paired with NIYAZ (want) and is featured also in Zurvanite and Manichaean texts. The Book of Demons. Limousin. he was bound by angels and imprisoned in the desert in a place called Dudael until Judgment Day. thus preventing people from finding their salvation. Victoria. or matter and evil. Edited and translated by Wade Baskin. each of which has servants who are willing to obey the commands of those who summon them. Uda) In ZOROASTRIANISM. Astrovidotu is often mentioned in association with AESHMA. Aspeil. The eight under the night are Amiel. he is one of the principal evil angels who cohabited with mortal women. Under the name of Azael. and tries to make humanity forget its divine origins. Isaac de Aueiran confessed at his trial that he was 10 or 12 years in age when he was introduced to the Devil. Aupetit also said he had been taught the arts of sorcery by a known sorcerer named Crapouplet. Az swallows everything and anything to satisfy his want. 1974. FURTHER READING: Plancy. Dictionary of Witchcraft.

Translated by Jamaal al-Din M. anguish. he is fallen and is punished by having his nose pierced. Azhi Dahaka governs storms and storm clouds and causes drought and disease. He has three heads and three jaws. six or 18 eyes. which represent pain.G. A Field Guide to Demons: Fairies. and wings. FURTHER READING: al-Ashqar. Azael slept with Naamah and spawned Assyrian guardian spirits known as sedim. Azi. In magical lore. Mack.B. In Akkadian lore. 1998. Azhi Dahaka is chained to a rock in the sun until he dies. In lore. His name means “biting snake. The snakes grew because either Ahriman or IBLIS kissed Azhi Dahaka there. In Persian lore. snakes. He is filled with spiders. The snakes had to be fed human brains or animal BLOOD. Moon.” According to lore. would infect the entire world. half-human and half-beast. scorpions.” Azhi Dahaka was created by Angra Mainyu (later AHRIMAN) and serves him. The demon will destroy one-third of the world until he is stopped by Keresapa. In another version. . He eats cattle. Azhi Dahaka also is described in human form with two venomous SERPENTs twining out from his neck. Zohak) In Persian and Babylonian lore. & T. and other venomous creatures that. Azhi Dahaka is Zohak in the Avesta creation myth of ZOROASTRIANISM. and as a DRUJ. invoked in the EXORCISM of evil spirits. The World of the Jinn and Devils. the Persian king Fereydun (Thraetona) binds him in chains under Mount Davand by the Caspian Sea until the end of time. New York: Owl Books/Henry Holt. King Yima. Azhi Dahaka (© SCOTT BRENTS—O. Azael is chained in a desert until Judgment Day. who live in the seventh (highest) heaven. princes of HELL. In Islamic lore. In 3 Enoch. YELLOW BALL. Azdaha. even the first one created. he was the king of Babel and had a human shape with serpents in his neck. ABRACADABRA LODGE. 1998. and death.) Azhi Dahaka (Azhi Dahaki. and Dinah Mack. Carol K. he guards hidden treasure and teaches WITCHCRAFT that enable men to make the Sun. fangs. In Babylonian lore. and Other Subversive Spirits..O.. as the personification of the Evil One. Azazel (Azael) is one of three primary ministering angels with Azza and Uzza. Zarabozo. He usurps Yima and rules for 1.000 years until he is vanquished by the Persian king Fereydun. Fallen Angels. In later lore. New York: Al-Basheer Company for Publications and Translations.O. he turned to eating humans. if set free. Umar Sulaiman. HELIX MEMBRANE 84390. As punishment.O. Ahi. and stars move down from the sky. a snake DEMON. Azazel or Azazeel was the name of IBLIS before he disobeyed God by not bowing to humans and was sent from the Earth.H.Azhi Dahaka 21 Azazel (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) Azael means “who God strengthens. Azazel is one of the MASKIM.

He also is a grand pontiff and master of ceremonies. Baal Davar. Baal is the first of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON.B Baal (Bael. as well as the names of the saints who could counter them. He tempts men to blasphemy and murder. Baalberith was once a prince in the angelic order of cherubim. Variations of Baalberith’s name are Ba’al. Belial. Baalberith is the secretary and librarian of the archives in HELL and is a demon of the second order. one of the spirits possessing Sister Madeleine in the AIX-EN-PROVENCE POSSESSIONS. He countersigns or notarizes PACTs with the DEVIL. He is triple-headed. The crops withered. Beleth. Baal-Peor. He rides on an angry bear (in some depictions. Baal is equal in rank to the archangel Raphael. Bileth. BELPHEGOR. and false humility. He is a king ruling in the east and governs 66 legions of DEMONs. 22 In the Aix-en-Provence case. Beal. He engaged in a battle with MOT (death) and was slain and sent to the underworld. with a cat’s head and a toad’s head on each side of his human head. Many minor deities of ancient Syria and Persia carried the name Baal. a man. arrogance. The bacucei incite people to vanity. Baalberith volunteered the names of all the demons possessing Sister Madeleine. do my work for 20 years. and Elberith. Baalzephon. Baell) An agricultural and fertility deity of Canaan turned into a FALLEN ANGEL and a DEMON. Belfagor. As Berith. Babylonian demon trap See INCANTATION BOWL. BERITH. which means “the lord. Say. Baalphegor. DEMONs of pride. he is . Baalam. Baalsebul. BALAM. The Canaanites worshipped Baal by sacrificing children by burning. According to the Zohar. Belberith. Baell. Baalberith (Balberith) Major DEMON.” Bury the chicken deeply enough so that animals will not dig it up. A magical ritual for gaining Baalberith’s favor for 20 years is as follows: Take a black chicken to a CROSSROADS at night and sacrifice it by cutting its throat. and eyes of fl aming fi re. found his body and gave it proper burial. he is described as wearing a crown and riding a horse. “Berith. pomposity. Balberith. the tail of a SERPENT. Balam is the 51st of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Bilet. condescension. Anath. Balan. Balam (Balan) A former member of the angelic order of dominions and now one of the FALLEN ANGELS with 40 LEGIONs of DEMONs under his command. He was the lord of life and ruled the death-rebirth cycle. Beliar. According to JOHANN WEYER. until Baal’s sister. He is a terrible and powerful king with the heads of a bull. bacucei In Greek lore.” The greatest Baal was the son of El. Byleth. the High God of Canaan. Bael. and a ram. He speaks hoarsely and imparts invisibility and wisdom. a master of the Infernal Alliance. the maiden goddess of love.

a stuffed human head. holy water is sprinkled on the forehead. In DELIVERANCE ministry. founded in 1966 in San Francisco. and EXORCISM. present. rebirth. Baphomet Symbol of the satanic goat. In Catholicism.” Baphomet has also been called the Goat of Mendes. . symbolizing the blood shed by Christ on the cross. baptism A spiritual rite of transformation. a huge water serpent DEMON associated with the Devil. the Black Goat. Baphomet is portrayed as a half-human. a DEMONIAC who is exorcised must be rebaptized. In some Protestant denominations. or “absorption of knowledge. initiation. Christian baptism is performed with water. called The Baphomet of Mendes. baptism is essential in order to receive the gifts of the Holy Spirit for discernment of spirits and healing.baptism 23 Balam (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) naked) and carries a goshawk on his fi st. enclosed in a double circle. He speaks hoarsely and gives true answers concerning the past. baptism protects a soul against evil and the snares of the DEVIL. It may be a corruption of Mahomet or Muhammad. He also can render men invisible and makes them have wit. Egypt. or a goat head. half-goat figure. The best-known representation of Baphomet is a drawing by the 19th-century French magician Eliphas Levi. Hebraic figures at each point in the pentagram spell out LEVIATHAN. and the Judas Goat. Baptisms are part of many magical rituals and may include other elements as well. The idol was said to be worshipped by the Order of the Knights Templar as their source of fertility and wealth. Levi combined elements of the Tarot Devil card and the he-goat worshipped in antiquity in Mendes. In the Middle Ages. Baphomet was believed to be an idol. The origin of the name Baphomet is unclear. The Church of Satan. represented by a human skull. In the Christian tradition. which was said to fornicate with its women followers—as the church claimed the DEVIL did with witches. The English occult historian Montague Summers suggested it was a combination of two Greek words. in keeping with the tradition established by JESUS’ baptism in the river Jordan by John the Baptist. adopted a rendition of Baphomet to symbolize SATANISM. and future. Baptism by fire and baptism by BLOOD symbolize intense purging and purification. baphe and metis. The symbol is a goat’s head drawn within an in- Baphomet (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) verted pentacle. In the outer circle. blood also is redemptive. In POSSESSION cases. or a metal or wooden human head with curly black hair. baptism is done by complete immersion in water.

devoting himself to the Devil. As a good angel. Cartael. and Manoi. Barbatos FALLEN ANGEL and eighth of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Lwnael. In Jubilees he is identified as one of the WATCHERS. Montague. geometry. I confess that the form and intention are to baptize in the name of Lucifer. Barbiel (Barakiel. Sarael. where he rules 30 LEGIONs of DEMONs. The eight primary dukes of the daytime are Sochas. Bathin is a strong and great duke of HELL with 30 LEGIONs of DEMONs under his command. Beelzebub. Baruel) FALLEN ANGEL also described as a good angel. the chief Canaanite or Phoenician god.: Chosen Books. who have none. Barmiel is the fi rst and chief spirit under C ASPIEL and rules as a king of the South. a Scottish witch tried in 1662. Beelzebub (Baal-zebul.” The name is a distortion of Baal-zebul. originally an idol of the Canaanites. he serves under Zaphiel as one of the seven Electors. Bathin (Mathim) FALLEN ANGEL and 18th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. earl. arithmetic. 1926. treasures hidden by magic and can reconcile friends and people in power. the Devil was believed to administer a sacrilegious baptism to his followers. and duke of HELL. if this may by any possible means be effected.” According to confessions made by accused witches. He commands 10 dukes during the daytime and 20 during the night to do his bidding and the bidding of an EXORCIST. Such accounts of sabbats and baptisms have been discredited as fables that witnesses were forced to confess to by torture. FURTHER READING: MacNutt. means “Lord of the Flies. who was executed for his role in the AIXEN-PROVENCE POSSESSIONS of Ursuline nuns in 1611. He stated: I confess that baptism is administered at the Sabbat. Morcaza. Formerly a member of the angelic order of virtues. Mich. Trench. He appears as a man with the tail of a SERPENT. In HELL.” “Over-the-dike-with-it. Acteras. usually at a SABBAT.” “Raise-the-wind. Each duke has 20 servants. Baaba. London: Kegan Paul. Summers. Chuba. Gabio. Geriel. Every child who is thus baptized at the Sabbat receives a name. Beelzeboul. binds himself by a particular vow that he will have all his children baptized at the Sabbat. Baraqijal FALLEN ANGEL who teaches astrology. music.040 servants. Janiel. Baruchas DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. ugly fly or as a monstrous being of great height on a giant throne. confessed to witnessing baptisms at sabbats. Carpiel. Isobel Gowdie. children were baptized by the Devil along with adults. Grand Rapids. Bealphares will transport a person from country to country without causing any harm and will answer questions truthfully. and Astib. He understands the languages of all animals. Barbatos is a great count. He will give all knowledge of the magical arts. he appears with four kings and three companies of troops. Louis Gaufridi. grammar.” Beelzebub manifests either as a gigantic. Baruchas rules as a king in the east and north. Deliverance from Evil Spirits: A Practical Manual. Cavayr. 1995. Barmiel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Baoxas. His 14 major dukes each have 7. meaning “Lord of the Divine Abode” or “Lord of the Heavens. and that every sorcerer. Tigara. Belzebuth and other demons making the sign of the cross beginning backwards and then tracing from the feet and ending at the head. Belzebub) Prince of DEMONs. Barbatos can reveal .” “Pickle-nearest-the-wind. except four of the night dukes. Keriel. Acreba.” and “Blow-Kate. and astronomy. The dukes are Quitta. and Decariel. As a fallen angel Barbiel is the former prince of the orders of virtues and angels. Pharol. of February. Francis. The History of Witchcraft and Demonology. and as part of an infernal PACT. I confess that at this baptism water. astride a pale horse. Canilel. Barbil. bar egara A Syrian DEMON that sits on the rooftops of homes and attacks men as they leave to go to work. Baraqijal (possibly a variant of Barakiel) is named in 1 Enoch as a “chief of ten” leader of troops of fallen angels. The eight primary dukes of the nighttime are Barbis. He understands the lore of herbs and precious stones. speech and rhetoric.” “Batterthem-down-Maggy. Barbiel is ruler of October and. Melchon. Bealphares DEMON who will tell where treasure is hidden and will fetch gold or silver. The witches renounced their Christian faith and then adopted a grotesque new name to symbolize their new identity. wholly differing from his own name. especially the singing of birds. Trubner. Aboc. sulphur and salt are employed: the sulphur renders the recipient the Devil’s slave while salt confirms his baptism in the Devil’s service. He teaches all sciences and knows all things in the past and of the future. Chansi. and the lowing of bullocks. Bealphares appears in the likeness of either a fair man or a fair woman and will appear whenever summoned. when equated with Barakiel. Marguns. Barbuel. He can transport people from country to country instantly. Monael. said that witches were baptized in their own blood and took names such as “Able-and-Stout. all of whom are good-natured and willing to obey commands.24 Baraqijal Demonic Baptism During the witch hunts of the Inquisition. the barking of dogs. When the Sun is in Sagittarius.

After the crucifixion of JESUS. However. bat wings. The incident is recounted in Matthew (12:24–29).” Solomon orders Beelzebub to explain the manifestation of demons. who was cast into the Red Sea. is the Prince of Demons and is controlled by King SOLOMON with the help of his magical ring. “Satan the Prince shall be subject to thy dominion forever. which Jesus cried on the cross). a demon named EPHIPPAS will appear and raise Abezethibou out of the sea.” He also causes wars. Solomon does not believe him and orders the demon to continue cutting marble and producing other demons for interrogation. The other demons protest at this unfitting task for so mighty a demon. spikenard. He is thwarted by “the Almighty God. and a covering of thick black hair. Solomon has the demon ORNIAS fetch Beelzebub to him. Witches denied Christ in his name and chanted it as they danced: “Beelzebub goity. Beelzebub beyty [Beelzebub above. He released all the trapped saints. No man can enter into a strong man’s house.” Beelzebub says that Solomon can strengthen his house by burning oil of myrrh. and arouses sexual desire in holy men and “select priests. Beelzebub identifies himself as “the ruler of all demons.Beelzebub 25 In his latter guise. he cannot stand but hath an end. Beelzebub resists but succumbs to the power of the ring. except he will first bind the strong man. Lighting the seven lamps at dawn will reveal the heavenly dragons pulling the chariot of the Sun. Abezethibou will return in triumph when he is ready. and arouses jealousy. ABEZETHIBOU. causes men to worship demons. Solomon tells Beelzebub to cut blocks of Theban marble for the building of his temple. and saffron Beelzebub (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) and lighting seven lamps during an earthquake. he has a swollen face and chest. sea bulbs. frankincense. Solomon tells Beelzebub that if he wishes his freedom. He was the Prince of Demons in Hebrew belief at the time of JESUS. instigates murders. He was said to reign over witches’ SABBATs. and he promises to give to the king all unclean spirits bound. Jesus arrived. horns. The apochryphal text Gospel of Nicodemus describes how Beelzebub came to rule in HELL over SATAN. Solomon orders him to summon Abezethibou.” Their Eucharist was bread with Beelzebub imprinted on it instead of Jesus. There are many stories of his copulating with witches in wild orgies. Beelzebub has been a feared and formidable demon from the earliest accounts of him. who are Mine. Satan bragged to Beelzebub that he was going to take Jesus to hell in revenge for all the times he had thwarted Satan. They could not keep Jesus out. As he left. for Jesus was too powerful and would upset hell. Beelzebub begged him not to do so. and said unto them in parables. the power to expel unclean spirits was gained through PACTs with demons. He alone is the Prince of Demons because he was the highest-ranking angel in heaven and is the only one left of the heavenly angels who fell.” In medieval times Beelzebub was regarded as a demon of great power. duck feet. Beelzebub says he destroys tyrants. calling upon all the demons to help him. Beelzebub below]. The witches were said to gather around the altar in a semicircle and then lie flat on the ground. and then he will spoil his house. he says.” Emmanuel (Jesus). in the place of Adam and his righteous sons. for according to belief. Beelzebub was powerless against him. He tells Solomon that he lives in the Evening Star (Venus). and spoil his goods. Beelzebub says. Satan told Beelzebub. and Beelzebub pushed Satan from the mouth of hell and barricaded the gate. and by the prince of devils casteth he out devils. or Beelzeboul. he hath Beelzebub. And he called them unto him. and will disappear if anyone uses the oath Elo-i (my God. Jesus trampled over Satan and snapped the chains of the imprisoned souls with a single word. Beelzebub. but Beelzebub refuses to present any demon. He was accompanied by another FALLEN ANGEL. And if Satan rise up against himself. (Mark 3: 22–27) In the pseudepigraphical text the Testament of Solomon. The Pharisees accused Jesus of exorcizing demons in Beelzebub’s name. a lion’s tail. . who went immediately to heaven. Mark (3:22–27). that house cannot stand. and Luke (11:14–22): And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem said. and be divided. huge nostrils. he will tell the king about other “heavenly things. How can Satan cast out Satan? And if a kingdom be divided against itself.

and Bolfry. Once conjured. a female named Leviathan. . Behemoth In the Bible a name used for the DEVIL. hell” and a terrible stench. leading to the executions of his accused lieutenants. Behemoth (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) who made him bring near his sword! For the mountains yield food for him where all the wild beasts play. and Joseph W. Beall. Beelzebub’s name was chanted during the rites. in a terrible roar of “Beelzebub. his strength is in his loins. Bolfri. Charles. let him Behemoth represents unconquerable strength. if the river is turbulent he is not frightened. He makes his tail stiff like a cedar. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. or strangulation. Behemoth is derived from the Hebrew word behemet. Berithi. apoplexy. Charlesworth. The demon left on December 23. Carol K. James H. Jacob. According to magical grimoires. in the early 20th century in Earling. the demon is difficult to banish. Fallen Angels. the sinews of his thighs are knit together. For his shade the lotus trees cover him. Victoria. He is the first of the works of God. Judas. FURTHER READING: Hyatt. Behemoth. the fifth of the SEVEN DEADLY SINS. in the covert of the reeds and in the marsh. east of the garden of Eden. Mack. or pierce his nose with a snare? The verse 1 Enoch 60:7–8 a refers to Behemoth and LEVIATHAN as two monsters who will be parted at the final judgment: On that day two monsters will be parted—one monster. 1998. Behold. While they were unable to move.26 Behemoth They swallowed a foul medicine that made them sweat and then froze them in place. A magician must wear a silver ring when conjuring him. Bofry. His bones are tubes of bronze. which holds his chest in an invisible desert whose name is Dundayin. A Field Guide to Demons: Fairies. 1928. Vols. Can one take him with hooks. 1983. Beale. New York: Owl Books/Henry Holt. and Dinah Mack. Other names for him are Beal. referring to an impure animal and unclean spirit. he eats grass like an ox. he is confident though Jordan rushes against his mouth. Beherit has red skin and appears as a soldier wearing a crown and riding a red horse. and Other Subversive Spirits. and the bewitchment of nuns in the LOUDUN POSSESSIONS and AIX-EN-PROVENCE POSSESSION in France in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.. in retaliation for not engaging in incestuous sex with him. Mina [Anna’s aunt and Jacob’s mistress]” followed by “Hell. A frenzied orgy then began. a sorcerer conjures Beelzebub at his own risk of death by epilepsy. He gives true answers about things past. Beelzebub copulated with them. Beherit DEMON who is a great duke of HELL commanding 26 LEGIONs of lesser demons. present. Beelzebub rules gluttony. Fathers Louis Gaufridi and URBAIN GRANDIER. 1974. in 1566.” Job 40:15–24 describes Behemoth as “the first of the works of God. Beherit was named in the LOUDUN POSSESSIONS and was described as having a pleasant and laughing face. and future and can turn metals into gold. One of the demon’s most notorious acts was the EARLING POSSESSION. wherein the elect and the righteous ones dwell. France. The Book of Demons. A conjuring spell for him is: BEELZEBUB SOLYMO AMECLO VENITE LUCIFER SAROY SAGRAEL BEELZEBUTH MADILON THEU PRAREDUN AMEN. which I made as I made you. meaning “beast” or “large animal. 1985. and (the other) a male called Behemoth. New York: Doubleday. the willows of the brooks surround him. ed. Beelzebub entered young Anna Ecklund at the behest of her father. Iowa. and his power in the muscles of his belly. New York: Simon & Schuster. his limbs like bars of iron. among them NICOLE OBRY in Laon. Behold. Beelzebub also was among the demons blamed for demonic POSSESSION cases. 1 & 2. hell.” the primal monster of the land: Behold. When BLACK MASSES were fashionable in high society in the 17th century. Under the lotus plant he lies. Jacob. in order to dwell in the abyss of the ocean over the fountains of water.

Belphegor was an angel in the order of principalities prior to his fall. he was known as Baal-Peor and ruled over fertility and sexual power. but those who manage to gain his true favor are handsomely rewarded with good FAMILIAR s and other favors.Belphegor 27 Beleth (Bileth. If Beleth refuses to cooperate. Reprint. Prince of Darkness. He was evil from the start. He emerged from HELL to investigate the marital state Belphegor (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) . After his fall from heaven. Belial (Beliar) One of the most important and evil who is deceptively beautiful in appearance and soft in voice. Thomas Aquinas. He appears as a beautiful angel riding a chariot pulled by firebreathing dragons. Vols. He will break his promises to magicians. but full of treachery. sloth. Belial is one of the WATCHERS. and King of Evil. whose three titles are Belial. he rules over the sixth sephirah. In a Qumrun text called the Testament of Amran (Q543. “the wranglers. and lust. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Hyatt. Belial is dedicated to creating wickedness and guilt in humankind. The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered. According to St. He is one of the Togarini. Robert. fornication. 1974. In the K ABBALAH. Belial’s name may be derived from the Hebrew term beli ya’al. FURTHER READING: Eisenman. sacrifices and offerings are necessary to invoke him. one of the first to revolt against God. London: Element Books. He sits on a pierced chair. Edited by James H. and Michael Wise. In Christian demonology. preceded by many musicians playing trumpets and other instruments. Belial danced before King SOLOMON and was among the demons who worked under the king’s command. a pseudepigraphical text. Beleth is a terrible and mighty king who rules over 85 LEGIONs of DEMONs. but if the magician shows fear. JOHANN WEYER said Belial commands 80 legions of demons and serves as infernal ambassador to Turkey. the phrase “sons of Belial” refers to worthlessness and recklessness. In HELL. He is very angry when first summoned and must be sent to a magical triangle by a magician pointing a hazel wand to the southeast. and lies. dedicated to destruction. bells See AMULET. the chief of all devils. The name Belphegor means “lord of opening” or “lord Baal of Mt.” He is an archdemon who is part of the demonic counterparts to the angels who rule the 10 sephirot of the Tree of Life. Belial’s name is sometimes a synonym for SATAN or the ANTICHRIST. He must be treated with great courtesy. characterized by negligence and apathy. and he speaks sweetly. Belial is described as the leader of the Sons of Darkness. Beleth arrives on a pale horse. In the Testament of Solomon. 1992. the magician must proceed with his commands. Charlesworth. ruled by Solomon’s magical ring. He is empowered over all darkness and his every way and every work are darkness. Paul considered him to be chief of demons. Belial was the next angel created after LUCIFER and was partly of the order of angels and partly of the order of virtues. The magician must protect himself by wearing a silver ring on the middle finger of the left hand and holding it up to the face. The 68th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. which means “without worth. Belphegor Moabite god absorbed into Hebrew lore and then Christianity as a major DEMON. especially in the form of sexual perversions. According to the magical grimoire the Lemegeton. all sins that arise from ignorance are caused by sloth. The Book of Demons. He once was a member of the angelic order of powers. Belphegor is the incarnation of one of the SEVEN DEADLY SINS. In the Old Testament. Byleth) FALLEN ANGEL and 13th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Victoria. Belphegor also rules misogyny and licentious men. such as preferences for senatorships or political offices. According to JOHANN WEYER. 1983. DEMONs. Bilet. a bottle of wine helps to mellow Beleth into cooperation. 545–48). 1985. and Joseph W.” In Hebrew lore. Phegor.” As a Moabite deity. St. New York: Doubleday. 1 & 2. In the Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: Simon & Schuster. Charles. Beleth will forever lose respect for him. for excrement is his sacrificial offering. He was worshipped in the form of a phallus. recklessness. he became the personification of lies and evil.

1974. In hell. Fallen Angels. The 10 great dukes are Mudiret. he rules inventions and discoveries and serves as infernal ambassador to France. He returned to Binsfeld and became prominent in campaigns against the Protestants. Bifrons FALLEN ANGEL and the 46th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. other mathematical arts. Elberith) FALLEN ANGEL. New York: Simon & Schuster. the conjuror’s soul. and had to be summoned with magic rings bearing his SEAL. however. presiding over 26 LEGIONs of demons. as well as the ability to make discoveries and create inventions of all sorts. The conjurer promises out loud.. He was known for making great promises. and woods. who is otherwise a cherub and good angel. Armomiel. astrology. Binsfeld was elected suffragan bishop of Treves (Trier) and became one of the primary witch hunters behind the trials of 306 persons accused of WITCHCRAFT between 1587 and 1594. geometry. The region was gripped by a terrible blight on crops. The earl Bifrons has a monstrous appearance but will take on human shape when ordered to do so. For a time. Andruchiel. Charles. and the knowledge of herbs. Victoria. As an angel. Besides sex and lust. Cruchan. he fled back to hell. New York: Owl Books/Henry Holt. Belphegor appears in the form of a beautiful young girl in order to tempt men. Germany. Berith will appear and do as commanded—but he will claim his reward. Peter (ca. One conjuration spell for Berith calls for bleeding a black chicken at a CROSSROADS on a Monday night. but if a person is successful and Belphegor takes a liking to him or her. Mack. Baalberith. FURTHER READING: Hyatt.” Alternately. Berith (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) . the pledge can be written on parchment with the chicken’s BLOOD. Carol K. the demon will bestow great treasures and wealth. Parsifiel. duke. but also for being a great liar. and Joseph W. He removes dead bodies from their graves and leaves them in other places and lights phantom candles on the graves. plus other servants.000 people—and sanc- Benedict (St. Berith was named as a key demon in the famous AIXEN-PROVENCE POSSESSIONS in France in 1611. Lameniel. and grand pontiff in HELL. Bolfri. Binsfeld. He encouraged denouncements—the accused at the Treves trials denounced about 6. Beal. and Chremoas. As a DEMON. They appear in the form of beautiful humans and are willing to obey an EXORCIST. he governs great riches. He notarizes PACTs with the DEVIL. Peter Binsfeld was born in the village of Binsfeld.) medal among humans. The Book of Demons. His father was a farmer and craftsman. Charoblel. The dukes change their offices and locations every year. Berith was important to some alchemists. he serves as a master of ceremonies. Gifted in childhood. “Berith will do all my work for 20 years and I shall recompense him. Berith appears as a man wearing a soldier’s uniform and a golden crown and riding a red horse.) medal See AMULET. and the public readily blamed their troubles on the evildoing of witches. Binsfeld authored the Treatise on Confessions by Evildoers and Witches (1589). happy that intercourse between men and women did not exist there. he was sent to Rome for study. He commands six LEGIONs of DEMONs. He is difficult to conjure. He teaches astronomy. and Other Subversive Spirits.28 Benedict (St. which became a leading inquisitors’ handbook and was translated into several languages. Belfry. 1998. he lived as a man to experience sexual pleasures. Appalled. Eifel. and Dinah Mack. Bramsiel. A Field Guide to Demons: Fairies. 1540–1603) German Jesuit priest. Merasiel. Bofi. and witch hunter. Bernael ANGEL of darkness and evil equated with BELIAL. He was tricky to conjure. demonologist. Bidiel commands 20 dukes and 200 lesser dukes. Berith was prince of the order of cherubim. Bernael sometimes is equated with Haziel. precious stones. who believed he had the power to transmute all base metals into gold. in 20 years’ time. Bidiel DEMON and wandering duke of the air. Berith (Balberith.

Cyprian was a sorcerer who escaped the domination of DEMONs and the Devil by making the sign of the cross. inverting the cross. who lived in the fourth century C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Spectral black dogs are often unusually large and have glowing red or yellow eyes. and performing other sacrilegious acts. . He ended his life as a martyr. and BELPHEGOR (sloth). SATAN (anger). However. including DEMONs and ANGEL s. meaning “demon” or “Satan.Black M ass 29 tioned the repetition of torture. However. Sometimes spectral black dogs appear in the middle of lonely roads. however. pieces of black leather. 1949. or luck upon its owner. If they are struck by a car. Black candles are substituted for white ones. They sought help from a minister. he was the first person to pair demons with the SEVEN DEADLY SINS: LUCIFER (pride). and ways to ward off evil and bad luck and attract good luck. blessings. stepping or spitting on the cross. During the Inquisition. They like to roam remote areas of the countryside. Minn. the book enabled people to acquire great wealth and do terrible things to others without punishment. See ABEL DE L ARUE. Dietrich Flade. According to a German tale. CERBERUS. or black triangles are substituted for the host. Some black books credit their origins to Cyprianus of Antioch (St. If a djinn becomes attached to a human. They included magical cures and healing recipes. According to lore. The purpose is to parody the Catholic Holy Mass by performing it or parts of it backward.” During the European witch hunts. They tried to get rid of the book but could not do so. urine or water is substituted for the wine. use of a black book usually backfires with serious consequences. They are said to be DEMONs or the DEVIL in shape-shifted form or a demonic animal companion of demons. The service is performed by a defrocked or renegade priest. witches were often said to have FAMILIAR s in the form of black dogs. The Black Books of Elverum. a goat’s head. Numerous clerics were ruined. LEVIATHAN (envy). One famous black dog in English folklore is Black Shuck. In the Treves trials. divination. in Turkey. Such a tale serves to demonstrate the power of Christianity over both occult powers and pagan folk magic. In Arabian lore. Ritual Magic. even leading citizens were not immune. stabbing the host. wealth. who wears vestments that are black or the color of dried blood and embroidered with an inverted cross. the Devil. Black books are more than mysteriously empowered items of folklore. Some black books are said to be written in BLOOD as a PACT with the DEVIL. Shuck derives from an old Anglo-Saxon term. was himself accused and burned at the stake. Characteristics There is no single defi nitive Black Mass ritual. He maintained that the DEVIL could not appear in the form of an innocent person.. and trans. FURTHER READING: Butler. incantations.: Galde Press. or to be visited by their master. prayers. In practice. who successfully nailed the book into a drawer. or magical symbols. bone-chilling howl. in the shape of a black dog. MAMMON (avarice). Urine is sometimes substituted for the holy water used to sprinkle the attendees. but it is doubtful that they have been as prevalent—or as outrageous—as often claimed. Black Mass An obscene parody of the Catholic Holy Mass at which the DEVIL is worshipped. scucca or sceocca. The material is a mixture of old folkways and lore and Christian elements. 1999. CHARMs. Lakeville. and disaster. ed. but he did not believe in the DEVIL’S MARK and the shape-shifting ability of witches. In some cases. many people and families kept black books as guides for living. as were two burgomasters and several councilors and associate judges. BEELZEBUB (gluttony). death. M.E. The chief judge. He converted to Christianity and became a bishop. and acquisition and use of supernatural powers. If anyone failed to read the book backward. The sight of one is a harbinger of death or disaster. there were consequences to using the black book that caused its owners grief. the Devil was able to take control of him or her. They give out an unearthly. E. black dogs are a favorite form taken by the DJINN. and rotted turnip slices. black book A magical handbook that provides instructions for trafficking with spirits. rituals for burial. Black Masses have been performed for centuries and occur in contemporary times. witch hunters and demonologists claimed that witches—or any heretics—frequently performed Black Masses as part of their infernal SABBATs with DEMONs and the Devil. Phantom black dogs are widespread in folklore. Its magical powers were released by reading it forward and backward. it may assume the shape of a black dog in order to get close to that person. Rustad. Mary S. seasonal and agricultural rites. Once activated. He allowed the trials of children under certain conditions. ASMODEUS (lechery). Cyprian). a black book of unknown origin was passed down through inheritance and came into the possession of some peasants. Binsfeld’s treatise included a classification of DEMONs and their sins. possession of the black book itself bestows supernatural powers. and the children of the condemned were stripped of all their belongings and sent into exile. Binsfeld died in Treves of the bubonic plague around 1603. techniques for divination. See GRIMOIRES. black dogs Spectral animals associated with demonic powers. they disappear and the vehicle is not damaged.

and love divination. Black Masses figured in high-profile POSSESSION cases. anti-Catholic Black Mass was reached in the late 17th century. Guiborg kissed Montespan. the liturgy of hell is mumbled backward. fertility. were condemned by the Catholic Church as early as the seventh century. tried in 1614–15. a French baron. who was criticized for his tolerance of witches and sorcerers. then he surely can effect magic in a mass used for other purposes. In the 16th and 17th centuries. Most of the nobility received only jail sentences and exile in the countryside. The ritual was followed by an orgy. can effect a miracle in a Holy Mass. said to have originated in the Middle Ages in Gascony for the purpose of cursing an enemy to death by a slow. confessed to performing a “Devil’s mass. these were officially condemned as early as 694 by the Council of Toledo. including La Voisin. known as “La Voisin. The bodies of the children were later burned in a furnace in La Voisin’s house. as magician. The chief organizer of these rites was Catherine Deshayes. the cathedral chapter of Cambrai held Black Masses in protest against their bishop. Thirty-six of the commoners were executed. History Magical uses of the Mass and alleged perversions of the Mass are almost as old as Christianity itself. If the priest. the seriousness of the actual “Devil worship” was dubious. was arrested and accused of conducting Black Masses in the cellar of his castle in order to gain riches and power. Secaire. during the reign of Louis XIV. Masses also were said with the intent to kill people. the powerful and wealthy Order of the Knights Templar was destroyed on accusations of conducting blasphemous rites in which Christ was renounced and idols made of stuffed human heads were worshipped. He was convicted and executed. While incense burned. trampling upon the host. the marquise de Montespan. torturing. St. The first witch trials to feature accusations of sabbats. . tortured. The magical significance of the Black Mass lies in the belief that the Holy Mass involves a miracle: the transubstantiation of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ. A priest in Orléans. such as the LOUVIERS POSSESSIONS in 1647. The Knights Templar also were accused of spitting and trampling upon the cross and worshipping the Devil in the shape of a black cat. such as cursing a person to death. defiling the cross. When the scandal of the Black Masses broke. Using Montespan as a naked altar. When Louis’ queen. Members of the order were arrested. Louis kept Montespan out of the trials. He consecrated the host over her genitals and inserted pieces in her vagina. he ends just as midnight tolls. and murdering more than 140 children as sacrifices. including weather control. including the ugly and evil Abbé Guiborg. who was burned alive in 1680. Irenaeus accused the Gnostic teacher Marcus of perverting the Mass. protection. In 1440. He was charged with kidnapping. ASMODEUS. GILLES DE R AIS. sought out the services of La Voisin because she feared the king was becoming interested in another woman. sixth century) documents masses to be said for a variety of magical purposes. died in 1683. Montague Summers provides a description of it in The History of Witchcraft and Demonology: The mass is said upon a broken and desecrated altar in some ruined or deserted church where owls hoot and mope and bats flit through the crumbling windows. Ursuline nuns said they had been bewitched and possessed and were forced by chaplains—led by Abbé Thomas Boulle—to participate nude in Black Masses. The Gelasian Sacramentary (ca. The priest must make his way thither late attended only by an acolyte of impure and evil life. For example. The mistress of Louis XIV. It became fashionable among nobility to hire priests to perform erotic Black Masses in dark cellars. many of them some of France’s highest-ranking nobles. Confessions were made under torture. invoking Satan and his demons of lust and deceit. Priests who attempted to subvert the Holy Mass for evil purposes.30 Black M ass One famous form of the Black Mass was the Mass of St. wasting illness. the canon said with a mow and a sneer. Madame de Maintenon. In the second century. the throats of children were slit and their blood poured into chalices and mixed with flour to make the host. and ASTAROTH. Guiborg said three Black Masses over her.” which was followed by drinking and a wild sexual orgy. and executed. The height of the theatrical. In 1307. Whenever the mass called for kissing the altar. Many of the masses were theatrical events intended for social shock and protest against the church. Magical uses of the Mass increased in the Middle Ages. and Black Masses all occurred in the 14th century. The Mass of St. who were gold-trimmed and lacelined vestments and scarlet shoes. to grant whatever Montespan desired. At the first stroke of eleven he begins. in 1500. BEELZEBUB. Devil’s PACTs. Maria Theresa. he married another woman. Secaire requires a triangular black host and brackish water drawn from a well in which the corpse of an unbaptized baby has been tossed. and having sex with demons. priests in France were arrested and executed for conducting Black Masses. and put them on trial. Gentien le Clerc. but she suffered great humiliation and disgrace.” a witch who told fortunes and sold love philters. Louis arrested 246 men and women. where toads spit their venom upon the sacred stone. La Voisin employed a cadre of priests who performed the masses. The beginnings of the organized Black Mass as part of Devil worship coincides with the expansion of the Inquisition and rising public fears about the evil powers of witches.

and the assistants scramble for the soiled fragments.” the purpose of which is to cause an enemy to wither away. a fraternal group in London in the late 19th century. moldy chapel that once was used by Ursuline nuns. Aleister Crowley on the Black Mass In 1947. the character who is based on Huysmans. The novel was made into a film in 1968 by Hammer Films of England.” Participants. The celebrant must be a priest. was said to perform a Black Mass regularly in worship of the Devil.” always held in some secret place. the London Sunday Dispatch newspaper published an article by Crowley on black magic.” For example. of which he was head in England. he wrote a Gnostic Mass that remains a central ritual in the Ordo Templi Orientis magical order. as a religion. and even in London. The ceremony is a parody of the orthodox Mass. in which the cross was defiled and the Devil served as priest. preferably in a disused chapel. a Black Mass was performed at the graveside of Aleister Crowley during his funeral. but the candles are of black wax. The “Black Mass” is a totally different matter. tear off their clothes and writhe on the floor. Crowley was described as practicing “black magic” and perform- ing satanic rituals. but the priest must convert it into the blood of Christ. indescribable—scatters the fragments of the Host on the floor. During life. quite frankly. during a time of occult revival and the birth of Witchcraft. The crucifix is fixed the head downwards. with varying views on the Black Mass. Morcata. The clerk to the priest is a woman. Sexual acts are implied but not described by Huysmans. In the 14th–18th centuries. although it seems to be a church garment. It is doubtful that such sabbats actually took place as described by inquisitors and demonologists. for I am not a consecrated priest of the Christian Church. The Black Mass continued as a decadent fashion into the 19th century during an occult revival. Huysmans’ 1891 novel Là-bas (Down There or Lower Depths) features the Gilles de Rais story. Then they are subjected to terrible profanations. with a black magician character. Joris K. datura. In the 20th century. which emphasizes rituals composed of ceremonial magic and reconstructed pagan seasonal rites. the possession of which. After a mass of obscenities and blasphemies and the desecration of the host. There are many ways of abusing the Sacrament. then turned into a livery and a barn to store hay. to a dingy. Black Masses are not part of modern Witchcraft. a perversion of their symbolic sanctity. that does not make them “satanic. The dreadful basis of the Mass is that the bread and wine have imprisoned the Deity.Black M ass 31 Paralleling the theatrical and antichurch Black Masses were the accusations of Black Masses conducted by witches. Satanic cults born of social rebellion also instituted Black Masses as a form of social shock. is more like a costume in a prurient revue. Indescribable This is supposed to release the powers of evil and bring them into alliance. Therefore you must believe in the truth of the cult and the efficacy of its ritual. (It is rather the case of the mouse trying to make a friend of the cat!) In the congregational form of the Black Mass the priest. and myrrh is burned. with blasphemous interpolations. his two characters who are witnesses become disgusted and exit the scene. There is an altar. and her dress. dried nightshade. to consecrate the Host in the orthodox manner. high on the fumes. the Black Mass became a staple of Devil worship novels and films. The occult revival that began in the 1960s saw the birth of contemporary SATANISM as a religious practice. Victims tortured by witch hunters and inquisitors confessed to participating in obscene rituals at SABBATs. the priest appears in canonical robes. inquisitors considered Devil worship in obscene rites to be an integral part of witchcraft. for the whole idea of the practice is to profane the Sacrament of the Eucharist. The priest must be careful. he stated emphatically that he despised black magic and could never perform a Black Mass. It has been taken over by satanists. But even in his robes there is some sinister change. A renegade priest gathers about him a congregation of sensation-hunters and religious fanatics. It draws upon Abbé Boulle from Louivers—Huysmans even inserted himself as a character—in its exploration of satanic rites and contains a description of the Black Mass. In 1933. The wine has been adulterated with magical drugs like deadly nightshade and vervain. It has been altered to make it indecent. modeled on ALEISTER CROWLEY. Among the participants is a debauched nun. they . Crowley’s rituals were “anti-Christian”. then only can the ceremonies of profanation be of extended black magical effect. the place erupts in “a monstrous pandemonium of prostitutes and maniacs. which was an abuse of spiritual power. or Wicca. is taken by a woman. having finished his abominations—these are. The HELL-FIRE CLUB. however. One of the best known of which is the “Mass of Saint Secaire. In it he commented on the Black Mass: In Paris. One of the most influential fictions was the 1934 novel The Devil Rides Out by Dennis Wheatley. Durtal. There is no evidence that the Black Mass was part of historical European witchcraft. At this “mass. there are misguided people who are abusing their priceless spiritual gifts to obtain petty and temporary advantages through these practices. Hyacinthe. or Wicca. A choking incense of henbane. I could not celebrate it if I wanted to. at midnight. though it is more likely that the rites were little more than sexual escapades with liberal quantities of alcohol. However.

Summers. LaVey. and their own versions of the Black Mass. 1926.” who practice the Black Mass. Pennsylvania. 1969. New York: URL: http://www. 1972. The Satanic Bible. A History of Witchcraft. A series of hypnopompic and hypnogogic dream experiences started at age five and continued. POSSESSION. will allow them to work their petty and malicious designs. there are some practices of infant sacrifice and cannibalism.phtml. if you believe passionately enough in your will to do something. causing him to develop an interest in meditation.satan heaven. then power to achieve it will accrue to which led to work with the Roman Catholic Church. shouting obscenities and the names of demons. supposedly derived from ancient rituals calling for animal sacrifices to please God. founded by Stephen Brown. on August 23.religioncults. Blai’s work in the paranormal started when he was an adviser to a university-based paranormal club. The World of the Witches. blood A source of power unleashed in ritual sacrifices to appease gods and conjure DEMONs and other spirits. The struggle lasted until the recoil of the current of hated caused the luckless sorcerer to collapse. After a brief near-fatal illness shortly after birth. The machinations of a degraded and outcast member of the Order caused my hounds to die. The formats of Black Masses vary with different groups. embraces black magic as a form of self-benefit. “Black Mass. he had an uneventful early childhood. and EXORCISM. Amherst. J. where the altar is a nude woman and the vagina is the tabernacle. is performed. My most memorable personal experience of the effects of black magic occurred when I was living in Scotland. “Black Magic Is not a Myth. shamanism. New York: Avon Books. The Order of the Nine Angles. a real host stolen from a Catholic Church is placed in the vagina in the midst of reciting distorted psalms with hot music and all kind of obscenities. 2008. His casework is predominantly within the church. The blood of a black cat is said to cure pneumonia. 2008. incorporates the Black Mass as part of its path of self-development. with additional work on cases with JOHN Z AFFIS and a few other experienced people in the paranormal research field. elements of the Black Mass are incorporated into some of the rituals. and various models of mystical experiences. Edited by James R. Its founder. He has had extensive training in Europe under leading EXORCISTs such as GABRIELE A MORTH and JOSE A NTONIO FORTEA. The fake priest ends up having real sex with the woman with the host still in the vagina. He has taught at a major state university as well as a small exclusive liberal arts school. Montague. 1975. “Black Mass. 2008.32 Blai. La-Bas. URL: http://www. and performing other blasphemous acts. hypnosis. Blai researches advances in paranormal activity detection and theory. Russell. Animal sacrifices are more likely. N. Jeffrey B. Anton Szandor Lavey. 1933. Aleister. Downloaded February 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Other elements may include drinking urine. Downloaded February 2. The Encyclopedic Sourcebook of Satanism. which have afforded experience with the full range of human experience and psychopathology. URL: http://www. Huysmans. Trubner. The History of Witchcraft and Demonology. trampling a cross.” many of whom place less emphasis on it.Y.: Prometheus Books. Downloaded February 2. He is now a member of the INTERNATIONAL A SSOCIATION OF EXORCISTS and speaks from the Roman Catholic perspective on demonology. including the application of the Global Consciousness Project model to extreme paranormal manifestations. blood. JESUS is cursed and Satan is exalted. reciting blasphemous prayers and psalms. Animal Blood Animal blood is used in folk CHARMs and spells. but these claims are doubtful. 2008. cursing Jesus. K. Supposedly. A Satanic Black Mass is conducted for obtaining and raising magical power. or wine from a human skull.” Available online. and “Nontraditional Satanists. Trench. and clinical psychology. A sexual orgy by the participants follows. said it was outmoded. Blai has worked in outpatient settings as a therapist as well as in a forensic context. The Temple of Set. Adam Blai was born in Media. 1970. Blai. Blood sacrifices are described in some GRIMOIRES. The blasphemy contained in it has not only mocked Christianity and Christ but also elevates Adolf Hitler as a “noble savior. The Black Mass in Satanism When the Church of Satan was founded in 1966.” From the Sunday Dispatch. Anton Szandor. and honoring Satan. London: Kegan Paul. my servants to become insane. July 2. FURTHER READING: Baroja. The explanation of its effects is that. If possible.” Available online. Lewis and Jesper Aagaard Petersen. Julio Caro.lashtal.htm#Black%20Mass. Church of Satan followers sometimes perform Black Masses as theatrical events. A black hen beaten to death with a white cane will provide blood . Adam C hristian believe. London: Thames and Hudson. especially Beelzebub. 1980. Adam Christian (1970– ) Therapist and demonologist. founded by Michael Aquino. Other satanic groups have their own practices. Available online. Crowley. A blasphemous mass. the Black Mass was not included among the rituals.” There are groups of “Traditional Secretive Satanists. This led to an interest in psychology with research in brain structure and

Human blood is identified with the soul and carries the greatest power. and contorted. as menstrual blood was called. bock. The demon was evoked in a ritual that involved slitting the throats of three pigeons and pouring their blood upon the sand. and “wise blood. Brossier first showed signs of unusual behavior at the age of 25 in 1598. and other structures. members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. conferred divinity on pharaohs. Botis (Otis) FALLEN ANGEL and 17th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. By the principles of sympathetic magic. The “Bogey-Man” or “Boogie-Man” arrives at night and appears in bedrooms and at the sides of beds. a person may be bewitched or cursed. in some cases. Putnam’s Sons. menstrual blood was believed to spawn DEMONs and to defile altars. forts. and Boggelmann in German. symbolized in an ambrosia drink. Guiley. FURTHER READING: Cavendish. Brossier. she cut her hair. Marthe (16th century) Fraudulent POSSEScase. screamed. rust IRON. Richard. bogle in Scotland. wore men’s clothing. and healing. blast fruit. it is drunk as a charm for wisdom. immortality. The magical power of a witch could be neutralized or destroyed by burning her blood in fire—hence the common European method of execution by burning at the stake—or a practice called “blooding. Menstrual blood has a long history of being feared by men. Witchcraft. Botis commands 60 LEGIONs of DEMONs. for their blood has the power to harm. He carries a sharp sword. New York: G. 2008.” The Talmud instructs that husband and wife are to be sexually separated during menstruation and for a week later in order to ensure cleanliness. is particularly potent. menstruating women were forbidden to partake in communion or. According to ancient Taoism. Rosemary Ellen. Marthe Brossier’s alleged possession by BEELZEBUB also served as a means for the Catholic Church to try to undercut the religious reform of the Huguenots. boo. In any case. milk. bugbear. Among other names are bug-a-boo. Menstrual Blood Menstrual blood. and future and reconciles friends and enemies. who scares children. Brossier’s career as a demoniac also may have been influenced by an account of the MIRACLE OF L AON. He sees past. The bogey is called the bwg (ghost) in Welsh. Still without a husband. and boggart. mead. In the Old Testament. and sometimes sacrificial victims were walled up in temples. because of the energy of resentment and fury. M arthe 33 that can be used in sympathetic magic: Smear the blood on a victim or his or her clothing to CURSE the victim with a death as agonizing as that of the hen. P. Reported as both the eldest and the youngest of four daughters of a poor draper in the town of Romorantin. which is released upon execution. 1967.” The witch was scored above the breast and allowed to bleed. In 1909. Human Blood Some sources of blood are considered to be more powerful than others. The blood of executed criminals is said to be a powerful protector against disease and bad luck. and Wicca. The Black Arts. ALEISTER CROWLEY sacrificed animals in his magical rituals. fertility. Ingesting human blood is believed to confer the powers and strengths of the victim upon the conqueror. Used as a vehicle for raising money from the gullible. she demanded EXORCISM by her local priest and began exhibiting fits. also called wine. red yin juice.Brossier. present. As a great president and earl of HELL. The Encyclopedia of Witches. The case stands as the first where accusations of fraud in an alleged possession were backed up by detailed physical evidence. conferred long life or immortality. Ancient Romans believed the touch of a menstruating woman could blunt knives. while working with his assistant. usually big and black. which is linked to the phases of the Moon. During the European witch hunts of the Inquisition. She attacked her friend Anne Chevion (also known as Chevreau) in a fit of jealousy. even to enter church. Human blood was believed to strengthen the foundations of buildings. In Christianity. touching. sour wine. Crowley had a formidable encounter with a DEMON named CHORONZON. 3rd ed. Spectators at public executions such as beheadings sought to obtain the victims’ blood on handkerchiefs or bits of cloth for later use in magical rituals. Up to the late 17th century. “You shall not come near a woman while she is impure by her uncleanness to uncover her nakedness. In appearance the bogey often looks like the dark silhouette of a man. The blood of ISIS. sometimes to death. and proscriptions have been given against associating with. New York: Facts On File. Bogey also is another name for the DEVIL. bogey In English folklore a horrible evil spirit or hobgoblin. Possessing a few drops of a person’s blood gives a witch or magician power over that person or enables the magician to harness that person’s emotional state. The Irish puca is similar. The blood of the Goddess. Human blood also is used to seal pacts of oath and brotherhood. other possessed persons in Romorantin successfully used the WITCHCRAFT defense. or having sex with menstruating women.” appears universally in mythologies. He appears in the shape of an ugly viper but will take on human form with large teeth and horns when commanded to do so. Leviticus 18:19 states. it was believed that witches signed blood PACTs with the Devil to pledge servitude and obedience to him. Although no records exist detailing Anne’s fate. SION . accusing Anne of bewitching her. and cloud MIRRORs. impossible body contortions. Victor Neuberg. regeneration.

stopping in various towns for exorcisms and drawing large audiences. levitation. Walker. They would draw devilish faces on the walls by their bed and talk to them. when Alexandre de la Rochefoucauld. and by the end of March. They would stand on their heads for hours. become rigid. Not everyone was fooled. expelling great quantities of yellow foam. blasphemies. or even the mention of her name. That is the last record of her escapades. Saulmur. The physician Michel Marescot. bishop of Paris. On May 24. Demonic Possession and Exorcism in Early Modern France. giving official tolerance to both Catholic and Huguenot beliefs. The exorcisms attracted huge crowds. unkindly described her tours as “fi fteen months spent in carrying of her too [sic] and fro. and the Latin. as in Laon. revulsion toward holy objects. Upon the advice of Henri IV and other clerics. Bishop Charles Miron tested Brossier on her reactions to holy water and sacred Latin texts. On March 31. Their room was unbearably hot. Just a few days prior. all the while encouraging her anti-Huguenot performances. FURTHER READING: Ferber. and she failed both examinations: She did not react to real holy water but to ordinary water. and. where the local judge was to check on her every two weeks. the drapes would fall down by themselves.34 Bruner a psychosomatic pregnancy. Unclean Spirits: Possession and Exorcism in France and England in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries. Father Karl (Charles) Brey. who examined Brossier in 1599. Brossier obtained a certificate of genuine possession from the local priest. Parliament ordered Brossier and her father to return to Romorantin. Believing it to be a DEVIL’S MARK. P. Bruner (Burner). hiding under the covers and screaming blasphemies. bend completely backward. According to the records kept by the local priest. they asked for a postponement of the earlier report and began to exorcise Brossier on April 1. Alsace. the Paris parliament had passed the Edict of Nantes. and the windows would burst open. and all agreed on March 30 that Brossier was not possessed but merely ill. Fearing a breakdown of the edict. and Joseph. and pictures of the Virgin Mary. Brossier was still staging possession fits in Milan as of 1604 and acting as Beelzebub’s mouthpiece. Sarah. rising upward while remaining seated or in bed. seaweed. her symptoms were mainly counterfeit. and on April 3 they proclaimed her genuinely possessed. The Brossiers sought refuge in the Capuchin monastery of Ste. where Brossier contorted and was exorcized for the edification of the tourists.” In Orléans.” At Angers. Sometimes their mother. only by sprinkling holy water on the bed did the room’s temperature return to normal. Martin-de-Randan in Auvergne and a believer in Brossier’s possession. the boys would entwine their legs. Theobald (Thiebaut). Two brothers. was merely a line from Virgil’s Aeneid. to Angers. intervened to verify Brossier’s possessed state. born in 1855. According to an account by Palma Cayet in 1605. born in 1857. as if from an earthquake. Brossier and her family traveled the Loire valley. however. sometimes every two or three hours. Her convulsions gradually ceased. if a “clergyman or pious Catholic visited the house. Both theologians and physicians examined Brossier. D. and clairvoyance—while the DEVIL was successfully driven out through organized rituals. The Capuchins called in another group of doctors on April 2. in early March 1599. including Marescot. The entire house shook. the prior of St. The boys levitated as well. and undergo attacks of vomiting. as administrators in Clery and Orléans posted documents forbidding any priest to exorcise “that fictitious spirit. speaking in unknown languages. the French cardinal d’Ossat stopped the Prior’s exhibitions. seated on the bed while it rose off the floor. the possessed children . Theobald and Joseph Bruner of Illfurt (Illfurth). Theobald and Joseph (19th century) French case considered a classic example of demonic POSSESSION and EXORCISM. Furniture flew about the room. But their efforts were too late. drove the boys crazy. King Henri IV ordered a halt to the public exorcisms. and foul-smelling feathers. Clery. Brossier was imprisoned for 40 days. Orleans and Paris. although no stove was lit. and her copy of the Miracle of Laon was confi scated. Realizing the celebrity potential of her possession. Brossier and her father went to Paris. Rosaries or sacred relics placed on or under their bed would send the boys into hysterical fits. two of the doctors reexamined Brossier and found an insensitive spot between her thumb and index finger. in knots so tight that no human pressure could unentangle them. They arrived just in time for the Papal Jubilee of 1600. like an Ape or a Beare. 2004. first began displaying unusual and frightening behavior in September 1865. kidnapped her and took her to Avignon and fi nally to Rome to see the pope. London: Routledge. Bishop Miron ordered Brossier and her family to return to Romorantin and stop playing tricks. would be thrown into the corner. which caused more convulsions. Instead. All was quiet until December. 1981. public feeling was so high that Henri De Gondy. The blessed host was particularly loathsome. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Confined mostly to their beds for the next two years. More disturbing were the boys’ increasing fascination with the Devil and hatred of holy objects. ravings by Beelzebub against the heresy of the Huguenots. where the monks began to exorcise Brossier immediately and broadcast Beelzebub’s anti-Huguenot diatribes. although Brossier continued to perform. Genevieve. exhibited all the accepted signs of diabolic interference—contortions.

Almadiel. near Strasbourg. where he governs more than 50 LEGIONs of DEMONs. N. On another occasion. proclaiming. She makes men oversleep and neglect their religious duties. Traugott K. the Devil released him. Charles Orphanage at Schiltigheim. peaceful lives. the Devil in Theobald answered. “That one is one of ours. he was himself again and had no memory of the previous three days. Drusiel. as he began tearing his clothes and breaking everything in reach. Possession and Exorcism. again called upon the Virgin. Theobald answered that the man had fallen. . and Nastros. Unfortunately. When the nun asked who had come. Buriel’s major 12 dukes are Merosiel. Cupriel. Theobald was sent to the St. After only three hours of frantic struggling and screaming. the logical arts. On the fourth day. It was about four years until the Bruners and Father Brey agreed on a diagnosis of demonic possession and convinced Father Brey’s bishop to approve an exorcism. Buer (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) Buer FALLEN ANGEL and the 10th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. as indeed he had. the DEMON of lethargy. or jumped out the window. Latin. He appears when the Sun is in Sagittarius. Father Brey himself exorcized Joseph. When they appear. Theobald screamed in agony and pitched forward in a deep sleep. Buer is a president in HELL. Secaucus. he roared in a horrible voice that he had arrived and was furious. Father Brey told that two hours before one woman died. They must be summoned at night because they hate the day. Camiel. They should all be like that!” The final proof of their possession was the boys’ ability to speak in foreign languages—English. jaundiced skin and long claws. protesting that he was not even ill but working as a mason on a new seminary building. When he became conscious. As was Theobald. or clairvoyant. claiming it was for the death of Gregor Kunegel. Bufiel. the boys did not live long. on October 3. Theobald rang his imaginary mourning bell for an entire hour. long sleep. Theobald died two years later. All are evil and are hated by other spirits. while Joseph died in 1882 at age 25. the boys were delighted. also in the orphanage. knowledge of outside events.J: University Books.” But when someone of less fervent faith entered. Joseph was surprised to find himself in church and did not remember his ordeal. Busyasta In ZOROASTRIANISM. Busyasta is a female demon with yellow. after the exorcist. Held by three strong men and forced to stand before the altar. Buer heals all distempers and gives good FAMILIAR s. Kunegel’s daughter happened to be in the house and angrily denied her father’s death. and sloth. Theobald knelt in his bed and acted as if he were ringing a mourning bell. Finally. Buriel has many dukes and servants to do his bidding. and various Spanish dialects—unknown to them and to display paranormal.Busyasta 35 crawled hastily under a table or bed. Nedriel. 1966. Casbriel. Theobald was placed in a straitjacket. “I am the Lord of Darkness!” At that point. Drubiel. Theobald remained silent for three days (other accounts say two). FURTHER READING: Oesterreich. on October 27. and broken his neck. Futiel. Father Stumpf. Finally. and the virtues of all herbs and plants. 1869. they have the form of a SERPENT with a virgin’s head and speak with a man’s voice. Sarviel. He teaches moral and natural philosophy. only drooling a thick yellow froth. Buriel DEMON and a wandering duke of the air. at age 16.

Neriel. and Dubiel. Aniel. Parius. who appear when the dukes are summoned. Elcar. Camio) FALLEN ANGEL and 52nd of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Pariel. Cabariel is a prince of the west and north. Taros. The 10 most important dukes of nighttime are Mador. Ten of his nighttime servants will also appear during the day: Asimiel. He is an ordained priest with the Communion of Evangelical Episcopal Churches. The daytime dukes and servants are good-natured. . and Daniel. where he experienced paranormal phenomena. Dobriel. Prior to his fall. Carnesiel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLCarnesiel is chief emperor of the east and comCalder. he is a great president with 30 LEGIONs of DEMONs. Count HELENE. Caim was in the order of ANGELs. Peniet. Moriel. and as a private investigator. Aszemo. Elitel. 36 OMON. He gives true answers about the future. Cariel. In HELL. the lowing of cattle. He is good at settling disputes. Calim. Tediel.C Cabariel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. He has worked as a law enforcement officer for city and state agencies. Otim. Camuel is the third-ranking spirit of the east and rules as the king of the southeast regions of the world. Nodar. Meras. Citgara. and the voice of waters. Caim (Caym. Ladiel. He answers questions in burning ashes. and evil. Cagliostro. Pandor. Clyssan. disobedient. See DORIS FISCHER OBSESSION. Asoriel. Calder once lived in a haunted home. He appears first as a black bird or thrush and then as a man carrying a sharp sword. Morlas. Cugiel. He is attended by numerous spirits. Sometimes he appears as a man adorned with a tuft and a peacock’s tail. specializing in video surveillance. Phaniel. which investigates hauntings and demonic cases. and Tugaros. Each duke has 50 servants. Camuel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. with 50 attending dukes during the day and 50 more at night. the barking of dogs. of which 10 daytime spirits and 210 nighttime spirits are significant. Martin Luther reportedly had an encounter with Caim. The 10 most important dukes of the day are Satifiel. Godiel. Andrew (1965– ) Evangelical Episcopalian priest and EXORCIST. Budiel. Camuel and his attendants all appear in beautiful form and are courteous. Omyel. Etimiel. SMITH. Cazul. Andrew Calder is the founder and director of the Georgia Paranormal Research Team. Thalbus. and Cuphal. but the nighttime demons are deceitful. Calder has appeared on reality television programs in connection with demonic cases and has also been featured in documentaries and docudramas. His 9 most significant attendants are Camyel. He gives men the understanding of the songs of birds.

Each of the 12 dukes is attended by 2. Conferences was declared apocryphal by a decree attributed to Pope St. They left Egypt for Constantinople. Cassian’s demons. His 12 most important dukes are Ursiel. After his death. if demons see a natural tendency toward gluttony. Larmot. Chariet. suppressed his sexual desires and could resist demonic seduction. about the year 433.) He was not unduly impressed by extreme asceticism and did not recommend it for the monasteries of the West. which describes the rules and organization of communities in Egypt and Palestine. and an eye for the picturesque. they went to Rome. France. they will use that to their advantage. and it is fortunate that they are invisible to people. then left for Egypt. For example. which put forth the idea that Christ had existed as two separate beings. Carnor. Zabriel. and 50.000 ministering spirits. However. and there is much discussion of demons. Gelasius I (r. and 1. but they can seize upon the natural inclinations that reside within and use those to incite impure thoughts. he was in Marseilles (Germanus disappeared in the interim). Cassian kept a journal.Cassian. Cassian’s Views on Demons and the Devil Cassian said that there are three origins of all of human thoughts: God. a sense of humor. Maras. who inhabit the air and have supernatural powers. Omich.200.000. 401–17) from the clergy of Constantinople protesting this act. His 12 most important demonic dukes are Myrezyn. . Leo to write the seven-volume On the Incarnation of the Lord. This hastily written book assisted in the condemnation of Nestorius by the Council of Ephesus in 431. and Scythia.000 ministering spirits. Thoughts from God lift us up to a higher state of spiritual progress.000 great dukes. who preceded him in the same century. when he. Arifiel. with similar thoughts and perceptions. the DEVIL. after Chrysostom was deposed. The demons are similar to humans. John Chrysostom ordained Germanus a priest and Cassian a deacon. In 405. resemble the Greek DAIMONES. Benoham. Syria. demons cannot take over and unite with the inner spirit of humans. Cassian died in Marseilles.660 lesser dukes. Nothing is known about him until 380. recording everything he saw with a vivid style and minute accuracy. Caspiel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. 360–433) Abbot. Life Cassian probably was born around the year 360. through his faith. Serenus. Capriel. Bucafas. and prayer. and Laphor. he is attended by an entourage of his dukes numbering no fewer than 10 and no more than 300. where Bishop St. Caspiel is the chief emperor of the south. and detect a person’s inner weaknesses and vulnerabilities by observing his or her external behavior. Femot. Armany. Savior for women.000.000. John Cassian was a significant early author on the nature and characteristics of DEMONs and the remedies against them. demons must take over the mind and thoughts before they can take over a body. carrying a letter to Pope St. About 430. Camory. Asked by a neighboring bishop. Conferences was publicly criticized but was still highly popular and influential. (See SEVEN DEADLY SINS. All of the dukes are stubborn and churlish. but many attend Caspiel when he appears. Ambri. In 529. who rules over 200 great dukes. Instead. Innocent I (r. he held that perfection was to be achieved through the charity and love that make humans most like God. staying with the most famous monks and anchorites. and ourselves. Even St. Cumeriel. giving too much importance to free will and not enough to divine grace. the church ultimately rejected his work as apocryphal. Bedary. 400 lesser dukes. and Oriel. where he founded and served as abbot of the monastery of St. to compile a summary of all he had observed and learned during his travels. According to Serenus. Ten years later. Cassian was ordained a priest. Victor for men and the convent St. Cassian composed a 12-volume work. a critique of the Nestorian heresy. Aridiel. John (ca.000. in a monastery near the place of the nativity. Dudarion. ANTHONY. In Rome. Castor of Apt. When he does so. J hn o 37 mands 1. They stayed there until about 385. and his friend Germanus became monks at Bethlehem. Cassian. and of the means used by the monks in their spiritual combat against the eight chief obstacles to a monk’s per- fection. Among the possibilities suggested are Gaul. 100 lesser dukes. Remedies for the Eight Deadly Sins. The doctrine he expressed was unorthodox. Cassian’s next work was Conferences on the Egyptian Monks. Carnesiel can appear day or night. father of the church. spending about 15 years traveling throughout Lower Egypt and the Nile delta. Cassian himself was condemned by a church council. Books 7 and 8 of Conferences concern conversations with Abbot Serenus. Palestine. the place is uncertain. Thoughts from the Devil try to destroy people with the pleasures of sin and secret attacks and deceitful guises such as purporting to be from “angels of light” who try to show that evil is good. First. at age 20. 492–96). Geriel. in which he relates discussions he and Germanus had with the monks. on July 23.000. Vadriel. Benedict prescribed it as one of the books to be read aloud by his monks after their evening meal. for the dread of seeing them would drive men to insanity. fasting. Like St. one divine and one human. as do those of Anthony. Cassian was commissioned by the future pope St. The very air is thick with them.

Demons also vary in their individual strength and capability. and are called lions. dragons. Cerberus became the model for the Hellhounds of the DEVIL and other BLACK DOGS in folklore. The prudent Sibyl had before prepar’d A sop.C. Eurydice. the chief without delay Pass’d on. Importance of Cassian’s Views Cassian reinforced the beliefs that demons are everywhere striving to attack people. Cassian as they are termed by the prophets onocentaurs.osb. and so transmitted to his descendants a seed-bed of profanity and perpetual sin. to charm the guard. he greets the shades of the newly dead as they are ferried across the river by Charon. Ham knew that Noah would never allow magical books aboard the ark. devours the pleasing bait.) provided the most detailed description of Cerberus in book 6 of the Aeneid. The keeper charm’d. Demons have their specialties and find opportunities to use them. Cassian added a great deal of force to the connection between demons and MAGIC. Downloaded February 3. Cerberus also prevents shades from escaping. Those monks could not dare to sleep all at the same time at night. and straight. Which. who learned the magical arts from the daughters of Cain. including Echidna. Cerberus had evolved into a three-headed dog with a dragon’s neck and tail and serpent’s heads along his back. a dragon and SERPENT-shaped monster associated with wind and volcanic eruptions. was the fi rst writer known to have called Cerberus by a proper name. html#7. fills the spacious cave.E. taught by the WATCHERS to the “daughters of Cain. Gibson. There. king of Tiryns. He figures in numerous myths of descent to the underworld. including the labors of Hercules and Orpheus’ foiled rescue attempt of his lover. witches. Hercules descends accompanied by Mercury and Minerva. sirens. scorpions in the gospel. the eighth century B. Demons cannot afflict anyone of his or her own free will but only with the permission of God. Hesiod described the beast as having 50 heads. Cassian. describing the underworld journey of Aeneas: Grim Cerberus. the power of demons had diminished from the time of the first monks in the desert. falling. in honey steep’d. As gatekeeper to the underworld. she cast before His greedy grinning jaws. a halfwoman. wrestles the dog into submission. Cassian said. “And when the flood was over he hunted for them with the same inquisitiveness with which he had concealed them. mix’d with pow’rful drugs. ostriches. the Greek underworld. London: Athlone Press. Available online. too many to list: But it would take too long to search through the whole of Scripture and run through the different kinds of them. Cerberus lives in a den on one side of the river Styx that separates the land of the living from the land of the dead. and takes him to Eurystheus.” Magic survived the flood because of Ham. There are many terms and names for demons. which guarantee his friendliness. Not originally a “demonic” creature. a Greek poet ca. Cerberus is “the dog. just op’d to roar. They are not invincible.” FURTHER READING: Ankarloo.. they retreat in confusion and despair. The “curious arts of wizards and enchantments and magical superstitions” were used to teach people to “forsake the holy worship of the Divinity and to honor and worship either the elements or fire or the demons of the air. gen. and spirits of wickedness. Saliva drips from Cerberus and creates the poison aconite. When defeated. and are named by the Apostle the prince of this world. The magical arts. 2008. Cassian said. eds. and that they can be thwarted by prayer. Cerberus (Kerberos) Triple-headed dog or doglike creature who guards the entrance to Hades. Cassian said that even by his time. Hesiod. By the time of the Roman poets. S. the sign of the cross. the demons cannot incite many sins at the same time but rather focus on one or two in any particular time. urchins. so Ham inscribed the secrets on metal plates and rocks that could not be destroyed by the flood waters. In classical myth. Cerberus is unpredictable in his friendliness or hostility. The Conferences of John Cassian. URL: http://www. Translated and annotated by Edgar C. therefore. Long draughts of sleep his monstrous limbs enslave.” were subverted under the influence of demons to profane uses.38 Cerberus Not every demon can incite every sin within a person. With three enormous mouths he gapes. Bengt. that they have the ability to influence people’s thoughts and desires. lest demons descend upon them.E. half-serpent. John. The Athalone History of Witchcraft and Magic in Europe. With hunger press’d. and took th’ irremeable way. and. In Homeric poems. fasting. He reels. Cerberus is the offspring of Typhon.0. Typhon fathered many of the beasts of Greek legend. the son of Noah.C. satyrs. who soon began to rear His crested snakes. the dead are buried with honey cake offerings for the shades to give him.” Hades gives Hercules permission to take him up from the river Acheron provided he can quell the beast without weapons. and asps and basilisks in the Psalms. They have their own anxieties and uncertainties in their battles against people. and Stuart Clark. . rulers of this darkness. howlers. Weaker demons start first and are replaced by stronger demons the more a person is able to resist. 1999. and arm’d his bristling hair. Virgil (70–19 B. he said. and the invocation of the name of Christ. Likewise.

to find treasure or acquire riches. Interview with an Exorcist: An Insider’s Look at the Devil. even POSSESSION. the entity who had dictated to him The Book of the Law. Crowley had successfully used the 19th Key or Call. but he defeats her. Charms may invoke the help of DEMONs. it is not known whether the events happened as objective experiences or were experienced as visions. Choronzon (Coronzon) DEMON or spirit identified in the 16th century by John Dee and Edward Kelly. the DEMON of whirlwinds and destruction. The Catholic Church considers charms to be undesirable and acts that open the door to demonic influence. West Chester. Pa. There. for either the person who makes the charm or the one for whom the charm is intended. Crowley and Neuberg went to Algiers on holiday and walked south through the desert to Aumale. Dee referred to “Coronzon. to have good luck. . Fr. Cesmak is a harlot with a body of gold and big breasts. Crowley was summoned by the voice of Aiwass. he did not consider it to be a demon. Crowley claimed to have conquered Choronzon to become a full Master of the Temple and Secret Chief. Jose Antonio. and so forth. to “call Me. Popular charms are used to secure the love of another person. Cheshmak the Karap) In ZOROASTRIANISM. a spell or “little prayer” for something desirable.Choronzon 39 Cerberus guarding the gates of Hades (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) Cesmak (Cheshmak.: Ascension Press. and the Path to Deliverance. Diabolic Possession. charm In MAGIC. The account of Crowley’s evocation is full of drama.” He had with him the Enochian Keys of Dee and Kelly used to communicate with angels and spirits and felt he had received a divine message to use them. FURTHER READING: Fortea. She tries to seduce the prophet Zarathustra (Zoroaster) when he returns from a meeting with Ohrmadz in heaven. 2006. in his Enochian communications with spirits. See AMULET.” or 333. In the Denkart. summoned in a dramatic ritual by ALEISTER CROWLEY in 1909. Crowley called Choronzon the Demon of Dispersions and of the Abyss. the most difficult. In November. The church advises that objects related to charms be destroyed. The evocation was performed in 1909.

for later that evening. the gulf that separates ordinary mortals from the Secret Chiefs. Neuberg invoked Aiwass. even Crowley. Crowley gained access to the 14th aethyr. The demon replied that he spat upon the name of the Most High. inhabited by a single entity. Crowley intended to enter the triangle. Neuberg records that he heard a voice. Neuberg took an oath that he would defend the magic circle “with thoughts and words and deeds” and would use the knife to attack anything that entered it. who begged for water. The demon next turned into an old man. Neuberg held fast within the circle. Visions appeared within the triangle. The circle would protect Neuberg. he secretly recited the Call of the aethyr. who would sit within it. They performed one aethyr a day. and then drew a magic triangle. drew around it a magic circle. then a SERPENT. but was in a “secret place” out of the sight and hearing of Neuberg. inscribed in the sand a magic circle protected with names and words of power. laden with symbolism. he now saw it as a beneficial sacrament. In the 11th aethyr. a dangerous act for a magician. They formed a circle of rocks. a title that could be fully realized only by accessing the other aethyrs. The “woman” then offered submission. However.” . The ritual marked a turning point for him in his view of the importance of sex in magic. He thus became perhaps the first magician in the Western magical tradition to offer his own body ritually as a vehicle for manifestation of a demon. except for one day when they two performed. the demon Choronzon. He gave Neuberg words that the magician took as “great secrets of magic” but turned out to be worthless. Most of Crowley’s visions were apocalyptic in nature. a joke played by the demon. After making several attempts. where he received revelation after revelation. Crowley and Neuberg walked out into the desert until they found a valley that had a suitable floor of fine sand. Crowley held a vermilion-painted Calvary Cross with an engraved topaz set in its axis. but Neuberg resisted. Only this way. He took care not to let a drop fall outside the triangle. To make the Call. he was told that in the 10th aethyr he would have to make a conscious crossing of the Abyss. Crowley was able to resume his explorations of the other aethyrs. he sacrificed three pigeons at the points of the triangle and sprinkled their BLOOD. Neuberg saw the form of a woman prostitute he had known in Paris. he was informed that in order to attain his cherished goal of becoming a Secret Chief and Master of the Temple.” The ritual for crossing the Abyss took place on December 6. He and Neuberg were on their way down the mount when Crowley suddenly was seized with the inspiration to perform a homosexual magic ritual with Neuberg and dedicate it to the Greek god of nature. In his vision. The “woman” tried to seduce him.” a being composed of “complete negation. Crowley took the submissive role in the sexual act as a way of eliminating ego. Crowley apparently was not in the triangle when he invoked the aethyr. and made a crude stone altar. armed with a magical knife and a notebook for recording what happened. call out barbarous names and then blasphemies. figuring it was Choronzon in a shape-shifted form. who had no fear of the pentagram. When his clairvoyant visions unfolded. Crowley entered the triangle. outside the town of Bou Saada. Crowley and Neuberg went out into the desert to a mount and ascended it. for that would enable Choronzon to manifest in the universe. The demon would be invoked into the triangle. They started with the last-numbered aethyr and worked backward toward the first. the “first and deadliest of all the powers of evil. Crowley dictated to Neuberg. Crowley experienced great difficulty in trying to access the next. The topaz was engraved with a rose of 49 petals. They went back to the top of the mount. When all the blood had soaked into the sand. could he cross the Abyss. First. After the invocation. Before the start of the ritual. In the 15th aethyr. which he also rejected. he stopped. 1909. To help the demon materialize. He was Master of the Triangle. The ritual also led to a breakthrough in consciousness. simulating Crowley’s voice. He was in full trance. He decided to access the remaining 28 aethyrs. Pan. the 14th aethyr. he had to undergo the complete death of his ego and unite his spirit with the ocean of infinity. and then into Crowley. Neuberg ordered Choronzon to declare his nature. he underwent an initiation to the magical grade of Master of the Temple. Choronzon said that he knew the name of the angel and that “all thy dealings with him are but a cloak for thy filthy sorceries.40 Choronzon Choronzon (© RICHARD COOK) to access two of the 30 aethyrs or aires (levels or planes) of expanded consciousness.

The demon tried to tear out Neuberg’s throat with his froth-covered fangs. Persephone returned to Earth each spring.” issued dreams. darkness. Three other rivers separated the underworld: Phlegethon.chthonic deiti s e 41 Ordered again to declare his true nature. Hades acquiesced but first made Persephone eat a pomegranate seed. The descriptions of the classical underworld are most vivid in the writings of the Roman poet Virgil and the Greek poet Homer. Francis. the river of fi re. and the ritual was over. the Greek King of the Dead. Associates of Crowley said the ritual permanently damaged him and that he was possessed by Choronzon for the rest of his life. He and Neuberg built a fire for purification and ritually destroyed the circle and triangle. Another explanation advanced is that the entire experience was visionary. Whatever the truth. the daughter of Demeter. Chthonic deities originally were ancestral spirits who represented the ghosts of the dead. The two fought furiously. As a compromise. John. causing the death of winter. his brother. and the means by which souls entered. and his brother. which are associated with tombs and death. The Confessions of Aleister Crowley. They often appear in the form of SERPENTs. which then emptied into Cocytus. and Neuberg denounced the demon as a liar. which passed through a gate of ivory. who are so feared that they usually are nameless and are called only by euphemisms. dragon-tailed dog. Megatherion: The Magickal World of Aleister Crowley. the god of sleep. 2004. chthonic deities In classical mythology.) The gate of Hades is guarded by a three-headed. surrounded by cold and wide wastes. He seldom leaves his gloomy realm of the underworld. the river of the unbreakable oath sworn to by the gods. There. chthonic deities torment souls of the death and reign over chaos. Hades desired her and one day rose up out of a chasm in the earth in his chariot drawn by black horses. London: Creation Books. They were worshipped by propitiation and sacrifice. Choronzon threw sand onto the magic circle. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. it is more realistic. the river of oblivion or forgetfulness. both Crowley and Neuberg felt that Crowley had beaten the demon and achieved the status of Master of the Temple and Secret Chief. so that they would not remember their previous lives. Virgil gave descriptions of the terrain of the underworld. who relentlessly pursued and punished the sinners of the Earth. an Autobiography. Megaera. Other chthonic entities are the three ERINYES (Furies). gloom. and Alecto. to return Persephone to Earth. Zeus intervened and ordered Hades. the “little death. Finally. (Souls returning to Earth to be reborn were required to drink of the waters of Lethe. the chthonic deities became associated increasingly with evil and the DEVIL. At last. Neuberg maintained that he had literally wrestled with Choronzon. the river of lamentation. the river of woe. Crowley traced the word Babalon in the sand. Some occultists have posited that Crowley somehow exuded an ectoplasm that enabled the demon to make a form tangible enough to fight with Neuberg. and not with Crowley possessed by the demon. . Persephone. To Virgil. As Christianity overtook pagan beliefs. FURTHER READING: King. Hades is uncompassionate but not evil. 1979. which rose up from the underworld in two forms: true dreams. Symonds. he took the form of a naked man and leaped into it. and went back to Hades each fall. From the god of sleep. A path led to two rivers. and Lethe. He uttered a rapid string of blasphemies that taxed Neuberg’s ability to record. which bound her to him forever. CERBERUS. throwing Neuberg to the ground. kidnapped her. After a long time at this. Hades rules the underworld with his queen. Hades himself lived in a huge palace somewhere in the gloom of the underworld. Man and demon argued. but she refused in anger. especially information of a prophetic or oracular nature. but only those whose passage was paid. To Homer. Choronzon said his name was Dispersion and he could not be bested in argument. god of death. According to myth. producing a flowering of the planet. called Tisiphone. the demon suddenly vanished. Neuberg was able to force Choronzon back into the triangle. the fi rst of which was Acheron. leaving Crowley alone in the circle. and he repaired the magic circle. the underworld is a shadowy place where nothing is real. While distracting the magician with blasphemies. and evil spirits (see DEMONs). Demeter caused all things on Earth to wither and die. who owns a cap that makes the wearer invisible. and false dreams. The Romans also associated him with the minerals of the earth and called him Pluto. whose chief job was to prevent any souls from leaving once inside. an old boatman named Charon ferried souls across the waters. The greatest and most feared chthonic god is Hades. When the outline was sufficiently blurred. Choronzon threatened Neuberg with all the tortures of HELL. by coins placed upon the lips of the corpses by the living and who were properly buried. which passed through a gate of horn. the god of wealth. His name became synonymous with HELL. Crowley’s new vision of himself was as teacher and prophet who was to indoctrinate the world with the philosophy of The Book of the Law. Other gods entreated her to relent. Persephone was a lovely maiden of spring. and Kenneth Grant eds. a place where sinners are tormented and the good enjoy rewards and delights. the dreaded deities of the underworld. Styx. and Thanatos. The Greeks and Romans placed a great deal of importance on the meaning of dreams. and took her to the underworld. As rulers of the underworld. goddess of corn and the harvest. In her grief.

and secret rites were performed under a full Moon to appease her. Antide Colas was examined by a surgeon. who was a stranger to her. escorts the souls of the dead to the underworld. In ancient times. during which she would sign a pact with him. In one myth. goddess of the Moon. The court apparently thought that since he was the woman’s husband. He teaches grammar. She had sex with the Devil on numerous occasions and had often accompanied him to SABBATs. Cole. she turns into a bear or boar and kills her own son. then revives him to life. describing how a woman who lived beside a Dutch family had been afflicted by a strange pinching of her arms at night. Arrested and tried at Dole. Colas was executed by burning in Dole in 1599. France. sorcerers gathered at crossroads to pay homage to her and such infernal servants as the Empusa. because of her relationship with Persephone. It was a psychic . the swift-footed messenger god. and souls ready to be reborn back to the land of the living. Cole was living in the house of her father— described as “a godly man”—when she began having bizarre fits. Ann A woman involved in a POSSESSION case in Hartford. gaining her confidence. he made her twitch and tremble. Cimeries FALLEN ANGEL and 66th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Three-headed statues of her were set up at many road intersections. Cole named persons and described how they intended to carry out “mischievous designs” against her and others. probably by hanging. and queen of the night. He also rules spirits in Africa. Connecticut. They neither floated nor sank but bobbed like buoys. a clairvoyance. had intercourse with her through this hole. such as Zeus and Hermes. Colas. Colas confessed that the DEVIL. Cimeries rules 20 LEGIONs of DEMONs as a marquis in HELL. who was in jail on suspicion of WITCHCRAFT. logic. The confession was sufficient to convict Greensmith. proving his innocence. Hecate is the goddess of all CROSSROADS. At times. She is the cause of nightmares and insanity and is so terrifying that many ancients referred to her only as “The Nameless One. a pack of red-eyed hellhounds and a retinue of dead souls. by afflicting bodies and spoiling names. In 1662. Ann Cole eventually recovered and had no more fits. that astonished her townspeople and led to the execution of an accused witch. She denied entering into a satanic PACT but said that the Devil had told her that they would attend a merry sabbat at Christmastime. gazing in three directions at the same time. and the Mormo. Hecate has three aspects: goddess of fertility and plenty. she wears a necklace made of testicles. skipping about her so that she would not be afraid. Greensmith said the DEVIL had first appeared to her in the form of a deer or fawn. and shades. her hair is made of writhing snakes. a poltergeist. but are not feared as much as the underworld deities. Many of the heavenly deities of Mount Olympus have chthonic aspects. Antide (d. when confronted by a written account of Cole’s discourses. half in and half out of the water. A man and a woman also named by Cole were given the swimming test of being bound and thrown into water. roaming the earth at night with the WILD HUNT. A witness protested that anyone with his or her hands bound to the feet would not sink (and therefore be guilty) and underwent the test himself. One of the persons named by Cole was a “lewd and ignorant” woman named Rebecca Greensmith. ghosts. It is not known how many others named by Cole were tried and executed for witchcraft. In her dark aspect. Church of Satan See SATANISM.” It is possible that her fits were a manifestation of latent psychic ability. Nicolas Milliere.” Mather wrote. petrify those who gaze upon them. Her husband was also put to death. a hobgoblin. a GHOUL. and if dogs howl in the night. He finds lost objects and buried treasures. He was lowered gently into the water. She resumed her life as “a serious Christian.42 Church of Satan Hecate is a powerful goddess with chthonic associations. and promptly sank. 1599) Woman accused of WITCHCRAFT and having sex with SATAN. Ann Cole suddenly seemed to acquire preternatural knowledge of the malicious activities of the accused witch. and rhetoric. Greensmith had denied the charges against her but. but also the restorer of life. which. Demeter also has chthonic aspects. Increase Mather described Cole as “a person of real piety and integrity” in his account in An Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences (1684). if she did not do as he asked. Statues of Hecate carrying torches or swords also were erected in front of homes to keep evil spirits at bay. She is visible only to dogs. and she was executed. who found a hole below her navel. a common test of a witch’s innocence or guilt. was astonished and confessed everything. Sometimes the discourses went on for hours. Then she began speaking English with a precise Dutch accent. Cole lapsed into gibberish. and he pricked her left side. the destroyer of life. whom she called Lizabet. Hecate possesses infernal power. he could not help but be involved in her evil activities. some fled Hartford and were never seen again. the Cercopsis. who became the patron of magic and WITCHCRAFT. He appears as a valiant soldier riding a black horse. even though he said he was not guilty of any wrongdoing. it means Hecate is about. not thrown in. She also said that when the Devil lay down beside her. Hermes. as were the accused. Greensmith also said that witches had met at a place not far from her house. and that some of them arrived in the shapes of animals and crows. as do the snakes of Medusa. “wherein her Tongue was improved by a Daemon to express things which she herself knew nothing of.” She is the goddess of the dark of the Moon.

About 80 volumes alone were devoted to superstitions. or a Collection of Short Stories and Tales about the Adventures and the Character of Demons. He commits suicide and goes to hell but is restored to life by doctors. as he can. Other notable works by Collin de Plancy are History of Phantoms and Demons That Have Appeared to Men (1819. In the movie. Prolific. Dictionary of Madness and Reason (1820). can do so. and he discovers that she. and Collin de Plancy added them to his book. now a heavy chain smoker. The Devil’s Self Portrait. he lived in Brussels. goes to the hospital and encounters Constantine. and WITCHCRAFT. humans mixed with either angels or demons. He grows up knowing that God and SATAN are both angry with him. Constantine seeks out an audience with the archangel Gabriel. the artist Louis Breton created a set of 69 drawings. His most famous. Jarrault. but the church refuses. A Catholic. published by Vertigo Comics. MacGregor Mathers’ The Goetia: The Lesser Key of Solomon. Constantine sees that demons are pursuing Angela.Constantine 43 window that opened suddenly. and author. the film stars Keanu Reeves as John Constantine and Rachel Weisz as Angela Dodson. without encouragement. occultist. Between 1830 and 1837. but half-breeds. a female entity. significant. Jacques (1793–1887) French demonologist. France. Most of the engravings were republished in S. Interested in the occult and superstitions. The illustrated dictionary remains one of the classic works of demonology. Edited and translated by Wade Baskin. Both beings are prohibited from interfering with the free will of humans. has terminal lung cancer. Constantine. He goes to Los Angeles. New York: Philosophical Library. Collin de Plancy wrote dozens of books under pseudonyms on divination. he then returned to France after practice of the Catholic religion was restored and lived there for the rest of his life. A mentally disturbed girl commits suicide in the hospital where Constantine is being treated. Constantine is regarded by his parents as insane. The dictionary profiles DEMONs and gives short summaries of notable cases and trials of witchcraft and sorcery. then closed as soon as the cases were laid to rest. his translation of a famous grimoire. under the pseudonym Gabrielle de Plancy). and Legends of the Seven Deadly Sins (1864). Their Machinations. Directed by Francis Lawrence. Collin de Plancy. he is eventually doomed to hell. SORCERY. she wants a church-sanctioned funeral for her sister. The film is loosely based on characters in the comic book series Hellblazer. and because of his suicide attempt. L. 1965. The film opens with a young man in Mexico who accidentally finds the Nazi Spear of Destiny and becomes possessed by a supernatural force. Originally published as Dictionary of Demonology. Dictionary of Witchcraft. He worked as a printer and publisher in Plancy-l’Abbaye and Paris. published under his real name in two volumes in 1818. Angela Dodson. FURTHER READING: Collin de Plancy. a detective for the Los Angeles Police Department. Their Misfortunes. Constantine’s background is that he was born with the ability to detect ANGELs and demons. He died there in 1887. leaving destruction in his wake. Meanwhile. to ask why God does not forgive and heal him. In 1863. He exorcizes a powerful demon from a teenage girl. Collin de Plancey conversing with the Devil (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) Constantine (2005) Horror/thriller film about an occult detective and EXORCIST who journeys to HELL to battle DEMONs and confronts LUCIFER. all but five of demons. as well as of ghosts and odd para- normal events. magic. alchemy. They were engraved by M. Her twin sister. can detect angels . he earned a comfortable living. Jacques. and enduring work is the Dictionnaire Infernal. Their Love Affairs and the Services That They Have Been Able to Render to Men (1825). He was born Jacques Auguste Simon Collin de Plancy in 1793 in Plancy-l’Abbaye. The dictionary went through several editions.

whom he met in 1899. perhaps fueled in part by Crowley’s mesmerizing eyes and aura of supernatural power. Crossroads are haunted by demons. One of his flat neighbors claimed to be hurled downstairs by a malevolent force. When the DEVIL appears. he liked to fantasize being degraded by a “Scarlet Woman. She has repressed this ability. and sacrifice. which he used when he later attained the rank of Magus. FAIRIES. Stories of bizarre incidents circulated. Constantine slashes his wrists. in Leamington Spa. In 1898. torture. which Mathers had trans- . which he spelled with a k to “distinguish the science of the Magi from all its counterfeits. His unhappy experiences there at the hands of a cruel headmaster made him hate the Darbyites. Crossroads also are places of confusion.44 crossroads and demons. In his first volume of poetry. Flamboyant and controversial. Switzerland. He rebelled to such an extent that his mother called him “the Beast” after the Antichrist. “God conquered— now I have only one doubt left—which of the twain was God?” Crowley was in his third year at Trinity when he formally dedicated himself to magick. which he said was his astral spirit. She takes him to meet Balthazar. He saw magic as the way of life. an English occultist. Crowley was already skilled in magic when he joined the Golden Dawn. bitter and disillusioned with humanity. for mountain climbing. a member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. He wrote poetry. he practiced outrageous magic of sex. and pursued his occult studies—the Great Work—the latter of which was inspired by The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts by ARTHUR EDWARD WAITE and The Cloud upon the Sanctuary by Carl von Eckartshausen. one of the founders of the Golden Dawn. Crossroads are where witches and sorcerers gather for SABBATs. Lucifer removes the cancer from Constantine’s lungs and abducts him to hell. calling himself “the Beast of the Apocalypse. published in 1898. Aleister Crowley was adept at dealing with spirits. who in turn introduced Crowley back in London to George Cecil Jones. His father was a wealthy brewer and a “Darbyite” preacher. a member of a fundamentalist sect known as the Plymouth Brethren or Exclusive Brethren. where forces of energy cross. Crowley went to Zermatt.” Crowley was drawn to the occult and was fascinated by BLOOD. and its First Order bored him. The junctions of roads. yet made significant contributions to magic.” He combined these interests in a lifestyle that shocked others and reveled in the attention he drew. Some magical rituals are performed at crossroads. and visitors said they experienced dizzy spells while climbing the stairs or felt an overwhelming evil presence. time stops. Warwickshire. drugs. such as necromancy. among them Mega Therion (the Great Wild Beast). and sacrifices of animals. He named himself Count Vladimir and pursued his occult activities full-time. Mammon takes POSSESSION of Angela. At Jones’ invitation. Crowley was initiated into the order on November 18. crossroads A place of magical power especially for conjuring spirits and DEMONs. a task he can do only with the help of the Spear of Destiny. the appearance of the GOLD-FINDING HEN. now in command of his fate. Gabriel appears. a name he delighted in using later in life. Crowley foreshadowed his occult excesses with his statement that God and Satan had fought many hours over his soul. knowing that Lucifer will appear to collect his soul. Grass will not grow at crossroads where demons have danced. have been considered to have magical significance since ancient times. Crowley. He used other names. according to lore. In 1887. and sexual degradation. After leaving Trinity. He took the magical motto Frater Perdurabo (I will persevere). and now he reawakens her to it. and Gabriel taunts Constantine to kill her with it. including powerful DEMONs. and Samuel Liddell Macgregor Mathers. 1898. Constantine struggles in vain to exorcize Angela. Crowley studied for three years at Trinity College at Cambridge but never earned a degree. He received instruction from Allan Bennett. Crowley took a flat in Chancery Lane. The Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage. He was in his teens when he adopted the name Aleister. 1875. and lore holds that one can evade evil spirits by running into a crossroads. He is returned to Earth and to Angela. Constantine gives the spear to Angela and quits smoking. Crowley’s parents raised him in an atmosphere of repression and religious bigotry. a path of self-mastery achieved with rigorous discipline of the will illumined by imagination. conjurations of spirits and demons. Constantine is saved by Divine Light as a reward for his sacrifice of himself. Instead. He wrote. engaged in an active bisexual sex life. He met Julian Baker. Aleister (1875–1947) English magician and occultist. Crowley’s father died and he was sent to a Darbyite school in Cambridge. a half-breed who is conspiring with the demon M AMMON to conquer the Earth. Mathers taught Crowley Abremalin magic from an old manuscript. A ghostly light reportedly surrounded him. Life He was born Edward Alexander Crowley on October 12. The Spear of Destiny appears. and evil spirits who lie in wait for unwary travelers and lead them astray. he punches her in the face. and says she will release Mammon into the world. He burns Gabriel’s wings and the angel is reduced to a human state.” He also pledged to “rehabilitate” it. Lucifer is enraged at Mammon’s plans and sends the demon back to hell. London.

” He fictionalized these efforts in his novel Moonchild (1929). Their honeymoon lasted several months. described later. alcohol. with Aiwass. Crowley engaged in his most significant entity contact. horrible. whom Crowley called “the wizard Amalantrah. Mathers believed the manuscript was bewitched and inhabited by an entity. Crowley met Leah Hirsig. perform magic. Raoul Loveday. In 1903. or the streets. his house in Scotland.” using his sharpened teeth to draw blood. a New York schoolteacher. Maria entered a mental institution. He was fond of giving his women “Serpent Kisses. that Crowley practiced black magic and indulged in human sacrifice. and an army of phantom soldiers to serve at his disposal.” They separated in less than a year when Crowley took up with a 19-year-old woman. He called her “the Ape of Thoth. In 1934. to usher in the Aeon of Horus. Crowley had a prodigious sexual appetite and had numerous mistresses. Leah bore a daughter. Crowley’s later years were plagued by poor health. Roddie Minor. Crowley tried unsuccessfully to beget a “magical child. Crowley decided that he had attained the magical rank of Ipsissimus. they were in Cairo. In 1904. in Leipzig. Lola Zaza. jury. perhaps a demon. and be sexually free. Kelly bore him one child. Crowley married his second wife. blasphemous and abominable stuff. In 1929. It served as the site for numerous sexual orgies and magical rites. Crowley initiated himself into the rank of Magus in a bizarre black magic rite in which he crucified a frog. From 1900 to 1903. Crowley sued the sculptress Nina Hammett for libel. and in 1909 she divorced Crowley on grounds of adultery. enabling Crowley to divorce her. great sexual allure. From late 1914 to 1919. . Laughing Torso (1932). a daughter. His plans were disrupted by internal fighting in the Golden Dawn that led to Crowley’s expulsion from the order in 1900. and financial trouble. While in Egypt. The English judge. In 1918. Maria Ferrari de Miramar. performed sex magic and drug rituals—by then he was addicted to heroin—for the purpose of communicating with an entity. In 1921. which he titled Rex de Arte Regia (The King of the Royal Art). the elementals of the air. spectators and press were repulsed by the testimony in the trial. Hammett had stated in her biography. equal to God. where he was unsuccessful in rousing much interest in his message about the Aeon of Horus. He and his Scarlet Woman of the moment. The judge stated he had “never heard such dreadful. The contact influenced his life and work. he was forced out of the abbey after a scandal involving the death of a follower. after which the initiate would make talismans that would draw money. some of whom he called “Scarlet Women” and some of whom bore him illegitimate children. Crowley traveled extensively. Crowley found an old abbey in Cefalu. Rose descended into alcoholism.Crowley. many attended by his illegitimate children. who died in childhood. Crowley intended to undergo this rite beginning at Easter 1900 at Boleskin Manor. desperate for money. which he took over and renamed the Sacred Abbey of the Thelemic Mysteries. visiting the Far East and delving deeper into Eastern mysticism. Many of the prostitutes he hired had no idea that he was actually involving them in sex magic. In 1920. drug addiction. Aleister 45 Aleister Crowley (© RICHARD COOK) lated. He branded some of his women and eventually abandoned all of them to drugs. the first of his two wives. Sicily. Anne Leah. he married Rose Kelly. Crowley lived in the United States. But in 1923. In 1916. where Crowley was attempting to conjure sylphs.” The jury stopped the trial and found in favor of Hammett.” who existed on the astral plane. Her reputed magical powers led him to name her the “High Priestess of Voodoo. who became his most famous Scarlet Woman.” They decided to found the Abbey of Thelema. The magic prescribed a rigorous six-month program conducted in complete withdrawal from the world. a monastic community of men and women who would promulgate The Book of the Law. He retaliated by publishing secret ritual material. He kept himself barely afloat by publishing nonfiction and fiction writings. He kept a record of his sexual activities.

which Crowley saw as the herald . . where he lived the last two years of his life. Crowley has perhaps gained more fame and credibility than he had during his life. asthmatic. the Holy Guardian Angel was a discrete entity and not a dissociated part of his own personality. Aiwass.” an aspect of Horus that was the equivalent of the Greek Harpocrates. Aiwass had .46 Crowley. deep timbre. with the face of a savage king. Aiwass seemed dressed in the garb of an Assyrian or Persian. His ashes were sent to followers in the United States. and eyes veiled lest their gaze should destroy what they saw. The sessions lasted exactly one hour each. considered by many occultists to be a superb work on ceremonial magic. 1904. At his funeral. inspired by Crowley. He died of cardiac degeneration and severe bronchitis on December 1. musical and expressive. The Book of Thoth (1944) presents his interpretation of the Tarot. Crowley did not see a visual apparition of Aiwass. was an imposing entity described by Rose as an emissary for the Egyptian trinity of Horus. . Answers to questions posed by Crowley indicated that Aiwass was . though he did have a mental impression of the entity. receiving communications from the astral plane that the Egyptian god Horus was waiting for Crowley.” The voice was “the Speech in the Silence. 1904. a Gnostic Mass was performed and his “Hymn to Pan” was read. and to write down exactly what he heard for precisely one hour. The Thoth Tarot deck. dissipated. The communicating messenger. Aleister In 1945. vilified as a “satanic occultist” and praised as a brilliant magician.” he sat alone at a table facing the southern wall. Crowley originally spelled the entity’s name Aiwaz. and Thelemic organizations exist around the world. Osiris. Entity Contacts Aiwass On March 18. or part of Crowley himself. Crowley took Aiwass’ dictation for three hours on April 8–10. Later he called Aiwass “the minister of Hoor-PaarKraat. Aiwass commanded that the drawing room of the Cairo apartment leased by the Crowleys had to be turned into a temple.” he said. The Book of Lies features 91 sermons and commentaries on each. Aiwass (© RICHARD COOK) Crowley followed the instructions. dark man in his thirties. fierce. well-knit.” or “the Lord of Silence. its tones solemn. and Isis. He has inspired artists in various fields. Crowley considered Aiwass to be his Holy Guardian Angel. . During the dictation. a Being whose mind was so different from mine that we failed to converse. Crowley’s work continues to inspire people. voluptuous. a body of “fine matter” or astral matter. is one of the more popular decks in modern use. or aught else as suited the moods of the message. Inside the “temple. his other most notable work is Magick in Theory and Practice (1929). Further. active and strong. then later changed the spelling to Aiwass for numerological reasons. which Crowley described as “a rich tenor or baritone . Crowley envisioned Aiwass as a male entity. From behind him he heard the voice of Aiwass. a boarding house in Hastings. Posthumously. The Equinox of the Gods (1937) reflects The Book of the Law. Aiwass ordered Crowley to enter the temple precisely at noon on the next three days. Besides The Book of the Law. Rose suddenly began trance channeling. The 65 pages of handwritten material composed the Liber Legis. . superhuman adepts of the Golden Dawn. or divine Higher Self. and one distinctly different and more unfathomable than other entities he had encountered. On April 7. He was cremated in Brighton. Occultists have debated whether Aiwass was an entity in its own right. and bored. or The Book of the Law. consuming large amounts of heroin. He remains controversial to the extreme. acting as intermediary for higher beings such as the Secret Chiefs. He seemed to be a tall. scribbling in longhand to keep pace with the voice. . Crowley moved to Netherwood. tender. 1947. Numerous editions and collections of Crowley’s writings have been published. transparent as a veil of gauze or a cloud of incense-smoke. He would not play my game: I must play His. For Crowley. . All my wife obtained from Him was to command me to do things magically absurd.

his own Guardian Angel. the planet of war and aggression. all the while alert. “Every man and every woman is a star. inhabiting a human body. The head was flat. Tubelike and hollow.” a praeterhuman intelligence. but he received no reply. like a greedy missile. aggression. Mathers had prepared himself for six months with magical procedures and rites in order to create a vampiric thought-form demon by channeling the power of Mars. one becomes a perfect channel for the flow of cosmic forces. Crowley began a homosexual relationship with the poet Victor Neuberg. who became his assistant in magic. Choronzon In 1909. and two aspects of Horus. who was of superior magical skill. but after squandering his inheritance he was never able to do so. it bore a small orbicular hole at its tip. Prior to his death. But the thing didn’t need arms. Crowley genuinely believed that the Aeon of Horus would spread around the world as a new religion—Crowleyanity—and replace all other religions. or “Horus of the Two Horizons. Individuals who knew Crowley believed him to be quite capable of creating such a demon. However. still in the foetal stage. it will be the apprentice who suffers and not the master magician. Crowley insisted that he never understood all of what was dictated. blubbery shoulders. dread experience.” The law has been misinterpreted to mean doing as one pleases. causing a most painful sensation. However. and glowed faintly with an intense coralcolored luminosity. Ha-Kadit. Vampire demons After returning home to Scotland. the goddess of the heavens. he acknowledged that he never fully understood the nature of Aiwass. Central to it is the Law of Thelema: “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law. Mathers entered a trance state and concentrated his will into the psychic vampire. it means that one does what one must and nothing else. and Ra-Hoor-Kuit. Always trying to catch me off guard it would suddenly strike at me.Crowley. This warfare supposedly went on for years and was chronicled by journalists around the world. He alternately called the entity “a God or Demon or Devil. In The Equinox of the Gods. the arms seemed almost vestigial. after his divorce from Rose. Moina. suggesting that the material may have originated in his subconscious. Aleister 47 of the New Aeon or a new religion. And when it was sometimes successful—I was not always prepared nor strong enough to maintain the magical barriers—it would pierce my aura with that wicked tongue right down to my naked skin. and that lascivious tongue kept darting snake-like in and out of a circular. Their most famous workings together took place in 1909 in the desert south of Algiers. They were like unformed limbs. The curious eyes were deepsocketed. The promised self-fulfillment seemed to elude him.” For years. When Mathers died in 1918. and fire.” Like tiny useless flippers. In magic. He ordered it to attack Crowley. for if anything goes amiss and the magic boomerangs back. the style is comparable to that of some of his other writings. as much a material man as Crowley was himself. S. a minister or messenger of other gods. Below the waist nothing existed. Crowley informed the Golden Dawn that he was its new head. Crowley remained in awe of Aiwass. Throughout his life. attempting to suck out my auric vitality. He then determined that Mathers had launched a psychic attack against him. coated gray tongue. Crowley. The Book of the Law remained a focus of Crowley’s life for the rest of his years. A listless. The Book of the Law became Crowley’s most important work. when they performed a harrowing conjuration of the demonic Dweller of the Abyss. as though it were cut off just below those fearful “eyes. or cosmic forces. Others considered Jones to have become mad. he committed a grievous error in doing the sending himself. and he responded by summoning BEELZEBUB and his demons to attack in retaliation. Jones. However. which rose up from his solar plexus. Perfect magic is the complete and total alignment of the will with universal will. Obviously female. made it nastier. to be the prophet for the coming Aeon of Horus. said he underwent a series of magical initiations that revealed to him that Aiwass was in truth an evil demon and the enemy of humanity. Its terrifying weapon was an extraordinarily long. apprentices are often used to do the sending. and his own subconscious (the last he rejected in favor of the Holy Guardian Angel). blamed his death on Crowley’s psychic vampirism. set low between white. British Columbia. This was followed by a total enervation of my body and spirit for a week or more. Aiwass told Crowley that he had been selected by the “Secret Chiefs. and sent it back to attack Mathers. lipless mouth. a solar aspect. Each chapter carried the voice of an Egyptian deity: Nut. Crowley believed he had the ability to manifest whatever he desired.” it states. rubbing its half-materialized form against me. Mathers’ health declined as the attacks continued. including large sums of money. it had narrow breasts protruding through some kind of dark raiment. the book holds that every person is sovereign and shall be self-fulfilled in the Aeon. the Aeon of Horus would be preceded by an era of great violence. Crowley also said he was permitted from time to time to see Aiwass in a physical appearance. who ran the Vancouver. According to Crowley. lodge of the Ordo Templi Orientis. Besides the Law of Thelema.” the master adepts behind the Golden Dawn. Mathers once described the awful nature of the thought-form vampire demon: Only the upper portions of its body were visible when it would appear. When one surrenders to that alignment. Perhaps the being’s most terrifying feature was its absolutely loathsome habit of trying to cuddle up like a purring cat. his widow. hoping to find a gap in my defenses. the third great age of humanity. C. . took the thought-form.

The working created a portal in the spaces between stars. Stephenson. ed. Since then. 1983. and in 1922 he was invited to head the organization in Britain. known as Soror Ahitha. Francis. 1988. Crowley drew a portrait of Lam and said that gazing on the portrait enables one to make contact with the entity. a battlefield. London: Creation Books. Aleister. The Legend of Aleister Crowley. or “No Thing. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Scott. The person who makes the curse ultimately suffers the effects of it. Michaelsen. also inhabited by spirits. or rivers. Martin’s Griffin. curse A SPELL or action to harm. The Confessions of Aleister Crowley. including POSSESSION. Hillyer. By 1912. Portable Darkness: An Aleister Crowley Reader. between China and Tibet. Crowley was inspired to incorporate sex into the ritual. and he became convinced of the power of sex magic.” Cursing is common in magical practice and outside Christianity may be considered part of a system of justice in which powerful evil spirits are invoked. Me. Lawrence. ———. Lam In 1918.” which Crowley said had the numerical value of 71. Magic in Theory and Practice. The Holy Books of Thelema. “It’s all in the egg. Do What Thou Wilt: A Life of Aleister Crowley. including preventing rival athletes from winning competitions.: Samuel Weiser. kill and smash the charioteers Clarus. The Greeks and Romans used curses as a part of daily life. The term curse is derived from the Anglo-Saxon word cursein. 1976. 1989. New York: Harmony Books. springs. Reprint. politics. SIX-SIX-SIX. From about the fifth century B. 2004.” Crowley believed Lam to be the soul of a dead Tibetan lama from Leng. a practice adopted by Greeks and Romans. Vincent. Los Banos. York Beach. and Regardie. The curse tablets were thin pieces of lead (and sometimes other materials) on which were inscribed the victim’s name.C. 1929. an entity summoned by Aleister Crowley (© RICHARD COOK) . as in this late Roman Empire curse for a chariot race found in Africa: I conjure you. The Egyptians wrote curses on magical papyri. an Autobiography. do Lam. Calif. He took the magical name BAPHOMET. Vampires.. this moment.: Loose Change. other entities are believed to enter through this widening portal. sports. Curse tablets also were fixed with nails and were thrown into wells. often done by invoking the help of DEMONs. Curses were made for all manner of purposes. and Kenneth Grant. St. from this hour. 2000. he was involved with the Ordo Templi Orientis sex magic occult order.. The tablets were buried near a fresh tomb. Romanus. other spirits. which means “to invoke harm or evil upon. Crowley conducted a sex magic ritual called the Almalantrah. In Christian tradition. to gain advantage in business. Israel. The curses gave the spirits the power to assault the victim. with Roddie Minor. New York: Dover. Crowley and Soror Ahitha were told.E. John. the etymology of which is not known. Felix. a curse can cause demonic problems. this day. Some consider Lam to be a demon and the portal to be one accessed by other demons. R. daemon.48 curse CHORONZON. especially in the sense of delivering someone over to the powers of the underworld. and to be the basis for numerous contact experiences with UFOs and extraterrestrials. the curse. and deities.” a gateway to the Void and a link between the star systems of Sirius and Andromeda. the same year that Mathers died. or a place of execution. Megatherion: The Magickal World of Aleister Crowley. Symonds. FURTHER READING: Crowley. and names of various deities or the more generic DAIMONES invoked to carry out the curse. magical symbols. whoever you may be. See BLACK MASS. to torture and kill. to the fifth century C. P. Lam was to fulfill the work initiated by Aiwass. 1970. the horses of the Green and the White teams. Lam is Tibetan for “Way” or “Path. One of the revelations of the working was the symbolism of the egg. through which the entity Lam was able to enter the known physical universe. all of which were believed to be populated by spirits of the dead en route to the underworld. New York: St. Paul: Llewellyn Publications. King.E. Primulus. eds. curse tablets (tabellae defi xonium) were especially popular in the Hellenistic world. 1979. Tabellae defi xonium refers to tablets that fi x or pin down. and love. Sutin.

according to Christian tradition. the next day the tree was found withered to its roots (Mark 11:12–14). aeia. and unto the deepest depths of the Abyss. torture and consume this spirit N. The object should be burned. because thou hast not obeyed my commands and the glorious and incomprehensible Names of the true God. called Roundheads. at the time. The demon will find this unbearable and will appear. In less extreme cases. a Jewish name for God. now and for evermore. Other cursed objects may house demons that unleash trouble upon the owners of the objects. now by the irresistible power of these Names I curse thee into the depths of the Bottomless Pit. attendance at church. saying: I conjure thee. negative judgments of others. and misfortune. and the light of the hosts of heaven. Semiprecious stones and jewels have been used since ancient times as amulets against curses and other forms of dark magic. illness. Jesus condemned cursing and so did Paul. Still other skulls are from people who lost their heads in various violent episodes. Zebaoth. If the spirit still does not appear. placing crucifi xes and religious objects in the home. A MULETs protect against or deflect curses. The magician then writes the demon’s name and SEAL on parchment which he places in a black wooden box that contains sulfur and other foul-smelling ingredients. by Him who made thee and all other creatures of this world to burn. who art wicked and disobedient. Iasdo . . In cases of possession and EXORCISM performed by the Catholic Church. However.) Protection against Curses Numerous remedies against cursing exist. Families can be cursed by outsiders or become cursed through involvement in sinful activities. the “screaming skulls” of England are said to be haunted by restless ghosts of the dead. Cursing Demons in Magic In ceremonial magic. in- . financial problems. who urged people to bless those who cursed them.curse 49 not leave breath in them. The magician hangs the box on the point of his sword and holds it over a fire. the Moon. Come quickly and in peace by the Names Adonai. during the English Civil War in the mid-17th century. repeated and chronic illness. He binds the box with iron chains. For example. Cursed Objects Any object can be ritually cursed to affect whoever owns it with misfortune. the effects of a curse can be removed by prayer. cursed objects are dangerous and must be destroyed. the ancient Egyptians inscribed spells on lapis lazuli. and a family history of unnatural and untimely deaths. and attending to a virtuous life. calling down the wrath of all the company of heaven. Curses can affect generations. I conjure you by him who has delivered you. Another curse. The early Greeks and Romans wore certain carved semiprecious and precious gems as rings and necklaces to ward off curses. spirits or demons who refuse to appear when evoked in ritual may be cursed to burn in fire by the magician. reading the Bible. including with objects that are cursed. and even death. such as by violence or suicide. the stars. Adonai. Others are those of Oliver Cromwell’s supporters. If a victim vomits up a cursed object. Fire. volves ritual cursing and a sealing of the disobedient demon inside a box bound by IRON chains: O spirit N. such as murders. which imprison the demon. Occult activities can include seeking communication with and knowledge from spirits instead of God and using magic or sorcery to control and manipulate others. Sometimes objects are cursed by circumstances. the exorcist should not touch it directly. As a final measure. (See POSSESSION. an exorcist who does so should pray and wash his or her hands with holy water. infertility and miscarriages. DELIVERANCE ministers and EXORCISTs who have the gift of discernment can determine whether or not a person has been cursed and is afflicted by a demon. Curses in various forms are mentioned 230 times in the Bible. and by their virtue and power we relegate you unto a lake of sulphur and of flame. that ye may burn therein eternally for ever. renunciation. Come. The grimoire Key of Solomon gives this curse: We deprive ye of all office and dignity which ye may have enjoyed up till now. JESUS cursed a fig tree because it had no fruit and he was hungry. and unhealthy relationships and sexual activities.. the god of the sea and the air: Iao. There are likely to be signs of mental or emotional breakdown. Participation in witchcraft or occult activities can curse a person or family. Iao and Iasdo are variants of Yahweh. repentance. the Creator of all things. negative thoughts about one’s self. whether a person has specific knowledge about them or not. For example. the Sun. there to remain in unquenchable fire and brimstone until the Day of Wrath unless thou shalt forthwith appear in this triangle before this circle to do my will. come. Amioram. Adonai King of Kings commands thee. This threat is said to terrify the spirits into obedience. The magician warns the demon that his name and seal will be burned in the box and then buried. Some of the skulls belong to victims of religious persecution during the 16th-century Reformation initiated by King Henry VIII. he drops the box into the fire. the magician works himself up into a greater fury of cursing. called “Curse of the Chains” or “The General Curse” (also called “The Spirits Chains”). . Curses also can be made against others through ill wishing. a tendency to have accidents.

1967. 1949.50 curse It is assumed in many cultures that one will be cursed by one’s enemies for any reason. West Chester. Ancient Egyptian Magic. Diabolic Possession. Fortea. . Mich.: Chosen Books. Cavendish. 2006. New York: G. An individual who has been cursed sometimes visits another witch or sorcerer to break the curse and to curse the curser. Butler. Deliverance from Evil Spirits: A Practical Manual. José Antonio. and petitions invoke the protection and intervention of benevolent spirits. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Spells. CHARMs. Grand Rapids. Putnam’s Sons. New York: William Morrow. Bob. Francis. and the Path to Deliverance. P. FURTHER READING: Brier. MacNutt. Richard. The Black Arts. Fr. 1995. Ritual Magic. E. 1980. Pa. Interview with an Exorcist: An Insider’s Look at the Devil. M.: Ascension Press.

: Kessinger. They are ministering spirits (resembling angels). who is comparable to ASMODEUS. the daevas are vile beings who create chaos and disorder. Mont. genii. daimon In Greek mythology. They personify all diseases. and plants and minerals of the earth. In the Gathas. and distresses suffered by humanity. . In later Zoroastrian texts. dev) In ZOROASTRIANISM. a type of spirit or intelligence between gods and humans. the direction of evil. They also have been associated with the souls of the dead and ghosts. they personify all evils imaginable. The daevas were created from the evil thoughts of AHRIMAN for the purpose of waging war against goodness and humanity. They are attracted to unclean places and like to spend time in locations where corpses are exposed. ministering spirits and demigods. The daevas are the principals of the infernal hordes and are the counterparts and mirror opposites of the amesha spentas. FURTHER READING: Jackson. the daevas are wrong or false gods. though even good ones will act in a hostile fashion when angered. Zoroastrian Studies. According to Plutarch. Some are vampiric in nature. the same designation given to DRUJ. they can appear in human form. the oldest Zoroastrian texts. tutelary spirits. Though spirits. When the prophet Zoroaster was born. godlike beings. Most of the daevas are male. The most powerful are known by names. V. named after a son of Ahriman who was slain by Gayomart. A. Daimones can take over human bodies in the form of POSSESSION (especially for oracular prophecy) and possess humans to cause physical and mental illness. Christianity assigned all daimones and pagan deities to the infernal ranks of DEMONs. Ahriman made 24 daevas to penetrate the egg so that evil 51 could mix with good.” In the Younger Avesta. stars and planets. good spirits. such as guardian spirits of places. little is known about most of them. deva. In later tradition and folklore. ready to attack the vulnerable. Whitefish. a powerful DEMON. They lurk about.” Daimones can be either good or evil in nature. and souls of dead persons. A good daimon is called an agathodaimon and an evil daimon is called a kakodaimon. The wicked who follow the daevas are condemned to go to the place of Worst Thought in the afterlife. sins. 2003. Williams.D daeva (daiva. or “gods that are (to be) rejected. the creator God Ohrmazd made 24 gods and placed them in the cosmic egg. the numbers of daevas are LEGION. the daevas went into hiding beneath the earth. The most fearsome of the daevas is AESHMA. Their gateway to HELL is Mount Arezura. There are hordes of daevas. Daimones include various classes of entities. Evil men also are called daevas. The daevas originate in the north. Daimon means “divine being. along with some of their powers and characteristics.

who decided to depart and torment the witch. Whenever Bee started to read the GOSPEL OF JOHN. Dalkiel Angel of HELL and ruler of Sheol. Dantanian is a mighty duke who appears in the form of a man with many faces of men and women.” a common name for witches. the woman acknowledged meeting Darling in the woods on said day but insisted she had mistaken him for another boy. who serves under DUMAH. on the grounds that he did not want any glory in the case. Gooderidge was sentenced to a year in jail. An account of the case was written by a “man of trade” named Jesse Bee. who aspired to become a Puritan minister. He convulsed. who was persecuting Puritans. He governs 36 LEGIONs of DEMONs. He said that the day his fits began. then recanted. for he had a relapse of temptation. disguised as an angel of light. Darling farted. In hell Dalkiel punishes nations. Darling. in 1602. and Darling said he forgave Gooderidge and begged the Lord to forgive her too. because Darling had fits upon hearing Scripture read. After a vision of a dove. Soon he thought of a fitting story. who had her scratched. Rosemary Ellen. he carried on inspired theological debates with the DEVIL modeled on JESUS’ temptations by SATAN in the desert. He knows human thoughts and can change them at will. During his fits. Darrel said Darling was possessed of an unclean spirit and recommended fasting and prayer. prompting Gooderidge to curse him with a rhyme: Gyp with a mischiefe. Bee and Darling’s aunt discussed the boy’s situation. This was followed by a vision of an angel. BEELZEBUB. 2004. “My son. In 1599. which he credited to Jesus. At the end of May 1596. He had a vision of Gooderidge. 1985. New York: Facts On File. Darling’s friends and family successfully exorcized him. Darrel was tried on charges of fraud. He teaches all arts and sciences. But. 2nd ed. He makes people fall in love and can show visions of people anywhere to others. and fart with a bell: I will go to heaven. He lost the use of his legs. the underworld. She said that when she stooped.” She called the dog Minny and dispatched it to torment Darling. She apologized for doing any harm with her words and said she had never said bell. and both Darling and Bee testified against him. Gooderidge was arrested and taken before justices. eliciting a flamboyant performance. Interestingly. she reported having a bad night. The case involved the Puritan EXORCIST the R EVEREND JOHN DARREL in a peripheral way. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Arthur Hildersham. which fell into a pattern around certain verses. along with the witch. where he maintained his ambition to become a Puritan minister.” Suddenly Darling could use his legs again. Darling became entranced. the angel of the stillness of death. The minister at Burton-on-Trent tried unsuccessfully to stop the fits. He did not visit in person. The woman was 60-year-old Alice Gooderidge. whom he called “Mother Redde Cap. 9. So did a renowned Puritan minister. He ordered Beelzebub to leave. arise and walke. the DEVIL appeared in the form of “a little partie-colored dog. except when he had fits. and a “demon” speaking through him said he would go to his master. the boy went into fits. Goerg. and more conversations with demons. Darling confessed to fabricating his possession. possessed. He is equated with Rugziel. and thou shalt go to hell. carrying a book in his hand. he was whipped and had his ears cut off for libeling Vice-Chancellor John Howson. Luck. including 4. and said DEMONs beat her brains out and toads gnawed the flesh from her bones. A doctor examined his urine and pronounced him bewitched. was speaking through the boy to deliver what seemed to be divinely inspired messages. as was her mother. The great demon appeared. Pressured into confessing. . Darling Possession (1596) Fake POSSESSION by Thomas Darling. The Encyclopedia of Angels. who believed that Satan. who was in jail. Darling performed well for a young DEMONIAC. the evil spirit is gone from thee. England. 14. Darling began having fits in February 1596. who was with Darling during most of his affliction. vomited. FURTHER READING: Guiley. Darling overheard this conversation. red and white. His troubles were not immediately over.52 Dalkiel GRIMOIRES for ceremonial MAGIC include instructions for evoking and commanding daimones. claimed to become possessed because a witch cursed him for farting. He moaned about dying young at the hands of the Devil. he had been out in the woods and met a “little old woman” with three warts on her face. claiming that his inspired speeches while entranced were indeed from God. Gooderidge then stooped to the ground. who had once broken a basket of her eggs. The following day. and 17. a 13-year-old boy of Burton-on-Trent. Darling entered Oxford University. 13. and had visions of green APPLEs and green ANGELs. and Bee opined that WITCHCRAFT might indeed be the cause. A voice said. Bee’s written account was sent to Darrel. he was permanently cured. Darling came out of trance and lapsed into another one. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Dantanian FALLEN ANGEL and 71st of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. sent by God for comfort. who visited and tried to exorcise the boy with prayer. and Darling went home. who was already suspected of being a witch.

He demonstrated how he simulated fits. Mainly on the basis of Sommers’ detailed accusations. Although Sommers did not react consistently to the various witches’ presence. Decarabia is a marquis in HELL with 30 LEGIONs of DEMONs reporting to him. suffered fits and had a lump the size of an egg. and although a witch was accused of causing her POSSESSION. Fearful of the effect on the people. aged 20. 1981. Sommers’ flip-flops riled the public. Called before a church commission set up by the archbishop of York. and again at a later date. Unclean Spirits: Possession and Exorcism in France and England in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries. when the apostles and all true believers cast out demons and healed by a laying on of hands. most Anglicans—as well as other Protestants—have adopted the beliefs of MARTIN LUTHER: that the Devil can best be driven from a tortured soul by prayer alone. As a result of Darrel’s conviction. prayer. John Darrel. and healing. Darrel was called to exorcize nine people in various cases: Katherine Wright in 1586. Deliverance is practiced chiefly by Protestant denominations. Practices of deliverance began in the early years of Christianity. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. . as well as the increasing power of the Puritans. In the DARLING POSSESSION. which ran about his body. since only God knows when the Devil should leave. On March 20. Darrel tried to persuade Sommers to withdraw his confession. He makes magical birds fly before a magician and leaves them as FAMILIAR s. Deliverance declined with the advance of psychiatry and psychology but underwent a revival in the 20th century with the growth of Pentecostal and charismatic denominations. Sommers. the ecclesiastical court found Darrel to be a counterfeit and deposed him from the ministry in May 1599. P Unclean Spirits: Possession and Exorcism in . Sommers confessed to fraud. was caught in religious infighting among moderate Catholics. emphasizing that the greatest value of such Puritan exorcisms was in refuting the claim by the papists that theirs was the only true church since they could cast out devils. Thomas Darling in 1596. English Anglicans. His career dispossessing people was over. Darrel’s last case was the dispossession of William Sommers of Nottingham. the justice in charge refused to commit the witch and warned Darrel to desist from exorcisms or face imprisonment. eventually naming witches responsible. Darrel exorcised the children in one afternoon. Darrel was consulted because the children continued to have fits and convulsions. Darrel (Darrell). especially Pentecostal and charismatic. a successful minister. After his release. D. Darrel languished in prison for several months but was never sentenced. he went into hiding for at least two years. which had continued periodically for 14 years. D. France and England in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries. cleansing. Prior to his fateful case. begun in November 1597. Decarabia (Carabia) FALLEN ANGEL and 69th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Wright’s assertion did not fit the history of her own fits. Katherine Wright and Thomas Darling were summoned as witnesses against Darrel and joined Sommers in confessing fraud. He was unsuccessful in dispossessing Wright. All but two were released. the archbishop of Canterbury moved against Darrel. He appears as a star in a pentacle but changes into a man when ordered to do so. Darrel had all 13 arrested. In January 1598. and Puritans.deliverance 53 FURTHER READING: Walker. FURTHER READING: Walker. and ministers talked from their pulpits about nothing but witchcraft and the Devil. Reverend John (16th century) English Puritan minister convicted of fraud for exorcising the DEVIL from a man. singing and eating as ordinary birds do. but Darrel claimed that Sommers’ accusations were correct. Darrel advised fasting and prayer but was not present during the exorcism so as to avoid personal glory. and that Sommers could probably find all the witches in England. forbidding exorcism as a formal ritual. originally summoned to cure the children but eventually found to be the witch responsible. His case led the Anglican Church to forbid rites of EXORCISM. Wright and Sommers even accused Darrel of teaching them how to contrive fits. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. or Calvinists. P. Over time. and seven possessed children in Lancashire in 1597 (see SEVEN IN L ANCASHIRE POSSESSION). The possession of the seven Lancashire children had already led to the execution of Edmund Hartley. Darling recanted on his confession. Darrel exorcized him before 150 witnesses. 1981. the practices became more restricted in favor of formal rites performed by priests. His behavior was obscene. the Anglican Church passed Canon 72 of the Episcopal Church. but Sommers suffered repossessions. for bewitching a person to death. Assisted by the Derbyshire minister George More. one of the accused witches’ powerful families charged Sommers himself with witchcraft. Although there are Anglican priests today practicing exorcism on an informal basis with the approval of their bishops. Sommers went into fits—but the commission was convinced he was genuinely possessed. deliverance A form of spiritual warfare that includes EXORCISM of DEMONs. including bestiality with a dog in front of onlookers. including frothing at the mouth. Decarabia knows the virtues of herbs and precious stones. Sommers reaf- firmed to church and government authorities that he was indeed faking his fits.

They take advantage of people’s weaknesses and foment paranoia. In ancient times. may have been the real causes. demons then have “legal rights” to assault that person. There are symptoms that denote when a deliverance is needed. are ever in need of deliverance. physical attacks. or gift. of discernment by the Holy Spirit. When a human being violates the rules. severe changes in facial expressions. light infestation and oppression. Depending on the type of POSSESSION. obstructions. demons were blamed for entering a person and taking control of him or her to cause problems. Mich. and others holds that only pagans. or bizarre behavior. and personality changes. who may be genuine restless dead spirits or low-level demons masquerading as the dead. and emotional symptoms and behavior. The identity is helpful in determining the origin or entry point of the demon and in knowing how the demon is affecting the victim. Grand Rapids. as well as CURSEs against people and places. Natural medical conditions.: Chosen Books. oil. unpleasant smells. such as epilepsy. Tools include blessed water. there was little understanding of many illnesses. mental. These spirits are in a minority of afflicting demons. • Ancestral spirits. Such individuals have been given a chrism. demoniac Person who becomes possessed by a DEMON. The ancient Jewish historian Josephus said that it was not a demon but the soul of a tormented person that entered a victim. Deliverance from Evil Spirits: A Practical Manual. causing a progression of problems from INFESTATION to OPPRESSION to POSSESSION. not Christians. Demonization is a term used instead of possession. and salt. and severe demonization. also give demons legal rights. there may be a pattern to the changes. charismatics. such as by committing a sin. A demoniac undergoes a marked change in physical. such as bodily contortions.54 demoniac The demonic realm is assumed to operate under a set of rules and to function as a hierarchy with lower-level demons reporting to higher-level demons. such as through voices in their heads urging them to do violent or evil deeds or commit suicide and unusual and extreme nightmares. which enables them to perceive whether or not a person is afflicted by evil spirits and to know the identity of the spirits. • Demons with unusual names such as PAZUZU and BEELZEBUB are high in the hierarchy and represent the true demons of HELL. • Some demons enter on the wake of trauma. Widespread belief among Pentecostals. FURTHER READING: MacNutt. Deliverance prayers are performed for spiritual protection. Linda Blair as the demoniac Regan in The Exorcist (1973) (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . Prayers are used to expel demons. emotional oppression. Deliverance usually is done by clergy but can be done by others as well. Francis. trances. are encountered most often in hauntings and through spirit communications such as mediumship or devices. • Tormented persons are aware of spirits. but there are no formal rites of exorcism such as those performed in Catholicism only by priests (see RITUALE ROMANUM). and marked cold. Full and true possessions are considered to be rare. The cause of demonization must be closed off through repentance and inner healing. especially psychological or emotional. Illnesses and diseases were blamed on demons. such as mediums and healers and laypersons. Serious cases are best handled by experienced clergy or trained laypersons who are empowered by the Holy Spirit. • Other demons take their names from sins such as Envy and Murder. Different types of demons are recognized. especially if a person fell into fits. but in earlier times. Evil acts committed in a place. Interference includes temptations to sin. 1995. • Others observe signs of demonization. unusual changes in voice.

poltergeist phenomena. He agreed. some are evil. died while undergoing exorcisms. Like ANGELs. demoniacs are said to be in “religious altered states of consciousness. Demoniacs usually are not steadily possessed but act normally and then are overcome for periods of time. N. 1981. demons and demonology A type of spirit that interferes in the affairs of people. Demon of Jedburgh (1752) Account of an alleged witch in Jedburgh. and werewolves. demons are numberless. demoniacs said they were cursed by witches and sorcerers (see CURSE) or were overcome by the DEVIL. with his gun and sword nearby. Frank is one of the few demoniacs on record who actually committed suicide. bile and copious quantities of mucus. Ancient and Modern Delusions. Dee’s remedy was to anoint her breast with holy oil and put her under heavy guard. The victim shouts obscenities and blasphemies and taunts EXORCISTs and others. and prophecy. Reid & Son. jumped out the window. In 1976. Ann Frank. Certain empowered individuals had the knowledge. but she and her husband begged him to leave them alone. personality and mood changes. Felicitas D. which would eradicate the problem. Scotland. In Christianity. an English occultist. At midnight. Goodman. FURTHER READING: Baroja. they faked their symptoms or were swept up in hysterias. however. They may be possessed by multiple demons and have to undergo repeated exorcisms over long periods. Captain Archibald Douglas was in Jedburgh on a recruiting campaign.” or RASC. The study of demons is called demonology. 1939. self-battering and mutilation. Reprint. Soon the sergeant appealed again to be moved. episodes of supernormal strength. The Catholic Church used possession to pursue its political agendas. In more severe cases. They discovered that one of her ears had been shot off. In 1590. James. they have been said to have sex with humans. He fired at it and shot off one of its ears. The eyes may roll back into the head.: Doubleday. mental. n. and soul loss. Douglas threatened to turn the woman in to the authorities. The story is possibly a blend of fact and fiction. though few have actually died under its influence. trances. all demons are evil and serve SATAN for the purpose of subverting souls. Lea. the men saw the landlady. During the medieval and Renaissance times in Europe. Sexual assault by the demons. Some cases of demoniacs were false. She was severely emaciated and dehydrated. The next morning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. poor health. unusual behavior. and statements from the possessing demon. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Demoniacs exhibit certain symptoms. and nightmares may happen to the victims. ANNELIESE MICHEL. in ancient Egypt. apparitions. Julio Caro. 1961. After a month. witches. The daimones were both good and evil and even included deified heroes. Henry Charles.” It is not known whether the couple did as promised. The term demon means “replete with wisdom” and is derived from the Greek term DAIMON. FURTHER READING: Grant. It vanished. levitation. often in foreign languages—especially Latin—unknown to the demoniac. They can be sent to torment and possess others. They exhibit many of the same physical.Y. cataleptic states. It changed into a black cat. 1975. a nurse in the employ of John Dee. Historical Overview Demons universally are considered the cause of all humankind’s problems: disease. The Exorcism of Anneliese Michel. to help demoniacs. who fainted before them in a pool of BLOOD. Fables and Tales. often involving INFESTATION. That night. One of his sergeants asked to change quarters because the house he was staying in had a DEMON in a “frightful form” that pestered him at night. the vomiting of unusual substances. Douglas refused the man’s request. Laws against and Trials of Witches. clairvoyance. saying the demon had threatened his life.) More recently. and emotional symptoms as persons who are swept up in religious or spiritual ecstasies and raptures. became possessed and attempted suicide.d. The sergeant also had learned that the landlady was said to be a witch and her husband possessed “second sight” (clairvoyance). Materials toward a History of Witchcraft. a young German demoniac. Together with Strange Customs. Possession is considered life-threatening to a demoniac. Douglas spent the night beside the sergeant. In most cultures. Edinburgh: Leith. misfortune. the telltale wound is prominent in magical folklore in tales of shape-shifting sorcerers. OPPRESSION. he was awakened by a noise and saw a large black cat fly in through the window. He said that he had awakened during the night to see the ugly form standing over him. and flew over the church steeple. and POSSESSION. The World of the Witches. ruined relationships. among them swellings and contortions of the body. there are uncontrollable hysterics. demons are troublesome rather than helpful. transfigurations of their faces and voices. she succeeded in killing herself by cutting her throat.demons and demonolo gy 55 The attempted remedy was to undertake an EXORCISM. and especially the supernatural power. a . In 1752. sin. They can be put to productive uses as well and can be summoned and controlled by magic. (See SPIRIT OF ORLEANS. for them the experience is hellish rather than heavenly: they are under the siege of demons rather than God. The Mysteries of All Nations: Rise and Progress of Superstition. Since ancient times. Garden City. Demons can cause unpleasant hauntings. bad luck. For example. on condition that they give up their “wicked ways.

In 1 Kings 22:19–22. In the development of the K ABBALAH. are in charge of the night hours. The spirits of the wicked dead became demons. God sends evil spirits to punish people. Another category of demons are created every day from the newly dead. The lutin were created by sexual unions between Adam and female demons after he parted from Eve. The greatest demonic problem was illness. bad luck follows. expanding their classes and duties. demons took the form of human-animal hybrids that could walk upright on two legs and were controlled by the gods. Humans could repel demons by magic. the LUTIN. belief in demons and their interferences has risen in the West. evil powers emanate from the left pillar of the Tree of Life. the shedding of their blood. The Old Testament mentions evil spirits but does not feature a primary demonic figure such as the SATAN that emerged in Christianity. and thus they have no bodies. Persians. There are numerous ways to protect against demons and to banish them from places. and demons had to be cast out of a person for healing. the sephira of the wrath of God. though its nature— good or evil—is ambiguous: . God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the citizens of Shechem. of the Tree of Life. By the Middle Ages. who were believed to linger about in close contact with the living.E. rabbinic writings had elaborated upon demons. demons are ever-present enemies posing constant dangers to humanity.56 demons and demonolog y Demon carrying off a child who has been promised to the Devil (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) magician who exorcized a possessing demon could command the same demon to perform useful tasks. Beliefs in demon-caused troubles are ancient and still prevail in many places around the world. hierarchies of demons were associated with the 10 sephirot. does possess both body and soul. and once they attach themselves to a person or family. who had helped him murder his brothers. There are demons who. the spurned first wife of Adam. “Satan” is more a prosecuting attorney interested in testing humans and is a member of the heavenly court. Demons in Judaism Judaic demonologies evolved with influences from the lore of the Babylonians. God did this in order that the crime against Jerub-Baal’s seventy sons. In opposition to him these citizens of Shechem set men on the hilltops to ambush and rob everyone who passed by. might be avenged on their brother Abimelech and on the citizens of Shechem. who murdered 70 rivals for the rule of Israel: After Abimelech had governed Israel three years. who acted treacherously against Abimelech. but beliefs and practices concerning demons were tolerated. and Egyptians. and interpretations of diseases. In Talmudic tradition. to work for him in building his Temple of Jerusalem. with angels. They are less powerful than angels. the idea of 10 evil sephirot had developed to counter the 10 holy sephirot of the Tree. The Jewish “middle world” teems with numberless demons and angels. Demons can have wings and exist between humans and angels.. demons were spawned by LILITH. Assyrians. the Hebrews had developed complex systems of both entities. and those who have seals that may be used to summon them. Other Hebrew systems of demons distinguish those born of night terrors and those who fill the sky between the Earth and the Moon. or the DJINN. They were created by God on the first sabbath eve at twilight. Judges 9:22–25 tells of Abimelech. Dusk fell before God finished them. King SOLOMON used magic to summon and control demons. By the 13th century. and animals. or centers. In Mesopotamian lore. This demonic lore later became the core of magical handbooks called GRIMOIRES. the Lord manipulates human affairs by dispatching a lying spirit. and this was reported to Abimelech. Since the mid20th century. One category of demon. demons were seen as having jurisdiction over everything in creation. The lore of the ancient Babylonians. According to the Kabbalah. According to another story. They are capable of inflicting wounds that only God can heal. especially from Geburah. roughly between the earth and the Moon. They frequent uninhabited and unclean places. and other Middle Eastern cultures teemed with demons. Angels of destruction (malache habbala) blurred together with the demonic. As were angels. people. By the second century C. Rabbinical teachings frowned on demon magic. such as use of CHARMs and AMULETs (see INCANTATION BOWL).

the demonic and evil powers were created by corrupted angels. When the polluted demons start to bother Noah and his sons. Clement. cannibalistic monsters called NEPHILIM. In the New Testament. By the end of the New Testament period. In the early centuries.E. Tertullian wrote in more detail about demons.E. ‘Who will entice Ahab into attacking Ramoth Gilead and going to his death there?’ One suggested this.C. evil comes into being through the fall of the angels. possessing supreme intelligence and knowledge. Ignatius. The Watchers coveted human women and descended to Earth. Demons in Christianity In Christianity. “along with all of the spirits of his [God’s] creatures which are in heaven and on earth” (2:2).” said the LORD. The angels then teach Noah herbal lore for restraining the remaining demons. One class are the WATCHERS. More about demons is found in the rabbinic teachings called the Gemora. demons have their origins in the FALLEN ANGEL s who followed LUCIFER. God sends the flood to cleanse the planet. “I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouths of all his prophets. evil originated with bad angels. though some were written much later. Irenaeus was convinced of the reality of demons and the Devil and advocated EXORCISM as a way to combat them. the prince of evil and the only demonic power named in Jubilees.” “By what means?” the LORD asked.C. and another that (21). too. Justin Martyr saw demons as the illicit children of fallen angels and human women. goddesses. Most pseudepigraphal works were written between 200 B. More information about demons is given in pseudepigraphal works such as Jubilees and Enoch.E. and 200 C. in which the young man Tobias learns how to exorcize demons from the archangel Raphael. the distinguishing exception is the book of Tobit.” when he was cast out of heaven by God (Isaiah 14:12). however. “Therefore hear the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on his throne with all the host of heaven standing around him on his right and on his left (20). in more detail. pagan gods. Finally.demons and demonolo gy 57 Micaiah continued. Demon tempting a woman with the sin of vanity (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . and Barnabas stressed the Devil rather than his demons. including demonic attacks (see ANTHONY). “Go and do it. a spirit came forward. Some of the texts have more to say about angels and demons than do the canonical works in the Bible. in keeping with prevailing traditions. but not all of the Nephilim are destroyed. he said. good angels who were assigned the task of watching over humanity. but it is implied that they. Demons have minor roles in apochryphal works. Noah appeals to God. “You will succeed in enticing him. and 200 C. ascetics. Polycarp.) Demons in Apochryphal and Pseudepigraphal Works The Apochrypha and pseudepigrapha are non-canonical texts written by unknown or pseudonymous authors. Again. JESUS healed by casting out demons. all the demons and evil angels will be cast into the abyss. (See MAZZIQIN. MASTEMA. and nature spirits were incorporated into the ranks of demons. all under the direction of Satan. steps forward to ask God to allow one-tenth of the demons to remain on Earth under his jurisdiction. who agrees to send angels to bind them all into the place of judgment. were made on the first day. Thus.” The three books of Enoch also tell the story of the Watchers and Nephilim. The hermits. According to Jubilees. stood before the LORD and said.E. demons were synonymous with fallen angels. “I will entice him. to create the vampiric. As Christianity spread. disguised as a man (see ASMODEUS). Jubilees says that angels were created by God on the first day. Angels are described only by their classes and duties. Demons are quite dangerous. Christian theologians known as the apostolic fathers grappled with questions about evil.” he said. and men who became the early saints of Christianity were constantly beset by evil. or “morning star. not with Adam and Eve. The Apochrypha (hidden) consists of 15 books or portions of books written between about 200 B. The text does not say specifically when demons were created.. On the Day of Judgment. as well as supernormal abilities such as instant travel. And the LORD said. defining them as fallen angels who lusted after women.

and therefore they prefer to assume a human shape and manifest themselves as a man of good standing in order that their words may carry more weight and authority. animal or human or hybrid. the importance of demons increased. In Christian lore. Their eating and drinking consist of lapping up fire. Magic is done with the aid of demons. with evil thoughts. They cast no shadows. They are not pure spirits but have bodies different from human ones. most appropriate to them. and for this reason they like to wear a long black cloak. The Platonists and early fathers and theologians of the Christian Church said that demons condense bodies out of the air or smoke. besides. though not exactly as humans do. They will not copulate in front of any human or another demon. When they die. an Oxford preacher of about the same period. and slime. such as dogs (see BLACK DOGS) and other animals and men dressed in black. such as a malformed limb or cloven feet. drink. “The Scriptures assert that there are Devils and Witches and that they are the common enemy of Mankind. but became evil by exercising their free will. halfmonstrous forms. Under certain circumstances. which must be performed according to precise rituals in order to be effective. theologians built on these early ideas. the djinn are made of smokeless fire. water. During the witch trials of the Inquisition. and that black is. Demons were believed to play a key role. especially if they are sexual predators. causing possessions. when they have sex. including of animals. they are imperfect. They attack humans in two principal ways: through obsession. and serving witches as their FAMILIAR spirits in all acts of malevolence. Because they are evil. For medieval theologians. which is an ineradicable token and sign of their essential baseness. and if demons had no success with a person during life. From about the third to eighth centuries. that others might see and feare. They eat. or use conjurations. and through possession. they dry up and wither away to their primordial state. demons were the tempters of humanity. It is true that many hold their purpose in this last is to conceal the deformity of their feet. demons are always invisible but can see themselves and each other. Demons were not created evil. and eventually die. They create voices out of air that mimic people. In Arabian lore. and so they always have a flaw in their appearance. such as the Mesopotamian demons. such as is only worn by honored men of substance. air. Augustine in particular never doubted the reality of demons and their evil influences. including half-human.” Characteristics of Demons Descriptions from antiquity portray demons as shape shifters who can assume any form. and draw the people into manifold impieties.58 demons and demonolog y Origen agreed with Tertullian. According to Remy: When they first approach a man to speak with him they do not wish him to be terrified by any unusual appearance. demons assume forms that are black.” George Giffard. said that witches should be put to death not because they kill others but because they deal with devils: “These cunning men and women which deale with spirites and charme seeming to do good. However. they made their final assault on the soul at the moment of death. except on the reason for the fall of angels: They fell from the sin of pride rather than lust. leading people into sin. they can assume bodies. Some of the theologians and witch hunters of the Inquisition said that demons have no corporeal form and only give the illusion that they are in human or animal form. ought to bee rooted out. The Puritan minister Increase Mather said in Cases of Conscience (1692). helping people perpetrate evil deeds. humans can become demons—a view that later theologians criticized. propagate. He also advocated exorcism. Origen said. In Judaic lore. A lion-snake demon (© RICHARD COOK) . Thomas Aquinas said that SATAN controls people chiefly through possession. a system that ultimately worked in favor of humans by proving who was worthy of going to heaven. They can also assume beautiful and seductive forms. The Devil and his hordes had no direct access to people except through their free will choices. he said. Jerome and Augustine wrote of shape-shifting demons. Theologians and witch hunters emphasized the dangers of demons and those who trafficked with them by making PACTs. with all other which haue familiarity with deuils.

they are beaten. filthy. Activities of Demons Throughout history. At these times. They are organized in hierarchies and function as in a military organization. demons are better able to wreak havoc. They live in dead bodies. wounds. Birth and death are perilous times. Inquisitors believed that demons influenced women more easily than men. Lowlevel demonic entities are associated with problems involving talking board use (see OUIJA™). they revert to their original nature. demons create unpleasant poltergeist phenomena and chaos and attack the living in a progression of increasing intensity. They cause physical phenomena. If they make their bodies out of air or occupy a living body. were weaker in will and intellect than men. especially concerning demons that cause nightmares and make sexual attacks. Widespread beliefs hold that humans are in constant danger of demonic attack in some form. they exude a stench. If lower demons disobey their superiors. altering the person’s voice. vomiting. In hauntings and possessions. During the Inquisition. Demons send bad weather and pests such as armies of mice and swarms of locusts to destroy crops. Demons are described as unclean. for women. Demons have a fondness for profanity and verbal abuse. they said. desirable forms with charming personalities. the chief activity of demons has been to cause illness and disease. and foul environments. In possessions.demons and demonolo gy 59 of protection. as are the nights on which marriages are consummated. demons were believed to aid witches by giving instruction on how to cast evil spells and how to poison people. Psychics and mediums perceive them as having grotesque forms. taking the form of animals such as birds and insects. and constant vigilance is required through watchfulness. and the use of measures The demon Harborym (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) . They are often associated with revolting smells. and the lack of proper hygiene will enable them to enter a person through contaminated food. They are afraid of cuts. according to GRIMOIRES and Inquisition writings. They acted as familiars. to carry out the evil of witches. and full of abominable stench. and blows and can be repelled with threats of them. They are the spirits of uncleanness. such as spitting. demons shape shift into deceitful. crops. In the body. Once they have a person under their control. proper habits. They participated in SABBATs and pacts. In some cases. dirty hands. demons will speak through possessed persons. they swell in the bowels with excrement and waste. The greatest danger occurs at night when sleeping humans are at their most vulnerable. levitation. Demon (© RICHARD COOK) since all their contrivings against men are of a black and deadly nature. and animals with herbs and other substances.

and 7. Interview with an Exorcist: An Insider’s Look at the Devil. Pa. Anyone who harbored them was guilty of felony. Valerie I. Sex with demons became a focus of the Inquisition.: University Books. 1971. 1983. There are 12 primary dukes. to magical ritual. They are especially useful in DIVINATION. J. 1991. Witch hunters said that demons enter into marriages with humans. Reprint. it is important to know the demon’s name. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. An account of the exorcisms was written by Samuel Harsnett. Flint. Denham Exorcisms (1585–1586) The EXORCISMs of six fraudulent DEMONIACs by 12 Catholic priests. Bertrande Barbier and Sinchen. Demons! The Devil. The male incubi molested women and the female succubi molested men. And the Witchcraft Act of 1563 made the conjuring of spirits—which included exorcism—punishable by death on the first offense. Diabolic Possession. and Chomiell. Oesterreich. When evoked. alias Weston a Jesuit. Churibal. Fortea.: Chosen Books. Finlay. Most of the exorcisms took place in the home of Sir George Peckham of Denham. 1939. Jose Antonio. Martin. Several Jesuits had been martyred. The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe. and from the truth of Christian Religion professed in England. and the Path to Deliverance. Sex with Demons Christianity rejected the idea of sexual intercourse with demons until the 12th century. Keith. Possession and Exorcism. it was accepted in theology. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. New York: Harper & Row. ostensibly in order to convert Protestants back to Catholicism. who is protected by a magic circle. FURTHER READING: Ebon. Dabrinos. A roasted black she-goat was served at the wedding feast. Francis. Richard Bancroft. witches and those under demonic control were said to copulate wildly with demons. 1 & 2. The actual sexual act. Cabarim.000. It was entitled A Declaration of Egregious Popish Impostures. The Devil’s Bride. and published in 1603. or expelled. Demoriel is the emperor of the north. William Weston. SUCCUBUS). a secured boundary from which they cannot threaten the magician. Possession: Demonical and Other Among Primitive Races. SEALs. chaplain to the bishop of London. to religious ritual. assaulting humans weakened by vices. 1995. Burisiel. Fr. was held to be painful and vile. magicians must force them to obey commands for service. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Thomas. and rituals summoning and controlling demons. Religion and the Decline of Magic. Grimoires give the names. served by 400 great dukes. Martin. 1966. In rites of exorcism. Nonetheless. Mador. sin. Menador. There was a greater factor involved: the Babington plot to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I and replace her . also known as Edmunds. duties. foaming at the mouth. Camael. Mich.: Ascension Press. In modern cases. however. MacNutt. New Hyde Park. Malachi.Y. incantations. Both kinds of demons were said to masquerade as humans in order to seduce their prey. Remy wrote of a 1587 case in which two witnesses. Meclu. each of whom has 1. finding lost treasure. England. supernormal strength. K. Because demons are unruly. T.140 attending spirits: Amibiel. the chief of whom was a Jesuit. by the 14th century. This tale is characteristic of the stories fabricated in witch trials and used by inquisitors to convict and execute accused heretics and witches. from ordering the demon to leave.: Princeton University Press. Deliverance from Evil Spirits: A Practical Manual. West Chester. Exorcism: Past and Present. N. Vols.60 Demoriel unnatural twisting of limbs. Demons in Magic Demons are invoked in MAGIC. demons are made to take form in a magic triangle. Anthony. 600 lesser dukes. and the casting of spells. Weston and the priests undertook the exorcisms. Grand Rapids. Joshua. Hostage to the Devil. Edited by James H.009. Buckinghamshire. taken upon oath before her Majesties Commissioners for Causes Ecclesiasticall. Goodman. Trachtenberg. 1985. Instead of giving the bride a ring. a divers Romish Priests his wicked associates. New York: Harper & Row. which pretended to be possessed. 1988. 1974. such as a location where acts of evil have taken place. Demons are exorcized. N. the bridegroom blew his breath into the bride’s anus. The Act of 1585 made Jesuits and seminary priests guilty of treason simply by being in England. or CURSEs or simply being in the wrong place at the wrong time. demons are opportunistic. said they witnessed such a marriage at night in a place where criminals were crucified. and dispossessed. during a time of severe persecutions of Catholic clergy. Weston arrived in England in September 1584. 1999. Felicitas. the Middle Ages and Modern Times. Princeton.008. New York: Berhman’s Jewish Book House. Demoriel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. and some had fled the country. and so on. 1987. The “possessions” were fake. under the pretence of casting out devils. part of a conversion campaign against Protestants and a political plot against the Crown. to with-draw the harts of her Majesties Subjects from their allegance. in Antiquity.001 ministering spirits. New York: Doubleday. London: Blandford. Charlesworth. Dubilon. Practiced by Edmunds.000. Doriel. and even with Satan himself (see INCUBUS. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. How about Demons? Possession and Exorcism in the Modern World. Women impregnated by demons were supposed to give birth to monsters.J. Where-unto are annexed the Copies of the Confessions and Examinations of the parties themselves. by a variety of methods.000. 2006.

When this gross display was finished. In 1602. who rules the torments of HELL and commands armies of DEMONs. Babington. followed by the publication of the broadsheet. destruction. a Catholic nobleman from Derbyshire. Devil is the proper name for the evil counterpart to God. at least 500 persons converted. 1586. prophecies. Mainey put on the best show. an inquiry was launched into the Denham exorcisms. nauseating potions and stinking fumes. light. said that Sara and Fid had been bewitched by Goodwife White of Bushy. and love. “all of them Captaines and of great fame. Their executions were so bloody and horrific that the crowd witnessing them was revolted. The word devil. and convulsions. Denham’s house was raided. Modu. and the complete absence of good. who took over Sara’s chores when she began having fits. When he awakened. The Devil represents darkness. Two were Catholic: Annie Smith. a woman who was commonly believed to be a witch. Fid accused the priests of murder. P. and most of the occupants were arrested. Of all the demoniacs. If the other two confessed. Two of the exorcising priests. a servant at Denham. an Englishman who had become a Friar Minim in France but left the order because of their strictness and the fact that he disliked fish. Their DEMONs praised Queen Elizabeth and her courtiers. Other priests were jailed. 1981. D. No wonder that the demoniacs lost their reason. No incriminating evidence against Weston could be found. Fid fell in the laundry and was persuaded that she had become possessed too. and other conspirators rounded up were tortured and tried at Westminster Hall in London. he announced that every Sunday he would have a vision of purgatory. appeared and said that he was accompanied by seven other demons. The first person exorcized by Weston in England was William Marwood. also is a generic term used interchangeably with demon to denote a lower-ranking evil entity. Weston probably knew about it and used the exorcisms to help the plot succeed. Queen Elizabeth’s “spymaster. Devil The personification of evil. and allow the Spaniards to invade England. spelled in lowercase. queen of Scots. proclaiming them to be faithful servants of the DEVIL. but nonetheless he was imprisoned in Wisbech Castle for 10 years. The exorcisms were witnessed by huge crowds. he sighed and groaned and said: My time is not yet come: our blessed Lady hath appeared to me. a family friend of the Peckhams. according to the published account. Two were Protestants: Sara Williams. where White was found in childbed. They were hanged but were cut down before they were dead and were butchered alive. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Mainey had more theatrics in him. The last exorcism occurred on April 23. and her sister. 1586. The demoniacs faked visions. and told me that I must live longer yet: for that God hath reserved me for a further purpose to doe more good. and rue. The priests captured White’s cat and whipped it until it “vanished away. their records have been lost. Meanwhile. Unclean Spirits: Possession and Exorcism in France and England in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries. their dietary mainstay. They were sentenced to be hanged and their bodies drawn and quartered. The demons departed. preached and prayed in a stern fashion.” They acted out the SEVEN DEADLY SINS. 18. Ballard. queen of Scots in 1587. The Babington plot thus was foiled and ultimately led to the execution of Mary. Ballard was a leader of it and convinced Babington to join it.” They sent a messenger to Bushy. and then lapsed into a two-hour trance. revelations. believed themselves to be truly possessed. a large crowd gathered on the appointed day to witness this event. Modu. 15. Chafing dishes of burning brimstone were held under their noses. and on Good Friday he would ascend to heaven. bones that they had been coached to identify correctly. suffering. Mainey’s demon. During the course of the year. who later visited Denham in order to witness the exorcisms of the six demoniacs. Tyrell became an informer for the Crown. Frideswid or Fid. the girls did not have to fake revulsion that was taken as a sign of demonic horror. were part of the plot. . Mainey’s demon. a servant of Anthony Babington. Weston did not sit idle in Wisbech Castle but continued to stir up warring religious factions among English Catholics. The exorcisms involved intoxicating. and Richard Mainey. On August 4. sent to Denham because she was having fits. He also suffered hysteria. sack. and babbled about demons. Modu cursed the “popish priests” and said that all of Mainey’s visions were false. Queen Elizabeth also was revolted at the news and ordered the second batch of conspirators to be hanged until they were dead and their bodies then butchered. about 18. intended to induce Catholics to worship devils disguised as Christ and “Saffronbag. including the Denham exorcisms. Prior to Easter 1586. Mainey lay on his bed. Four of the Denham demoniacs later confessed to faking possessions. having lost her baby in childbirth. and to tell of strange wonders. In Christianity.Devil 61 with Mary. The priests put bones into the mouths of Sara and Fid. They were executed in two batches on September 20 and 21. John Ballard and Anthony Tyrell.” who had been carefully watching Catholic activities. The demoniacs were bound to chairs and forced to drink a vile potion of oil.” as he called the Virgin Mary. Weston and Ballard were arrested by orders of Sir Francis Walsingham. FURTHER READING: Walker. which may have been part of an effort to smear Weston. 17. They were shown relics of English saints. Not surprisingly. chaos. Ballard was among the first to go.

will destroy evil and bring forth the reign of righteousness. lust. The Judaic concept of the Devil developed slowly. He creates hordes of demons. In one. In the final 3. Shades of the dead live in a dull. and the third. incantations. a son of Zarathustra conceived by a virgin. Egyptian. and chaos. which include toads.000 years. of their own choice. by tempt- The Devil tempting St. But in the last phase of the battle. and her partner. Patrick (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) ing them to believe the lie that he. As the evil brother of Osiris. a whore. who is evil and destructive. In classical mythology. Ahriman tears apart the sky and creates the hours of night and darkness. such as Tiamat. Egyptian gods embody qualities of both good and evil. The apocalyptic literature placed the harsh and punishing aspects in certain angels. and Angra Mainyu (who became AHRIMAN). Ahuru Mazda (who became Ohrmazd). such as MASTEMA. The Old Testament tells of different satans. Ohrmazd. but Ahriman refuses it. which produces the son Horus. Ahuru Mazda and Ahriman are separated by a void. ultimately enabling the world to be repaired. The world will be restored. the goddess of chaos and the primordial waters. Orhmadz reveals his fated defeat. and classical mythology and in Hebrew demonology. Mashye and Mashyane. Ahriman dwells in darkness on the opposite side of the void and is fated to be conquered by good. the dead will arise. the forces of good and evil are balanced.000 years. a pit or abyss in which the wicked are tormented. Stars fall from the sky. He sends his weapons of destruction. plagues. Hades. the tempter of humans. created the material world. Demons rule diseases. and engages Ohrmazd in battle for 6000 years. SERPENTs. Satan. In the first 3. The creation story varies according to the streams of Zoroastrianism. leads . and violence and destruction of life. Ahriman will be defeated by the coming of a Saoshyant. the gods and goddesses all have both good and evil characteristics. In ZOROASTRIANISM. He revives with the help of Jeh. In the Yasht text. generates the twins Spenta Mainyu. in turn translated from the Hebrew word SATAN. Ahriman sees the light of good across the void and lusts for it. Isis. In Enoch. he slays Osiris. evil is expressed through deities. or Savior. the one God. and pagan deities such as Pan and Cernunnos. and MAGIC. nightmares. good triumphs over evil. Three saviors will come forward. Osiris’ wife. but the god Set personifies more of the dark side than others. Greek philosophy evolved along the lines of moral good and evil. not Ohrmazd. The gods of a conquered people become devils or evil. scorpions. as well as the high god Anu. which sends Ahriman spinning unconscious into the outer reaches of the void for 3. Apsu. the only significant angel mentioned by name in the book of Jubilees.000 years. or accusers.62 Devil The term devil is derived from the Greek diabolos (slanderer or accuser). Mesopotamian demons are the offspring of gods. reassembles them and reanimates the corpse long enough for a sexual union. Ahriman corrupts the man and woman who are the ancestors of humanity. and all misfortunes that befall living things. the entire cosmos shakes and much destruction is done. foreshadowing the Armageddon of R EVELATION. illnesses. Ohrmadz offers a truce of redemption. who is holy. the WATCHERS are wicked angels whose fall. and the distinguishing of the originally ambivalent DAIMONes into good demons and evil demons. rather than a single Satan. Ohrmadz either destroys Ahriman or imprisons him forever. Ohrmazd creates forces of good that bind Ahriman. In his assault. the FALLEN ANGEL whose pride and ego cause him to be expelled from heaven. Evolution of the Devil The Christian Devil evolved from ideas and personifications of evil in Mesopotamian. against Ohrmadz. shadowy realm. They are grotesque and deformed and often part-human and partanimal. who are seldom completely evil. The concept of the Devil as archfiend of evil developed slowly over many centuries. One of these is permitted by God to test the faith of Job. becoming a composite of LUCIFER. and life and immortality will arrive. Protections against them are gained through AMULETs. In non-Western traditions. As does the Christian Devil. and scatters parts of his body. dismembers him. Christianity demonized pagan gods as it spread in dominance. the lowest level of which is Tartarus. Set represents chaos and destruction. there is no one personification of evil alone. In myth.

goes to Earth in order to defeat him. His forces of darkness are pitched in war against God’s forces of light. who dwell in darkness. He would tempt people with false riches. will bind the Devil for one thousand years. as all witches bear witness. These concepts were more firmly cemented in literature. vulnerable to the snares of the Devil. In the New Testament of Christianity. and scaly snakeskin. a tail. In this pursuit. with a god of light and goodness and a god of evil and darkness. therefore. but a high-level being—either an angel or DJINN— who chooses to fall from grace rather than bow to God’s first human. always black. deformed. and chaos. Satan’s kingdom was the material world. was of the opinion that the preachers’ obsession with Satan encouraged witches to worship him.Devil 63 to evil on the earth. In Islam. in his second coming. that he who is the Father and Ruler of darkness may not Depiction of the Devil from the 1957 film Night of the Demon (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . only to claim their souls for eternal damnation in the end. He has horns. JESUS. often handsome. And for my part I hold that there are two principle reasons for this: first.and 17thcentury jurist in witch trials. at which time the Devil will reappear one final time. By the Middle Ages. accuse. any consort with the Devil automatically meant one had entered into a diabolic pact. The Devil is most often named SHAYTAN in the Qur’an. Therefore. he was aided by an army of evil demons. He is a fallen angel. and carnal pleasures. Appearance of the Devil Christianity portrays the true form of the Devil as ugly. Adam and Eve sinned but did not pass on the taint to others. the Devil is not the dualistic counterpart to God. became implied. stated that “whenever he (the Devil) assumes the form of a man. The Qur’an also gives the name of IBLIS as the Devil. John Stearne. the Devil was originally created good but chose the path of evil. as the leader of evil angels. and reptilian: a human torso and limbs with reptilian head. luxuries. as the Son of God. the Shaitan. an accursed and rejected rebel who has God’s permission to use temptation to corrupt souls. Adam. before being destroyed. His most common human shape was that of a tall black man or a tall man. In 325. There is no concept of original sin in the Qur’an. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs name BELIAL. evil. Black is universally associated with fear. clawed hands and feet. The Devil is a shape shifter. Humans are prone to evil and. appearing in many guises in order to trick people. first as associates of sorcerers. The Devil vows to put all of Adam’s descendants under his sway. This army expanded to include heretics and sorcerers. as the Antichrist. The Devil is part of God’s creation and plan involving punishment and testing. England’s notorious witch finder of the 17th century. The dualism of Christianity became firmly established. which date back to the sixth century. such as authored by Dante and John Milton. the assistant to Matthew Hopkins. however. Preachers in the Renaissance and Reformation pounded fear of the Devil into their followers by constantly inveighing against his attempts to pervert people and turn them away from God. the Devil was a real. potent being who possessed terrible supernatural powers and was intent upon destroying humans by undermining their morals. He has power over the physical world. He has no power over those who love God. the latter of which is reinforced by an enormous phallus. SAMMAEL and AZAZEL also are named as leaders of wicked angels. Pacts with the Devil. the Moon. a 16th. dressed in black. God has no power over his demonic servants. It was not until later in Christianity that the Devil was seen as the ruler and inhabitant of hell. or Satan. the Council of Nicaea confirmed that God was the creator of everything visible and invisible. and destroy. Henri Boguet. he is. The apocalyptic literature developed a more dualistic idea of evil personified in the Devil as the head of a realm of darkness whose primary role is to seduce. the leader of hordes of fallen angels-turned-demons. Witches were included. His chief means of attacking others was through demonic possession. Revelation forecasts that Christ. then as heretics. chaos. and the underworld—and fertility. and he is the principle of evil itself. the dark. the Devil becomes more personal and the great antagonist of God as well as humans. whose magic posed a threat to the divine miracles of the church. death. which signify power and association with the dark forces—night.

Germany. a tail. ambitious attorney who is seduced and deceived by the DEVIL. Keanu Reeves as Kevin Lomax. Jeffrey Burton. Devils versus Demons In both theology and folklore. Godelmannus relates that while he was studying law at the University of Wittenberg. “The Devil is a name for a body politic. the Devil is most frequently in red. Ithaca. and preachers. Ill. and webbed arms. Old Nick.” When not in black. Buffoonish and somewhat dim-witted. hairy legs. The Devil appeared to M ARTIN LUTHER in the form of a monk with bird claw hands. Elaine. he can be easily tricked. tail. At that point. When dried. according to an account written by Georgius Godelmannus in 1591. and London: Cornell University Press.64 devil fi sh be able to disguise himself so well that he may not always be known for what he is. and saturnine features. It is considered effective for preventing gossiping of neighbors. and Lusty Dick. leaving behind him a stench that lasted for days. the film stars Al Pacino as John Milton. The (1997) Horror film about a young.. as John Milton. “The Devil” can refer to both. a huge penis. In other tales. He is called by nicknames such as Jack. N. most commonly as a BLACK DOG. Anthony. cloven feet. He constantly tries to makes PACTs with people in order to get control of their souls but fails. “The seed of the woman shall bruise the head of the serpent. Mary Ann. the Devil went into a rage. Old Horny. Joseph Glanvil observed in Saducismus Triumphatus (1681). Lomax is a defense attorney representing an accused child molester on trial. New York: Random House. He was invited in and began to speak of papist errors and other theological matters. The Devil as Buffoon In legend. London: Blandford. 1977. Possession and Exorcism. Russell. He also has ugly appearances: As the alleged god of witches. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity. handsome young men. the distinction between the Devil as Prince of Evil and his hordes of demons often blurs. Paul stated that the Devil can appear disguised as an angel of light. Directed by Taylor Hackford. Pagels. for evil. the devil fish resembles a man with a horned head. Rudwin.Y. as Pythagoras said.” FURTHER READING: Finlay. he heard a story from several of his teachers about a monk who appeared and knocked hard upon the door of Luther. St. Demons! The Devil. and Keanu Reaves as Kevin Lomax. the Devil in disguise. glowing eyes. the Devil in disguise. La Salle. comely young women. the Virgin Mary. The Devil in Legend and Literature. Charlize Theron plays Lomax’s wife. like Pan. as among ourselves. as in the numerous versions of the DEVIL’S BRIDGE. he was portrayed as half-human. in which there are very different orders and degrees of spirits. Luther showed the monk a passage in Genesis that says. threw about Luther’s ink and writing materials. goat. in which the Devil builds a bridge in return for the soul of the first to cross the bridge but is fooled when a dog or cat is sent across. and perhaps in as much variety of place and state. he noticed that the monk’s hands were like bird claws. the Devil is often portrayed in a lighter fashion. SERPENT. 1999. Maximilian. perhaps to lessen the fear inspired by the clergy. The Origins of Satan. as proof that his study is only to do evil. secondly. The Devil appears in a multitude of animal shapes. devil fish A type of ray fi sh used by Mexican witches (brujas or brujos) in the casting of spells.: Open Court. with horns. and the monk should consult a Bible for answers. is symbolized by black. and fled. Devil’s Advocate. His disguises of good also include saints. in The Devil’s Advocate (1997) (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . Luther grew impatient and said his time was being wasted.” Exposed. half-animal. the Devil shoots off arrows and rocks to try to destroy villages and churches but always misses the mark. or cat. 1959. He knows his client is guilty. a lawyer who bargains for business success with Al Pacino. 1995.

Lomax. England. the Pont de Valentre bridge at Cahors was believed to be entirely constructed by the Devil. the Devil and his demons would appear—or could be summoned—to lend a helping hand. Switzerland. but he declines. partner in the world’s most powerful law fi rm. and the church may have been built around it. he tries to shoot Milton. Devil’s book A black book kept by the Devil listing all persons who have pledged PACTs with him. FURTHER READING: Bord. that Milton is also SATAN. According to ancient lore.Devil’s b ridge 65 but he destroys the prosecution’s witness and his client is acquitted. Germany. The stone is 25. Milton tells Lomax that he wants him to have sex with Lomax’s half sister. weighing about 40 tons. angry at the people of the nearby town of Aldborough. Chadwick & Waters.” Devil’s arrows Stones flung by the DEVIL in attempts to destroy towns and churches. but with a different outcome. Switzerland. 1974. Devil’s bridge An old bridge. but the bullets do no harm. The Devil’s Arrow is an alignment of three standing stones near Boroughbridge. where she commits suicide. the Devil held out his book at SABBATs and had his new recruits swear their allegiance St. London: Granada. The Devil. Some witches said that the books also contained spells and CHARMs for evil deeds.5 feet high. In accounts of witch trials during the Inquisition and the writings of demonologists. to conceive the ANTICHRIST. a monolith stands up from the graves beside an old Norman church at Rudston. with a tantalizing job offer. Milton rapes Mary Ann and she has a psychotic break. especially in England and Europe. even though he is likely to be disbarred. King SOLOMON commanded legions of them to build his temples (see DJINN). He is assigned questionable cases involving guilty people and wins them all. The infernal beings were called upon most often for help with bridges but also were said to assist with construction of castles. He is immediately approached by Milton. The tallest is 22. The recruits then signed their names in the book in their own BLOOD. Yorkshire. overcome by his own conscience. and France. The stones were quarried. saying the story will make him a star. Milton. in a fever of winning at all costs. The action shifts back to the opening of the child molestation trial. He then learns from his mother that Milton is really his father. Lomax agrees and exits the courthouse. Mysterious Britain. Cado and the Devil above a Devil’s bridge (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . and about two feet thick. decides to step down from representation. six feet wide. But Lomax thwarts the plan by committing suicide himself. intent on demolishing the town.5 feet high. Meanwhile. said to have been built by the DEVIL or his DEMONs. There is a Devil’s Bridge in Einsiedeln. demons were master architects and builders. The reporter shape shifts into Milton and says. and Colin Bord. Milton offers to relieve him of cases. According to lore. The local legend says that the Devil threw the stone at the church in an attempt to destroy it but missed. Medieval folklore held that whenever engineers and architects needed help or ran out of resources. Devil’s bridges are found in Britain. Horrified. “Vanity—definitely my favorite sin. He is approached by a journalist who wants to interview him. Christabella. He accepts. Also in Yorkshire. and the stones miss their mark and stick upright in the air. went up to the top of Howe Hill and fired off three giant arrows of stone. It may have once marked a pagan sacred site. He confronts Milton and learns the truth. Janet. Spain. In France. to him by placing their hand upon the book. The stones fell harmlessly to Earth and stuck upright in a straight line. and the reason they were placed in a 570-foot-long alignment is not known. near the birthplace of Paracelsus. Lomax commits her to a mental ward. the Devil usually has bad marksmanship.

the Tarr Steps is a prehistoric stone bridge dating to about 1000 B.” the Devil’s mark was a telltale sign and damning evidence in the witch trials of the Inquisition. Branding was done when recruits were initiated at SABBATs and when anyone entered into a formal pledge of allegiance to the Devil. especially in the 16th and 17th centuries. He read in a mumbling tone from a book. and skin discolorations. 1974. he marked them by raking his claw across the flesh or using a hot iron. At the moment they renounced their faith. No less than tales of pacts and wild initiatory rites at sabbats would satisfy the inquisitors.: University Books. in his work Compendium Maleficarum (1608): And the mark is not always of the same description. FURTHER READING: Guazzo. In some rural parts. the bridge was built by the Devil in one night to win a wager against a giant who had challenged his power. Compendium Maleficarum.J. 1974. whose leaves seemed black & crimson. inquisitors declared them Devil’s marks anyway. Descriptions of the Devil’s Missal were given by accused witches and Devil worshippers during the peak of witch hunts. moles. He was vested in a chasuble upon which was a broken cross. According to lore. N. An innocent person had no way around a determined inquisitor. Wales. In Somerset. an Italian demonologist of the 17th century. Neither does he always mark them upon the same place: for on men it is generally found on the eye-lids.: University Books. and the Devil was celebrant.J. then a Devil’s mark was declared.66 Devil’s hor se The Devil’s price for this service was the soul of the first creature who crossed the bridge. The Devil appeared in disguise and offered to create a bridge if she would give him the first living thing that crossed over it. Francesco-Maria. If no mark was found. left shoulders.C. whereas on women it is found on the breasts or private parts. In the legend of the Devil’s Bridge across the Afon Mynach near Aberystwyth. . Secaucus. Devil’s mark A permanent mark made upon the body by the DEVIL as part of a PACT. She agreed.E. or a spider or a dog or a dormouse. because it might spit tobacco juice into one’s eye and cause blindness. The marks could be anywhere on the body. and some of the marks were painless and others were not. victims were tortured into confessing how they were acquired. and presently he elevated a black host and then a chalice of some cracked pewter. Once Devil’s marks were found. though she knew she was dealing with the Devil. falling back on authoritative statements made by Guazzo and others that the Devil did not necessarily mark everyone. According to FRANCESCO-MARIA GUAZZO. NICHOLAS REMY listed brows. Lea. Some inquisitors held that Devil’s marks could even be invisible. and some had all their body and head hair shaved off in the process. or the arm-pit or lips or shoulder or posterior. an old woman spotted her cow on the opposite side of a chasm. Sometimes the marks were made in “secret places. that crosses the river Barle near Winsford. but in actuality. in 1614 said that the Sabbat was held in a house. but not always a scar. falsely. which left a mark. CRAFT trafficked with the Devil had one or more. He turned his back to the altar when he was about to elevate the Host and the Chalice. for at times it is like the footprint of a hare. tops of heads. the colloquial name for the praying mantis. Nicholas. and backs as places bearing marks. Persons accused of witchcraft and brought to trial were thoroughly searched for such a mark. and in body cavities. to be poisonous. 1939. . Folktales tells of local townsfolk tricking the Devil by sending a cat or dog across first. He [the accused] saw there a tall dark man opposite to the one who was in a corner of the ingle. hips. or if there was no bleeding. N. usually blue or red. but only those he suspected of turning on him. It was believed that every person who . the Devil always permanently marked the bodies of his initiates to seal their pledge of obedience and service to him. & he kept muttering between his teeth although what he said could not be heard. Sometimes called a “witch’s mark. Secaucus. Demonolatry. Inquisitors believed that the mark of SATAN was clearly distinguishable from ordinary blemishes. England. France. If the person felt little or no pain. According to demonologists. or if pricking a mark caused pain. Devil’s horse In Ozark folklore. In his book Demonolatry (1595). Sometimes he left a mark by licking people. Pins were driven into scars. which were both black. the Devil’s horse is thought. . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. all foul and filthy.” such as under eyelids. Henry Charles. and this man was perusing a book. the cover of The Devil’s mark was considered the proof of WITCHand sorcery. When the bridge was completed. breasts. and it was usually insensitive to pain. unreachable. because she had noticed his cloven hooves. sacrificing him to the Devil. Materials toward a History of Witchcraft. Protests from the victims that the marks were natural were ignored. Some of the stones weigh five tons. Another man accused in the same trial said: Mass was said. One account recorded by Pierre de Lancre from a trial in Orléans. that was seldom the case. she threw a crust of bread across it and sent her dog to fetch it. in armpits. It is considered bad luck to disturb a praying mantis. Remy. warts. The Devil’s Missal is the unholy replacement for the Bible and is full of CURSEs and blasphemies. Devil’s Missal Book said to be used in the performance of a BLACK MASS or infernal SABBAT rites.

statues. Iblis’ throne is in the sea. and the essence of angels is light. scorpions. then they said ‘we have indeed heard a Qur’an wonderful. As do humans. as the djinn spread out at night and take things. He also warned people to put out their lights. 2. it will leave. probably a diamond. The Qur’an states that the purpose of their creation is the same as that of humans. shayatin. If the snake is a shape-shifted djinn. a mythical range of emerald mountains that encircles the earth. However. ponds. others black. They are usually invisible but have the power to shape shift to any form. Madeleine Bavent. With the ring. Those who reside in a given area and cannot travel out of that area. one of the chief afflicted nuns in the LOUVIERS POSSESSIONS of 1647. Djinn were created on the day of creation from the smokeless fire. the djinn carried him there on their backs. According to some accounts. dogs and donkeys are able to see them. other animal. God compelled the djinn to throw the ring into the sea. These djinn can be heavy or light. and the followers all became demons. and gardens. It is said that HELL will be filled with djinn and humans together. tall or thin. gave this description of the missal: Mass was read from the book of blasphemies. djinn have free will and are able to understand good and evil. who will take revenge. and are shape shifters with very flexible bodies. As are the Greek DAIMONes. Some leaves were white and red. They are responsible for their actions and will be judged at the Last Judgment. close their doors. Muhammad warned the people to cover their utensils. Solomon retrieved it and punished the djinn by imprisoning him in a bottle. often demonlike. Trubner. Whenever Solomon wanted to travel to faraway places. as the djinn could drag away the wicks and start a fire. there are three types of djinn: 1. The History of Witchcraft and Demonology. which contained the canon. but it is unknown how long. are born of smokeless fire. guiding to rectitude. Conflicting stories about the djinn abound. A djinn appears as a wish-granting “genie” in many Arabic folktales such as those in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. According to another story. djinn are self-propagating and can be either good or evil. By some accounts. Early Lore In pre-Islamic lore. Djinn in Muslim Lore Islamic theology absorbed and modified the djinn. Those who manifest as snakes. A cat should not be chased away early in the morning or late at night. They are invisible to most people except under certain conditions. untie a knot. Those who are able to fly. and are not immortal. djinn (genii. This same volume was used in processions. Their ruler. Montague.’ ” Muhammad converted djinn by reciting the Qur’an to them. creeping animals. but not equivalent to a DEMON. jinn. refused to worship Adam and so was cast out of heaven. along with his followers. The djinn seated himself on Solomon’s throne at his palace and reigned over his kingdom. humans are created from clay and water. 1926. shaytan) In Arabic lore. a type of interfering spirit. They possess supernatural powers and can be conjured in magical rites to perform various tasks and services. It was written in a language completely unknown to me. The djinn can be converted. Solomon branded the necks of the djinn as his slaves. ginn. The djinn will guard graves if commanded to do so by WITCHCRAFT. Solomon took djinn to his crystal-paved palace. which is to worship God. . some became beautiful and good-natured. all djinn are unreliable and deceitful. the Holy Sacrament of the Altar.djinn 67 which was soft and hairy like a wolf’s skin.000 years before Adam and Eve and are equal to angels in stature. or human. According to the Muslim faith. They were on the Earth before human beings. where they sat at tables made of iron. If people find a snake in their house. they should call out to it for three days before killing it. FURTHER READING: Summers. similar to conflicting stories about ANGELs and demons. London: Kegan Paul. King SOLOMON used a magic ring to control djinn and protect him from them. Trench. that had a living force of its own. who are devils or IBLIS) and cats. and keep their children close to them at night. They like to roam the deserts and wilderness. The Qur’an tells how the king made them work at building palaces and making carpets. It was full of the most hideous curses against the Holy Trinity. or the essential fire. or uncover a vessel. One story tells that a jealous djinn (sometimes identified as A SMODEUS) stole the ring while Solomon bathed in the river Jordan. however. jann. they will not open a locked door. in Egypt. forcing Solomon to become a wanderer. the other Sacraments and ceremonies of the Church. 3. However. Solomon forced the djinn to build the Temple of Jerusalem and all of the city as well. and dogs (especially BLACK DOGS. they were created 2. IBLIS (also called Shaytan). for the guarding djinn will harm anyone who violates the sacred space. They live with other supernatural beings in the Kaf. Iblis became the equivalent of the Devil. They may live in abandoned houses. it is bad luck to open a pharaoh’s tomb. be it insect. The ring was set with a gem. even if converted. the djinn are malicious. lest it be a shape-shifted djinn. as sura 72 of the Qur’an indicates: “It has been revealed to me that a company of the Djinn gave ear.

anxiety. Colliding with one of the figures. In the Middle East. and someone who is trained may be needed to perform an EXORCISM to expel the djinn from the body. the lump on his head disappeared. relates in his book Psychic Warrior how he had temporary visions of djinn due to a head injury. I walked right through it. I could hear muffled cries from the Jordanian encampment. and dung of animals. and momentarily I thought we were being overrun by thieves or Israelis. They are both male and female and have children. it is believed that humans are unable to get in touch with the deceased. bones. the children will be visible and look like humans. as these phenomena are in God’s realm. an injury that left a huge lump on his head. They are visible in great numbers to those who can see them. stealing its energy. The moods of humans can be affected by the djinn. frequent desire to fight. If the mother is human. and no children have qualities of both djinn and human. camel pastures. or a hairy body. I reflexively closed my eyes. ranging from happiness to sadness for no known reason. Asking the djinn to leave may not be enough to induce him or her to go. There also seems to be controversy as to whether a mixed marriage will be able to produce children. David Morehouse. the person appears to be insane and exhibits signs of anger. a black tail. pairs of djinn stay with each person. the djinn hold sway. Dark figures moved effortlessly across its floor. Djinn interfere in human relationships. When that happens. Djinn have limited powers in these areas. Panicked. a retired remote viewer (clairvoyant) for the U. There is no direct evidence of it. There is controversy over whether it is lawful to marry djinn. In Islam. djinn fall in love with humans and marry them. they try to disrupt marriages and other relationships. and Muslims are warned not to be the first to enter the market or the last to leave it. headaches. but they do die. but in rural and remote areas. They also can live in the houses where people live. I turned to run for help. As do the daimones. Baten el Ghoul was a desolate and jagged valley carved out of the desert that spilled over from Saudi Arabia. beliefs about djinn are strong in certain areas. a constant feeling of dissatisfaction. for djinn are opposed to community. where the demons came out at night to murder people. . The entire Baten el Ghoul and the hills beyond were bathed in the strange bluish gray light. . and depression. It was not unusual to have one’s sleep interrupted by the screams and howls of frightened Jordanian soldiers who swore in the light of day that they had seen a demon. They may have the legs of a goat. They may be exceptionally tall and have their eyes set vertically in their heads. If they fall in love with a human. It was like the light of an eclipsed sun and wasn’t coming from any stove.) Modern Experiences of Djinn Djinn are still prominent in modern superstitions. bathrooms. garbage dumps. learn about the future or what happens after death. and encounters with them occur all the time. They also like marketplaces. they prefer deserts. my eyes opened to a surreal light outside the tent. military. After this. and have animals. or be healed. Al- though they are able to affect peoples’ minds and bodies. but most Islamic jurists believe it is unlawful. Possession by Djinn Ordinary human acts can kill or hurt djinn without people being aware of doing so. (See ZAR. ruins. When possessed. Morehouse was accidentally shot in the helmet. and a man’s voice will sound like a woman’s. (See WATCHERS. They play. except I didn’t collide. He was among American troops camped with Jordanian troops for training exercises in Jordan at Baten el Ghoul. They love to sit in places between the shade and the sunlight and move around when the dark first falls. they have no power over the soul or heart. Upper-middle-class people in urban areas tend to look upon djinn beliefs as superstition. which means “Belly of the Beast.” The Jordanians considered it a haunted valley. There was no life there except arachnids. and places of impurity like graveyards. he experienced djinn: Sometime in the night. . . One whispers good. the children will be invisible. djinn possess the offending people in order to take revenge on them. sleep. It filled the night sky. After that. and hashish dens. like apparitions. Marriage between Humans and Djinn As do FAIRIES. heavy shoulders. and a desire to commit suicide. A woman’s voice will sound like a man’s. Physical symptoms include nausea after eating. It was the djinn who taught humans SORCERY. Although they can live anywhere on the planet.) Djinn will eat human food.S. They eat meat. Turning around I watched the figure disappear over the edge of the bluff. A clan in the United Arab Emirates claims to descend from a female djinn. Djinn can appear to humans as the spirits of the dead and communicate with the living through visions and voices. Those who learn the medicinal qualities of plants through the plants’ talking to them are actually speaking with devils. the other whispers evil. unless people say the name Allah prior to eating. They poured from the rocks in various heaps and shapes and moved about the clusters of tents.68 djinn Djinn Life The life span of djinn is much longer than that of humans. Others who are vulnerable to possession are those who live alone. I walked to the edge of the bluff and stared into the valley. Descriptions of their appearances vary. If the mother is djinn.

2008. Dorochiel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Scott. Reprint. although he never lost interest in the possibility of spirit obsession. Lomor. Cusyne. finally dying in a mental hospital after years of dealing with her various personalities and psychic disturbances. associated with the DEVIL. Mead. and he wrote of his experiences with her in his last book. Cursas. Aroziel. Althor. 1998. Danael. Hyslop was convinced that Fischer was possessed. Barbara. Whatever other spirits remained were ineffectual. a task he could never complete. Prince was familiar with the newly recognized syndrome of multiple personality. since Minnehaha is the heroine of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s poem “Hiawatha. Franklin Prince. Witchcraft. Asphor. Psychic Warrior: Inside the CIA’s Stargate Program: The True Story of a Soldier’s Espionage and Awakening. and he exorcized the count.” Fischer was eventually adopted by Prince and his wife. Finally. Magic and Alchemy. Efiel. According to lore. and Hyslop quit the case in the hope that Fischer had been cured. de Givry. Revealing the Mystery behind the World of Jinn. Booksurge.Dozmary P ool 69 FURTHER READING: Ahmad. She also displayed striking psychic tendencies. and Omiel. D. Hyslop sympathized with the cult’s psychic “cures” and believed that spiritual communication was just as important as physiological therapy. The 12 dukes who govern after midnight are Pafiel. a magician must pay attention to the planetary hours when they rule. By 1915. Emuel. The 12 dukes of the morning are Magael. Forty dukes attend him during the day and 40 more at night. Ofsiel. Soule communicated lengthy messages to Fischer from her mother. London: Saqi Books. Salim. Abael. able to foresee her mother’s sudden illness and death. Dozmary Pool also is associated with King Arthur and is one of the candidate lakes into which the dying Arthur . Doris Fischer Obsession Case of spirit OPPRESSION investigated by the psychical researcher JAMES HERVEY HYSLOP. Cayros. Meroth. Casiel. Soule heard from the spirit of Richard Hodgson. and Pelusar. In 1914. New York: Dover Publications. FURTHER READING: Rogo. Soule received messages from a young Indian spirit calling herself “Minnehaha. All are good-natured and agreeable. and he and his wife helped Fischer to regain some normalcy. Morehouse. Carsiel/Suriel. and Lodiel. Hyslop asked why these spirits hurt Fischer and was told by Soule’s communicators that they were evil influences. hoping to fi nd and eliminate the possessive spirits who were destroying the girl’s peace of mind. Cadriel. whose real name was Brittia L. But she never recovered. Gariel. 1971. W. Casael. The World of the Jinn and Devils. New York: Dodd.” But he went along. Hyslop took Fischer to sit with a medium. The 12 dukes of the early evening are Nahaiel. Narsial. Umar Sulaiman. Hyslop became involved in the case of Doris Fischer. The Infinite Boundary. Darborl. Suriet/Maniel. She returned with the Princes to California and resumed a normal life for a while. Fischer and her siblings continued to live with their father. Later researchers speculate that Cagliostro represented sexual mores that both Hyslop and Fischer suppressed but secretly desired. Soriel. For years. Abriel. Artino. Paniel. The medium also heard from Count Cagliostro. Bulls. Hyslop began to believe that the personality “Margaret” was not an offshoot of Doris’ mind but a possessing spirit herself. Minnie Soule. Translated by Jamaal al-Din M. Zarabozo. who confi rmed Hyslop’s suspicions of spirit influence and promised to help all he could. the Devil sentenced JAN TREGEAGLE to bail out Dozmary Pool with a limpet shell. al-Ashqar. Hyslop believed that Cagliostro was leader of Fischer’s possessing spirits. Buisiel. Doctor Faustus See FAUST. Aliel. Life after Death (1918). Although not a spiritualist per se. Momel. Merach. 1987. 1931. Maziel. Carba. Frieskens. During the séances. Vraniel. and Larfos. New York: Al-Basheer Company for Publications and Translations. Dozmary Pool Small lake in the Bodmin Moor in Cornwall. Hyslop did not like Cagliostro’s presence and encouraged him to leave the séances and Fischer. impressed with Minnehaha’s knowledge of Fischer’s case and her claims that she had caused many of Doris’ problems. but she retreated more and more into the personalities of “sick Doris” and the wicked “Margaret. Hyslop had postulated that some psychotic states were caused—or at least aggravated—by spirit influence. Dorochiel rules in the west and north as a prince. Diviel. an Episcopal minister and psychologist. The 12 dukes of the afternoon are Gudiel. With that in mind. The case was first reported by Dr. The controls also told Hyslop that Fischer’s case was no different from hundreds of other instances of insanity and multiple personality that could easily be cured through psychic exorcism.” or “Laughing Water. New York: St. Futiel. Martin’s Press. In order to summon the dukes and their servants. Maniel/ Efiel. After further communications. David. Next. Fritschle. Living with Djinns: Understanding and Dealing with the Invisible in Cairo. Fischer suffered an extreme traumatic incident as a child at the hands of her abusive and alcoholic father and had exhibited multiple personalities since she was three in 1892. Similar punishments by the Devil are other tasks that can never be finished. Soriel. 2008. 1996.” Hyslop was skeptical of such a spirit. The Fischer case was Hyslop’s last major investigation. Cabron. Emile Grillot. England. Moziel.

the stillness of death. and wearing herbal AMULETs. Dumah (Douma) Angel of silence. Dumah’s name means “silence. Many Jews believed the spirits were transmigrated souls that could not enter a new body because of their past sins and so were forced to possess the body of a living sinner. to be burned under the victim. decomposition. dybbukim were thought only to inhabit the bodies of sick persons.000 myriads of attendants whose job it is to punish sinners. exorcisms called for the ashes of a red heifer. a wicked and unrighteous DEMON of luxury and vice. Druj is associated with AHRIMAN. who represents corruption. Azhi Dahaka was created by AHRIMAN to wreak destruction in the world. he guards the 14th gate. Dumah herds them back into hell. Dregvant In Persian lore and ZOROASTRIANISM. the dybbuk was one of many evil spirits call ibbur. six eyes. Some of the specific drujes are the following: • Druj Nasu. a female druj of debauchery. and vindication. Samuel I describes the possession of Saul and the way David exorcized the spirit by playing the harp.” Drauga is the Old Persian version of the name. the Corpse Fiend. a class of chiefly female evil beings. the dybbuk either is redeemed or is cast into HELL. and the hosts of HELL. or the roots of certain herbs.” He is a prince of HELL. Dumah releases all souls of the dead. It can be expelled from a living person by a bathing and purification ritual lasting nine days. whose name is the root of jahika. Asha will destroy Druj. New York: Judaica Press. A hand arose from the lake to seize the sword and return it to the Lady of the Lake. half-man and half-monster with three heads. Excalibur. Possessive evil spirits are referred to in the Old Testament. • Sej. a FAIRY. It is an abbreviation of two phrases: dibbuk me-ru’ah (a cleavage of an evil spirit) and dibbuk min ha-hizonim (dibbuk from the demonic side of man). repetition of the Divine Name of God. perhaps after losing their way at night across the treacherous moor. A small reference in the Talmud holds that even sinners have a day of rest on the sabbath and are released to roam the earth. Druj A female DEMON in ZOROASTRIANISM who represents the principle of wickedness. therefore. the tutelary spirit of Egypt. dybbuk In Jewish demonology. In the book of Tobit the archangel Raphael instructs Tobit in ways of EXORCISM. the unrighteous. Dregvants was a name given to the residents of the city of Gilan south of the Caspian Sea. to the Earth each evening for the first year after their deaths. At evening. the principal evil being. who were considered to be fiends incarnate. Other methods included incantations in the name of King SOLOMON. In early folklore. For example. also a demon. Depending on how the exorcism is done. not just sinners. 1982. three jaws. monsters. It usually exits the body of its victim through the small toe. and two SERPENTs growing out of his shoulders. By the 16th century. In Aramaic. FURTHER READING: Winkler. Dybbuk. The pool is haunted by mysterious lights and the ghosts of men and horses said to have drowned in it. many are still in use in modern times. which shows a small. fiends. The exorcism must be performed by a ba’al shem. sorcerers.” AHRIMAN kissed her and caused menstruation to begin in the world. Druj means “falsehood” and “deceit. in Babylonian legend. a personification of pestilence and “the fiend who brings about annihilation and misfortune. The glance of a dog can expel it from a corpse. or “harlot” or “prostitute.70 Dregvant ordered Belvedere to cast his magical sword. The spirits were motivated to possess a body because they were tormented by other evil spirits if they did not. decay. Jahi’s name is also associated with wizards and sorcerers. The K ABBALAH contains rituals for exorcizing a dybbuk. The Zohar Kabbalistic text describes him as a chief of Gehenna (hell) with tens of thousands of angels of destruction under his command and 12. The term dybbuk (also spelled dibbuk) was coined in the 17th century from the language of German and Polish Jews. who was then surrounded with water. contagion. AUTAK. . speaking through the person’s mouth and causing such torment and anguish that another personality appears to manifest itself. In the final confrontation between good and evil. He committed incest with his mother. • AZHI DAHAKA. Gershom. and impurity. an evil spirit or doomed soul that possesses a person’s body and soul. a miracle-working rabbi. Prior to the 17th century.” • Jahi. the concept of possessive evil spirits changed. In the rabbinical literature of the fi rst century. druj In Persian lore and ZOROASTRIANISM. became demons. bloody hole as the point of departure. Some thought the dybbukim were the souls of people who were not properly buried and. reading from Psalms.

Anna’s physical state deteriorated to the point of death. she hung onto the wall above the door like a cat. She ate no food but only swallowed small amounts of milk or water. the devils within her always knew whether one of the nuns had tried to bless the food or drink. Seeking a place where Anna was unknown.B. Joseph Steiger. and her clothes were bound tightly around her to prevent her from stripping herself. Anna threw a fit. Father Theophilus tried again. Although Anna was unconscious and her mouth never moved throughout the sessions. when Anna was 46 years old. howls. often resembling tobacco leaves. and they always complained. Father F. gathered at the convent. Wisconsin.E Earling Possession (1928) One of the best-documented demonic POSSESSION cases in the 20th century. She first began showing the symptoms of possession—revulsion toward holy objects. Father Steiger agreed that the exorcism could take place in the nearby convent of the Franciscan Sisters. her eyes bulged. Totaling 23 days. the exorcisms covered three sessions: from August 18 to the 26. With Father Theophilus’ first exhortations Anna’s mouth clamped shut and she fell unconscious.S. Anna arrived in Earling on August 17. O. and spit prodigiously. Trouble started immediately. Anna’s aunt Mina. alarmed by the outcries. With great reluctance. purring 71 like a cat. successfully exorcized her on June 18. she vomited enormous quantities of foul-smelling debris. finally becoming totally possessed in 1908. often suffusing with blood as her head swelled and elongated. Father Theophilus Riesinger. accompanied by screams. The possession of Anna Ecklund also is unusual for the combination of demonic entities within one victim. Through it all. a native Bavarian and a Capuchin monk from the community of St. 1912. Iowa. Her face became horribly disfigured and distorted. and disturbing thoughts about unspeakable sexual acts—at age 14. and refused to eat until unblessed food could be served. caused her possession by placing spells on herbs used in Anna’s food. inability to enter church. followed almost immediately by an extraordinary feat of levitation. parish priest in Earling. Earling citizens. a reputed witch. Anna was born in the Midwest about 1882 and was raised a devout and pious Catholic. Rising swiftly from the bed. In 1928. Begone Satan!. and unearthly animal noises. Father Theophilus approached his old friend. and from December 15 to 23. from September 13 to 20. The ancient ritual began in earnest the next morning. After that. 1928. In the account of Anna’s travails. and it took great effort to pull her down. only to have her fall prey to the Devil again after her father heaped CURSEs on her and wished her possessed. ruining Father Theophilus’ hopes of keeping the exorcism secret. sensing that someone had sprinkled holy water on her evening meal.. voices issued from within her. Anthony at Marathon. Nevertheless. written in German by the Reverend Carl Vogl and translated into English by the Reverend Celestine Kapsner. Father Theophilus had several of the strongest nuns hold Anna on a mattress laid upon an iron bed. and her .

They appear at her bidding at midday when people make . present from the beginning among the other voices. even at age 46. Pandiel. and Musiniel. Oaspeniel.” possessed Anna. Dramiel. “My Jesus. Father Theophilus tried to reach Jacob. the Lion of Juda reigns!” Anna crumpled back onto the bed as a terrible shout of “Beelzebub. described as like “a swarm of mosquitoes. revealed itself as that of Mina. 1973. but they may also have been multiple abortions. The nuns and Father Steiger were so frightened and troubled that none of them could stay in Anna’s room throughout the entire exorcism but instead worked in shifts. they began to weaken and moan. Eligor is a duke who appears as a goodly knight carrying a lance. Only Father Theophilus. Armesiel. . It was the last souvenir of the infernal devils for those they had to abandon upon the Earth. Vasenel. hell” filled the room. Jacob. ghosts. and magic. but Jacob ridiculed him. Empousae means “forcers in. confident of his powers. empousai In Greek lore. and procures the favor of lords and knights. When they appear. because “the devil has no power over the free will of a human being. while tears of joy ran down her face and she cried. a type of female DEMON. Rev. a SERPENT. Rockford. “Depart ye fiends of hell! Begone Satan. This Lucifer gladly permitted him to do. while Father Theophilus blessed her and roared. Begone Satan! suggests that the children were Mina’s own. Her abdomen would swell to the point of bursting. but her principal tormentors were BEELZEBUB. Anna opened her eyes and smiled. The author describes Mina as any devil’s equal for malice and hate. Beelzebub revealed himself first.” Empusa is sometimes translated into English as “vampire. Begone. simply unbearable. Father Theophilus demanded that when they returned to hell. and by the latter part of December 1928. In addition to the physical changes. All the windows had to be opened. Anna understood languages previously unknown to her. Camodiel. only to retract and become so hard and heavy that the iron bedstead would bend under the enormous weight. they are willing to obey commands. 1928. Judas Iscariot. Anna’s father. On December 23. The spirits live mostly in the woods and must be summoned according to their planetary hours. the stench was something unearthly.” Sensing his eventual triumph. that ultimately was the guilt of his eternal damnation.72 Eligor lips grew. Father Steiger. a priest had administered extreme unction. and his mistress. the goddess of the underworld (see CHTHONIC DEITIES). or whether she had repressed her sexual contact with her father is unknown. remained steadfast. filled with spite and blaspheming the Blessed Sacrament. A high. engaging Father Theophilus in sarcastic theological conversations and acknowledging that the curses of Jacob. . falsetto voice.. Eligor (Abigor) FALLEN ANGEL and the 15th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Nasiniet. He marshals armies and causes war.” The empousai are children of Hecate. Father Steiger called for the nuns to pull her down. related to L AMIAE and similar to the SUCCUBUS. who admitted he was there to torment Anna to commit suicide and thereby go to HELL. against his efforts. Carl. Cruhiet. at about 9:00 P. Ill. sent the devils into her at age 14. Jacob.: TAN Books and Publishers. And so he was still scheming in hell how he could torture and molest his child. Anna suddenly jerked up and stood erect in bed. The author remarks that the truly amazing aspects of Anna’s possession were her basic virtue and pious disposition throughout her ordeal. calling upon the devil to tempt her with every unspeakable sin against chastity. Edriel. reportedly. rather than scream. and the devils agreed. The author continues: “In the judgment after death even all that was pardoned him. but (because) he had cursed his own daughter . taunted by the devils for having agreed to the exorcism in his parish. Anna’s aunt Mina. He discovers hidden objects. only to be answered by a spirit identifying himself as Judas Iscariot. Mina” followed by “Hell. to the size of hands. and revealed clairvoyant knowledge by exposing secret childhood sins of the other participants. Hordes of lesser devils and avenging spirits. In Begone Satan! the author describes Jacob’s life as “coarse and brutal. and an ensign. looking as if she were about to rise to the ceiling.” Whether Anna’s virginity really remained intact. He has 60 LEGIONs of DEMONs under his command. At his death. and the spirits of her father. each should call out his name as a sign of his or her departure. kindles love and lust. Phanuel. was especially harassed and suffered an auto accident that the devils had predicted and apparently arranged. Jacob eventually spoke and said that he had cursed Anna for not submitting to his incestuous advances. recoiled at holy words and objects. Father Theophilus continued to exhort the devils to depart. Mercy! Praised be Jesus Christ!” Begone Satan! describes the end: “During the first thrills of joy they were not even aware of the terrible odor that filled the room. God had damned her for living with Jacob and for murdering four children. repeated several times until the sound seemed to fade into the distance. hell.M. Satan! A Soul-Stirring Account of Diabolical Possession in Iowa. Emoniel has 100 princes and chief dukes. Emoniel DEMON and a wandering duke of the air. and a multitude of servants beneath him. 20 lesser dukes. The 12 major dukes are Ennoniel. Judas.” FURTHER READING: Vogel.” taking Anna’s aunt Mina as a mistress while he was still married and repeatedly trying to seduce Anna.

Magic. 2002. Enepsigos is conjured up as Kronos. Apollonius was skeptical of her. The story concerns a young man of Lycia. He fell under her spell and fell in love with her. and his kingdom is divided by God. not quite as demonic in nature. She admitted that she was fattening up Menippus for a kill. and servants disappeared. and new). He attended the wedding and was introduced to her by Menippus. he was met by an apparition—an empousa—in the guise of a Phoenician woman. A learned prophet says her corpse should be burned outside the city limits. She predicts that Solomon’s kingdom will be divided and the Temple of Jerusalem will be destroyed by the kings of the Persians. Vols. and Chaldeans. Greek god of time. leading men astray until the Son of God is crucified. The demon appears every morning when a fresh wind starts and blows until the third hour. Philostratus’ biography draws upon the probably fictional memoirs of one of Apollonius’ disciples. These acts are carried out. Philinnion is a young bride who dies and returns as a sexually hungry ghost to visit a man. Solomon does not believe Enepsigos and has her bound in unbreakable chains. save for Machates’ gifts. The vessels used to trap all the demons will be broken by men. they visit the girl’s tomb. The woman wept and begged Apollonius not to force her to confess her true identity. Conybeare. 1984. Apollonius told Menippus that his bride was an empousa who would devour his flesh and drink his blood. forgets about the request until he has a problem with the construction of the Temple of Jerusalem. and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook. 1 & 2. Philostratus. This Son shall be born of a virgin and shall be the only one to hold power over all demons. and that she loved to dine on young and beautiful bodies because their blood was pure and strong. Solomon. commits suicide. Menippus’ bride was offended at this and ordered Apollonius to leave. Machates. In the latter form. Charlesworth. The servant places Solomon’s magic ring at the neck of the flask. Thus. A similar tale. and many sacrifices should be made to the chthonic deities. Daniel. Ogden. But later he witnesses the truth of part of her prophecy. New York: Oxford University Press. which is a wineskin. Adarkes. They made plans to marry. Philinnion leaves behind jewelry and underwear. When the demon blows into it and fills it up. they seduce men. they become convinced. They are filthy and ugly. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Damis. bitches. They disguise themselves as cows. full. His name is Emmanuel (Emmanouel). Apollonius. Enepsigos is bound by King SOLOMON with a triple-link chain and is made to prophesy. 1912. Raymond T. London: Heinemann. One day as he was walking along the road to Cenchreae. the king of Arabia. she takes three forms because she hovers near the Moon (which has three forms: waxing. The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. Ephippas Arabian wind DEMON captured by King SOLOMON. 1983. Solomon sends a servant out into the Arabian desert to capture the wind demon in a leather fl ask. the demon gives his name as Ephippas and says he is thwarted by “the one who is going to be born from a virgin and crucified by the Jews” (JESUS). The girl herself is lying in the house where Machates is a guest.Ephippas 73 sacrifices to their dead relatives. but when the wind does not blow for three days. Most often. or beautiful girls. FURTHER READING: McNally. was credited with great feats of magic and the ability to summon spirits and see the future. Enepsigos DEMON in the shape of a woman with two heads. . New York: Doubleday. silver. the servant seals it closed with the ring. C. the letters of whose name add up to the numbers 644. is told by Phlegon of Tralles in Mirabilia 1. When the family discovers what is going on. The woman acknowledged she was the owner of all the gold and silver trappings in the house and was the mistress of all the servants. Philostratus relates a story—probably highly fictitious—about an empousa bride. Medes. In The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. Adarkes asks Solomon to send someone who can control the demon. in despair. asks Solomon for his help against a vicious wind demon. but he did. Machates gives her a ring and a golden cup. See INCANTATION BOWL. Witchcraft. ca. They have the hind ends of asses and wear brazen slippers. was Menippus saved from a gruesome fate. when he is led astray by women to worship pagan gods. and the freed demons will go throughout the world. and then falls on its neck. In the Testament of Solomon. The tools in the temple will be used to serve other gods. however. age 25. New York: Bell. to find her bier empty. Edited by James H. smart and handsome. Speaking from inside. not realizing what she really was. They enter the human body to consume its flesh and drink its BLOOD. It kills man and beast and cannot be contained. and Machates. Sometimes they are described as having one brass leg and one ass leg. The stone that he wishes for a cornerstone is so heavy that all the artisans and demon laborers cannot move it. Reprint. 1985. and all the gold. A Clutch of Vampires. 140. a philosopher and wonder worker of the first century. Enepsigos has countless other names and can shape-shift into a goddess and other forms. The local Arabs do not believe that the boy has actually contained the demon. In the Testament of Solomon. Solomon is astonished when the flask has the ability to move about on its own and takes seven steps. Menippus. but he had broken her spell. Translated by F . The boy presents the fl ask to Solomon inside the temple.

) said in Description of Greece that the oracles at Delphi described Eurynomus as a flesh-eating demon who strips corpses down to the bone. Solomon bids him to move the cornerstone.E. later demonized in Christianity. and death through the eyes. Erinyes (Furies) In Greek mythology. misfortune. and Assyrians. Eurynomus In Greek lore. No revenge is sought for this hazard. Most cases of evil eye are believed to occur involuntarily. Jacques. evil eye A demonic power of causing illness. Evil eye superstitions remained strong into modern times. illness. Edited and translated by Wade Baskin. 1965. 1983. Luck. the person casting it does not mean to do it and probably is not even aware of it.E. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. malevolent evil eye is called “overlooking” and is a form of witchcraft that can bring about misfortune or catastrophe: illness. involuntary and deliberate. ABEZETHIBOU. They cause insanity and mind-ruining derangement. sometimes causing them to commit suicide. and Tisiphone. The demon says not only will he do that. arms. Megara. and they were born from the BLOOD of the castrated god Uranus. Reprint. 1985. Erinyes means “roused to anger. carry houses from place to place. New York: Philosophical Library. There are two kinds of evil eye. who binds them to the pillar so that they remain suspended in air holding it up until the end of time. long teeth. Charlesworth. A deliberate. Originally published The Erinyes in Hades (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) as Dictionary of Demonology. When they play their lyres. 1 & 2. loss of . who punish wrongdoers to death. 1985. The Erinyes can be placated by rituals of atonement and purification. See HELL. Later European demonologists described Eurynomus as a “prince of death” who has a body covered with sores. winged women with hair. The oldest recorded reference to the evil eye appears in the cuneiform texts of the Sumerians. poverty. calamity. a high-ranking DEMON of Hades.” Ephippas goes out with the demon of the Red Sea. and hunger. about 3000 B. Dictionary of Witchcraft. and in Mexico and Central America.” The Erinyes are Alecto. Vols. to raise up the pillar. It is among ancient Hindu folk beliefs.74 Erinyes Ephippas tells Solomon that he has the ability to move mountains. New York: Doubleday. Ephippas inserts the cornerstone at the entrance of the temple. three female goddesses. They are ugly. The Bible makes references to it in both the Old and New Testaments. The pillar of air may be the same as the “pillar of cloud” referred to in the Old Testament and may mean the Milky Way. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Solomon takes this as a profound sign according to Scripture: Psalm 118:22 says. FURTHER READING: Collin de Plancy.C. and he has sharp teeth and sits on the skin of a vulture. and fox-skin clothing. Babylonians. The Greek geographer Pausanias (second c. Georg. but he will also raise up the pillar of air from the Red Sea and place it wherever the king wants. and overthrow kings. They also cause disease. C. and waists entwined with poisonous SERPENTS. His color is black-blue like that of fl ies. especially for murderers. The ancient Egyptians believed in it and used eye shadow and lipstick to prevent the evil eye from entering their eyes or mouths. mortals wither. Evil eye beliefs are universal and date to ancient times. They have been outwitted by Solomon. injury. especially in Mediterranean countries such as Italy. They carry whips and are clothed in the long black robes of mourners or the short skirts and boots of huntress-maidens. Edited by James H. “The stone which the builders rejected has become the head of the corner. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds. They serve in the court of Hades and scourge the shades of sinners. The Erinyes particularly punish those who kill their mothers.

In Mark 9:18. “how long shall I stay with you and put up with you? Bring your son here. Frieskens. The Evil Eye.” in Latin and English.” a clenched fist with thumb thrust between the index and middle fingers. Most common are frogs. to those who believe. personal difficulties. it goes through arid places seeking rest and does not find it. dispersing the demons. horns. whom he witnessed in action.” and translates as adjuro. which means “witchcraft. were said to give anyone who crossed them the evil eye and to use it to bewitch judges from convicting them. Frederick Thomas. A spirit seizes him and he suddenly screams. Eliezar had a ring attached with certain roots prescribed by the legendary King SOLOMON. it finds . as Jesus noted in Matthew 12:43–45: When an evil spirit comes out of a man. the most famous of which are L EGION. for expelled demons will immediately look for a new host. The evil eye also occurs when someone.’ When it arrives. faith can influence the success of exorcism. OBSESSION. Besides envious glances. the children become sick. The technique was in accordance with prevailing beliefs of the time that many illnesses were caused by inhaling demons. witches. In some cultures. Living with Djinns: Understanding and Dealing with the Invisible in Cairo. and the “fig. But Jesus rebuked the evil spirit. livestock. and Jesus succeeds in casting out the demon by rebuking him: A man in the crowd called out. born soon after the Crucifixion of Jesus. exorcism is performed when the church asks publicly and with authority in the name of JESUS Christ that a person or object be protected from the power of the Evil One and withdrawn from his dominion. His name is derived from the word fascinum. but they could not. Secaucus. Demonic Exorcism In Jewish tradition.: University Books/Citadel Press.exorcism 75 love. and even for onlookers. such as beating gongs and bells. even death. especially a stranger. the evil eye results from strangers in town or anyone who has unusual or different-colored eyes. The Jewish historian Josephus. the possessions are stolen. in order to force the demons out of the body. and by beating the victim physically. Other amulets include various herbs and stones. demons were exorcised often by casting them into an object or an animal. Jesus and the disciples cast out numerous evil spirits. In Catholicism. for he is my only child. 2008. and commands. laying waste to everything they see. red ribbons. such as the perceived cause of illnesses. N.” Even while the boy was coming. was probably boara. I begged your disciples to drive it out. which was at once thrown over. wrote of a celebrated exorcist named Eliezar. the victim must turn to an initiate—usually an older woman in the family—who knows a secret cure. And they were all amazed at the greatness of God. FURTHER READING: Elworthy. Thus. To exorcise does not really mean to “cast out” so much as it means to “put the Devil on oath. In the Middle Ages. Sometimes an expelled demon can return with reinforcements. The word exorcism is from the Greek exousia. exorcism The expulsion of DEMONs and other unwanted spirits from a person or place. or good fortune in business turns sour. Luke 9:38–43 tells of a case in which the disciples had failed to exorcise a boy. Some unfortunate souls are born with a permanent evil eye. It scarcely ever leaves him and is destroying him.J. Jesus or an apostle ordered the evil spirit to depart. or possessions or casts anyone a lingering look. The root. In the New Testament. who were in league with the DEVIL. called Baaras. meaning “oath. Eliezar then passed the demons into a bowl of water.” “O unbelieving and perverse generation. a highly toxic root that burns with a fl amelike color and emits lightninglike rays. or “adjure. and POSSESSION. “Teacher. In other methods. According to descriptions in the Gospels and Acts. Unless immediate precautions are taken. and spitting. including the exorcism of his son. The primary defense against evil eye is an AMULET. the demon threw him to the ground in a convulsion. a blue-eyed stranger in a land of brown-eyed people. demons are exorcised by loud noises. unless they are properly bound and dispatched. Barbara. rituals for exorcism provide for less extreme measures through the use of holy objects. Jesus recommended in one case that prayer and fasting are necessary to expel some demons. demons sent by Jesus from a man into pigs (Luke 8:30). bad luck. ‘I will return to the house I left. and the demon immediately complied. Rites of exorcism have been performed since ancient times as remedies against the negative or malevolent influences of spirits. Exorcism is considered dangerous for victim and exorcist. Then it says.” or petition a higher authority to compel the Devil to act in a way contrary to his wishes. for example.” Jesus replied. Jesus told a man that all things are possible. it throws him into convulsions so that he foams at the mouth. prayer. An exorcism formula in the Talmud for healing demon-caused blindness calls for the blindness (demon) to leave the victim and pierce the eyeballs of a designated dog. London: Saqi Books. healed the boy and gave him back to his father. 1895 ed. admires another’s children. If the evil eye cannot be warded off. Horns and the fig represent a phallus and are associated with the Roman phallic god Fascinus (Priapus). exorcisms were usually easy to perform. Eliezar held the ring under the nose of a DEMONIAC and caused the demons to leave through the breath blown through the nostrils. I beg you to look at my son. the animals die.” The evil eye is sometimes called fascination.

however. The focus shifted primarily to demonic possession. “Tomorrow I will say Mass for you. the dangers of exorcism were recognized. Pope Cornelius used the term exorcist as an order among the Roman clergy. and their possessing spirits would depart (Acts 19:11–12). Only Christians could successfully performs exorcisms. Protestants deemphasized or eliminated exorcism. She attended one of the pope’s public audiences in St. and promised to say a mass for her. defend us in battle. and imprisoned. could perform deliverance or exorcism. “In the name of Jesus. and do thou. Peter’s Square and shouted obscenities. In the early church. the woman was not rid of demons. In the late 19th century. Origen. Pope John Paul II (r. And the final condition of that man is worse than the first. and I know about Paul. The apostles performed exorcisms for those who sought them out. Finally Paul became so troubled that he turned around and said to the spirit. The first one was in 1978 and few details are known. However. In the modern Catholic tradition. The owners of the slave girl were not pleased to have their source of income terminated. Then it goes and takes with it seven other spirits more wicked than itself. flogged. it was held that one had to be a true believer in the faith in order to succeed. shouting. or formal training or ordination. major rites of exorcism are performed in which a demon is ordered in . “Jesus I know. and the church began approving certain individuals for the task of expelling spirits and healing by Church officials became skeptical that possession was genuine and in modern times preferred psychological explanations to demonic ones. we were met by a slave girl who had a spirit by which she predicted the future. Acts 19:13–16 describes how seven Jewish exorcists failed to exorcise demons in the name of Jesus and Paul. The spirit enabled her to tell the future and was not “demonic” in the modern sense: Once when we were going to the place of prayer. is more conservative but has praised exorcists and has encouraged them to pursue their ministry. By the third century. “These men are servants of the Most High God. may God rebuke him. He reportedly performed three exorcisms himself.” She kept this up for many days. She earned a great deal of money for her owners by fortune-telling. and they had Paul and his companion Silas arrested. said that the plainest of persons. He took her into a private audience. Private exorcisms are performed by ministers and laypersons for various demonic problems and are permitted in the Catholic tradition. However. in 1972. Solemn exorcism became a formal liturgical rite performed only by a priest on a possessed person and only with permission from a bishop. The role of exorcist fell to priests. The second was performed in 1982 on a young woman named Francesca F. He said. “In the name of Jesus Christ I command you to come out of her!” At that moment the spirit left her. Pope Paul VI affirmed the existence of SATAN and his attempts to pervert humanity. by the power of God.. They were attacked and beaten by the possessed man: Some Jews who went around driving out evil spirits tried to invoke the name of the Lord Jesus over those who were demon-possessed. a Jewish chief priest. O Prince of the heavenly host. He gave them such a beating that they ran out of the house naked and bleeding. Michael the Archangel. whom Paul preaches. 1878–1903) reportedly had a vision of demonic spirits trying to attack Rome. swept clean and put in order. but who are you?” Then the man who had the evil spirit jumped on them and overpowered them all.” and she was freed of demons. were doing this. The third exorcism was done in 2000 on a 19-year-old hunchbacked Italian woman. be our protector against the wickedness and the snares of the devil. Pope Benedict XVI. the prayer to the archangel Michael: St. The ministry of deliverance became increasingly restricted and by the Middle Ages was performed more as formal rites of exorcism. thrust into hell Satan and all the evil spirits who wander through the world for the ruin of souls. all believers were held to be capable of exorcism. and they go in and live there. I command you to come out. That is how it will be with this wicked generation. This girl followed Paul and the rest of us. the sick traveled to them for help. In the wake of the abuses of the Inquisition. the Vatican banned five manuals of exorcism in 1709 and in 1725 instituted more controls. None of them had a specific exorcism ministry or sought out the afflicted. who assumed the papacy in April 2005. After they were gone. There was no special class of exorcists or deliverance ministers. we humbly pray. held that it pertained only to the early years of Christianity. who are telling you the way to be saved. others carried on the work. After the Crucifi xion of Jesus. Exorcism is carried on by some under the name of DELIVERANCE.” Seven sons of Sceva.76 exorcism the house unoccupied. some. Instead of spontaneous prayers in individual circumstances. Paul was so successful as an exorcist that even items of clothing he touched could be given to the afflicted. even the illiterate. Acts 16:16–19 tells how Paul exorcised a slave girl of a divining spirit. Amen. 1978–2005) stated in 1987 that “the devil is still alive and active in the world” and championed exorcism. priests relied increasingly on standardized prayers and procedures. a church father anathematized and martyred in 253. Pope Leo XIII (r. He wrote a prayer that is now included in the R ITUALE ROMANUM and said at many masses. prayed for her and blessed her. They would say. laying on of hands. [One day] the evil spirit answered them. In the mid-third century. such as Calvinists. who convulsed on the floor when taken before the pope. the apostles exorcised in his name.

The practice is still in use privately. Police used a stun gun to subdue the man. and some of the more famous cases. he ultimately must yield to the power of the Lord. can be carried out by a priest or even a lay demonologist who has been trained by a priest. surplice. but clairvoyants and spiritualists also expel evil spirits. it underwent a series of revisions. In 2007. exorcisms have been performed in a variety of settings. They must be able to disregard personal insults and be prepared to have their darkest personal secrets revealed. the Virgin Mary. to depart in the name of Jesus Christ. The EXORCIST also calls upon all the saints. Early Puritans relied solely on prayer and fasting. but the solemn rite of exorcism for possession can be carried out only by a priest. and violet stole. Instead of having the exorcist command the demons or Devil to leave the victim. Trying another tack. shamans. The discernment of an exorcist priest is important. or small room for devotional prayers in a church. Outside Catholicism. Since 1999. exorcists might perform the rites in the home of the victim. Some contemporary exorcists prefer to use exorcism as a diagnosis of possession and to use more traditional versions of the rites (see AMORTH. exorcisms are performed according to magical rites. who lapsed into unconsciousness and died later in a hospital. Only a bed or couch remains. were witnessed by thousands of people. who monitor the exorcist. rites may be performed in a victim’s home. The exorcist should be vested in cassock. Each must be physically strong and be relatively guiltless at the time of the exorcism. most often the victim’s bedroom or personal place. In addition. FATHER GABRIELE). and trunks. which dates to 1614. recite mantras or prayers. lamps. In occult traditions. Exorcisms are performed once it is determined that a victim is genuinely under the influence of demons. The rite includes prayers and passages from the Bible and calls upon the demons. in powerful Latin. Beating and whipping the possessed in order to expel demons are a common practice and were undertaken in European exorcisms in centuries past. The assistants should not be weakened or overcome by obscene behavior and language. use copper coins. especially the archangel Michael. chapel. and the angels. The exorcist is assisted by one or two other priests. In fact. adepts. dressers. As of the Second Vatican Council (1962– 65). including deliverance. the exorcist now calls on God to command the demons to leave. candle. There should be few witnesses. and upon approval by a bishop. The Setting of an Exorcism According to the Rituale Romanum. a church. In some Pentecostal and charismatic exorcisms. In contemporary times. and other members of priestly classes perform exorcisms. lest the evil forces inside the room affect the area outside. press rock salt between their fingers. accompanied by a small side table to hold a crucifi x. Doorways must be kept covered. such as the LOUDUN POSSESSIONS. Catholic rites are among the most formal. Minor revisions were made in 1952. entire congregations participate in the expulsion of demons. Arizona. throughout history. or place a blue band around the victim’s neck to exorcise the demonic spirits. Other rites include a laying on of hands and the use of strong fumes to drive out demons.exorcism 77 the name of Christ to leave the body of a person who is possessed. responded to a report of violence during an exorcism and found a 49-year-old grandfather choking his allegedly possessed three-year-old granddaughter. The church forbids the filming of exorcisms to protect privacy. The new version eliminates some of the rough medieval language used to describe the Devil. or a sacred setting. The solemn rite is part of the RITUALE ROMANUM. A special connection exists between the demon and its possessing location. Hindu priests may blow cow-dung smoke. Lesser rites of exorcism. to minimize flying objects. cut the victim’s hair and burn it. holy water. . the church may ask physicians and other medical professionals to rule out natural causes. In non-Western traditions. trying to keep him to the business at hand and not be misguided by the perversions of the demons. Images of the crucifi x and the Virgin Mary should dominate the setting. curtains. a psychiatric examination may be desirable but is not necessary. an assistant takes over. In non-Catholic exorcisms. Doors and windows are closed but cannot be nailed shut because air must be allowed to enter the room. pull their or the victim’s hair. If the exorcist collapses or even dies during the ritual. police in Phoenix. Lesser rites of exorcism expel demons from a place (see INFESTATION) and relieve a person who is suffering from OPPRESSION. However powerful the demon may be. such as rugs. tables. and the showing of the crucifi x to the victim. Other assistants include a medical doctor and perhaps family members. priests and ministers perform most demonic exorcisms. They also provide physical aid if necessary. so that the Devil cannot use his or her secret sins as a weapon against the exorcism. blood. the exorcism portion was reissued in a new 90-page document. even if the door is open. burn pig excreta. and prayer book. Anything that can be moved is taken out. the exorcist may offer bribes of candy or other gifts if the spirit leaves the victim. The rite begins with the aspersion of holy water. excrement. Characteristics of an Exorcism Prayer and commands are central features of exorcism. Modern exorcists also employ a small tape recorder to validate the procedure. and urine. an exorcism should be carried out in an oratory. an ancient foe of the DEVIL. De Exorcismus et Supplicationibus Quibusdam (Concerning exorcisms and certain supplications).

Demons are expelled when they decide to leave voluntarily or are forced out by the power of the rite. shamed. even unconsciously. horrible sights. According to the Qur’an. Naming the demon is the most important first step. the names of important and powerful demons are given. Specific prayers and verses from the Qur’an are used. • Breakpoint. Switzerland. Sometimes demons who are high-ranking refuse to leave unless they are cast out by an ANGEL. including those troubled by djinn. the voice is babel. an invisible battle takes place between angel and demon. There are no formal Islamic rites comparable to those of Catholicism. the spirit leaves in the name of JESUS and the victim is reclaimed. The moment when the demon’s pretense finally collapses in a scene of extreme panic and confusion. as each spirit wants a place to be. and they are expected to give false names. For such spirits. but there are some dangers to exorcists who confront especially powerful djinn (afrit or ifreet). who are other exorcists and laypersons. The djinn must be rebuked. even SATAN and LUCIFER. practiced throughout the ages by prophets and the righteous. The victim may remember the ordeal or may not have any idea what has happened. Exorcism of Djinn Islam considers exorcism of DJINN to be a noble endeavor. The exorcist’s first job is to break this pretense and find out who the demon really is. and thus several or even many may possess a person. and . The djinn especially like to interrupt Salaah. and horrible cries emanate from the victim. which causes a great deal of discomfort to the victim until it is over.” Catholic exorcisms involve only the use of prayer and sacraments. locked in battle with the demon. Eternal. There is a direct link between the entity and place. Knowing the names of the demons is helpful but is not essential to the success of an exorcism. breaks. who may also levitate. The exorcist demands to know the name of the demon and the time of its departure. the use of AMULETs and TALISMANs is forbidden. they resist. Successful exorcism depends also on the reform of the victim. warned. Some names sound nonsensical. According to MALACHI MARTIN. In a supreme triumph of God’s will. Demons seldom work alone. for they are deceivers. but they tend to unfold in similar stages: • The Presence. as the demon collides with the “will of the Kingdom. or formal prayer. habitation of a living victim is preferable to HELL. Resistance can last for months or even years. Demons are liars. Once expelled. however. urges the entity to reveal more information about itself as the exorcist’s holy will begins to dominate. No slumber can seize Him Nor Sleep. Demons are never insulted. for they may suffer harm. and it must be silenced for the exorcism to proceed. Who is there can intercede In His presence except As he permitteth? He knoweth What (appeareth to His creatures As) Before or After or Behind them. ritually beat a young girl to death for being “the devil’s bride. The Selfsubsisting. and cursed in the same ways permitted against human beings. and smells. in terms of attendance at church and right living. both spiritual and physical. noises. Initially. sometimes with receding noises or voices. no two exorcisms are exactly alike. the exorcist counters with the strongest demands for the demon’s departure. While the demon hurls invectives. Spiritually. Attempts by the evil spirit to appear and act as the victim. His are all things In the heavens and on earth. and engage in other. the faithful are obliged to help the oppressed. waves of heat and cold pour over the room. but it is forbidden to believe them. such as Hitler. Nor shall they compass Aught of his knowledge Except as He willeth. exorcisms may include the physical beating of a sufferer to force the demon to depart or throwing stones at the possessed person. As the voice dies out. and cause mental disturbances and physical illness. • The Clash. and sometimes demons give the names of human beings known for their evil. accompanied by a crescendo of abuse. the victim suffers real physical pain and distress and must be held down by assistants. sura 2:255: Allah! There is no god but He—the Living. members of a fanatic cult in Zurich. One of the greatest weapons is the Ayatal-kursi. • Expulsion. In 1966. requiring repeated exorcisms. more disgusting bodily functions as well. The exorcist and assistants become aware of an alien feeling or entity. occupy homes and steal the essence of food. there is tremendous pressure. • The Voice. but exorcisms must follow strict guidelines. Measures appropriate against the unfaithful can be applied to djinn. for they are FALLEN ANGELS and possess great intelligence and wisdom.” The exorcist. His throne doth extend Over the heavens And on earth. If God sends an angel. Violence often dominates a demonic exorcism. Furniture bangs. Djinn will not harm exorcists who act in proper fashion according to the Qur’an. demons cannot return unless the victim expressly invites them back. vomit. to be seen as one and the same person. Rarely is an individual freed of demonic influence in a single exorcism.78 exorcism In earlier times and even today. Sometimes. vowing pain and penalty if it does not comply. The demon begins to speak of the possessed victim in the third person instead of as itself. It is permissible for exorcists to listen to what the possessing djinn have to say. They recoil when sprinkled with holy water or touched by a crucifi x. • Pretense. They suffer torment from the prayers and sacraments. the demon and the exorcist engage in battle. One of Amorth’s cases lasted for more than 16 years. Also a sign of the breakpoint. Demons spit. and levitates. Often. All present feel the Presence dissipating.

He said that the possessing spirit needs as much help and consolation as the possessed victim. “I choked him until I felt the coldness of his tongue on my hand. Even the djinn complain about their effectiveness: The Messenger believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord as do the believers. possession is not an evil situation but a spiritual one. The Supreme (in glory). usually described as vibrations or a feeling of cold. and seek Your forgiveness. Muhammad exorcized djinn from others by beating the possessed and by ordering the djinn out. into a living person’s aura and became trapped. I am the slave of Allah. Exorcism is not a religious expulsion but a firm good-bye. Blot out our sins. His angels. grant us forgiveness. through whom he communicated with it. Muhammad also exorcized djinn by cursing them three times: “I seek refuge in Allah from you! I curse you by Allah’s perfect curse!” The same CURSE is used against infidels. who howl and scream in agony. Exorcism in Magic Exorcism rites of spirits. It gets every good which it earns and suffers for every ill it earns. Do not give us burdens like what you gave to those before us. “We make no distinction between one and another of His messengers.” The boy was healed. a boy suffering with fits was taken to Muhammad. get out enemy of Allah. Another technique employed by exorcists is to blow three times into their hands before reciting verses. Muhammad grabbed him. His Books.” The mention of Sulaymaan (King SOLOMON) refers to Solomon’s prayer to Allah for unique power over the djinn. do not burden us beyond our capacity. A man took his grandson. Those who recite the Ayatal-kursi every night before going to bed will receive a guardian from Allah who will keep djinn away. The Prophet beat the boy’s back . Literature of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. and unwanted or negative spirits. thus invoking a blessing of the moisture or air touched by divine words remembering Allah. he would have been tied up so they could could see him. And if it were not for Sulaymaan’s prayer. provides information for performing exorcisms. Canon Pearce-Higgins agreed with Wickland that possession is not demonic but a manifestation of confused.” And they say. Once while he was engaged in Salaah. the essence of the verses can be ingested by eating food prepared with inscriptions written on it (such as bread) or alphabet soup. who became insane through a possessing djinn. like stale flowers or worse. ghosts. Words and phrases from proper qur’anic verses can be written in ink made from allowable substances on vessels used for washing and drinking by the possessed. poltergeists. to You is the end of all journeys. the exorcist has come to recognize the sensations associated with such restless entities. do not condemn us if we forget or fall into error. possessed by no one else. sending the spirit out of its living host and on to its proper realm. He refused to call himself an exorcist. Our Lord. The blows are not felt by the possessed person but are felt by the djinn. and have mercy on us. Spiritual exorcists may perform several persuasive departures in one day. “Get out enemy of Allah! Enemy of Allah get out!” The djinn left and the boy was healed. Wickland believed that possession occurred when a discarnate human entity blundered. Muhammad said. Wickland coaxed the spirit out of its victim and into his wife. and choked him. Working with spirits. Using the services of his wife. The Golden Dawn flourished from the late 19th century into the early 20th century. IBLIS went to him and troubled him. he was instructed by a nonphysical guide to perform the exorcism himself with the guide’s instructions. “In the name of Allah. Similarly. depending on the individual exorcist’s intuitive ability and strength. Anna. elementals. Muhammad would have had authority to bind Iblis himself. DR. For He is the Most High. CARL A. All believe in Allah. In a record of a personal experience. An example of a Golden Dawn exorcism follows. Spirit Exorcism In some views. or thought forms are part of ritual magic. PEARCE-HIGGINS are two of the most famous practitioners of persuasive exorcism. the Golden Dawn initiate Frater Sub Spe reported that he concluded that he and his wife were possessed by a vampirizing elemental—a low-level spirit—after his wife’s bout of influenza left both of them in a state of inexplicable exhaustion and vulnerability. its rituals are now public and provide the foundation for many magical practices. earthbound spirits. “We hear and obey. a medium.” Allah does not burden a soul beyond its capacity. one of the leading occult societies in the West. Some entities emit odors. confusedly. He employed religious services and simple conversation to persuade the spirit to leave. and His messengers (saying). it is drawn from material found in GRIMOIRES. Another qur’anic exorcism weapon are the closing verses from sura 2:285–86. but during a state of intense concentration. Frater Sub Spe at first thought to consult a fellow adept. Sometimes djinn must be beaten out of people. wrestled him to the ground. The Prophet blew into his mouth three times and said. The prophet Muhammad acted aggressively against djinn. In another case. energies. to see Muhammad. WICKLAND and the Anglican clergyman CANON JOHN D.exorcism 79 He feeleth No fatigue in guarding And preserving them. (Pray): Our Lord. Such techniques of persuasion involve the use of psychic force. while saying. so help us against the disbelieving people. demons. the water also may be sprinkled on the body. Our Lord. You are our Guardian. If not for that.

Jose Antonio. a glowing ball of electric fire and then projecting it like a lightning flash upon the foul image before me. and trace an invoking Pentagram of Earth. According to some beliefs. and then the thing was gone. 1995. Hostage to the Devil. Frater Sub Spe was told to do the following: turn down the gas. Mircea. exorcist A person who expels DEMONs. a foul smell. Magic. some laypersons call themselves exorcists. Francis. 1964. Martin. and face East and make the Qabalistic Cross. Tracy. Exorcists use specific prayers and rituals to cause demons to leave people and/or places. a momentary dimness.) Abridged. 2006. postgraduate degrees. There was a slight feeling of shock. even in psy- . At the same time I sensed my guide. Diabolic Possession. North Hollywood. T.” and then with complete clarity. T. Guiley. Both my wife and myself rapidly recovered our full health.: Ascension Press. MALACHI MARTIN described the ideal exorcist in Hostage to the Devil (1976): Usually he is engaged in the active ministry of parishes. Carl. sometimes. in Antiquity. trace an invoking Pentagram of Fire toward the east. AHIH. even priests who live in mortal sin can function as exorcists. ADNI. My guide then instructed me. 2007. and at the end of the ritual. The ritual does not instantly eliminate evil but reduces the influence of evil in daily life. ANNELIESE. thus benefiting an individual’s overall spiritual path and enlightenment. nor is proven intellectual brilliance. Princeton. a message came to me that “the unclean spirit is gone out. Ibn Taymeeyah’s Essay on the Jinn (Demons. The great English occultist and ritual magician William S.” I did so. or adepts. any priest can be an exorcist. Ebon. The magician merged with the body of Frater Sub Spe.: Princeton University Press. JESUS was noted for his ability to exorcise demons. as “in a glass darkly. I saw. R EGINALD SCOT wrote in the 16th century that a person born with Mars in the ninth house has the power to expel demons from the possessed. New York: Warner Books. are widespread. New York: Harper & Row. I did so and the mist thickened and formed a kind of nucleus. Martin.” Eliade. Exorcism of Emily Rose. Interview with an Exorcist: An Insider’s Look at the Devil.80 Exorcism of Emily Rose. and the Path to Deliverance. Beliefs about the ability of spirits to interfere in human life and cause problems. First published 1924. I felt him (my guide) mentally order me to command the appearance of the obsessing entity. materialized before me. Oesterreich. Since attitudes toward demonic interferences vary.” I did so gathering all the force I possessed into. Afterwards. 2002. New Hyde Park. clergy. vibrate the Name of Power “Adni ha Aretz. 1966. either of their own volition or by force. Gray composed an exorcism ritual for banishing evil within the self.: University Books. N. Specially trained persons who cast out demons are found universally since ancient times. simultaneously my Guide disappeared. My guide spoke to me in an audible voice. commanding in that name a fuller manifestation. Sound and robust physical health is not a characteristic of exorcists. “Use the Name of the Lord Jesus. a most foul shape. In the Catholic Church.Y. New York: Facts On File. Wilkinson. but it remains to purge away his traces from the house of life.” return the coal to the fire. Afterwards. Mich.J. Possession: Demonical and Other among Primitive Races. The effect of this experience upon me was to create a great tension of nerves and a disposition to start at almost anything. using the Names JHVH.: Chosen Books. Shamanism. The See MICHEL. While it is desirable that an exorcist lead the most virtuous life possible. as it were. Rarely is he a scholarly type engaged in teaching or research. albeit probably not as effectively as their more virtuous counterparts. they are concentrated in archdioceses. The Vatican’s Exorcists: Driving Out the Devil in the 21st Century. The Devil’s Bride. First published 1898. If there is any median age for exorcists. I saw floating balls of fire. 2006. Deliverance from Evil Spirits: A Practical Manual. Most exorcists are priests. Priests who perform many exorcisms are likely at some point to be subjected to criticism and ridicule from their peers. standing close to my right hand. FURTHER READING: Davies. the Middle Ages and Modern Times. MacNutt. Rarely is he a recently ordained priest. Thirty Years among the Dead. The Encyclopedia of Magic and Alchemy. Fr. Fortea. this may have been hallucination. based on the Tree of Life in the K ABBALAH. Malachi. N. when going upstairs. it is probably between the ages of fifty and sixty-five. like a scrap of London fog. West Chester. Grand Rapids. 1974. between a bloated big-bellied toad and a malicious ape. Exorcism: Past and Present. Witton. New Delhi: Islamic Book Service. The A vision of a stately man in black magical robes appeared and responded to the secret Golden Dawn salutes given him by Frater Sub Spe. burn incense. Calif. saying “Now smite it with all your force. 1974. New York: Harper & Row. K. Wickland. Frater Sub Spe did as instructed. AGLA. at first dimly. and translated by Dr. including disease and misfortune. annotated. raising his hand in the attitude of the 1=10 sign [a grade of the Golden Dawn]. Pa. using the Name of the Lord Jesus. not all dioceses have official exorcists. Rosemary Ellen. a ritual gesture. taking possession of it and giving instructions via words and impressions. Divination and Demonology among the Hebrews and Their Neighbors. 1987. trace the sigil of Leo in the center of the pentagram. persons are born with the special ability to battle demons.: Newcastle. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips. he ordered the possessing spirit to appear before him: As I did so a vague blot.

self-centered. West Chester. Other people in the house are Karl’s wife the housekeeper. someone moves her furniture. Formal training is offered at the Regina Apostolorum Pontifical Athenaenum. horrible things. he is sarcastically funny. ministers sometimes perform exorcisms. personal behavior. the usual reasons for a priest’s being chosen are his qualities of moral judgment. with pure evil. but the reader receives a teaser of evil to come: The cleric. Then Regan’s personality changes. No return will be made to him for his loss. Members of magical traditions also can be exorcists. and given to obscenities. Deliverance from Evil Spirits: A Practical Manual. 1976. D. but it introduced the horrors of demonic POSSESSION and EXORCISM to a mass audience. happy.: Ascension Press. . At first. Though. are staying while Chris finishes filming a movie. He must consent to a dreadful and irreparable pillage of his deepest self. which opens in a townhouse in the Georgetown section of Washington. law enforcement representatives. Fr.. Francis. 1995. Burke Dennings. perform the EXORCISM rites. José Antonio. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF EXORCISTS. Her conversations center around sexual and bodily functions. and other experts. the contact is in part fatal for the exorcist. Karl. of course. Wilkinson. visits often. contorting her body in jerking. where an archaeologist and cleric are finishing a dig of ancient Assyrian ruins. Exorcist. for they are subjected to demonic attacks designed to interfere in their work or persuade them to leave the work. and Chris’ secretary. Martin underscored the dangers of exorcism: Every exorcist must engage in a one-to-one confrontation. disgusting. a Vatican-affi liated university in Rome. She asks the servant. Martin. who also tutors Regan. Diabolic Possession. adepts. The prologue describes a brief encounter in Iraq. apparently familiar with the ways of the DEVIL. which is distended and unrecognizable. Grand Rapids. Hostage to the Devil. 2006. Once engaged. Priests who are new exorcists receive special personal training from more experienced exorcists.: Chosen Books. In other denominations. Mich. Some part of his humanness will wither from such close contact with the opposite of all humanness—the essence of evil. Her bed shakes violently. In other religions and spiritual traditions and shamanic societies. annoy Chris. No names are given. personal and bitter. she becomes introverted and argumentative and eventually becomes hostile. Chris hears rapping noises on the ceiling. twisting movements. See AMORTH. They work in teams to discern POSSESSION. Exorcists must develop profound spiritual and inner strength. Willie. threatening pain and illness. LOUIS POSSESSION case. which gives them discernment of demons and their presences. . Interview with an Exorcist: An Insider’s Look at the Devil. FURTHER READING: Fortea. Then begins the real story. There will and must always be a victor and a vanquished. the house suffers from an INFESTATION: attack by the demons through the victim’s surroundings. where the divorced actress Chris McNeil and her 11-yearold daughter. talking to a Captain Howdy. affectionate young girl. or a very sophisticated personal culture. Something dies in him. FATHER GABRIELE. The novel veers away substantially from the real case. They are called to their duty by receiving the chrism of the Holy Spirit. 2007. And no matter what the outcome. Some demons are skilled at hiding within a possessed person.Exorcist. and obscene. The (1971) Novel by William Peter Blatty based on the true story of the ST. The Vatican’s Exorcists: Driving Out the Devil in the 21st Century. Priests do not become exorcists by choice. sociologists. and it is rarely if ever revitalized. but he finds none. New York: Warner Books. New York: Harper & Row. and specially trained persons. Tracy. Portrayed as a bright. She begins to exhibit superhuman strength. Sharon. burning smell in her room. Regan. Pa.C. Regan plays more and more with a OUIJA™ board. Other petty incidents occur: Books and objects disappear. Now Captain Howdy not only talks to Regan but also tells her awful. Her best friend and the film’s director. medical professionals. the exorcism cannot be called off. and sometimes entire congregations participate in expelling demons. . Strange voices emerge from her body. Some exorcists suffer physical and mental health problems resulting from demonic influences and in a few cases may even become possessed themselves. Strange noises and incidents. as in Pentecostal churches. FATHER JOSÉ ANTONIO. there are many exceptions. most of them in Regan’s room. Malachi. but she does not pay much attention to them. Regan’s room is always cold. the girl’s clothing often ends up in a wadded pile on the floor. She slithers like a snake. and religious beliefs—qualities that are not sophisticated or laboriously acquired. an alcoholic. The 81 chology or philosophy. Students learn the differences between possession and psychological and physical traumas and hear lectures by exorcists. senses that the DEMON PAZUZU has been disturbed by the digging and plans revenge. priests. but that somehow seem always to have been an easy and natural part of such a man. and work with laypersons who assist in the rites. and a stuffed mouse is found in the rat traps. exorcists are the members of the priestly castes. The discernment is of the utmost importance in determining whether or not a person is possessed and whether demonic influences such as infestation and oppression are present. to check the windows and catch the rats she believes are making the scratching noises. and the Path to Deliverance. Regan succumbs slowly to her possession. FORTEA. and an inexperienced exorcist might be tricked into thinking a person is not possessed or the demons have been expelled. and there is a foul. . Alone at home. MacNutt.

a huge clay phallus has been attached to the statue of Christ. His head is turned completely around. scorning those who are poor or ignorant. moving furniture. He is tantalized by the evil present in Regan and agrees to help rid her of her demons. Someone has desecrated the nearby Catholic Church. and a Latin text describing Mary Magdalene as a lesbian is left on the altar. Under hypnosis. Father Karras suspects SATANISM—sexual gratification through blasphemous acts—but his training as a doctor prevents him from fully believing the Devil is about. who died poor and alone in a New York slum tenement. abandoning her career. Although an agnostic. from Dogmorfmocion. The doctors test Regan for everything but find no physical reason for her troubles. . suffers at the hands of demons in The Exorcist (1973). The Linda Blair. there is excrement on the altar cloth. Besides. Besides the terrible contortions. perhaps an atheist. Chris takes Regan from one doctor to another. the psychiatrist priest Father Damien Karras also lives in Washington. He fears he does not love his fellow man as he should. Meanwhile. the statue of the Virgin Mary has been painted to resemble a harlot. in a parallel plot. explaining that turning his head around was common practice in the murder of witches. left alone in the house with Regan.82 Exorcist. Father Karras meets Chris and Regan. an injury that is practically impossible. Burke Dennings. even in a severe fall.. Before Father Karras can obtain permission for an exorcism. He anguishes over his mother. dies mysteriously by falling out the girl’s secondstory bedroom window and over a steep cliff below. Chris believes more firmly that her daughter has become possessed and needs a Catholic exorcism. burdened not only with the troubles of his patients but with his own overwhelming guilt. As Regan’s condition worsens. D. Through the movie company. and poltergeist phenomena (shaking bed. foul smells. obscene behavior. she exhibits all the classic signs of true possession. as the demonically possessed Regan. (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) Frantic to find out what torments her daughter.C. Father Karras has become mentally exhausted with his work. The personality—or demon—identifies himself as Nowonmai. at Georgetown University. one psychiatrist tries to talk to what he sees as Regan’s other personality. The demons in Regan eventually admit killing Dennings. horrible voices. counseling the seminarians.

often employing a crucifi x for masturbation. the Eye Killers were round and tapered at one end. clawed paws. According to lore. the name of her demon. and without limbs. . The devil in Regan had been calling “Marin” for quite some time. Killing lightning bolts flew from their eyes. and Father Karras is found dead below. and Joseph W. and their guilt in their faces. and the theme music. Exorcist II: The Heretic (1977) was a less successful sequel with Richard Burton as a priest still trying to release Linda Blair from her demonic possession. monstrous DEMONs who killed by staring at people without blinking. the young actress Linda Blair gives a wrenching performance as Regan. And most importantly for the church. The window crashes open.” When it seems Regan will die of her ordeal. leaving Father Karras to fight alone. Nowonmai. 1974. He went to the cave where they lived and built a large fire in the entrance. Then he called out to the Eye Killers. demons were born into the world when women became pregnant by using dildos. Father Karras is to assist Father Lankester Merrin. Eye Killers In Southwest Native American lore. they developed owl’s heads. The demonic voices were provided by the actress Mercedes McCambridge. victims usually would be struck dead before they could make fires. and urinating all over the priests as they order the demon to depart. “Tubular Bells. Charles. with Regan spitting. As they grew. and maybe Russian. The gibberish she mouths constantly is found to be English. A hero named Monster Slayer decided he would kill the demons. In the film version. Regan regains herself. German. The only way people could stave them off was to build a fi re. the church gives its permission for an exorcism. The demon believes he has won. in any case. no one had made the connection. he threw salt on the fire. New York: Simon & Schuster. backward. The demon goads both men. She taunts Father Karras with paranormal knowledge. At the climax. impersonating the voices of his mother and an early lover. were born after a chief’s daughter impregnated herself with a prong from a sour cactus. a male and a female. eventually displaying stigmata on her chest. The Eye Killers were a nearly invulnerable force. When they appeared. Father Karras orders the demon to leave Regan and enter him: Complete possession as a fitting punishment for his sins. It took all of the village shaman’s skill to exorcize the demons from the village. The words help me appear on her stomach in her handwriting. but until Father Merrin arrived. She recoils from religious objects or uses them blasphemously.” Dogmorfmocion is “I come from God. breaking pottery). and Max von Sydow as Father Merrin. released in 1973. with Ellen Burstyn as her mother.” was nominated for an Oscar. vomiting. but. Chris. for Father Karras’ soul is not strong enough to overcome his guilt. and huge. FURTHER READING: Hyatt. The reader must decide whether the demon accepted Father Karras’ offer. Eye Killers are a variation of EVIL EYE lore. Latin.Eye Killer s 83 banging windows. flinging their pride. an old hand at fighting the Devil and the one who senses the evil of Pazuzu in the book’s prologue. The exorcism proceeds according to the ancient RITUALE ROMANUM. SERPENT bodies. their secret sins. Regan speaks languages previously unknown to her: French. Regan suffers from incessant hiccuping and skin irritations. She uses the clipped British accents of Dennings as well. Audiences were traumatized by the film. Victoria. is “I am no one (won). Father Merrin cannot survive this final encounter and dies during the exorcism. The Book of Demons. and some persons sought professional help in the fear that they might become possessed themselves. However. Twin Eye Killers. The sparks forced the Eye Killers to shut their eyes for a few moments—long enough for the Monster Slayer to club them to death on their heads with his fl int club. When born.

fairies can bestow the gift of clairvoyance (and healing) upon mortals. for example. In lore. including striking them blind. Fairies are often referred to as “the Little People. fairies themselves do not like the word. and there are a variety of explanations of their origins. Fairy Origins Fairy beliefs are universal and ancient. most often. the fairies are descended from the Tuatha de Danaan. In Irish lore. trapped between heaven and Earth 84 • Guardians of the dead.” “the Strangers. They are best seen at dusk. primitive races like the Tuatha de Danaan that went into hiding in order to survive In more recent times. According to lore. From them arose the gods.” “the People of Peace. gnomes of the earth. Fairy originates from the Latin word fata. and salamanders of fire • Supernatural creatures who are shape-shifting monsters or half-human.” and evolved from faerie. such as “the Good Neighbors. or “fate. and the fairies. they do not like to be seen by people and will often punish people who see them accidentally. they prefer to be called by more respectful names. where they act as demons • Nature spirits who are attached to particular places or to the four elements. They tend to be either ugly—even monstrous—or beau- .” “the Gentry. Other explanations for the origins of fairies are the following: • Souls of the unbaptized and pagan dead.” and other terms. sylphs of the air. those people die • Ancestral ghosts • Fallen angels cast out of heaven with LUCIFER.” In medieval times fairy sometimes described women who had magical powers. a state of enchantment. Descriptions and Characteristics Fairies usually are invisible save to those with clairvoyant sight. sentenced by God to the elements of the earth. the early inhabitants of Ireland. requiring EXORCISM. undines of water. living in an otherworld that exists between the living and the dead. When the Mil invaded. and when they do. fairies have been compared to extraterrestrials.F fairies Beings who occupy a middle realm between Earth and heaven. small people. they are capable of bewitchment and POSSESSION. half-monster • Small human beings. Celtic fairy lore is particularly strong and absorbed Christian elements. from tiny lights to winged creatures and.” “Themselves. the Tuatha de Danaan used supernatural powers to become invisible and withdraw into the hills. In lore.” “The Seely (Blessed) Court. They have the power to take people. demigods. Descriptions of fairies cover a wide range. Fairies have magical powers and are sometimes associated with DEMONs and FALLEN ANGELS. If they choose to be visible. heroes.

and has a habit of running abroad at night. who also were said to be normal at birth but were stolen by the fairies . and holes in the ground and under piles of stones and rocks. and even death. there was no longer the fine baby that she had put to bed in the evening. Not all fairies are hostile or are tricksters. Evans-Wentz gives the following quoted oral account from France. The Secret Commonwealth. fairies have the magical ability to bewitch people and animals and to blight crops and health. there is an intermingling of ghosts of the dead and the afterlife with fairies and the Land of Fairy. Changelings Fairies are well known for stealing human babies and substituting their own ugly babies in their place. Some of them like to march in processions at night and especially at the “cross quarter” days of the seasons. caves. and food for them. Y. in 1691–92. the household brownies will help with chores. He has all the possible vices.” The latter term refers to invisible arrows shot into people and animals. are called “fairy struck” and “elf shot. EvansWentz in the early 20th century. spoiling it for people. there was. and people give him alms because they have a great fear of him. In Fairyland. or fall into trances or even seizures. opening closed windows and doors and creating disturbances similarly to haunting ghosts. still one of the major first-person accounts in existence. Some are kind and helpful to people. and it is no longer fit for others to consume. The taking happens at night when a child is asleep or when it is napping unattended. if it is permanent. greatly deformed. for it will alter the body and prevent a person from returning to the world of the living. as well as black animals. They attend human wakes and funerals and eat the banquet food. and he has tried many times to kill his mother. a stone. AMULETs made of iron keep fairies away. and sometimes they will deliberately fool and attack people. leave out milk. the fairies claim it. the Tuatha de Danaan took revenge upon the Mil by blighting wheat crops and spoiling milk. Robert Kirk. the fairies will pass right through it. They travel in the physical world along paths. If a person insults or displeases fairies. especially beautiful women they take for wives. also called Elfland. as long as occupants are respectful. cream. and the occupants will sicken. There is no day or night but a perpetual twilight. For ex- ample. and today he is about seventy years old. while others live in races and nations. illness. Fairies live much as humans do. Descriptions of European fairies have been collected from oral lore. If an abduction is temporary. hunchbacked. working and maintaining families and amusing themselves with food. burrows. the person dies and stays in the otherworld. as an example: When she had her first child. they have the power to transform him into a beast. Time is altered. and are not messy. for the fairies take the essence of the food. music. The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries (1911). The Land of Fairy. Once food is left for fairies. it must not be eaten by man or beast. Some fairies are solitary. Their homes are often in the earth and are accessed through mounds. who act strangely. instead. He is a veritable demon. and it must be given to them. It is bad luck to disturb these places. Fairies have a major weakness: IRON. he predicts the future. A major compendium of fairy lore was written by W. she noticed one morning that he had been changed during the night. Fairies teach witches their magical lore and casting of spells. which. visited Fairyland and wrote an account. or something else in nature. This changed infant still lives. especially crows. sicken. so that a day in human life might stretch into years in fairyland. drink.fairies 85 tiful. When Christian elements entered fairy lore. a person who eats their food remains trapped in a netherworld. are associated with demons and the DEVIL. If someone builds a house atop a fairy track. Fairies are similar to demons in that many of them do not care for humans. also the land of the dead. In Ireland. In legend and lore. as with their homes. must never be disturbed or destroyed by humans. and everybody flees from him. The poor woman knew that a fee [fairy] had changed her child. a person sickens and then recovers. and dancing. His nickname is Olier. If food falls on the floor. A strong trickster element runs through fairy lore. and their animals will die. especially to deceive or manipulate people. Fairies kidnap people to their abodes. a Scottish Episcopalian minister who was clairvoyant. Black birds. like leprechauns. and raths. fairies assume the forms of black birds. The fairies act as poltergeists. Bewitchment and Witchcraft As do witches. The woman had two other children. has characteristics of the land of the dead. they are sometimes magpies. and crooked. In Irish lore. and the fairies will take revenge on people who do. Bewitched and fairy-possessed people and animals. in French fairy lore. tracks. They are shape shifters who can assume whatever form they wish. though on conditions. causing misfortune. an infant hideous to look at. which repels them and dilutes their supernatural powers. about a woman and her three children. a very strong and very pretty boy. To be “taken” by fairies means to go to the otherworld. They call him the “Little Corrigan” [a type of fairy]. and of a black color. it became customary to dip a thumb in fresh milk and make the sign of the cross to ward off fairies. Eating fairy food is taboo. They are fond of leading travelers astray. Being poor and infirm now. he is obliged to beg. their crops will fail.

Angels—possibly some of the Watchers—who are sentenced to be imprisoned “under the earth. but the lid flew off and most of the milk spilled. dejected and silent. how effective they were probably depended on the nature of the problem affecting the infant. The continuing portrayal of fairies in popular media is of cute. 3. Lucifer later became identified with SATAN. waiting for the “measureless judgment. 1995. New York: Carroll. the followers of Satanail who plotted with him and turned away from God’s commandments. One remedy in French lore. The hunchback is even called “a veritable demon. 4. The apostate angels. R. the virtue of the sign. One old folk custom in Brittany. 2 Enoch speaks of four grades of fallen angels: 1. sometimes little or no distinction was made between one and the other. the abbot of Iona. called for the burning of green branches on the summer solstice. or female ballerinalike figures with wands. Demons as well as fairies possessed milk. France. Domestic farm animals were passed through the smoke. Fairies in Contemporary Lore Since Victorian times. Columba for exorcism. W. by tracing on it. and they weep unceasingly. for example. The fictitious Tinkerbell. becoming DEMONs. it especially guaranteed the abundant supply of milk. The three versions of the book of Enoch associate fallen angels with the WATCHERS. who also are imprisoned in the fifth heaven. The “tooth fairy” who leaves money in exchange for teeth left underneath a pillow is still popular with small children.668 angels. and so was the milk poured into it. They ask Enoch to pray for them. and exorcisms of milk once were common in folklore practices. and it was not affected. Stewart. When he blessed it. and the fairies would be repelled. “Thou has done carelessly in thy work today. Then she was advised by a wise woman to put a sprig of boxwood blessed by a priest in the cradle. a place of “darkness greater than earthly darkness. One day a youth named Columban did the milking and took the pail to St. Reprint.” There they hang under guard.C. thou seest. The affected infants were not unrecognizable or completely different. a changeling had “demonic” characteristics much as a person possessed by a demon does: an altered personality. He is imprisoned in the fifth heaven. In the case of cows. The biography of the Irish patron saint Columba. Columba said. tells a story about the saint’s exorcism of milk. . Thomas Aquinas. was to leave a changeling outdoors. The Vita Columbae was written by Adamnan.” The fallen angels are dark in appearance. prideful angel cast out of heaven. LUCIFER is the arrogant. N. according to lore. the possession was usually permanent.306. the pail miraculously filled with milk. 1911. he has quickly fled away in terror. The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries.” One-third of the heavenly host fell with him—133. fairies have been increasingly stripped of their formidable powers and trivialized as little beings with wings.” As the preceding account shows. also added to the degrading of fairies to inconsequential. Lake Toxaway. before pouring in the milk. The changelings were thus “fairy-possessed.” Columba then ordered a half-full pail to be carried to him for exorcism.” In Christianity. leaving the true child in its rightful place. Satanail was once a high angel who thought he could be greater than God and thus was cast out of heaven on the second day of creation. The idea of changelings might have explained problems in infants that were not apparent at birth but developed later and even “crib death” or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). evil tendencies and acts. 1990. The saint made the sign of the cross in the air. The Vanishing People. They are imprisoned in the second heaven. magical little beings with no demonic associations. supernormal abilities (prophecy). They fell for nine days. who lived in the sixth century. New York: Pantheon Books. which exorcized all evil spirits and fairies and protected them from bewitchment and possession. J. but they were changed for the worse in noticeable ways. The vessel for containing the milk was exorcized and blessed. M.” In the case of changelings. Fairies were well known for bewitching milk. Barrie around the turn of the 20th century as part of the Peter Pan stories. SATANAIL. Exorcism remedies exist in fairy lore. The Watchers. She did so for her fourth child. The fairies would hear it cry and take it back. created by the Scottish novelist J.86 fallen angels and also became “demonic” hunchbacks. 1978. the prince of the fallen one. while at the same time the whole of the vessel has been violently shaken. Y. The Living World of Faery. a view reinforced by the influential theologian St. fallen angels Angels who fall from God’s grace and are punished by banishment from heaven. 200 angels who descend from heaven to cohabitate with women and corrupt humanity and are severely punished by God. Evans-Wentz. the sign of the Lord’s cross. and the milk spilled. and now not enduring. The fallen angels become demons who seek to ruin men’s souls. for thou has not cast out the demon that was lurking in the bottom of the empty pail.: Mercury. Theologians have posited that a portion of each of the nine orders of angels fell. Possession and Exorcism Changelings result from possession: An entity steals a soul during sleep. mentioned briefly in Isaiah as “Son of the Morning” or “Morning Star. 2. FURTHER READING: Briggs. some said the fallen ones compose a tenth order. and an altered physical appearance. Katherine. little creatures.

which he and his assistant. In the Testament of Solomon the demon ORNIAS explains to SOLOMON that demons have the capability of flying up to heaven in order to eavesdrop on God and learn his plans. Cats. meaning “of a household or domestic. Personal familiars sometimes attach themselves to a . They have been part of shamanic and SORCERY traditions around the world. They can possess people and animals and are capable of acting independently of the people with whom they associate. even sexually. familiars are low-ranking DEMONs or IMPs given by the DEVIL to those who commit to PACTs with him. some were spirits kept in bottles and flasks. and healers.familiar 87 family bloodline and serve generations. In witchcraft lore.” Familiars can be either good or evil in nature. and cities. were the favored forms. They carried out spells and bewitchments. sometimes acting in service or guardianship. traded. elves. and did guard duty. Such spirits provided advice and guidance. performed tasks. and even spirit lovers. Familiars in Magic and Witchcraft Familiars can be conjured magically for a variety of purposes. They assume many shapes. gnomes. Madimi. given. love. appointed. and other places and attached themselves to people. and trolls. According to tradition. and they vary significantly in intelligence and powers. They can be housed in bottles and rings. burning fields. Folklore traditions through history hold that falling stars are the souls of those who have just died or who are descending to Earth to be reborn. Spirits that work in mines and guard hidden treasures are sometimes called familiars. such as elementals. Demonic familiars were said by witch hunters to serve witches in all ways. brownies. Some familiars assume whatever shape is needed for their purposes. they become exhausted and fall to Earth like flashes of lightning. familiar A spirit that maintains regular contact with a person. The term familiar is from the Latin term familiaris. guardians of places. The witch hunter Pierre de Lancre said the highestranking witches have familiars in the shape of horned Archangel Michael evicting Lucifer and his followers from heaven (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) falling stars DEMONs who have no way station in which to rest and so fall from the sky. Low familiars are inanimate objects. especially black. Even FAIRIES were said to be familiars. familiars can be magically locked in bottles. Familiars are summoned via magical ritual. The English magician John Dee acquired a scrying (divining) crystal inhabited by a familiar spirit. People think they are falling stars. animals. The shapes assumed reflect the nature of the spirit. The DJINN summoned by King SOLOMON to build his Temple of Jerusalem are comparable to familiars. Or witches inherited familiars from other witches. birds and insects. High familiars assume plant. who may be intent on deceit. But because they have no place to rest. bought. they are the constant attendants and servants of magicians. spell casters. used to communicate with angels and spirits. who appeared when summoned and obeyed him and was superior to lowerranking spirits such as the genii. Plotinus also was said to have a familiar. Dee had another familiar. who appeared as either a young girl or an adult. Early Beliefs about Familiars The Greeks and Romans believed in familiars called DAIMONEs. buildings. In esoteric lore. She even appeared naked when dealing with a sexual matter. such as magical books that mysteriously appear. and sold. which occupied homes. and stones and sometimes sold as CHARMs for success in gambling. Edward Kelley. and human shape. Other early beliefs about familiars cross over into the lore of FAIRIES. or they appear of their own volition. acted as servants. Socrates said daimones whispered in his ear to warn him of danger and misfortune. rings. wizards. A witch could have multiple familiars. animal. or providing information and instruction. and business. The fear that all cats were witches’ familiars led to cat massacres in Europe. Most witch familiars were believed to be in animal form.

and welts upon their bodies. and others send out “calls” on the psychic planes to draw in the right animal. toads. A familiar might try to influence a sexual encounter by prolonging it as long as possible. had a white spotted cat named Sathan. reacting visibly to the presence of any negative or evil energy. rabbits. wasps. It usually presses on top of a person or lies alongside him or her. employ. carrying out tasks for their masters (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) Many modern Witches. Jezebel. by ritual banishment. the casting of spells. by possessing a person’s human lover to manipulate his or her hands and body. Having a familiar was sufficient to condemn a witch to death. Greedigut. the accused English witch Elizabeth Clark (17th century) confessed to having five familiars. usually assuming the form of a tall man in black who attends his victim. England. trials of 1556. birds. They are sensitive to psychic vibrations and power and are welcome partners inside the magic circle for the raising of power. Familiars attend rituals and protect against negative spirits. LUDOVICO MARIA. and other magical work. either by drawing energy from people engaged in it or by assuming or possessing a human form in order to participate in sex directly. in which a person sees. a creature that looked like a greyhound with an ox’s head and could shape shift into a headless child. and so discernment must be applied to whatever information they impart. suicide. and farm animals. in order to subvert his soul. Abrahel. hears. the literary MEPHISTOPHELES is an elegant familiar. aberrant behavior. and Pagans have familiars as magical helpers. Ilemanzar. and also OBSESSION. For example. discolorations. physical injuries caused by familiars. Problems with Familiars Frequent contact with familiars can result in nightmares. mice. In England. Familiars can engage in sex by possessing a person’s body and generating internal sensations of pleasure. it enjoys the higher spiritual nature of sex or the lustful physical nature of it. if necessary. Elizabeth Francis. See SINISTRARI. Many are animals (often cats) whose psychic attunement makes them ideal partners in magic. Blackman. covenant with. spirit contact. Verdelet. Wiccans. feed. and Pyewackett. the Witchcraft Act of 1604 made it a felony to “consult. Familiars can manifest as voices in the head that cause compulsive. Witches who were arrested and imprisoned were watched secretly to see whether their familiars came to their aid. During the witch hysteria. whether it be an unseen force or a person who dabbles in the wrong kind of magic. bees. Even a fly. . Faust also was accompanied by a black dog familiar. Some Witches turn pets into familiars. Guards had to watch carefully that familiars—believed to be assassins dispatched by the Devil—did not kill an accused witch before she could be tried.” In contrast to the familiars of the witch trials. and violence toward others. and physical strain and breakdown.88 familiar Low-level demons. and demons masquerading as seductive humans attacked sleeping people at night and raped them. and feels an influencing spirit. Some witches had familiars in human form. ant. or cockroach that went toward a witch was called a familiar. or reward any evil and wicked spirit to or for any intent or purpose. ferrets. Familiars are given psychic protection by their witches. suckling them with their own BLOOD through “witch’s marks. Grissell. Also. including Vinegar Tom. an accused witch in the Chelmsford. spirits do not always distinguish between truth and falsehood. They also serve as psychic radar. scrying. FAUST. Other names recorded at witch trials were Verd-Joli. or familiars. and by causing erotic dreams. as well as monstrous hybrid creatures.” small teats. Familiars that create problems can be banished by ending all engagement with them or. entertain. frogs that sit on their left shoulder and are invisible to everyone but other witches. A person feels a sexual encounter with a familiar as intense waves of physical pleasure. including self-inflicted wounds. in which the familiar completely takes over a person. The low. Sexual Familiars Spirits enjoy human sexual intercourse. Depending on the nature of a familiar. Others create familiars from astral thought forms. witches were said to copulate with demon lovers. Witches were said to take great care of their familiars. weasels. Excessive and draining contact with them can create mental. emotional. demonic types of spirit sexual encounters are with an INCUBUS (male demon) or SUCCUBUS (female demon). hedgehogs. and POSSESSION. Martinet. moths. Familiars all supposedly had grotesque names that gave away their true demonic identities. Other common witches’ familiars were dogs.

Paul. and conjured the Devil. Faust thought the Devil might not be as bad as others said. The Early Story of Faust Faust. and finally as a gray friar who asked Faust what he wanted. He indulged in gluttony and lust.: Llewellyn. • He would sign an agreement to this effect in his own BLOOD. But he was vain and arrogant. Thomas. 1971. intent. then as flying lights. Mephostophiles indulged Faust with the finest foods and then an endless supply of women. Keith. 2001. it being my wish to probe further into the matter. around 1601. ordain. Ware. Montague. blood and will. Adept in the Elementa and in Church Doctrine. Tyson. heaven and HELL. Summers. One night. The History of Witchcraft and Demonology. Trench.Faust 89 FURTHER READING: Calmet. herewith duly bound over in eternity and surrendered by covenant in mine own hand by authority and power of these presents. Doctor Faustus. I do propose to speculate upon the Elementa. Religion and the Decline of Magic. etc. twenty-four years also being past. An ABC of Witchcraft Past and Present. flesh. Faust Legend of a learned but arrogant man who makes a PACT with the DEVIL. The Tragicall History of D. Reprint. Do publicly declare with mine own hand in covenant & by power of these presents: Whereas. Familiar Spirits: A Practical Guide for Witches and Magicians. In the late 18th century. And whereas. Johann Spies. blood. all the Heavenly Host and all mankind. Donald.: Phoenix. The Devil appeared as a griffon or dragon. He agreed to three things: • Faust would become the Devil’s property after a certain number of years. In confirmation and contract whereof I have drawn out mine own blood for certification in lieu of a seal. Faust began dabbling in MAGIC. And whereas mankind doth not teach such things. charged with informing and instructing me. he went to a CROSSROADS in the woods. he may at such a time and in whatever manner or wise pleaseth him order. Wash. 1986. JOHANN FAUSTUS. brain. The best-known version of the story was published in 1587 by a German publisher. Custer. Valiente. the son of a husbandman. Title page of Christopher Marlowe’s The Tragicall Historie of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . when I be fully sated of that which I desire of him. The Devil revealed his name as Mephostophiles (MEPHISTOPHELES). By evening. 1926. 2004. Dom Augustin. Trubner. He was raised in a Christian household. I still cannot comprehend. ended and expired. the Devil would fulfill every lust of Faust’s heart and grant him the body and powers of a spirit. Faust also plied the demon with questions about the formation of the world. and agreeing against a promissory instrument hereby transferred unto him to be subservient and obedient to me in all things. and this must be. Doreen. Minn. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. It was published as a novel in the mid-1500s after the Protestant Reformation. The Phantom World: Concerning Apparitions and Vampires. The DEMON always appeared in the guise of a friar. whom he conjured daily inside his locked study. 1973. Germany. cast a magic circle. The Faust legend was based on the legend of THEOPHILUS and circulated widely in Europe in medieval times. In his arrogance. the manuscript inspired Christopher Marlowe to write his play. England: Wordsworth Editions in association with the Folklore Society. Faust compelled him to agree to go to his house the next morning. In exchange. Translated into English by 1594.. as well as of my mind. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote his version of Faust. was born in Roda. Weimar. mine own spiritual faculties having been exhaustively explored (including the gifts dispensed from above and graciously imparted to me). a servant of the Hellish Prince in Orient.. • He would renounce the Christian faith and defy all believers. Thus began Faust’s relationship with Mephostophiles. Faust agreed to a pact presented by the Devil. Dr. and how the ranks of demons came into being as a result of the fall of LUCIFER. St. Faustus. Faust gave him the following written pact: I. Faust had a superior intellect and earned a doctorate in theology. then as a burning man. property. Now therefore have I summoned the spirit who calleth himself Mephostophiles. London: Kegan Paul. reign. I do promise him in return that. rule and possess all that may be mine: body. I do now defy all living beings.

He projects a noble aspiration of the human spirit. Mephistopheles next takes Faust to Greece for an inside view of an emperor. lightning. Faust entertained a group of students by having Mephostophiles conjure up Helen of Troy. and then he was taken into heaven. In the 23rd year of his pact. for head and limbs were still twitching. Brain clave unto the walls where the Fiend had dashed him from one to the other. an old man tried to persuade Faust to repent and return to Christianity. but at the same time. Faust wakes in a charming landscape with FAIRIES and Ariel (the same spirit of the air from Shakespeare’s play). suffering in the heat. “godhead’s likeness. The Prologue in Heaven was probably influenced by Goethe’s reading of Paradise Lost by John Milton. Faust was gone. then sins. seeking him in many places. Faust was returned to his own bed. The next morning. he became depressed and fearful of his fate. despite his sinister side. and tremendous heat. the lesser deity that dwells in the earth. fauns. and is redeemed. It was monstrous to behold. but he was certain he could not withstand hell himself. A heavenly voice proclaims she is redeemed while Mephistopheles insists she is damned. It presents God with the archangels Michael. whom Faust named Justus Faustus. He is miffed that he. never to be seen again. His youthful vigor restored by a witch. the price of it must be paid. leaving parts of it to be opened posthumously. and Faust sells him his soul. satyrs. and nymphs. Mephistopheles. Goethe’s Faust Goethe began Faust in 1774 and worked on it for 60 years. He deplores the limitations of book learning and decides to seek real power through magic. Faust is “doctor” of all knowledge of all the realms. she became pregnant and bore a son. here a few teeth. His steady movement to damnation contrasts with the glories of knowl- Helen and Justus were missing. but BEELZUBUB appeared instead. He regretted his pact. Faust had Helen summoned again and began living with her. here they found his corpse. and Gabriel.” has been “withered” by the Earth Spirit’s rejection. Faust one day ordered Mephostophiles to summon his lord. Faust undertook a pilgrimage to Rome. a great storm arose. it seems lifetimes later. He then went to Constantinople and visited the Turkish emperor. and when he awakened. along with Faust’s cries. and frolic among the gods. The students obtained permission to bury Faust’s remains in the village. He serves as the focal point for the struggle between good and evil as a necessary part of evolution. For Faust. Faust is in despair with weariness and emptiness. After Faust had spent 19 years with the Devil. O it was a hideous spectaculum. He affi rmed that in another five years. God mentions Faust. repents. In his 16th year of bondage to the Devil. enters as a court jester and asks God about mankind’s wretchedness. Faust then desired to see the heavens. including meeting Emperor Charles V and the duke of Bavaria. Faust is an aspect of Goethe himself and shows Goethe’s knowledge of religion and alchemy and his mystical speculations. Mephistopheles—a symbol of the libido’s greed for gold and lust—arrives on the scene with attendant spirits he calls “my airy cherubim. but he has no solace. which destroys Gretchen. an innocent woman who loves him. dies. When they came out to the dung heap. Faust asked to be taken on a tour of hell. and a coach drawn by two dragons appeared and took him up into the sky. Here lay his eyes. cord of all that had happened to him—a sober lesson in the consequences of dallying with the Devil. specifically through the intervention of the Blessed Virgin Mary (see M ARY OF NEMEGEN). he descends into sensuality. He summoned his students for a final night of dining and company at a village inn and urged them all to follow a good life. which was full of contorted animals. In Goethe’s view. the Devil. He also saw many well-known people. Faust attends a witches’ sabbat. But a hideous sight greeted the students: The parlor was full of blood. but both his immense knowledge and magical power have been rebuffed by the Earth Spirit. It seemed Faust fell asleep. flames. When Faust’s 24 years were nearly up. there can be something satanic in the loftiest feeling or the satanic can even grow out of it. lovemaking with Helen of Troy. As his end approached. BELIAL. 47 miles up. As part 2 opens. but Faust renewed his demonic pact by writing another one in his own blood. the seeds of good can lie hidden in evil. A hideous music filled the inn. where he had dinner with the pope and stole his goblets and flagons. there is no redemption. Then began the students to bewail and beweep him. including royalty. quakes. once the demonic pact is made. They discovered Faust’s written re- . he was in the abyss.90 Faust After nearly eight years had passed. He looked down upon the earth. Beelzebub returned with a bone chair and whisked Faust away. sulfuric stenches. The story is of a genius who sells his soul to the Devil. he made out a will. That night between midnight and one o’clock.” “more than cherub. Other stories of demonic pacts allowed for repentance and redemption. Faust is about to commit suicide when Easter bells and a chorus of ANGELs interrupt him.” The seduction of Faust through his limitations begins. Faust had other adventures. Raphael. “my serf. The students were too frightened to look into his room. In part 1.” and agrees to let Mephistopheles try to sway him. He watches Gretchen die and prays to the heavenly hosts for protection. The story of Faust had different versions and grew in length as time went on. Lucifer would have full sway over him.

outside the triangle. He took training from the Vatican exorcist FATHER GABRIELE AMORTH. Fr. At Navarre. 2006. if commanded. he will lie. He has the power of the wind and the sea and drowns men and sinks warships. He teaches logic. Phenomena he has witnessed in possession cases include levitation. If commanded. and longevity.” Available online. He appears as a strong man or as a chevalier. Lukacs. In 1998. In the epilogue. Father José Antonio (1968– ) One of the foremost demonologists and EXORCISTs of the Catholic Church. In HELL. Spain. art. The case is still open. he reigns as a duke with 31 LEGIONs of DEMONs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Father José Antonio Fortea is also a calligrapher. Johann Wolfgang von. and knowledge of things impossible for the possessed to know. “Historia and Tale of Doctor Johannes Faustus. Haurus. Georg. in 1968. present. the creation of the world. Forneus is a marquis of HELL. Goethe the Alchemist: A Study of Alchemical Symbolism in Goethe’s Literary and Scientific Works. he hopes to return to the seventh heaven. the heavenly angels confront Mephistopheles and his devils to seize Faust’s soul and carry it off. Foras (Forcas. Edited by Cyrus Hamlin. Interview with an Exorcist: An Insider’s Look at the Devil. He governs 29 LEGIONs of DEMONs. Johann Wolfgang von. eloquence. He appears as a man with griffin wings. Mansfield Centre. he is buried by angels and DEMONs. He makes fox fairy See HULI JING. 1976. He studied theology at the University of Navarre and received a degree of licentiate in history of the church at the faculty of theology of Comillas. will change shape into a man with fiery eyes and a terrible countenance. New York: Norton. In 2005. In act 5 of part 2. Fortea was born in Barbastro. KITSUNE. Fortea turned his thesis into a book for the general public. Diabolic Possession. discovers hidden treasures and lost objects. Fortea. Faust. The Autobiography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Flauros reigns as a duke with 36 LEGIONs of DEMONs under his command. Gretchen is heard among the chorus of penitent women.Fureas 91 edge and sensuality. he was in the order of thrones. the ability to speak in foreign languages unknown to the victim. and the virtues of herbs and precious 1976. Flauros will talk openly of divinity. and other dangers. After Faust dies. many of the people who consult him are suffering something related to spirits. but he estimates that fewer than 1 percent are suffering from genuine possession. Prior to his fall. Prior to his fall. If invoked into the magician’s triangle. 2008. His father was an attorney. Prior to his fall.000 years.” Not long after that. and Fortea expected to follow in his footsteps. Goethe and His Age. He causes people to be loved by their enemies. Furcas. After 1. Doris See DORIS FISCHER OBSESSION. and future. He will destroy and burn one’s enemies but will protect those who invoke him from temptation. spirits. Downloaded March 7. html. and the fall of the ANGEL s. He soon found himself to be the only exorcist in Spain. Fischer. and the Path to Deliverance. wisdom. URL: http://lettersfromthedustbowl. He teaches rhetoric. FURTHER READING: Fortea. Fourcas) FALLEN ANGEL and 31st of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. he wrote a thesis. According to Fortea. 2002. Interview with an Exorcist: An Insider’s Look at the Devil. and Faust’s soul is received by a Sophia-like “Woman Eternal. Pa. and languages and confers a good reputation. Fureas (Furcas) FALLEN ANGEL and 50th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. people invisible. Another case arose within a year and a half. Ronald D. José Antonio. Furcalor) FALLEN ANGEL and the 41st of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. “Exorcism in the Present Age. Focalor (Forcalor. supernormal strength. translated by Walter Arendt. Goethe. he will give true answers to questions about the past. who appears as a sea monster. Forcas is a president who commands 29 LEGIONs of DEMONs. ethics.” a young woman who went into a possessed trance and writhed like a snake on the floor of a chapel near Madrid. He appears first as a terrible leopard but. 1969. such as INFESTATION. Gray. he defended the thesis under the direction of the secretary of the Commission for the Doctrine of the Faith of the Spain Conference of Catholic Bishops. Conn. West Chester. including his own fall. journalists were able to witness one of her EXORCISMs. and parish priest. he will not harm anyone. His best-known case is “Marta. Demonic Possession and the Path to Deliverance.: Martino. Focalor was a member of the angelic order of thrones. the bishop there was given a case of POSSESSION and consulted Fortea because of his expertise. Havres) FALLEN ANGEL and the 64th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Forneus was in the order of thrones and partly in the order of ANGELs. and imparts wit.” FURTHER READING: Goethe. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. author. Fureas is a knight who commands 20 .: Ascension Press. Forneus FALLEN ANGEL and 30th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Flauros (Hauras. 1 & 2. Vols. male and female saints and blessed children sing of God’s plan as the ranks of angels comment on the ascent of Faust’s immortal essence.

he changes form to that of a beautiful ANGEL. and great winds. lightning. Furfur is an earl with 26 LEGIONs of DEMONs under his command. He teaches rhetoric. Furfur FALLEN ANGEL and 34th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Once in the triangle. Furfur causes love between a husband and wife. logic. He appears as a cruel man with a long beard and hairy head.92 Furfur LEGIONs of DEMONs. astronomy. He will give true answers about secret and divine things. riding a pale horse and carrying a sharp weapon. philosophy. who speaks with a hoarse voice. . He appears as a hart with a fiery tail. and pyromancy (divination with fire). He can raise thunder. When summoned. he must be placed within the magician’s triangle. or what he says—if he speaks at all—will be false. chiromancy (divination of the hands).

Galli can exist in favorable form. Dumuzi. Gadreel (Gadriel) In 1 Enoch. AMAYMON. The galli attend Ereshkigal. a group of seven DEMONs who live in Kur. the underworld. and future. gives true answers about the past. They do not eat or drink or sexually molest people as many other demons do. The galli. According to lore. the sister of Inanna and the goddess of death and gloom. who enters Kur is doomed to stay. however. Once a member of the angelic order of powers. Gaap gives instruction in the consecration of things that belong to the divination of his master. a FALLEN ANGEL. and takes FAMILIAR s away from magicians. as a human with huge bat’s wings and preceded by four powerful kings. was 93 Gaap (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) . they terrorize people and kidnap them to Kur. Gadreel means “God is my helper. makes men insensible. Ereshkigal imprisoned Inanna in the underworld. Tap) FALLEN ANGEL and 33rd of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. He appears when the Sun is in the southern signs. which is surrounded by seven walls. excites love and hatred. galli In Sumerian lore. ruling 66 LEGIONs of DEMONs. they despise children.” Gadreel leads Eve astray and teaches men how to make the weapons of war. When they go to the world of the living. Gaap is a president and mighty prince in HELL. but the galli tracked her down and threatened to take her back unless she found a good substitute. However. are free to come and go. he will move people quickly from place to place.G Gaap (Goap. Gaap teaches liberal sciences and philosophy. Upon command. Anyone. Ereshkigal sits naked on a throne of lapis lazuli in her palace. She escaped. Inanna discovered that her lover. either mortal or god. present.

Gamigin teaches liberal sciences and delivers news about people who have died in sin. In Assyrian lore. the genie is a guardian spirit or minor deity. Major dukes of the night are Reciel. but no dukes or princes beneath him.” features a genie released from a magical lamp that fulfills wishes. Genies are anthropomorphic. FURTHER READING: Black. Gamaliel is a great aeon. Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. The number of his attendants varies according to the hours of the day or night. Cirecas. If a guardian of a place. genie In pre-Islamic and Islamic lore. it is often portrayed as having a role in royal rituals. and future. who never stays in one place. One of the most familiar tales. used it in place of djinn. Both bucket and cone have associations of purification. and Anthony Green. In Roman mythology. Aroan. During that time. In art. The term genie is an English translation of djinn. and shapes the person’s character and destiny. Louis BAPTISM. Gamaliel ANGEL and DEMON. primarily because the French translators of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. Panciel. Agra. MON. tore up his face. the genius (pl. In a rage. Eight principal dukes of the day under Gediel are Coliel. Genie became the popular English term for djinn. members of royalty. With ABRAXAS and Sablo. a DJINN. Anael. The occultist Eliphas Levi saw Gamaliel as an evil adversary of the cherubim angelic order. Sabas.94 Gamaliel Garadiel DEMON and wandering duke of the air. . present. and open doorways against malevolent demons and the disorders they cause. Sadiel. Gamaliel means “recompense of God. He appears as a beautiful Galli (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) woman with the crown of a duchess. He procures the love of women. Each duke has 20 servants. See AIX-EN-PROVENCE POSSESSIONS. Gamigin (Gamygyn) FALLEN ANGEL and fourth of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. In art. especially girls. which first appeared in print in 1655 and is probably also related to the older Latin term genius. “Aladdin’s Wonderful Lamp. All are courteous and willing to obey the commands of an EXORCIST or magician. The galli fell upon Dumuzi. He can summon the souls of drowned men and those who are in purgatory. not sad at her death but was celebrating it.150 servants. PACT. the genius serves as the animating force that gives a location its unique power and atmosphere. they are shown holding a pinecone in the right hand and a bucket of either water or pollen in the left hand. Gemory (Gomory) FALLEN ANGEL and 56th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Gamaliel takes the elect into heaven. remains with him or her throughout life. who rides a camel. Gediel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOGediel is the second in command under CASPIEL and has 20 servants during the day and 20 during the night. Garadiel has 18. a demon who serves under LILITH. with animal heads (and sometimes wings) and human torsos and limbs. and Vriel. it is winter. or angellike demigod. Jeremy. Aglas. His voice is hoarse. whose name is mentioned frequently for graciousness and protection. Dumuzi takes the place of Inanna in Kur for six months of the year. Assaba. In HELL. places. a type of guardian or tutelary spirit of people. London: British Museum Press. a collection of Arabic folktales. Portrayals of genies were placed in buildings as guardians. and Bariet. she killed him with a look and gave him over to the galli to take her place in Kur. supernatural figures. He discovers hidden treasures and gives true answers about the past. They guard and purify kings. and things that was demonized by Christianity. but also old women. Gaufridi. See DJINN. and slashed him with an ax. 1992. Gods. Gemory is a powerful duke in HELL with 26 LEGIONs of DEMONs. All are good-natured and willing to obey commands. Naras. Mashel.” In the Nag Hammadi and other Gnostic literature. Gamigin is a duke with 30 LEGIONs of DEMONs. genii) is present at the birth of a person. These souls appear as aerial bodies before the magician and give answers to questions. Sariel. He appears in the form of a small horse or ass and then changes into a human.

Ghoulish entities are universal. He was brought to trial in Nantes before both an ecclesiastical court and a civil court. Charles officially prohibited him to sell or mortgage more land. the most feared is a female type that has the ability to appear as a normal. and dismembered them. Glasyalabolas) FALLEN ANGEL and 25th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. He commands 36 LEGIONs of DEMONs. the name is from the Arabic terms ghul (masculine) and ghula (feminine). Gods. children. In the civil court parents of missing children testified that their children had disappeared in the vicinity of Gilles’ castle. Among them were accusations that he sodomized boys and girls. and Anthony Green. Caassimola. they help by doing household chores at night and disciplining children—by giving them presents when they are good and punishing them when they are naughty. After Joan was captured by the English in 1431 and executed. he was hanged. or “rogues” or “tricksters. having intercourse with them while they died or after they were dead. Gilles was executed. A hobgoblin is a nasty type of goblin. kobalds in Germany. By other accounts. ruins. Sometimes they are described as dead humans who sleep for long periods in secret graves. By some accounts. he had married a wealthy woman in 1420—and he lived in a more lavish style than even the king.goblin 95 FURTHER READING: Black. Rumors began to circulate that Gilles was involved in far more than alchemy but was kidnapping children for sexual abuse and ritual torture and murder. who becomes her prey. and his family was permitted to remove his body and bury it in a Carmelite church. goblin A wandering sprite who attaches itself to households and both helps and plagues the residents. He began selling off lands to pay off debt and finance his high-style living. On October 26. Jeremy. He employed hundreds of servants. Gilles refused to plead to the charges. hired 200 knights as bodyguards. He was threatened with excommunication and so pleaded not guilty. and sacrilege and was found guilty of murder. Goblins are comparable to low-level DEMONs. Glasya Labolas is a president in HELL. He can make men invisible and discern the past and the future. but they are attracted to homes that have beautiful children and plentiful wine. He teaches all arts and science instantly. Gilles was tortured until he confessed not only to committing the crimes but to enjoying them as well. hung them until they were nearly dead. The civil court sentenced him to death. Such a creature marries an unsuspecting man. He supposedly cut out their eyes and organs with a dagger and offered them to the Devil. The Greeks called such spirits kobaloi. the common punishment for witches and sorcerers. When they move in. domoviks in Russia. the baron de Rais. or corpses stolen out of graves. Gilles de Rais (Gilles de Retz) (1404–1440) Wealthy and distinguished French nobleman executed on charges of child murder. London: British Museum Press. 1440.” Goblin is a French term. ghoul A DEMON who feeds on the flesh of human beings. intent on doing harm. Gilles turned to alchemy and began invoking DEMONs in an attempt to gain more riches. not inherently evil but mischievous. The duke of Brittany and his chancellor. He had enormous wealth—besides his inheritance. Desperate. sodomy. Glasya Labolas (Caacrinolaas. probably encouraged the rumors. tortured. He fought several battles with Joan and accompanied her to Reims for the coronation of the victorious dauphin as Charles VII. especially travelers. He is the leader of all homicides and incites people to bloodshed. Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. which mean “demon. He was accused of gloating over their pain and suffering. Ghouls are nocturnal creatures who inhabit graveyards. performances of the BLACK MASS. flesh-and-blood woman.” There are several types of ghouls in Arabic lore. The church inquisitors brought 47 charges against Gilles. He appears as a winged dog. Goblins live in grottoes. and burned. Goblins have an unpredictable. and feast on both the living and the dead. They are prominent in Arabic lore. who were interested in confiscating Gilles’ lands if they could have him convicted of heresy. Gerasene Demoniac See JESUS. Gilles’ personal attendants testified they had witnessed his defiling and murdering children and had counted their heads. The king named him marshal of France. Several of his servants and alleged accomplices also were tortured. He was alleged to have let many bleed to death slowly. raped them. rise. then awake. He took up the side of the dauphin Charles in Charles’ dispute with the English over the French throne and was assigned to Joan of Arc’s guard. 1992. he was strangled and set to burn. In 1435. the equivalent of brownies in England and Scotland. and held extravagant parties. Gilles de Montmorency-Laval. and sacrifices to the DEVIL. distinguished himself in the military as a young man. Ghouls also personify the unknown terrors held by the desert and may be compared to the LAMIAE and LILITH night terror and childbirth demons. mischievous . and then cut off their heads. The ecclesiastical trial lasted 40 days. Gilles was condemned for heresy. Gilles was arrested in September 1440 and charged with abducting and murdering more than 140 children in Black Mass rituals. Gilles eventually spent all his money and went deeply in debt. and other lonely places. which he said were not true. Gilles returned to his family lands in Brittany.

Within a few weeks. The Goodman’s Ground played a part in the witchcraft trial of Jonet Wishert in Aberdeen in 1596. they will sometimes keep everyone awake by banging pots and pans. the Deevil’s Craft. Christian Church authorities considered this pagan practice to be an offering to the DEVIL and levied heavy fines on farmers who observed it. Martha thought some of the laundry was missing and complained to Glover. You can direct the demon to find treasures. who took offense at the insinuation of theft. The Red Dragon (1822) tells how to do it with a demon’s help. Belief in the power of Goodman’s Ground was often strong enough for farmers to resist the church and pay the fines. and instead of doing chores at night. Doctors were summoned but were baffled about the cause. Goodwin Possessions (1688) Demonic POSSESSION of children in Boston. bending over to kiss the Devil’s anus. The last fields dedicated to the “Auld Goodman” were finally ploughed at the beginning of the 19th century as a result of economic pressure. Say three times. The ritual tells how to hatch a magical hen. The demon will ask for your orders. His head will be that of a dog. all four children were afflicted with physical tortures. the oldest child. and Given Ground. Clootie’s Craft. There are different versions of the ritual in various GRIMOIRES. The possessions were blamed on a woman accused of WITCHCRAFT. The possessions began in the home of John Goodwin. Goblins who become tiresome can be persuaded to leave by scattering flaxseed on the floor. the Gi’en Rig. a mason who lived in South Boston. which was widely read and circulated through Puritan New England and probably influenced public opinions in the SALEM WITCHCRAFT HYSTERIA of 1692–93. The Book of Magical Talismans/The Black Pullet. an Irish woman named Goodwife Glover. and snatching bedclothes off sleeping persons. and he will have the legs and hooves of a calf. Mather wrote about this case in his 1689 book Memorable Providences. Demon torments a greedy treasure hunter. Affected were four children ranging in age from three to 13. Elbee. Minneapolis: Marlar. In the summer of 1688. The woman was not well liked. her husband had even accused her of being a witch on his deathbed. knocking on walls and doors. Goblins have become associated with Halloween and are said to roam the night when the veil between the world of the living and the world of the dead is thinnest. his ears those of an ass. Martha. Martha began suffering fits and seizures. which were seen as preferable to courting disaster and risking the death of their cattle. “Eloim. a portion of farmland that is left uncultivated and ungrazed. It was testified that Wishert was seen in his Goodman’s Ground. Secure a black hen that has never mated and do so without making the hen cackle. The sprites get tired of cleaning it up every night. Goodman’s Ground (Guidman’s Grunde) In Scottish lore. frugativi et appellavi. which he must obey at all costs. Gold-Finding Hen A ritual for finding gold involving evocation of a DEMON. The offering of Goodman’s Ground was intended to avert misfortune. exorcized by the Puritan minister Cotton Mather. that can be commanded to search out hidden gold and other treasures.96 Gold-Finding Hen nature. the Goodman’s Fauld. his head will have two horns. or magical handbooks. The Gold-Finding Hen ritual was popular with alchemists in the 18th and 19th centuries. especially diseases among cattle. Take it to a CROSSROADS at midnight and trace a magic circle around you with a cypress rod. (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . went to fetch the family’s laundry from their washerwoman. See BOGEY. a demon will appear in a scarlet overcoat. a black pullet. a yellow vest. naked from the waist down. the Black Faulie. and pale green breeches.” After making ritual movements. Other names were the Halyman’s Rig. moving furniture. 1984. Immediately. Essaim. FURTHER READING: Wright.

her eyes went blank. John 1:1–5 And the Word was made flesh. Handprints were seen on her neck. Mather and other ministers continued their prayers of deliverance and finally broke the possessions by November 1688. and she named one other person. (and we beheld his glory. FURTHER READING: Burr. ye would love me. At Christmastime. and complained that they felt as though they were in a red-hot oven. and she recovered. Other times. Jr. Their father. when she said an invisible rope came about her neck and she choked until she was black in the face. The beginning of the book. perhaps sent to test humans’ faith. After that. Mather urged her to break her PACT with HELL. but he sent me.and 17th-century exorcists would have read it: In the beginning was the Word. Robert. They made pitiful. But can the Devil’s claims and boasts be believed? In chapter 8. Testimony was given that she allegedly had bewitched a person to death six years earlier. and abode . John 1:14 If all things are made by God. In her final fit. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. the almshouse where she had lived was plagued with mysterious banging noises. In him was life. the glory as of the only begotton of the Father). yowled like cats. tongues. When he finished. saying: If God were your Father. The children would have periods of relief for a few weeks. She vomited weird balls the size of eggs and said she could feel the chains of the dead witch upon her.. she said that the children would not be relieved by her death. 1999. A demon in the form of a spectral horse appeared on many occasions and took her on flights through the air. He was a murderer from the beginning. after which the youngest was permanently relieved of symptoms. The three children still afflicted were not relieved at the death of Glover. but always the children would be able to rest in their beds at night. for others had a hand in it. If Mather read the Bible. George Lincoln. The other suspect named by Glover died before she could be brought to trial. Martha and one sister were made drunk without having had any alcohol. Cotton Mather visited the family and prayed for DELIVERANCE and even took Martha into his own home for observation. Martha seemed to be and thought she was dying. She could not say the names of God and Christ. animalistic noises and moans. then the Devil is also God’s instrument. worried that he had committed some grievous sin that turned his pious “little Bethel” house into a “den for devils. She did not want Mather to pray for her. much as 16th. especially. but he did anyway. and she writhed on the floor and howled. Their bodies were covered with bruises and red marks. and the Word was with God. Glover was arraigned and put on trial. rather. the shape tormented him and an invisible hand tried to pull out his bowels. but she said she could not do it unless her ANGELs allowed her to do so. All things were made by him. Ye are of your father the devil. She acknowledged working with “the Prince. One of the boys saw a dark shape wearing a blue cap in the house. En route to her execution. spit on it. and the darkness comprehended it not. John. Prior to her death. and without him was not any thing made that was made. such as strike friends or throw themselves down stairs or strangle themselves. They broke objects and laughed hysterically. sent medieval demoniacs into howling fits and tantrums. There was one final serious assault on Martha. she took out a stone. Voices in their heads urged them to do violent acts. The children barked like dogs.” or the DEVIL. Glover was judged guilty and condemned to execution by hanging. She acknowledged that she had been the black shape with the blue cap and invisible hand. and mouths pulled about and their skin stretched. The following text appears in the King James version. Although the reading of any Scripture sends a possessing demon into a tailspin.Gospel of J hn o 97 The severity of the tortures increased. for I proceeded forth and came from God. matters grew worse. and she began suffering again. the words in the Gospel of John seem to cause the most discomfort. the assaults of the demons dwindled in frequency and severity. neither came I of myself. Martha enjoyed some relief upon her arrival in Mather’s home but then declared that the devils found her. and then the troubles would start again. and worried it. charged with witchcraft. Gospel of John Biblical text used against DEMONs. ed. The children said blows of invisible clubs rained down upon them. The afflictions were the worst whenever ministers visited to pray. The same was in the beginning with God. Berkeley: University of California Press. and the Word was God. The fit ended. John tells that Jesus rebuked the Pharisees for not believing in him or his works. Why do ye not understand my speech? even because ye cannot hear my word. and dwelt among us. John Goodwin. 1914. and the lusts of your father ye will do. Middlekauff. Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases 1648–1706. full of grace and truth. Mather was pleased with the case and considered it a fine example of righteousness overcoming the Devil. The Mathers: Three Generations of Puritan Intellectuals 1596–1728. saw a specter in the house and was pushed and stabbed by it. they were stricken deaf and dumb and had their limbs. and four of his DEMONs.” Glover did not deny the charges of witchcraft but said little about her activities as a witch. and the life was the light of men. And the light shineth in darkness. Mather visited her twice in prison.” Four ministers were asked to conduct a day of prayer. He called her a “horrible old woman.

made arrogant mistakes. He spent more than 10 years studying there and took his ordination as a Jesuit novice in 1615. the advocate of King Louis XIII. The town was sharply divided between the Protestant Huguenots. The case went in Grandier’s favor. He persuaded her to marry him. The case was adjourned. especially the Carmelites and Capuchins. accusations of his impropriety were heaped upon him as townspeople came forward. single and married. that Grandier was out of control. he may be the “father of lies. and Grandier was given time to clear himself with his superiors. but instead he felt entitled to enjoy women. because there is no truth in him. Professionally. One of Grandier’s many amorous affairs was with Philippe Trincant. Burned alive at the stake. Grandier decided to appear voluntarily before the bishop rather than be humiliated by arrest. He also was made a canon of the collegial church of the Holy Cross. and a spiteful nun he spurned. a wayward priest. The bishop. On January 3. Grandier was young. sophisticated. Ur bain not in the truth. He was flattering. and he announced his intention to appeal the case. the Devil is forced to yield and speak the truth. Accusations from the townspeople were recanted. Unexpectedly. Grandier’s Troubled Rise At age 27. Grandier’s enemies complained to the bishop. claiming he should be tried by the nonsecular court. But in the atmosphere at Loudun. HenryLouis Chasteignier de la Rochepozay. a source of income. After two weeks in the cold and dank prison. was profane and impious. and did not read his breviary. a wealthy nobleman. Grandier had accumulated many influential benefactors and was appointed curé. John 8:42–44 The reasoning that any words spoken by the DEVIL were lies acted as a defense for many witches against their accusers. Grandier. and Catholics. who despised Grandier. Grandier. Madeleine had turned away many suitors. he speaketh of his own. for he is a liar. creating another great enemy in Louis Trincant. he was sent at age 14 to the Jesuit College of Bordeaux. He became embroiled in quarrels and did not hesitate to criticize the behavior of others. Jean d’Armagnac. who had his choice of women. 1634) Priest framed and executed in the LOUDUN POSSESSIONS of Ursuline nuns in France. the public prosecutor of Loudun. and caused them a loss of patronage. The bishop’s response was to increase his punishment.” but when confronted in the name of the Lord. or parson.98 Grandier. Grandier. . son of a lawyer and nephew of Canon Grandier of Saintes. That Grandier. 30. Only six years earlier. Grandier. which earned him resentment among his peers. 1630. Women found him appealing and a significant improvement over his aged predecessor. The prosecutor led an informal but growing group of citizens who wished to bring Grandier down for one reason or another. angering her family and Pierre Menuau. a parson had been burned alive at the stake for committing adultery. thinking himself to be invulnerable. clerics could get away with quiet sexual escapades and affairs. Grandier then set his sights on Madeleine de Brou. Claims that some poor soul had caused another to be possessed were looked on skeptically by early church inquisitors but not by later ones. who lived outside Paris. A bright and eloquent student. When he speaketh a lie. disapproval of scandalous behavior was increasing. who had been trying to win Madeleine’s hand for years. however. He disparaged their relics. Reformation politics. He touched women when talking to them. Grandier was sentenced to fast on bread and water every Friday for three months and was forbidden to perform sacerdotal functions forever in Loudun and for five years in the Diocese of Poitiers. Urbain Grandier was brought down by his own arrogant charm and success. claiming he had repented. who was one of Grandier’s staunchest allies. ordered him to be arrested and imprisoned. Grandier actually fell in love with her. for the archbishop was a close friend of Grandier’s key supporter. Urbain (d. Grandier’s enemies hoped he would have the same fate. Governor d’Armagnac. handsome. Grandier’s enemies appealed to the Parlement of Paris. and the father of it. Town opinions immediately were divided over Grandier. In times past. He was accused of having sex with women on the floor of his own church. the daughter of Louis Trincant. Philippe became pregnant and Grandier abandoned her. He was able to stay out of trouble because he had the support and favor of the town’s governor. Instead. the unmarried daughter of René de Brou. A trial date was set for August. Such a sentence spelled ruin for Grandier. Yet Catholic and Protestant exorcists alike believe in the ultimate power of God’s word over the work of the Devil. He was given immediate entree into the highest social circles. he was the only person to be executed in the case. who abhorred the church. Grandier petitioned the bishop for his release. should have paid heed to the social climate. he excelled in preaching and in performing his religious duties. He had good odds of winning. and interesting. He was arrested anyway and taken to jail on November 15. among other crimes. The archbishop remained supportive of Grandier. 1629. an attitude that earned him simmering animosity among Loudun’s menfolk. preferring a pious life. A promising career lay ahead of him. at Loudun. and Philippe’s father decided to protect what little remained of his daughter’s reputation by keeping silent about her illegitimate child fathered by Grandier. He was debauching married women and young girls in his precinct. jeopardized his relationship with the prosecutor in such an unforgivable way reveals his arrogance. was born to a life of privilege.

Unbeknowst to him. Grandier was cajoled to sign the confession prepared for him. At every blow. and mallets of torture. Mignon conspired with Grandier’s enemies to let it be known that he was responsible for their afflictions. and he refused. however. but in the fertile political territory of Catholics and Protestants trying to sway the faithful with demonstrations of their spiritual firepower. under the exorcisms of Mignon and a Franciscan. Friends advised him to be smart and leave Loudun. Grandier refused the last services of Lactance and Tranquille and made his final prayers. Father Tranquille. Grandier was asked to confess. The final hammer blows were delivered by Lactance and Tranquille. In the interests of moving matters along. The exorcists. but his fi ngernails were not ripped out because the surgeon refused to obey the court. He declined. He was lifted down and urged to beg pardon for his crimes. It was soon easy to let them run out of control and become bewitched and beset by DEMONs. So moved were the spectators. Both Lactance and Tranquille were believers in the demonic.000 people had flocked to Loudun to witness the spectacle. The sentence was to be carried out immediately. confident no one would believe them. and a Capuchin. A commemorative plaque would be placed in the Ursuline convent at a cost of 150 livres. the stories found an audience not only among his enemies. The exorcists declared that the Devil had rendered him insensible to pain. invited him to take the vacant post of canon. and his ashes scattered to the winds. with a procession of the judges behind him. (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . Grandier made an eloquent speech of his innocence to the stone-faced judges. the confession of his crimes. perhaps to spite his enemies. insisted that when he said the word God he really meant “Satan. but he steadfastly refused. was stung. He was seated in a muledrawn cart and hauled through the streets. As fantastic as they were. He became privy to the sexual secrets of the nuns. Lactance and Tranquille exorcized the ropes. He was then prepared for the question extraordinaire.” In anticipation of a guilty verdict and execution. The curé was bound. stretched out on the floor. He was lifted up and held by one of his supporters. Wedges were driven between the pairs so that his legs were crushed. and tied from his knees to his feet to four oak boards. to be paid for out of Grandier’s confiscated estate. that many burst into tears. Jeanne. Grandier was convicted and sentenced to be tortured and burned alive at the stake. and he had been the object of salacious gossip among the nuns for some time. Torture and Death On August 18. Nothing played better for the Catholics than demonic possession. Peter’s Church and the Ursuline convent and ask for forgiveness. At the door of St. Father Father Urbain Grandier is burned at the stake. that punishment was forgone. Grandier’s body was shaved. the procession halted and a two-pound candle was placed in Grandier’s hands. saying it was morally impossible for him to do so. Canon Mignon. The sentence also stated that he would be forced to kneel at St. Soon the nuns were giving hysterical performances for swelling crowds. Jeanne was harboring a secret sexual obsession with him. The excruciating crushing took about 45 minutes. JEANNE DES ANGES. Urbain 99 Grandier was reinstated as curé. The outer boards were fixed and the inner boards were movable. inducing more pain. The court finally gave up and sent him off to the stake. the mother superior of the Ursuline convent at Loudun. citing the press of too many other duties. and he must have thought himself to be invulnerable. disliked Grandier. but he refused. He had never met Jeanne or been to the convent. Grandier was dressed in a shirt soaked in sulfur and a rope was tied around his neck. a mean and vindictive woman. forcing the judges to clear the room. Peter’s Church. Grandier shrugged off these stories. For two more hours. lest the demons interfere and relieve Grandier’s suffering. and their ghost pranks in their haunted convent. FATHER GABRIEL L ACTANCE. The man she appointed to fill the post. pushing Grandier’s alleged guilt to the maximum. Grandier’s Downfall The event that sealed Grandier’s doom at first seemed trivial. about 30.Grandier. their nervous temperments. Grandier could not kneel because of his crushed legs and fell on his face. Grandier’s smashed legs were poked. boards.

She confirmed that Grandier really had prayed to Satan. facing the grandstand. grimoires Handbooks of magic that provide instructions for rituals. When the fire burned itself out. Lactance still demanded a confession. but Grandier gave none. the Lord of the Flies. to be used in CHARMs and spells. The material in grimoires is heavily derivative of Hebrew magical and mystical lore. Then a flock of pigeons appeared. Demonic Possession and Exorcism in Early Modern France. and so. magic triangles. The executioner moved quickly to strangle Grandier but discovered that the noose had been secretly knotted by the Capuchins so that it could not be tightened. His death was to be as excruciating as possible. The exorcisms were done again to prevent the interference of demons to mitigate Grandier’s suffering and pain. eventually. and handfuls of ashes. came forward to ask for Grandier’s forgiveness and offered to say a mass for him. the priest was forgotten. She said the fly was the demon Baruch. The relics of a sorcerer were considered to be quite powerful. The onlookers were ordered not to pray for Grandier. The griffin-demon is a hybrid with a human body and bird head and wings. Left to burn alive. to perform tasks. At the Ursuline convent. the same procedure was repeated. Soon. Grandier’s body was consumed in flames. bits of bone. The Possession at Loudun. The friars doused some of the flames with holy water to exorcise any remaining demons. the term usually applies to specific texts that claim the magical knowledge of King SOLOMON as their source. Grandier’s enemies took this as a sign of demons. which was jammed with spectators. Faggots were piled at the base of the stake. straw. the procuring of FAMILIAR s. The Capuchin friars exorcized the site. and that he was suffering special torments in HELL. would Lactance. including DEMONs and ANGEL s. and so he angrily complied. He asked Lactance for the “kiss of peace. supernatural power. Sarah. At first. Jeanne and the other nuns were remorseful about Grandier and worried that they had sinned. but the friars silenced him with douses of holy water and blows to his mouth with an iron crucifix. pentacles. The place of execution was the Place Saint-Croix. Printed on cheap paper. More spectators sat on the church’s roof. Grandier said he would soon meet the judgment of God. Grimoire is a French term for “grammar book. and so forth. wheeling around the fire. They are still consulted. and what prayers and incantations to recite at precise astrological times and various hours of the day and night. Smith. Grandier began screaming. the satisfied crowd dispersed to eat and drink. Father Archangel. She said he suffered an excruciating death thanks to the exorcisms of the priests. including the wood. The Devils of Loudun. grimoires circulated primarily in France and Italy. Everyone who had a window had rented it out to capacity. They instruct the magician on what to wear. as the possessions and exorcisms continued. Then the crowd surged forward to scavenge grisly souvenirs of teeth. Grandier was tied to a small iron seat fastened to the stake. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. kissing Grandier’s cheek. Guards had to fight a way through the throng to reach the 15-foot stake driven into the ground near the north wall of the church. and the evocation and control of spirits. and his supporters took it as a sign of the Holy Ghost. and coals that would start the blaze and the earth. not to God.100 griffin-demon Grillau. back at the Ursuline convent. however. the air. Figurines of griffin-demons were placed in foundations of houses and palaces to ward off DEMONs.” Although any handbook of magic could be called a grimoire. CURSEs on enemies. When all were gone. the executioners. where his enemies drank wine in celebration. Most of the principal grimoires were written in the 17th and 18th centuries but claimed to be much older. but the crowd protested. A large black fly appeared. according to the ruling spirits. involving the names. and Grandier was asked to pardon Jeanne and all the nuns. Later. Aldous. He said he had never done them any harm and could only pray that God would forgive them for what they had done. Lactance lit the fire. who had testified against Grandier. They give recipes for fumigations. 2004. New York: Harper and Brothers. the victim. Tranquille and Lactance suffered demonic problems themselves and died. which the exorcists took as a sign of BEELZEBUB. for they would be committing a sin. how to purify himself. what tools to use. but modern magicians have written their own textbooks of magic. AMULETs. descriptions of the creation of magic circles. who had been intent on trying to throw the priests’ exorcism book into the fire. the casting of spells. instructions on sac- . luck. London: Routledge. They were popular well into the 19th century. and the spectators. He had been promised strangulation by the noose around his neck prior to the start of the fire. who prayed for him as both of them wept in a piteous scene. and duties of spirits and the powerful names of God.” customarily granted to the condemned. 2000. Translated by Michael B. Other principal sources are Hellenistic Greek and Egyptian magical texts and folk magic. At that. Jeanne was exorcized again. Ferber. wealth. the procuring of treasure and love. followed by Tranquille and another exorcist. Father René Bernier. Grandier made several attempts to speak. powers. seals and sigils. TALISMANs. FURTHER READING: Certeau. griffin-demon An Assyrian guardian against evil spirits. Michel de. 1952. Lactance refused. the executioner shoveled the ashes to the four cardinal points. Grimoires give instructions for rituals to conjure and control spirits and cosmic forces for protection. Huxley.

still exist.” each of whom is thwarted by a particular angel (with the exception of “the worst”).. and “the worst. seals. The testament provides a significant contribution to the legends of Solomon’s magical powers and the magical . Theurgia. The Almadel concerns 20 chief spirits who govern the four quarters and the 360 degrees of the zodiac. The text is rich in demonology. and lore about medicine. the Jewish historian Josephus mentioned a book of incantations for summoning and thwarting demons that was attributed to the authorship of Solomon. The earliest perfect examples of it are in French. the signs of the zodiac. From the 14th century on. So many versions of this grimoire were written that the original text is uncertain. or Lesser Key of Solomon. Pope Innocent VI ordered that a grimoire called The Book of Solomon be burned. The origin and meaning of Lemegeton are not known. including rites of EXORCISM. and the Almadel. Some include both. 72 angels who bear the Names of God. entitled Pseudomonarchia Daemonum (Pseudo-monarchy of demons). Some were printed in red ink and were said to burn the eyes if gazed at too long. The text says that stellar bodies are demonic. a different text altogether. or white magic. The following are the grimoires of significance: Key of Solomon The most important grimoire is the Key of Solomon. REGINALD SCOT translated part of it into his Discoverie of Witchcraft (1584). but no such text is known. distress. The Key is mentioned in literature throughout the centuries. The Pauline Art concerns the spirits who govern the planets.E. power. The book is divided into four parts: Goetia. The book is attributed to the legendary King Solomon. The 36 decans. The attainment of treasure and love and the ability to harm one’s enemies are prominent throughout the grimoires. Josephus may have been referring to the Key. astrology. the original manuscript was written in Hebrew. Goetia is the part published by Weyer. Waite speculated that Goetia is the original Lemegeton and the other three parts were unknown to Weyer and were added at a later time. error. also called the Greater Key of Solomon and the Clavicle of Solomon. Around 1350. strife. and powers. The number 72 may have been inspired by the Schemhamphorae. Few have any healing ability. There are seven “world rulers. Josephus said that a Jew named Eleazar used it to cure cases of POSSESSION. Hundreds of copies of the Key.E. The verses are used in invocation and in magic. duties. is part of the collection in the British Museum. as well as the ability to cause terrible diseases and disasters. Claims were made that the Lemegeton was originally written in Chaldean and Hebrew. and the angels who can thwart them. The Almadel was mentioned in writing around 1500. This text is the source for most other grimoires. more likely. Testament of Solomon The Testament of Solomon is a Greek text in the pseudepigrapha written between the first and third centuries C. their titles. angelology. fate. but some historians believe it was the Testament of Solomon (discussed later) or. and magic. and the hours of the day and night. The Lemegeton lists 72 FALLEN ANGELS. who asked God for wisdom and commanded an army of demons (DJINN) to do his bidding and build great works. the Inquisition condemned Solomon’s grimoire again as dangerous. as it is also called) is devoted to both good and evil spirits and all aerial spir- The Devil and a sorcerer exchange copies of a book of black magic and the Gospels. The book also was known as Liber Spirituum (see later discussion) and Liber Officiorum. or 10-degree portions of the zodiac.E. who cause mental and physical illnesses. Some grimoires are devoted to theurgy. and ways to deal with unruly demons. or black magic. Part of the Lemegeton was published in Latin by the demonologist JOHANN WEYER in 1563. The 72 demons in the Lemegeton possess teaching skills for the sciences and art. in 1559. in differing versions. and over time it grew in size and content. In the first century C. A Greek version that dates to 1100– 1200 C. It tells the story of how King Solomon built the Temple of Jerusalem by commanding demons. while others concern goetia. wielding destructive power over the affairs of humanity. which are given in Hebrew Scripture and are expressed at the end of every verse. The Schemhamphorae function as names of power. Theurgia (or Theurgia-Goetia. later. The author probably was familiar with the Babylonian Talmud. The Key of Solomon was widely distributed in the 17th century. Lemegeton Another grimoire attributed to Solomon is the Lemegeton.” who are equated with the vices of deception. (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) its.grimoires 101 rifices. The material probably is derived in part from the Testament of Solomon (discussed later) and also the apochryphal book of Enoch. but these are doubtful. are called heavenly bodies and likewise are ruled by demons. Supposedly. the Pauline Art. Goetia is devoted to evil spirits. Solomonic magical works took on increasing importance.

said he translated the work from the writings of Solomon himself. the GOSPEL OF JOHN. The material also shows influences from Lemegeton. it prescribes the use of salt exorcized with BLOOD drawn from a bewitched animal. 1216–27). this text may have been authored in the 16th century but was first published in Rome in 1629. who number 30 and who report to three leaders. the office of the dead. and ASTAROTH. a demon named in the Lemegeton. however. As a magical text. should have the power of invoking and commanding spirits of all sorts. The editor. It includes the “Admirable Secrets” of the pseudo-Albertus Magnus. supposedly the fourth volume of Agrippa’s monumental three-volume Occult Philosophy. it is the only grimoire to introduce significant Christian elements. It has the same chief demons as the Grimorium Verum and nearly the same subordinate officers but describes different duties for them.” indicating influences of Paracelsus. and various prayers with gruesome sacrifices of animals. and pentacles. because of several obscure references to Italian history. but only as curiosities of the past. It is not a grimoire of magical instruction. may be an anagram of FOCALOR.102 grimoires handbooks attributed to Solomon. master magician. The 1800 edition calls for using holy water in human exorcisms. but it is speculated the person may have been Italian. The book shows influences from the Lemegeton and claims to be based on the practical Kabbalah. or the Most Approved Keys of Solomon the Hebrew Rabbin. Its full title is The Grand Grimoire. The Grimorium Verum covers the “Genuine Sanctum Regnum. Waite called the Fourth Book “muddled” and said its lack of precision rendered it ineffective as a manual of magic. The Grimorium Verum nearly copies the Key of Solomon in instructions for preparation of the magician and his tools but provides different instructions for the preparation of the virgin parchment and for the evocation and dismissal of spirits. The book also includes instructions for necromancy. However. from cardinals to secular clerks. Grimorium Verum Drawn from the Greater Key of Solomon and written in French. the Fourth Book gives instructions for communicating with evil spirits. both Natural and Supernatural. Its full title is Grimorium Verum. The 1670 edition of Honorius includes a rite of exorcism for both humans and animals. One version of it claims to date to 1522. which appear in other later grimoires. who is credited with rites of exorcism. credited to the authorship of Honorius of Thebes. Rofocale. but it is necessary that the Demons should be contented on their part. It covers the names of spirits associated with the planets and their characters. which came into his possession. As the Lemegeton does.” or the true method of making pacts. It is not to be confused with The Sworn Book of Honorius. Peter. Weyer. was written by an unknown author.” Arbatel of Magic The Arbatel of Magic is a slim text written in Latin and published in Basel. as did other occultists. It is also known as the Liber Spirituum and is in the opening of the Lemegeton. or the Infernal Devices of the Great Agrippa for the Discovery of all Hidden Treasures and the Subjugation of every Denomination of Spirits. There is an entirely different hierarchy of demons. The effect is more like a BLACK MASS than anything sacred. The authorship is attributed to Pope Honorius III (r. It was translated into German in 1686. Venitiana del Rabina. or Little Albert (see later). Grimoire of Honorius Also called the Constitution of Honorius. but the book. Fourth Book Authorship is attributed to the occultist Henry Cornelius Agrippa. This power had been vested with the papal office as the successor to St. which earned it the reputation of the blackest of black magic texts. who have among them six deputy chiefs. masses of the Holy Ghost and angels. sigils. were it necessary at the present day to warn any one against practices to which no one is likely to resort. Claims were made that it was translated from Hebrew by a Dominican Jesuit named Plaingiere and was published by “Alibeck the Egyptian” in 1517. The Fourth Book appeared after the death of Agrippa in 1535 and rehashes in an informal way much of the material in Occult Philosophy. the prime minister of LUCIFER. who makes his only appearance in all literature in this grimoire alone. litanies. this book probably was written in the mid-18th century. There are rituals for evoking both good and evil spirits and for practicing necromancy. with the Powerful Clavicle of Solomon and of Black Magic. but this connection is tenuous. Waite said that the grimoire “must be avoided. The book refers to “Theophrastic Magic. The book is especially significant for its feature of a specific PACT between the magician and LUCIFUGE ROFOCALE. Switzerland. Lucifer. rejected it as a forgery. which belong to the foolish mysteries of old exploded doctrines. The Grand Grimoire is a text of black magic. It gained wide circulation during the 17th century. Grand Grimoire This French grimoire was probably authored in the 17th or 18th century. his last name. In animal possessions. The rituals in Honorius combine kabbalistic elements such as the 72 sacred names of God and Christian elements such as confessions. wherein the Most Hidden Secrets. The earliest edition of it bears no date or place of publication. in 1575. BEELZUBUB. are immediately exhibited. The grimoire is cast as a papal bull in which the pope decrees that the authorities of the church. together with an Abridgment of all the Magical Arts. Rather. It has no connection to the Solomonic writings and does not even mention . a student of Agrippa. and are interesting assuredly. it is viewed as having little foundation and probably was written for commercial appeal. The authorship is not known.

happiness. The text denies any association with magic. this grimoire was published in 1686 in German. they are instead concerned with material things such as acquiring wealth. the Theosophia Pneumatica makes no claims to ancient origins. the rational spirit departs. and evils. misfortunes. Meditation. Material from it appear in various grimoires. is the seat of understanding. and Holy Ghost. who are demons. The soul and rational spirit are joined in marriage by God to reside in the body. procuring love. but few are spiritual in nature. azoth. which is still preserved in the Vatican Library. opening locks.” Isagoge comprises Seven Septenaries of aphorisms of a moral and spiritual nature that cite the sources of occult wisdom: God. and living in accordance with the virtues are emphasized as the best means for practicing the magical arts. It possibly was included in the German edition of the Arbatel of Magic. and so forth). but in the fashion of magic. wrote a letter of thanks in his own hand to Pope Leo III. having a body. This collection of prayers was published as the Enchiridion for the first time in Rome in 1523. It is uncertain whether the other eight tomes were ever written. The collection had special properties: Whoever carried it about on his person with the proper attitude—respect for the Scripture—and recited it daily in the honor of God would have divine protection for his entire life. and advantage and protecting ones self against all kinds of dangers. It lists 68 of the 72 demons found in the Lemegeton but does not give their seals or rituals. Pope Leo III (r. He would never be defeated by his enemies and would escape all dangers without harm. The book must be kept clean in a bag of new leather. and philosopher’s stone are all useless. Little Albert Also titled Marvelous Secrets of the Natural and Cabalistic Magic of Little Albert. Like the Arbatel. The body is of the earth. To read from the book. According to the story of the book’s alleged origins. Man is threefold. The author also was knowledgeable about alchemy and included references to it. It affirms that all things are threefold in nature after the model of the Father. The soul is of the elements derived through the stars. soul. It is not possible to cure certain diseases by which God has chosen to afflict humankind. is what Charlemagne did. There are two kinds of death: deterioration of the body and destruction of the soul via poisoned stellar influences. which means “essential or fundamental instruction. or tome. one must face east and kneel. this book is attributed to Peter of Abano. and a set of angelic evocations for each day of the week. natural disasters. herbs. All other diseases can be cured with natural magic and alchemy. love of God. The text claims that Charlemagne. ministers of punishment in HELL (comparable to the avenging classical gods). for this. The wisdom obtainable from these sources ranges from the low magic of finding treasures to alchemical transmutations to mystical knowledge of God. It is divided into two parts: the evocation of the Spirits of the Air. and is the genius for arts and sciences. and rational spirit. Charlemagne may not have been literate. The Enchiridion of Pope Leo This book is technically not a grimoire: It offers no instructions for magical rituals but is a collection of charms turned into prayers. The rational spirit is from God and is the medium through which divine inspiration enters the physical body. the anonymous author intended to write them but failed to follow through. Quintessence. Abano is not believed to be the author. a work it follows closely. perhaps. The book was probably composed in the 17th century and given the legend to lend it authenticity. The unicorn. learned men. The Enchiridion’s charms are dressed up as prayers. . detecting secrets. rather. The Hebrew term Talmud—derived from the verb for “to learn”—is used to describe the aspiring magician. but only the fi rst volume. Son. The grimoire is a composite work of white and black magic that deals with finding treasure. it is Christian in orientation and holds that the exaltation of prayer is the end of the Mystery. an Italian physician who died in 1316 after being condemned to death by the In- quisition. and the spirits of the elements. this text was published in 1722. 795–816) gave the Emperor of the West Charlemagne a collection of prayers after his coronation in Rome in 800. The Heptameron probably was written in the 16th century and may have been intended as a supplement to the Fourth Book. In either case. Pseudomonarchia Daemonum More a text about demons and demonology than a grimoire. nature (stones. and so on. Theosophia Pneumatica Also known as The Little Keys of Solomon. apostate spirits. it may also depart at the will of God. is extant. A second edition is said to have been issued in 1606 and a final edition in 1660. angels. fomenting hatred and evil thoughts.grimoires 103 Solomon. who enjoyed great fortune. accompanied by mysterious figures supposedly taken from rare old manuscripts. Regeneration is achieved when the rational spirit overcomes the soul. and at least one page of it must be read with devotion every day. Of anonymous authorship. Specific pages can be read for various needs. which contains strong Christian elements and terminology used by the Swiss alchemist Paracelsus. It must be carried on the person. Heptameron Also called Magical Elements. and no letters of his are extant. this was written around 1583 by Johann Weyer. claims the Enchiridion.” The Arbatel purports to be a nine-volume work of instructions on the magical arts. Waite considered it representative of “transcendental magic. it describes a ritual for its proper use. The only section of the Theosophia Pneumatica that differs significantly from the Arbatel is the appendix. The first tome is called Isagoge. it has strong Christian elements.

creating magic squares. As luck would have it. a text that was like a version of Aladdin and the magic lamp. True Black Magic is a goetic adaptation of the Key of Solomon. The Black Pullet claims it is the narrative of an unnamed man who was a member of Napoleon’s armed forces sent to Egypt. and making seals and sigils are elaborate and must be followed exactly in accordance with astrological observances. and scores of other feats.J. Suddenly. for the acquisition of the Secret Sciences. Rituals for conjuring spirits.F. this black magic grimoire purportedly was written in the 1600s by a magician named Toscraec. which was based on Egyptian hieroglyphs. The original—and ambitious— French title of the grimoire was The Black Pullet. he assumed he would soon be dead because he had been abandoned in the desert and delivered a farewell to the setting Sun. He was left for dead. and a man walked out. claims are made that the manuscript was found in the tomb of Solomon. all derivative of the Key of Solomon. and Eliaeb. The manuscript. who supposedly wrote the grimoire for his son in 1458. Albertus Magnus. and it was translated from the Hebrew in 1750 by the magus IroeGrego. True Black Magic Also called The Secrets of Secrets.R. written in French in the 18th century. and “all magical characters known unto this day. of Sylphs. Rendered into French by A.S.G. The Turk said he was the only heir to this magic. but it was probably authored in the late 18th century in Rome or in France. Danhuzerus. flying. who worked under the direction of angels. The book comprises three books. Germany. The Turk . he said. or FAMILIAR. which was revealed to be the magical home of the mysterious man. but with an inner meaning conferred by the demon ASTAROTH.104 grimoires Alberti Parvi Lucii Liber de Mirabilibus Naturae Arcanis Attributed falsely to the authorship of St. this grimoire was published in Lyons. where they all stopped for lunch. for the Conjuration of Aerial and Infernal Spirits. He said that all things in the world were created by demons. all ministered by spirits. and other philosophers whose works in the MS. The magical power was created with talismans embroidered on silk and rings made of bronzed steel. The following texts were written in the 18th and 19th centuries and are often called grimoires: The Book of Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage Authorship is attributed to Abra-Melin (also spelled Abramelin). subterranean chambers. With several companions. with the kabbalistic date of 6516. Son of the Grand Aromasis. and to unmask all Sciences and Bewitchments. He told the soldier he was near death. It has appeared in altered versions as Treasure of the Old Man of the Pyramids and Black Screech Owl. and piles of treasures. their properties and uses. According to lore. It probably was written in the 18th century. It does not link itself to Solomonic magic but shows influences of the spurious Fourth Book. Toscraec said he was only able to translate the manuscript with the help of an angel. They were attacked by Arabs. discovering treasure. who claimed that it was based on a centuries-old manuscript written in an unknown language. plus two talismans of a magic circle and a magic rod or wand. commanding spirits. Translated from the language of the Magi and that of the Hieroglyphs by the Doctors Mizzaboula-Jabamia. for the Discovery of Treasures.L. the Art of Necromancy and of the Kabbalah. The magical system is based on the power of numbers and sacred names and involves the construction of numerous magical squares for such purposes as invisibility. It includes 45 talismans. may be found in the Kabbalah. making a ring that confers invisibility. The soldier was astonished to find vast halls. escaped the conflagration of the Library of Ptolemy. Judahim. The 22 talismans have been linked to the 22 trumps of the Tarot. comprising the Science of Magic Talismans and Rings. The soldier could tell by his turban that he was a Turk. In the book. It gives instructions for making philters. The Black Pullet tells a colorful story about itself and its alleged origins. the soldier knew the Turkish language and could communicate. The Black Pullet According to lore. The basis for his system of magic. The whole following the Doctrines of Socrates. There were blazing lamps and magic suppers. named Odous was the special attendant of the Turk. The Turk revived him with liquor and took him inside the pyramid. shape shifting. Undines. this grimoire was published in Egypt in 1740. and Gnomes. a Jewish kabbalistic mage of Wurzburg. Abra-Melin said he learned his magical knowledge from angels. The soldier was also shown The Black Pullet. A genius. The Black Pullet is one of the few grimoires that do not claim to be manuscripts of antiquity. interpreting dreams. who told him how to conjure and tame demons into personal servants and workers and how to raise storms. and all but the author were killed. When he regained consciousness.” The grimoire quotes Solomon as saying that divine love must precede the acquisition of magical wisdom. necromancy. He possessed a magic talisman that enabled him to be fluent in 22 languages. France. ALEISTER CROWLEY borrowed from it for his own rituals to master demons. and that each individual had an angel and a demon as familiar spirits. It disavows all connections to black magic. a stone rolled back in the Great Pyramid. Pythagorus [sic]. It places particular emphasis on 20 magic talismans and 20 corresponding magic rings. claims to be a translation of the original Hebrew manuscript. making a hand of glory (a black magic charm). for obtaining power to command all beings. he went to the pyramids outside Cairo.D. Zoroaster. or the Hen with the Golden Eggs. Nehmahmiah. and performing other magical acts. The book was a major influence in the 19th-century occult revival led by the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. endless galleries.

The evocation for Odous is “Thomatos. Flianter. England: Aquarian Press. Arthur Edward. 2001. 1931. Once armed with the talismans and rings. The occultist A. York Beach. S. Other Satanist organizations also use the term grotto for their local chapters. F rancesco-Maria 105 conveyed to the soldier all the secrets of the book. The Mysteries and Secrets of Magic. Ambrose ad Nemus and St. In the mid-1970s. Red Dragon Published in 1822 but reported to date back to 1522.: Samuel Weiser. Richard. Say “Nanther” as each one does. Later editions of Red Dragon incorporated the instructions for the Gold-Finding Hen from The Black Pullet. Osnas. Address them by saying “Litan. Eliphas. where he spent the rest of his days experimenting with the secrets of the book. New York: Barnes & Noble. the soldier left the pyramid. and they will return you home upon the command “Rabiam. York Beach. the book discusses other grimoires and provides a “Complete Grimoire of Black Magic. He wrote the Compendium over a three-year period in response to a request from Cardinal Federico Borromeo. Waite called it a grimoire of “absolute science. MacGregor. Magic and Alchemy. C. accompanied by Odous.” Waite draws upon and compares different grimoires in discussing rituals and the fundamentals of magic. Wright. Reprint. founded in 1966 in San Francisco. or metals resembling them. He joined the Brethren of St. the spirits can be commanded. Francesco-Maria (17th century) Italian friar and demonologist.: Samuel Weiser.” and they will bow down before you. New York: Dover. 1976. The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts Written in 1898 by Waite. Little is known about Guazzo’s life. The talismans of The Black Pullet are. L. The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage. FURTHER READING: Butler. He sailed for Marseilles and settled in Provence. adding his own views based upon his experiences in magic and alchemy. who was now under his command. Witchcraft. embroidered onto silk but are best engraved on silver. Me. Reprint. 1896. Emile. E. grotto A local organized group of Satanists. Reprint. 1899. and piles of treasures. Ritual Magic. Benesser. the ashes of the Turk. When he recovered. 1972. this is nearly identical to the Grand Grimoire. The command “Soutram Urbarsinens” will cause the spirits to transport you through the air wherever you wish to go. Levi. and taking with him The Black Pullet. The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts. 1984. Mathers. Cavendish.P Putnam’s . M. Izer. as well as the regular meeting place of groups of Satanists. Sons. Thompson. Francesco-Maria Guazzo is best known as the author of Compendium Maleficarum (Handbook of Witches). The Black Arts. J. Wellingborough. in more modern times. The soldier fell into a swoon. Me. 1949. Guazzo. 1967. They are sometimes used alone rather than in conjunction with the rings. which set up grottoes around the United States. Transcendental Magic. Grillot de Givry. gold.Guazzo. The Book of Magical Talismans/The Black Pullet.” Levi based his system on the Key of Solomon. The term originated with the Church of Satan. Elbee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Waite. the grottoes were dissolved and the church was reorganized as a secret society. 1971. a leading inquisitor’s guide published in 1608.” A major section of The Black Pullet tells how to procure a GOLD-FINDING HEN. Guazzo’s Compendium Maleficarum (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) .” which first summons 37 spirits. Barnabas in Milan. E. New York: G. 1993. He published the book and created a magic talisman that would affect anyone who pirated it with ears six inches longer than Midas’. Minneapolis: Marlar. and then immediately he died on his sofa. Transcendental Magic This book comprises the occultist Eliphas Levi’s own system of magic and was published in 1896. S.

Compendium Maleficarum. John confessed that he used CHARMs and runes to afflict the duke with a wasting sickness and “frenzy. John committed suicide by slicing his throat with a knife. Gusion is a duke who appears as a cynocephalus (xenophilus). and future. Francesco-Maria. N. Before the sentence could be carried out. . FURTHER READING: Guazzo.” He was found guilty and sentenced to be burned at the stake. probably because he did not oversee witch trials and interrogations himself. The duke accused a 90-year-old warlock. He discerns the past. John. According to Guazzo. 1974. Secaucus. of overlooking and ensorcelling him.J. confers honor and dignity. and reconciles enemies. draws upon the works of other demonologists and repeats some of the superstitions of the time. he was sent to Cleves to advise in a case involving the serene duke John William of Julich-Cleves. Gusion (Gusayn) FALLEN ANGEL and fourth of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. the Devil himself stood at John’s side as he died. answers all questions.: University Books. present. Guazzo served as a judge and assessor in WITCHCRAFT trials. including the assertion that MARTIN LUTHER was born from the union of the DEVIL and a nun. The Compendium became the leading witch handbook in Italy and has been compared to the MALLEUS MALEFICARUM.106 Gusion the archbishop of Milan. In HELL. The duke asked Guazzo to assist in other witchcraft cases in Germany. published in 1608. In 1605. Guazzo never achieved the personal fame of some of his contemporaries such as NICHOLAS REMY or JEAN BODIN. He commands 40 LEGIONs of DEMONs. and he did. The book.

The gates of his abode. Hades is the son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. also called Hades. Haizmann grew anxious about his own fate. Hades’ wife is Persephone. and imparts wisdom.” When the end of his contract approached. 1677. he had sold his soul to SATAN. He turns wine into water. See HELL. Sent by the local police to a holy shrine at Mariazell. he is also called Pluto (the rich one or the hidden one). Poseidon. transmutes all metals into gold. In it there was a large cauldron from which came heart-rending moans and groans of human beings. Hades seeks to increase the population of his kingdom and prevent anyone from leaving. He appears in the shape of a bull with griffin wings but will change into human form when commanded by a magician. Satan also sent him visions of HELL. the Devil appeared to him many times in various grotesque shapes. Hagenti is a president who rules 33 LEGIONs of DEMONs. drew lots to divide up the world. complaining of continuing torment by the . He went to the police and asked for protection. Christopher (Christoph) Joseph (17th century) Minor Bavarian painter who announced in 1677 that he had signed a PACT with the DEVIL and was tormented by DEMONs for the rest of his life. Less than a year later. Hades also is the god of wealth. The painter agreed to a nine-year contract. Hades. he would assist and help me in every possible way. He has a helmet that makes him invisible. Over the ensuing years. Haizmann. and Hades fared the worst. he plots to overthrow their father Cronus. because of the precious metals mined from the earth. and another brother. the god of time. The police granted his request. Hagenti (Haagenti) FALLEN ANGEL and 48th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Haizmann wrote and illustrated the story of his infernal pact. during which the Virgin Mary recovered the pact from the Devil. Haizmann.H Hades In Greek mythology. With one of his brothers. claiming that nine years earlier. which Haizmann described as “filled with burning fl ames and terrible stench. Zeus. god of Olympus. including that of a dragon with breasts and talons. getting the underworld.” Haizmann wrote. whom he abducted to the underworld. are guarded by the three-headed dog CERBERUS. god of the sea. the god who rules the underworld of the dead. 107 Christopher Haizmann was seized with an “unnatural convulsion” on August 29. He stated that the Devil one day had appeared to him as a burgher with a large black dog and asked him why he was distressed and sad. A pact was drawn up and signed in Haizmann’s BLOOD. on its edge sat a hellish devil who did nothing but pour flaming resin. sulphur and pitch over them. “He would help me out of my distress if I were willing to subscribe myself in ink to him to be his son. Haizmann underwent several days of EXORCISM. Zeus.

Halpas (Halphas) FALLEN ANGEL and 38th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Rather feminine self-depictions of Haizmann in his paintings show Haizmann as suppressing homosexual tendencies. and it has many variations of spellings. hellequin. A penis is painted on the Devil in every picture. Ultimately. Harlequin (Helequin) is associated with the WILD HUNT as the leader of a pack of ghosts and DEMONs that ride through the air on stormy nights. including erlequin. who deceives and causes the most evil heresies. Rudolf Payer-Thurn found a document prepared at Mariazell that described Haizmann’s exorcism. Halpas is an earl who appears in the form of a stork and speaks with a hoarse voice.: University Books. Head of the Dragons DEMON in the form of a threeheaded dragon with awful skin. Nicholas. the Head of the Dragons is a three-pronged spirit that is responsible for birth defects and epilepsy. N. This. and the devil. Multiple breasts in the paintings show Haizmann’s sexual associations with the Devil. hennekin. Secaucus. Charlesworth. In HELL. Tsol 8 describes the first group of seven. which Solomon has under construction. and make men fall down.J. He is thwarted by the angel Lamechiel. promised to help him. He spent the rest of his life tormented by visions of the Devil and his demons. 1974. it is also said that he builds towns and fills them with armed men. FURTHER READING: Remy. . They also appeared at noontime. He rules 26 LEGIONs of DEMONs. The origin of the name Harlequin is uncertain. the demons say they live together in Lydia or on Mount Olympus. 2. and foam at the mouth. New York: Doubleday. against which he must defend himself through neurosis and by degrading his father. The Hennekin. The Testament of Solomon identifies two groups of seven or 36 heavenly bodies who are demonic powers of the world. 1 & 2. the Virgin Mary ripped up the pact. He says he overpowers others through three deeds: He can enter the wombs of women and blind the unborn. Herlaken is used as the name for the Devil and the will-o’-the-wisp. Vols. 1983. The Herlethingi are troops of night wanderers who are the dead.108 Halahel Devil. Halahel In The Lemegeton. who came along and asked him why he was upset and mournful. and under the rule of BAAL. he had become melancholy. including paintings made by Haizmann during his possession. The Mariazell papers. The number 9—there is a nine-year gap between Haizmann’s pact with the Devil and its implementation. Haizmann committed himself to a Bavarian monastery but still could not live in peace. a GOBLIN figure whose name is sometimes synonymous with SATAN or the DEVIL. He sentences the demon to make bricks for the temple. show that Haizmann “recoiled from a feminine attitude toward his father which has its climax in the fantasy of giving birth to his child. and nine days in which Haizmann resisted the Devil—represents pregnancy fantasies. Harlequin In European folklore. the court councilor Dr. Interrogated by King SOLOMON. Mourning for the lost father. Harlequin was a frequent clown character in the Italian improvisational theater called commedia dell’arte. Originally appearing in Imago in 1923. [Haizmann’s] repressed pregnancy fantasy is reactivated. grind their teeth. reappeared at the shrine and underwent another exorcism.” 6. sometimes associated with incubi (see INCUBUS). then. . Edited by James H. He showed the document to Sigmund Freud and asked for Freud’s analysis of the case. heightened by yearning for him. Demonolatry. the Devil is a father figure. Freud reasoned. popular in the 16th–18th centuries. hierlekin. dance at CROSSROADS at night. . Halpas takes swords to the wicked and sends men either to battlefields or to other places. Here we have someone who gives himself to the devil in order to be free of an emotional depression. turn their ears around backward and make them deaf and dumb. Freud found that Haizmann’s selling of himself to the Devil bought him peace of mind: “His father had died. herlekin. Freud’s “Eine Teufelsneurose im Siebzehnten Jahrhundert” (“A devil neurosis of the seventeenth century”) is considered a key document in Freudian psychoanalysis. 3. This time. and hellekin. 1985. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. such bands were described in the 11th and 12th centuries and sometimes comprised dead aristocrats. Solomon finds the gold and binds the demon with his magical ring. but they are named as gods are. Harlican appears in French folklore to describe both IMPs and troublesome children. a DEMON who is part good and part evil. . In the Testament of Solomon. In England.” 5. and they change their position. He burns towns. A noted Viennese librarian and researcher. along with the pregnancy fantasies. He died in 1700. heavenly bodies DEMONs of the world of darkness who cause all the misery and strife in the world. Six of them are thwarted (nullified) by certain ANGELs. 4. led Freud to believe the following: 1. The demon tells King SOLOMON that a great deal of gold lies beneath the foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem. Their stars in heaven look small. Reprint. The seven are the following: • Deception. He is thwarted by an “angel of the Counselor” (Christ) at Golgotha.

Solomon instructs them to appear before him in order and explain who they are.” Some have the forms of humans. who divides and separates men into opposing factions and creates jealousy. “Marmaraoth of mist” • Rhyx Anatreth. who causes pains in the side of the head and is thwarted by Gabriel • Artosael. He is thwarted by the angel Baruchiel. who tells Solomon he will harm the king by causing him to be bound with the bonds of Artemis. He is thwarted by the archangel Uriel. He is thwarted by the angel Asteraoth. who causes colic and bowel problems and is thwarted by Iaoth • Metathiax. and deposes kings. do not be fervent. The Worst does not name a THWARTING ANGEL. who causes people to change their minds and hearts and is thwarted by Kalazael • Rhyx Axesbuth. who causes croup in infants and is thwarted by the name Raarideris written and carried on a person • Rhyx Audameoth. who causes tumors of the parotid gland and painful stiffening of the body and is thwarted by Sabael • Sphandor. or sphinxes. • Distress. sons of Sabaoth” • Phobothel. Sabaoth. who causes heart pain and is thwarted by Raiouoth • Rhyx Manthado. • Error. who sits on stomachs and causes convulsions in the bath and who causes seizures and is thwarted when a person repeats three times into the right ear of the afflicted “Iouda Zazabou” • Modebel. and do other wicked things. who causes ear obstructions and is thwarted by Ourouel (possibly a variant of Uriel) • Sphendonael. who paralyzes limbs. Arare” • Rhyx. do not stand fast. who causes kidney pain and is thwarted by Adonael • Katanikotael. who provides weapons for fighting and warfare. beasts. who causes hysteria and bladder pain and is thwarted when the afflicted takes laurel seeds. who causes incurable fevers and is thwarted when his name is written in a house • Rix Nathotho.heavenly bodi s e 109 • Strife. who causes domestic fights and disharmony. Tsol 18 describes the second group of 36 heavenly bodies. who causes knee problems and is thwarted when the name Phouneiel is written on papyrus • Rhyx Alath. who damages the eyes and eyesight and is thwarted by Uriel • Oropel. Eae. who causes rib pain and is thwarted with a charm written on a piece of wood from a ship that has run aground that says. He is thwarted by the angel Balthioul. Ieo. the earth and beneath the earth. and massages the preparation .” • Ieropa. “Angel. or dragons. fever. “Iae. Ouriel” (Uriel) • Rhyx Atonme. establishes tyrants. • The Worst. who causes shivering and numbness and is thwarted by Rizoel • Katrax. mashes them into oil. • Power. and sore throat and is thwarted by the recitation of the words “Iax. who causes gas and burning bowels and is thwarted by “Arara. Iao. who causes headaches and is thwarted by Michael • Barsfael. who causes fatal fevers and is thwarted when a person rubs coriander on his or her lips and says. and who is followed by Strife.” • Saphthoreal. destroys the nerves of the hand (possibly carpal tunnel). “I adjure you by Zeus. the Enautha. They call themselves the world rulers of darkness and say the king has no power to harm them or lock them up. He is thwarted by the angel Marmaroth. bulls. with faces of birds. who causes loosening of the tendons and is thwarted by Adonai • Leroel. and weakens shoulders and is thwarted by Arael • Belbel. Solomon sentences the seven demons to dig the foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem. Phedismos” is worn on the temples • Rhyx Anoster. who causes men to fight instead of make peace with those who are winning. who causes diarrhea and hemorrhoids and is thwarted by pure wine that is drunk • Rhyx Hapax. who causes perversions and is thwarted by Karael • Kourtael. which is 250 cubits in length. who causes sore throats and mucus and is thwarted by Raphael • Kairoxanondalon. • Fate. who leads men astray by causing them to kill each other. who causes insomnia and is thwarted when the written charm “Kok. who causes chills. demons who correspond to the decans (10-degree segments) of the zodiac. who feeds the greed for power. He is thwarted by sprinkling a house with water in which laurel leaves have been soaked and by intoning. but since he has dominion over all the spirits of the air. they appear with their heads “like formless dogs. When summoned by Solomon. retreat from the image of God. who causes pain in the kidneys and is thwarted by the written charm “Iaoth. who causes mental confusion and is thwarted by a written CHARM worn around the neck that says. dig up graves. who causes husbands and wives to separate and is thwarted when someone places a written charm bearing the names of the “eight fathers” (Egyptian deities) on doorways • Mardero. because Solomon is fairer than eleven fathers” • Soubelti. The demons are as follows: • Ruax. they take their place before him as other spirits do.

He must be paid for passage. seraphim. who holds “a grudge against the body” and causes flesh to rot and houses to be demolished and is thwarted by a written charm. gloomy world. making a tunnel. The blessed are sent to the Elysian Fields. 1985. a hell for the wicked. Minos. Her face and body are those of a living woman. Zoroastrianism In Zoroastrianism. Anubis. and the soul is judged by 42 judges. Amenti. light. the good god. “Cherubim. The Hecataea appear at the goddess’ bidding. After passing by the guardian. Edited by James H. In Christianity. Three judges of the underworld. the Norse goddess of the . frightening DEMONs and apparitions who are considered to be the “children” of Hecate. ripping apart the sky. Souls who fail judgment and weighing are eaten by a monster named Ammit (Ammut) and sent to a place of torment. Hecataea In Greek lore. who causes detached tendons and is thwarted by the words “Adonai. the good are rewarded and the wicked are punished. and has high walls. in a boat driven by the ferryman Charon. Charlesworth. Besides the Acheron. which are reached by passing through either 15 or 21 gates guarded by evil demons armed with long knives. which means “hidden land. help (me)” Rhyx Aleureth. dark Moon. major ones are the Cocytus (lamentation). with a gloomy and grim expression. and magic. “I adjure you by Marmaraoth” Rhyx Physikoreth. who causes the swallowing of fish bones and is thwarted when a fish bone is put in the breasts of the afflicted Rhyx Ichthuon. See CHTHONIC DEITIES. Most concepts of the afterlife segregate the good from the evil. who causes jealousy and quarrels between people who love each other and is thwarted by a written charm of the letters alpha and beta Rhyx Phtheneoth. Early Christians used the term Hades to translate the Hebrew term Sheol. Rhadamanthus. and love. goddess of the underworld. hell is created in the middle earth by A HRIMAN. Hell takes its name from HEL. and Styx (hate). thereby creating night. After arriving at Amenti. the wicked are sent to Tartarus. According to Homer. the dead proceed to the place of judgment. Greek The Greek underworld of Hades is a realm of shadows. sending them to separate abodes. and pierce Solomon forces all of these heavenly bodies to bear water for the Temple of Jerusalem. who gnaw. to a judgment hall. mottled and moldering. Hell is the complete absence of God. In later Greek thought. Hel is the youngest child of the evil god Loki and the giantess Angrboda.” is located where the Sun sets in the west. The wicked are unhappy and suffer. a paradise for the good. malthe” Rhyx Achoneoth. and Tartarus. weigh souls at a place where three roads meet. Worthy souls go to the fields of Aalu (also Aaru). half-alive and half-dead (half-blue-black and half-flesh-colored). He hurtles toward the earth and bores straight through it. Hel In Norse mythology. the realm of the dead. Phlegethon (fire). Egyptian Amenti (also Amentet) is the underworld in the Osiris cult of Egyptian myth and religion. hell The underworld abode of souls of the dead. the soul is taken by the jackalheaded god of death. Ahriman attacks the earth. swallow. There are many rivers. twitter like bats. 1 & 2. This hole becomes hell. ghosts. She is usually described as a horrible hag. and the torments of demons. infested with demons. but her thighs and legs are those of a corpse.” placed at the entrance to a home netherworld. “Melto Ardad Anaath. and Aeacus. Vols. loathsome stenches. and those who are neither are sent to the Fields of Asphodel. the last of which divides the upper and lower worlds. The souls of the dead are colorless shades who wander about in a depressing. New York: Doubleday. Damned souls are sent here to suffer extremes of heat and cold. where DEMONs torment sinners for eternity. Anubis weighs the soul’s heart against the feather of truth and light. Her manservant is Ganglati and her maidservant is Ganglot (tardy). rotting food. who casts the EVIL EYE and is thwarted by an inscribed eye Rhyx Mianeth. hell is the opposite of heaven and is the place ruled by the DEVIL. Her hall in Helheim is called Eljudnir (Sleet-Cold). Hades is divided into the Elysian Fields. the personification of ultimate evil. The Elysium-like fields were cultivated for food for the dead. the land of the dead. a place of unbearable fire and horrible tortures. The dead reach the afterlife by crossing the river Acheron. who causes sore throats and tonsillitis and is thwarted by a written charm of “Leikourgos” on ivy leaves made into a pile Rhyx Autoth. they have no blood or bones. Lethe (forgetfulness). but not at the hand of demons. In his battle against Ohrmazd. the home of the dead. the goddess and ruler of Helheim. the three-headed dog CERBERUS. usually in the form of a coin placed under the tongue of the deceased.110 Hecataea • • • • • • • into the body while repeating. Hel was cast into the underworld after being abducted by the gods. who causes long-term illness and is thwarted when the afflicted massages the body with salted olive oil while saying. the river of sorrow. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. and seek the vitalizing life forces from sacrificed animals and necromantic rituals.

however. One text. it must cross a river swollen with the tears of weeping loved ones. Arda Viraf sees Angra Mainyu. Then. Souls who are neither wholly good nor wholly evil go to a purgatorylike place. Besides witnessing landscapes and tortures of hell. If too many tears have been shed. The deeds of the soul are weighed. describes hell in detail as a gloomy. the deadly world destroyer later known as Ahriman. The soul is aided by its guardian angel. a shadowy and oppressive realm with extremes of heat and cold. the place of evil words. There are four significant hills: Dush-humat. an angel. the place of evil thoughts. and depressing abode. the place of evil deeds. all sin is purged. the soul spends three days sitting at the head of its body praying for its future. The extent of punishment is suited to the crimes and sins of the souls. who travels to both heaven and hell with two guides: Srosh the pious and Ataro. rather. The deepest pit is Drûgâskan. Dush-hukht. or “Bridge of the Requiter. stinking. At the Last Judgement.hell 111 Demons whipping sinners in hell (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) the damned with spears. Being sent to hell is not permanent. fiery. Srosh. Unlike the Christian hell to come. demons do not force the punishments upon the damned.” to meet three angels of judgment: Mithra. a place so dark that the sense of sight is lost. Punishments fit the nature of sins. the bridge is wide and easily crossed. and Chakat-i-Daitih. Eightyfive of its 101 chapters concern hell. Dushhuvarsht. or sharp and narrow. the soul then arrives at the Chinvat Bridge. a desert and dark stinking pit full of demons below the Chinvat Bridge. 85 are described in The Book of Arda Viraf from the sixth century. the river cannot be crossed. causing the wicked to fall into hell. Depending on the good or evil reckoning. the . The Book of Arda Viraf. and Rashnu. After death. Hamegstan. If the river is crossed. The visionary is Arda Viraf.



damned infl ict the punishments on themselves, while demons look on. The most common punishment is eating fetid and putrid things for thousands of years until the fi nal resurrection. Other punishments include the eating of their own corpses, flesh, and excrement, menstrual fluids and semen, blood and brains from skulls of the dead, and their own children. Tortures also include hanging (particularly upside-down), dismemberment, decapitation, laceration, mutilation and self-mutilation by cutting, gnawing, devouring, gnashing, piercing, beating, tearing, trampling, stinging, and dragging. The wicked are stabbed and pelted and stretched on racks; they are forced to bear enormous burdens and perform painful and fruitless tasks; are burned and cooked in ovens, cauldrons, and frying-pans; are cast down into heat, cold, smoke, snow, and stench. They endure hunger and thirst, and they are forced to lick hot things or to defecate and masturbate continually; they are submerged in mud and turned into SERPENTs. Their eyes are gouged out and their tongues pulled out; putrid substances are forced into their noses, eyes, and mouths. Their penises are gnawed and their breasts are gnashed and cut off. Fire is present in the Zoroastrian hell but is not an instrument of torture; instead, hot implements and objects and molten metal are used against the damned.

Judaism Sheol (place of the dead) is a shadowy place under the earth where souls continue their existence in the afterlife. The equivalent Greek term for the Hebrew Sheol is Hades, but as a place after death, not as a place of punishment. Daniel 12:2, which concerns the coming of the messianic kingdom, expresses the conviction that God will not abandon souls in Sheol: “And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and contempt.” All souls go initially to Sheol (with the exception of a few righteous ones whom God takes straight to heaven). In 3 Enoch, two angels of destruction escort “intermediate” souls (those equally good and bad) and wicked souls to Sheol. The intermediate souls are purified in fire in order to be fitting in God’s presence. They have spiritual forms that are human faces with eagle bodies. The faces are green because of the taint of their sin and will remain so until they are purified. The wicked souls, whose faces are as black as the bottoms of pots because of their sins, are taken by an angel to Gehenna (hell) for punishment. Gehenna or Gehinnom (Valley of Hinnom) is associated with the literal valley of Hinnom south of Jerusalem, where human sacrifices were made to MOLOCH. Different accounts exist concerning the creation of Gehenna: it was created by God on the second day, or it existed before the world and its fi re was created on the second day. It exists either above the firmament, behind dark mountains, or deep within the earth. Its fire is 60 times hotter than any fire on Earth and is never extinguished. It stinks of sulfur. Sinners go immediately to Gehenna, where they are punished in terrible pain for eternity. Christianity In orthodox Christianity, hell has four levels. The first two are limbo regions for pre-Christian souls, now unoccupied, and for the souls of unbaptized children. The third is purgatory, where most mortals go prior to admission to heaven. The duration of their stay depends upon the gravity of their sins. The fourth is hell itself, reserved for eternal punishment of the damned, who have no hope of redemption. Hell exists in the bowels of the earth. Earthquakes are produced by the convulsions of the damned, according to orthodox belief. There are three gates to hell: in the inhabited land, in the wilderness, and at the bottom of the sea. In the Middle Ages, caves were considered to be the entry points to hell. Hell is characterized by extremes of temperature. There are unbearable furnaces and pitch and flames, and extreme cold, ice, and frigidity. The damned are punished according to their sins, and in ways similar to the descriptions of the Zoroastrian hell. Their bodies are tortured and ripped apart by demons; they are subjected to piercings and hanging in agonizing postures, such as by

The mouth of hell, with Lucifer atop and Satan in front of the jaws (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION)

Hell-Fire C lub


to heaven. The Bible makes no clear reference to it, but the statement that Jesus went to hell is in the Apostles’ Creed. 1 Peter 3:19 says that Jesus went to preach to “the spirits in prison,” a reference interpreted as meaning hell. EMMANUEL SWEDENBORG had numerous out-of-body visits to the afterlife, and ST. JOHN BOSCO visited hell in vivid lucid dreams. FURTHER READING:
Masters, Anthony. The Devil’s Dominion: The Complete Story of Hell and Satanism in the Modern World. London: Peter Fraser & Dunlop, 1978. Ogden, Daniel. Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Rudwin, Maximilian. The Devil in Legend and Literature. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 1959. Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity. Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press, 1977.

The gluttonous are punished in hell by being force-fed toads, rats, and snakes. (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION)

their tongues or breasts. They have their organs and flesh devoured; they eat excrement and filth. They have their genitals and breasts mutilated. Worms crawl in and out of their eyes. Islam Jahnnam is the Islamic hell, the destination of not only criminals but infidels and those who do not believe in God. The damned are forced to eat bitter fruit from a tree called Zaqqum and endure a host of other tortures. The Qur’an emphasizes the torments of hell for wayward Muslims. The guilty are “bound with chains, their garments pitch, and their faces covered with fl ames” (sura 14:49–50). For those who oppose God’s message, “Hell will stretch behind them, and putrid water shall he drink: he will sip, but scarcely swallow. Death will assail him from every side, yet he shall not die. Harrowing torment awaits him” (sura 14:16–17), and “Garments of fire have been prepared for the unbelievers. Scalding water shall be poured upon their heads, melting their skins and that which is in their bellies. They shall be lashed with rods of iron” (sura 22:19–20). Visits to Hell Numerous religious figures and visionaries have visited one or both sides of the afterlife. Zarathustra (Zoroaster) was said to have made midnight trips to both heaven and hell, as did Moses. There is a tradition that JESUS went to hell for three days between his Crucifixion and ascension

Hellboy (2004) Film about a DEMON conjured by the Nazis, who becomes a fighter for the forces of good. Directed by Guillermo del Toro, the film stars Ron Perlman as Hellboy. The film is based on the comic book character created by Mike Mignola, which debuted in 1993. In the last days of World War II, the Nazis conjure a young demon in a desperate attempt to avoid defeat. The Allies raid the camp and capture the demon, Hellboy. The demon joins the U.S. government to battle evil. His destiny is to be the Beast of the Apocalypse. Hellboy has supernormal strength and supernatural powers. He ages slowly and heals quickly. His oversized right arm and hand, called “the Hand of Doom,” is impervious to pain yet able to pick up things as small as flies. He uses it as a weapon. Other weapons include holy relics and a large revolver called “the Good Samaritan” that fires custom bullets made of garlic, silver, and holy water. Hellboy II was released in 2008. Hell-Fire Club Satanic order founded in England in the 18th century, more for the purpose of outrageous behavior and sexual play than actual Satanic rites or worship. The original Hell-Fire Club was founded by Lord Wharton for the purpose of “drinking, gambling and blaspheming.” Similar clubs also were in vogue, mostly among the aristocracy, such as the Edinburgh Sweating Club, the Dublin Blasters, and the Demoniacs. In 1721, a royal proclamation banned them, forcing them underground. The most famous Hell-Fire Club was founded by Sir Francis Dashwood, who owned a large estate in West Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, and who had married a rich widow. Dashwood joined forces with Paul Whitehead to tour erotic archaeological discoveries in Europe



and also the private cardinals’ rooms at the Vatican. They acquired some GRIMOIRES of spells and conjurations and decided it would be interesting to indulge in magical activity. Dashwood, Whitehead, and their friends began meeting at the George and Vulture pub in Cornhill. They established as their motto and philosophy Fais Ce Que Voudras, “Do What Thou Wilt,” which later became part of ALEISTER CROWLEY’s “Law of Thelema”: “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law.” The group, known fi rst at the Secret Brotherhood and then as the “order of the Friars of Saint Francis of Wycombe,” were heavily influenced by Rosicrucianism in their satanic dabblings. They changed their meeting site to a more demonically suited location, Medmenham Abbey, the ruins of a 12th-century Cistercian monastery atop a hill. Dashwood made some additions to the abbey, including an artificial Gothic tower, frescoes on the walls and ceilings, and voluptuous statues. He restored the abbey church by turning it into a common room with a pagan altar. Dashwood and his fellow “monks” spent on the average two days a month at the abbey. Each “monk” had his own cell, to which he could take women. A pleasure boat afforded them trips up and down the Thames River. The “monks” also conducted rites in caves nearby. The caves stretched to the center of the hill. Three hundred feet down was an underground river, which Dashwood named the River Styx. The caves served as temple rooms, many of which were decorated with Tantric symbols. Supposedly, a secret passage led to the chamber of a girl nicknamed St. Agnes, who served as vestal virgin. There was a labyrinth as well. The author Hugh Walpole witnessed one of their satanic rites performed covertly in the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican in Rome, which he described in his book Memoirs of the Reign of King George III:
On Good Friday, each person who attends the Sistine Chapel takes a small scourge from an attendant at the door. The chapel is dimly lighted, only three candles, which are extinguished by the priest, one by one. At the putting out of the first, the penitents take off one part of their dress. At the next, still more, and in the dark which follows the extinguishing of the third candle, “lay on” their own shoulders with groans and lamentations. Sir Francis Dashwood, thinking this mere stage effect, entered with the others dressed in a large watchman’s coat, demurely took his scourge from the priest and advanced to the end of the chapel, where in the darkness ensuing he drew from beneath his coat an English horsewhip and flogged right and left quite down the Chapel—the congregation exclaiming “Il Diavolo! Il Diavolo!”—thinking the evil was upon them with a vengeance. The consequence might have been serious had Dashwood not immediately fled the Papal dominions.

Masters, Anthony. The Devil’s Dominion: The Complete Story of Hell and Satanism in the Modern World. London: Peter Fraser & Dunlop, 1978.

Hemah Angel of wrath, fury, and destruction who governs the death of domestic animals. According to Jewish lore, Hemah lives in the seventh heaven; he is 500 parasangs tall and is made of chains of black and red fire. A parasang is a Persian unit of measurement used to describe the dimensions of the heavens and the distances between them, and the heights of angels. One parasang equals approximately 3.88 miles. In the Zohar, Hemah is one of three angels in Gehenna (see HELL)—along with Af and Mashit—who punish those who sin by idolatry, incest, and murder. Hemah swallows Moses with the help of his brother angel Af. God intervenes and forces him to spit Moses out again. Moses then kills Hemah. hobgoblin horerczy See GOBLIN. See ALP.

huli jing (fox fairy) In Chinese lore, a DEMON that is the malevolent spirit of the returning dead. The huli jing rises from its grave and shape-shifts into a seductive woman, scholar, or old man. It seduces victims and vampirizes the victims of the life force during orgasm. When the victim falls ill with tuberculosis, the huli jing leaves it for another victim. A female huli jing especially likes scholars for their virtuousness. The huli jing has other powers and abilities that make it one of the most feared of all demons in Chinese lore. It can shape shift into dead people, haunt places, and terrify the living. It can take on the appearance of living people. It can transport people through the air and enable them to pass through walls and closed windows. The huli jing is invisible during the day but can often be seen at night, especially lurking on the rooftops of homes. The huli jing is responsible for a form of possession that reduces a person to insanity. If madness affects generations of a family, that indicates that an ancestor once injured a huli jing. The huli jing is so feared that it is treated with great respect; above all, great care must be taken never to harm one. However, if one cuts off the tail, which holds its power, it will leave a home and never return. One remedy against the huli jing is to burn charms written on paper and mix the ashes into tea for drinking. If a female huli jing can be given enough wine to become drunk, it will revert to its true form and will vanish. See KITSUNE. FURTHER READING:
Mack, Carol K., and Dinah Mack. A Field Guide to Demons, Fairies, Fallen Angels, and Other Subversive Spirits. New York: Henry Holt/Owl Books, 1998.

Dashwood’s order lasted for about 35 years.

Hyslop, J mes Her a vey


Hutriel An angel of punishment who lives in the fifth camp of HELL and helps to punish the 10 nations. The name Hutriel means “rod of God.” Hutriel is sometimes equated with Oniel. Hydriel DEMON and a wandering duke of the air. Hydriel has 100 great dukes and 200 lesser dukes and their servants beneath him. The 12 chief dukes each have 1,320 servants. All the demons must be summoned according to their appropriate planetary hour. When they appear, each has the form of a SERPENT with a virgin’s head and face. Unlike the spirits of BURIEL, they are courteous and obedient. They prefer to be around water and moist places. The 12 major dukes of Hydriel are Mortoliel, Chamoriel, Pelariel, Musuziel, Lameniel, Barchiel, Samiel, Dusiriel, Camiel, Arbiel, Luciel, and Chariel. Hyslop, James Hervey (1854–1920) American philosopher, psychologist, educator, and professor of ethics, whose interest in survival after death led him to conduct some of the finest studies of POSSESSION and OBSESSION. James Hervey Hyslop was born on August 18, 1854, to devout Presbyterians in Xenia, Ohio. His parents expected him to enter the ministry, but instead he studied philosophy and the emerging field of psychology, receiving a bachelor of arts in 1877 from Wooster College, Wooster, Ohio. Despite his religious upbringing, Hyslop professed skepticism about the divinity of Christ by the time he reached college and, after some study, decided to reject the New Testament. After graduation, Hyslop enrolled at the University of Leipzig, Germany, to study with Wilhelm Wundt, who founded the first formal psychology laboratory in 1879. In Leipzig, he met his wife-to-be, Mary F. Hall, a student of music from Philadelphia. Hyslop returned to the United States two years later, teaching first at Lake Forest University, outside Chicago, then at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts. He continued his own education at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, completing a doctorate in psychology in 1887, and published several books about logic, ethics, education, and philosophy. From 1889 to 1902, he was professor of logic and ethics at Columbia University in New York City. As was typical of other educated men of the period, Hyslop exhibited eclectic tastes, also exploring geology and biology. He knew nothing about the psychic until 1886, when an article on telepathy in Nation caught his attention. The article concerned a young boy who reportedly saw an apparition of his father and his team of horses going over a bank into a stream some 25 miles away. Hyslop suspected the story was “some illusion of memory or error in judgment as to the facts.” He wrote to the author of the article and received answers to his questions that convinced him the phenomenon might be genuine. At Columbia Hyslop, through his colleagues, became acquainted with the Society for Psychical Research (SPR)

in England and the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) (founded in 1882 and 1885, respectively) and with the research concerning the British medium Leonora Piper conducted by Richard Hodgson. In 1888, he began a series of sittings with Piper. Initially skeptical, he was astonished when Piper began relaying personal messages from his dead father and various relatives. By his 12th sitting, he was convinced he had communicated with the spirits of his family. In 1889, the ASPR became a branch of the SPR out of financial need and remained so until the death of Hodgson in 1905. In 1906, the ASPR reorganized as an independent organization, and Hyslop became its president, a position he held until his death in 1920. Hyslop’s most famous case was the THOMPSON/GIFFORD OBSESSION in 1907, in which a metalworker, Frederic L. Thompson, claimed to been taken over by a deceased painter, R. Swain Gifford. After the Thompson/Gifford case, Hyslop continued to work extensively with various mediums, principally Minnie Soule, and ran the operations of the ASPR. He also wrote all the society’s papers, as well as magazine and journal articles. Casework fascinated Hyslop. He investigated the story of S. Henry, a coachman in New Jersey who was tormented by the death of his wife and his increasingly frightening psychical experiences. Henry described feelings of a strange fluid in his stomach, which forced him to breathe in a certain way, then rose to his brain and made him insane. He also wrote that he felt he could leave his body through an opening in the back of his head. Hyslop did not recognize Henry’s symptoms as those of kundalini and out-of-body experiences. By 1908, almost two years after Hyslop had first met him, Henry was suffering from delusions and had become insane. Hyslop took Henry to the ASPR in New York, where he hypnotized him and tried to encourage him to forget his troubles. The simple treatment worked. Never having confronted out-of-body experiences before, Hyslop attributed Henry’s problems to spirit possession. In 1909, Hyslop, met Etta De Camp, a medium currently living in New York City who had been psychic since her childhood in Ohio. She was an editor and proofreader for Broadway magazine who had never written anything besides letters until 1908. After reading about spirit communications received by W. T. Stead through automatic writing, De Camp decided to try. She reported a tingling in her arm, like an electric shock, and after two or three days began writing copiously. De Camp experienced terrible headaches and earaches at this time, usually if she tried to resist the writing. She found some relief while in trance but refused to lose conscious control. The scripts made little sense to her, and she complained to the spirits that if they could not write well, they should take someone to her who could. From that point on, the scripts became more coherent. Her first communicator was an Indian brave, who reported that he


Hyslop, James Her vey

would hear from a dead man, a writer who wanted someone to finish the stories he left when he died. Soon, her pencil wrote that the spirit of Frank R. Stockton had arrived and wished to communicate. She felt intense pain, but once Stockton took control of her, the pain subsided. De Camp began writing short stories in Stockton’s style, and she showed them to her employer, George Duysters, who introduced her to Hyslop. Stockton had been popular in the late 19th century, writing whimsical stories for children. His most famous, “The Lady or the Tiger,” is still popular. He had a distinctive style, full of humor, cynicism, and bizarre situations. Duysters showed some of the De Camp transcriptions to the late author’s editor at Harper’s, who found them quite real. De Camp also began hearing from her dead father. De Camp continued to write in Stockton’s style, and Hyslop lost contact with her from 1910 to 1912 while he investigated other matters. In 1912, De Camp was near a complete breakdown, and Hyslop agreed to participate in sittings, which would finally reveal Stockton’s presence. Through a series of séances with Soule, both Stockton and the recently deceased Duysters revealed themselves, proving again to Hyslop the reality of spirit possession and survival. De Camp wrote of her experiences in The Return of Frank R. Stockton in 1913, including all of the transcribed Stockton stories. After initial publicity, De Camp later married and settled down to a private life, hearing no more from Stockton. A third case involved a woman identified as Ida Ritchie, really Ida Marie Rogers. Rogers claimed to be receiving communications from the great opera singer Emma Ab-

bott, who had died in 1891. Rogers was a budding singer herself and had made remarkable progress for a person with little formal training. When she contacted Hyslop, Rogers said Emma Abbott, her mother, and the late William James, a Harvard philosopher and psychologist and friend of Hyslop’s, were all talking to her through automatic writing. Again through sittings with Soule, Hyslop contacted Abbott and Rogers’ mother. Their communication indicated great efforts by the spirits to help Rogers’ singing career, but she never became a great star. Hyslop’s last major case was the DORIS FISCHER OBSESSION, begun in 1914. Hyslop reportedly believed his health had been threatened in 1919 by a spirit he was trying to exorcize through sessions in Boston with Soule, and he was ill for several months. He believed firmly that the existence of discarnate spirits had been proved scientifically and dismissed those who did not agree. Hyslop suffered a stroke at the end of 1919 and died June 17, 1920. FURTHER READING:
Anderson, Roger I., ed. “Autobiographical Fragment of James Hervey Hyslop.” Journal of Religion and Psychical Research 9, no. 2 (April 1986): 81–92. ———, ed. “Autobiographical Fragment of James Hervey Hyslop Part III.” Journal of Religion and Psychical Research 9, no. 3 (July 1986): 145–160. ———. “The Life and Work of James H. Hyslop.” The Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 79 (April 1985): 167–200. Rogo D. Scott. The Infinite Boundary. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1987.

Iblis In Islam, the DEVIL. Iblis is Arabian for “despair.” The exact origin and nature of Iblis are uncertain. His name is the primary name for the Devil; he is also described as the chief and father of the DJINN and an ANGEL. He can assume any form, but he is most frequently portrayed as a vain entity who has the head of an ass and is decorated with peacock feathers (see ADRAMELECH). Iblis is mentioned nine times in the Qur’an; seven of the references concern his fall from God’s grace. His other name, Shaytan, is used in context of his rebellion against God. Sura 18:50 in the Qur’an states that Iblis “was one of the djinn, and he broke the command his Lord.” Like other djinn, Iblis was created by God of smokeless fire. Suras 7:12 and 38:76 refer to his creation from fire. However, the Qur’an also indicates that Iblis was treated as an angel. When Allah created Adam, he ordered all the angels to bow down and worship him. Iblis was among those who refused, claiming that a being made of dust was beneath him, a being of fire. Allah cursed Iblis for his pride and expelled him from heaven. Iblis persuaded Allah to delay further punishment until the Day of Judgment. God gave him the right to roam the earth, tempting people, and to destroy those who yield to temptation. He cannot compel people to sin but only lure them to make the choice. He is aided by the Shaytan, also the name of a type of djinn, who serves under him. Ultimately, Iblis is doomed to HELL along with the souls he corrupts. He haunts ruins and eats unblessed food until Judgment Day. Another tradition holds that Iblis was one of the original djinn, taken to heaven as a prisoner. He was made a judge of djinn, a job that he performed well for 1,000 years and poorly for 1,000 years. He was then rehabilitated but refused Allah’s command to worship Adam and was punished. In another legend, in a time before the creation of humankind, Allah sent his angels down to Earth to destroy the djinn, who were rebelling against divine laws. The angels killed most of them and captured Iblis, whom they took up to heaven and educated. The remaining djinn formed a new nation. Iblis, who wanted power, left heaven to become their king. They called him AZAZEL. In the mystical tradition of the Sufi s, Iblis refused to bow to Adam because he could only bow to God. Thus, Iblis represents the perfect lover, a model of loyalty and devotion who would rather be separated from God and God’s will than united with God against God’s will. In a 14th-century Syrian legend, Iblis actually assisted in the creation of Adam by gathering sweet and salty matter from the earth. Another story tells how Iblis tempted Eve. He succeeded in smuggling himself into paradise by promising any animal who carried him in that he would bestow upon it three magical words that would guarantee immortality.


Nuriel. Rabbi. Incantation bowls also are known as Babylonian demon or DEVIL traps. Henry Ansgar. New York: Cambridge University Press. One bowl proclaims a “bill of divorce” from the Devil and all his night monsters. They can be summoned day and night and will do as commanded. The charms specify protection of homes. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages. Malki and Dipshi. The charms are written in ink in a spiral from the rim to the center. ordering them to leave the community. leaving him there forever. the prince of Wales (the future King Edward VII) was given an imp tie pin. Larphiel.. and Great Prince of God’s Throne. 2006. New York: Owl Books/Henry Holt. used to trap or drive away DEMONs. Icosiel has 100 dukes. a few are inscribed in Persian. Almost all of the bowls that survive are inscribed in Aramaic. Some of the centers of bowls have a primitive drawing of a demon in chains. Sealed and countersealed and fortified are Ahat. warts. An imp is like a FAMILIAR and is comparable to the DJINN. imp A small DEMON usually kept inside a bottle or ring. intending to wreak havoc there. Mack. In 1928. including male and female demons. Everytime he celebrates humans’ rebelling against God. WITCHCRAFT. about the size of soup tureens. The 15 principal dukes are Mchariel. Fallen Angels. and Joseph W. Carol K. Nathriel. and Other Subversive Spirits. Many of the inscriptions call upon powerful ANGEL s or King SOLOMON and the power of the seal of his magical ring. families. Ithaca. In England the Lincoln Imp is a carved stone demon on a column in the Angel Choir at the cathedral in Lincoln. The grinning imp is in a seated position with one leg crossed over the other. The angel turned incantation bowl A terra-cotta bowl inscribed with CHARMs or magical texts. Imps are both good and evil. FURTHER READING: Hyatt. imps can take the shape of animals. Cumariel. Prince of the World. Zachartel. 300 companions. The second imp hid in the wreckage and made his escape by latching on to the broomstick of a passing witch. Iblis is both male and female and can impregnate himself. W. including insects and birds. It is evoked for magical purposes. The name of the great angel Metatron appears often on incantation bowls in invocations for angelic help. The Legend of the Lincoln Imp. Amediet. Cambriet. Munefiel. illness. They tripped the bishop and smashed tables and chairs and started to destroy the Angel Choir. and Ahat the . One of the imps defiantly flew up to a stone pillar and began to throw heavy objects at the angel. Pischiel. The Book of Demons. Holy Rock. Athesiel. which are sent out on tasks at the command of a witch or magician. New York: Simon & Schuster. BTY′. FURTHER READING: Kesson. 1904. him into stone. especially the attacks of LILITH and her offspring. Witch hunters during the Inquisition accused witches of rewarding their imps for evil deeds by suckling them with their own BLOOD. breasts. Some Jewish bowls refer to the Angel of Yahweh with this or similar inscriptions: “YYY the Great. they went to Chesterfield and twisted the spire of the church there. N. TTY QLY′. Zosiel. An angel ordered them to stop. and then they went to Lincoln Cathedral. H. The Lincoln Imp is associated with both good and bad luck. First. were inverted and buried under the four corners of the foundations of houses and buildings to seal the cracks where demons could sneak in. Ruddock & Sons. Icosiel DEMON and a wandering duke of the air. As familiars. Heresiel. the daughter of Imma. the sons of Ahat. Kelly. 1998. Thanatiel. the Grand National and the Epsom Derby. which the imps sucked from fingers. J. Their period of usage is uncertain but ranges at least from the second century to the seventh century. Agapiel. Various titles given him are the Great Prince of the Whole World. and Ubaniel. The next year.118 Icosiel The SERPENT agreed and carried Iblis into paradise hidden in its mouth. he lays two eggs that hatch as demons. Lincoln. Charles.200 servants. who were held captive for a time in Babylonia.. and many other servants. the CURSEs of sorcerers. or any protuberance on the skin.Y. the angel who has 11 names. The imp has been used in jewelry and even worn by royalty. Jeffrey Burton. 1984. A Biography of Satan. and Dinah Mack. There are different versions of the legend. The bowl either overturned or captured demons. England: J. One version tells in rhyme that one day the Devil was in good spirits and let his young demons out to play. One rode on the wind to Lindum (Lincoln) and ordered the wind to take him into the church. and the EVIL EYE. Victoria. The imp started breaking things in the Angel Choir and was turned to stone by angels in punishment. and sometimes on the outside of the bowls as well. His 15 chief dukes have 2. Incantation bowls were common among the Babylonians and the Hebrews. The witch turned him into a black cat to become her familiar. and London: Cornell University Press. two of his horses won major races. and Yanai the daughter of Ahat. The bowls. Iblis spoke to Eve from within the mouth. 1974. the Devil sent two imps out to make mischief. A Field Guide to Demons: Fairies. Their magic was believed to protect against an assortment of evils.” An example of a charm is the following: The demon NTY′. Another version says that in the 14th century. constructed in the 12th century and once the tallest structure in the world. He and his demons mainly appear in houses. and possessions. Russell.

Clement of Alexandria. unclad. Sometimes there is a sense of choking or suffocation. sorcerers. and Qarquoi the daughter of Shilta. and against those of the presumptuous woman. who were exceptionally lascivious and often injured women in their lust.” Victims usually feel a heavy weight on top of them that paralyzes them. the bodies (?) of S QL MYLY MYLY TYGL. Vols. The Great Angel: A Study of Israel’s Second God. which means “to lie upon. Ky. They described the appearances. It once was a common belief that women were more likely than men to be the sexual victims of demons. as well as the Jewish historian Josephus and some Platonist philosophers. St. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. only in degrading sex. Margaret. Incubi are especially attracted to women with beautiful hair. and characteristics of incubi and remedies against them. 1985. Nuns are among the most vulnerable and could be molested in the confessional as well as in bed. Incubus is from the Latin word incubare. these unions are continued by men who unknowingly cohabit with spirits in their sleep. FURTHER READING: Barker. the incubus and his female counterpart. bound is the bewitching Lilith . . The first inscription that follows cites the use of IRON. Hosts is His name. with hair disheveled. because women were inferior to men and less able to resist temptation. incubi were believed to instruments of the DEVIL.: Westminster/John Knox Press. . During the witch hysteria in Europe. or “the pouncer. Koltuv. the Nephilim. and Shilta the daughter of Immi—they are their houses and their children and their property are sealed with the seal-ring of El Shaddai.: Nicolas-Hays. bound is the bewitching Lilith with pinchers of iron in her mouth. young virgins. Augustine included among incubi the pagan demigods sylvans and fauns. Their offspring were giants. incubus A lewd male DEMON who pursues women for sex. he said. with a chain or iron on her neck. In the name of the Lord. and all “devout” females.” Pliny called it “suppressions” or “nocturnal illusions. and demons. who worked spells on male demons and female liliths. According to the kabbalistic text the Zohar. said at her trial in 1588 that she was “always so stretched by the huge. Thou Lilith of the desert. chaste widows. Incubi have enormous phalluses that are so stiff they cause women great pain. demons value intercourse with humans. Charlesworth. 1 & 2. the son of David. and against everything bad. who darkens the eyes and blows away the soul. who could not have been the progeny of human men and women.” The Incubus in Jewish Demonology The existence and activities of incubi are acknowledged in Jewish demonology in relation to a Midrashic legend of Adam’s siring demonic offspring. selah. Sealed are the bodies (?) of S QL. 1992. the SUCCUBUS. the Devil. Edited by James H. lie and press heavily upon them. like the skin of a reptile. The Incubus during the European Inquisition During the witch hunts. Amen. bound is the bewitching Lilith with fetters of iron on her hands. amen. angels who fell from heaven because they copulated with women. swollen member of her Demon that the sheets were drenched with blood. and seduce them. . Incubi are not interested in procreation. The Greeks referred to the phenomenon as ephialtes.incubus 119 daughter of Imma. they col- Many bowls were inscribed against LILITH. She is often the demon depicted bound in chains in the center of the inscriptions. thou ghoul . thou hag.” Some incubus penises were described as scaly. Another accused witch. They can be conjured by witches. Lord. Reprint. bound is the bewitching Lilith with stocks of stone on her feet. some of them submit willingly and even enjoy the act. and with the seal ring of King Solomon. a common means of weakening or binding spirits. Inscriptions either cast her out or issue decrees of divorce from her. they have the ability to impregnate women. one of the most feared demons of all. Louisville. 1986. against the black-arts of mother and daughter. Me. and Atyona the son of Qarqoi. visit women and men in their sleep. that are wrought by men. Barbara Black. blessed be He. demonologists wrote handbooks on witches. the incubi were the SONS OF GOD. and Tertullian. . The hybrid human-demonic children have a demonic nature and rank high in the echelons of demons. Berwick. This charm is to thwart the demon Titinos. especially evil ones: Bound is the bewitching Lilith with a peg of iron in her nose.” Another Greek term is pnigalion. and shamans. The Book of Lilith. and against those of daughter-in-law and mother-in-law. behavior. and against the evil black-arts. . a woman named Didatia of Miremont. While the majority of women are forced into sex by the incubi. occupying positions of authority and rulership. among them St. New York: Doubleday. The Incubus in the Early Christian Church According to some of the fathers of the church. See RABISU. countersealed and fortified against the male demon and female lilith and spell and curse and incantation and knocking and evil eye and evil black-arts. and streaming down your back. tormenting people for the sole purpose of degrading their souls and perverting them to more vices. naked art thou sent forth. In Hebrew mythology. According to the French demonologist NICHOLAS REMY. 1983. They do not possess their own semen. However. a woman accused as a witch in Haraucourt in 1586 described her demon’s penis as as long as a kitchen tool and without testicles or scrotum. Justin Martyr. Thus. or “suffocation. Sealed. Incubus attacks are reported in modern POSSESSION cases.

masturbation. The girl immediately gave birth to a “loathsome monster. Some old horror stories held that the children were half-human and half-beast. The inquisitors’ handbook the MALLEUS MALEFICARUM (1487). They also were attributed the superpowers of pagan demigods and heroes. and sucked all their nurses dry. There were reports of people observed in the throes of passion with no one but themselves visible. Others were missing limbs or had one eye in the middle of their forehead or in their knee. Because of the defective semen. carrying with him the roof of the bedroom. and left. In 1485. a pointed tail. Since sex with incubi was expected of witches. the parents. many accused witches were tortured until they confessed this crime.” Incubi were believed to be always visible to witches but only occasionally visible to others. willingly embrace this most foul and miserable servitude. .” Some incubi served as FAMILIAR s to witches. a strident voice. The children that result may be considered the children of the man who unwittingly provided the semen. Some had no human form but were shapeless masses like sponges. a long smooth neck. One night. and three feet.” but “modern witches . “The Word was made flesh. . .” The priest immediately began reciting the GOSPEL OF JOHN. two sets of teeth. and others bolted the house doors and went into their daughter’s bedroom with lit torches. He cited Empedocles. six fingers. The church prescribed five ways to get rid of incubi: • • • • • by sacramental confession by making the sign of the cross by reciting the Ave Maria by moving to another house or town by excommunication of the demon by holy men Some of the offspring once were called Adamitici. especially at a SABBAT. claims of molestation by incubi were dismissed as the products of female melancholia or vivid imagination. She freely told her parents of the marvelous sex they had at night and sometimes during the day. from Francis Barrett’s The Magus (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) lect it from men in nocturnal emissions. Remy described monstrous half-demon children with two mouths. a priest. When he said. three hands.120 incubus Incubus. Their “confessions” of sex with incubi.” The midwives built a large fire and burned it. which in turn gave the child a savage appearance. were corroborated by eyewitness accounts. Incubi preyed on ordinary people as well as witches. Husbands saw incubi as they copulated with their wives but thought they were other men. Remy said monstrous births were due to the “lustful imagination of a prurient woman” and not to demon se- Other remedies included a recitation of the Lord’s Prayer and the sprinkling of holy water. Remy recounted an eyewitness description of an incubus child: It had a hooked beak. as though they were descended in an unbroken line from Adam. If a woman had frequent intercourse with an incubus. as well as by hearsay evidence “and the testimony of credible witnesses. stated that “in times long past the Incubus devils used to infest women against their wills. Witches were said to copulate willingly with incubi. two heads. FRANCSCO-MARIA GUAZZO related a story in Compendium Maleficarum (1608) about a beautiful noble girl who refused to marry men of her station but instead fell into an affair with an incubus. quivering eyes. There they found her in the embrace of a hideous demon. False pregnancies that arose from this state were chalked up to fl atulence. were emaciated but heavy. Demonic semen is described as frigid and icy cold. among other witchcraft crimes. men. beards.” the demon shrieked. who said that the likeness of a child is caused by impressions the mother experienced at the time of conception. even the victims. these infants cried or hissed continually. the inquisitor of Como sent 41 women to their deaths at the stake. and very swift feet upon which it ran rapidly to and fro as if seeking for some hiding-place in its stable. The incubi have the power to preserve semen and use it later on one of their victims. who sent them to torment specific individuals. it affected her imagination. or coitus while the demons are masquerading as succubi. four eyes. set fire to all the furniture. In a small number of witchcraft cases. “a horrible monster whose appearance was terrible beyond human imagination.

Weyer. An Exorcist: More Stories. Pa. New York: Dover. the Catholic Church teaches that using spirit communication devices such as a OUIJA™ board. At the first meeting in Rome in 1993. 1939.” He also dismissed as “bizarre fiction” the idea that incubi could impregnate a woman by borrowing a man’s semen in the guise of succubi. Trachtenberg. especially if there are teenagers in the home. Fortea. wrote that the power of the name of JESUS could expel demons from places and animals as well as people. the result of an impaired mind.: Pegasus Press.C. New York: Berhman’s Jewish Book House. Erik Midelfort.” See SMURL H AUNTING. knocks that become pounding on the walls or roof. Interview with an Exorcist: An Insider’s Look at the Devil. Jewish Magic and Superstition: A Study in Folk Religion. He makes men witty. however. Francesco-Maria. or family members. Membership is exclusive. and the Path to Deliverance.: University Books. Fr. with demons maintaining a low profile in order to gain more oppressive influence over a victim. He appears as an angel with a lion’s head. Johann. C. plumbing that does not turn off. whisperings. Other mistakes made in this early stage include disbelief by friends. Edited by Benjamin G. Often such behaviors are attributed to ghosts or poltergeists. Demonolatry. The Bible does not make direct reference to EXORCISMs of demons from places or animals.” sounds of baby animals in pain. Victims may hear knocks on the door when no one is present. infestation The presence of DEMONs in a place. Origen. and a hare’s tail.J. N. appliances that go on or off without help. Ipos FALLEN ANGEL and 22nd of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Ipos is an earl and prince who rules 36 LEGIONs of DEMONs. saying that New Age adherents do not believe in a personal God who reveals himself but in an impersonal God identified with the material world. The exorcists blame in part the New Age as responsible for a rise in demonic POSSESSION. international membership is now more than 500. and other paranormal phenomena. Joshua. 80 exorcists had joined. London: Kegan Paul. Montague Summers compiled quotations from earlier writings and countered in The History of Witchcraft and Demonology (1926) that “great Saints and scholars and all moral theologians of importance affirm the possibility of commerce with incarnate evil intelligences. St. Severely infested objects are destroyed by burning while praying and then scattering the ashes in running water. For example. JOHANN WEYER dismissed incubi and succubi as “purely imaginary. Secaucus. Such stories of demonic seduction were the products of “gullible historians. 1974. dabbling in the occult. Or they are dismissed out of hand as the products of an overactive imagination. Summers. or leading a sinful life can create the conditions for infestation. Curses and hexes can allow demons to contaminate an object (see POSSESSED POSSESSIONS). demonic infestations were well known and accepted in ancient times. Nicholas. Asheville. goose feet. San Francisco: Ignatius Press.: University Books.” he said. making a PACT with the DEVIL. The History of Witchcraft and Demonology. Trench. Sometimes infestations are more subtle. 2002. hot or cold spots. The International Association of Exorcists Roman Catholic organization of priests who perform EXORCISMs. clergy. Thomas Aquinas said that sex with a demon exceeds their natural powers but is in keeping with their malice and therefore might be permitted by God in accordance with the sins of a person. Infesting demons create chaos and fear through poltergeistlike activity. Amorth serves as honorary president. Trubner. 2006. Compendium Maleficarum. rooms that just feel “creepy. It is a precursor to more serious demonic problems. Infestations are cleared by minor rites of EXORCISM performed by clergy or trained laypersons. FURTHER READING: Guazzo. an early father of the church. a priest must have the permission of his bishop to join. Infestation can happen as the result of a CURSE or magical spell or ritual. 1971. Abridged. Diabolic Possession. 1974. Ipos knows the past and future and imparts wisdom and courage. Within a year. Meetings are held annually in secret. Secaucus. and turning to a medium or psychic to evaluate the phenomena. FURTHER READING: Amorth. object.: Ascension Press. Infestation occurs when demons are able to take up residence and create disturbances. leaving the victim frustrated and confused. or by the actions of people living in a place. knocks usually occur in threes (to mock the Trinity) or in sixes (double three). . Father Giancarlo Gramolazzo is president. The Malleus Maleficarum of Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger. The International Association of Exorcists was founded in 1993 by FATHER GABRIELE AMORTH. Remy. because the demonic can easily manipulate the medium’s sensitivity. the manifestation of shadowy figures. or animal.Ipos 121 Not all theologians and demonologists agreed that sex with demons was possible. and levitation of small objects. Gabriele. On Witchcraft (De praestigiis daemonum). only six exorcists attended. There are scratching sounds on doors or within walls.J. 1998. 1926. N. JOHANN WEYER said he appears either as an ANGEL or as an evil and crafty lion. Kohl and H. Montague. such as OPPRESSION and possession. N. Mildly infested objects can be exorcized with prayer and a sprinkling of holy water. West Chester. José Antonio.

Itzpapalotl once resided in heaven but fell along with the TZITZIMIME. prevent vampires and restless ghosts from leaving their graves to attack the living. On those days. a knife for a tongue. a skull head covered in thick white makeup. she takes a horde of dead witches. and was blamed for her false pregnancy. as a female with large butterfly wings edged with obsidian knives.” She can wear a magic cloak that turns her into a butterfly.122 iron iron Protection against evil. Iron scissors or small implements are placed at beds to ward off demonic attacks. and FAIRIES. vampires. who played a prominent role in the LOUDUN POSSESSIONS in France in the 17th century. and toes with eagle claws. Itzpapalotl Aztec female DEMON and patroness of witches. Iron repels the DJINN. Isacaaron especially possessed and plagued the mother superior. shrieking and screaming. Sometimes she appears in a more demonic form. through towns and forests. . who have shape shifted into butterfl ies and fl ies. The name Itzpapalotl means “obsidian knife butterfly. witches and evil spirits. JEANNE DES ANGES. Iron objects placed in coffins and gravesites. she took over the ruling of witches and presides over 13 unlucky signs of the calendar. people sacrifice deer. The demon jumped from Jeanne into one of her EXORCISTs. Father JEAN-JOSEPH SURIN. including DEMONs. In order to appease her and her horde. As a demon. fingers with jaguar claws. Isacaaron DEMON of temptations of the flesh. and LILITH and other childbirth demons and their children. and iron nails driven into coffins and graves.

raped and impregnated her (she miscarried twins). tolerated increasing witch hunts and even participated in some of the trials himself. It made port at Oslo. confessions were made of an alleged plot by witches to murder him and his bride. No one was ever charged with the crime.J Jahi See DRUJ. whom he believed to be the servants of the DEVIL. plotting. she set sail for Scotland from Norway. At the time of his conception. Henry Stuart. In the North Berwick witch trials of 1590–92. who was a vicious and dissipated man. a 15-year-old princess whom he had never met. and then married her. but her ship was buffeted twice by terrible storms and nearly destroyed. Mary continued to have affairs and plotted her revenge against Henry. he and a group of his noblemen murdered Rizzio by hacking him with swords and knives and then heaving him off a balcony. the Scottish clergy. which had been enacted in 1563. Once. In 1589. where the passengers where stranded for months. he and Anne were forced to remain in Scandinavia 123 . when he began his personal rule as James VI. who abducted Mary. imprisoned. pressured by rising public fears of witchcraft. Lord Darnley. He took to wearing padded clothing at all times to protect himself against stabbing. James VI and I (1566–1625) King of both Scotland (as James VI) and England (as James I) and a persecutor of witches. who ruled under regents until 1583. for Henry was found later in the garden. demanded tougher enforcement of Scotland’s witchcraft law. Henry attacked Rizzio in Mary’s presence in an apparent attempt to cause her to miscarry. As storms continued. James was born in Scotland in 1566 to the violent world of Mary. Failing that. This atmosphere of swirling murder. Mary later plotted to take the English throne from Elizabeth I. The incident caused an uprising among Scots. When James took the Scottish throne in 1583. dead of strangulation. That same year. Elizabeth had her arrested on charges of treason. her father’s cousin. James sailed out to meet the ship. Mary was having an affair with her Italian secretary. David Rizzio. His book. James believed that witches tried to kill him on at least three occasions. but his death was rumored to been the result of a plot of the earl of Bothwell. Queen of Scots and her second husband and first cousin. Daemonologie. and bloodshed was bound to have an impact on James. broke no new ground in witch hunting but became a handbook for English demonologists. she tried to have him killed in a gunpowder explosion. James. In 1567. treason. Mary abdicated the throne in favor of one-year-old James. James had agreed to marry by proxy Anne of Denmark. and then beheaded. The explosion did not do the job. who believed that witches were evil and posed a threat to Godfearing people.

while suffering from severe dysentery. CHARMs. and there was evidence that overzealous witch hunters were indicting people on fraudulent evidence.124 Jeanne d Anges es until spring 1590. and expelling the demons in his name. and for the remaining years of his rule on the throne of Scotland. he said. Passage of the law did not evoke a wave of witch hunts.” He defined a witch as “a consulter with familiar spirits. and soon afterward died.” He stated that the Devil appeared in the likeness of a dog. Kittredge. Jeanne des Anges (Joan of the Angels) became the principal DEMONIAC in fraudulent possessions that led to the exe- . 1973. James also ordered that copies of Scot’s Discoverie be burned. called them “extreme lyars.” By 1597. Mass. Witchcraft in Old and New England. James wrote his own response. 1886 ed. The 1604 law punished crimes of witchcraft with death on the first offense instead of a year in jail or life in jail. James revoked all indictments. Daemonologie added no new information about beliefs about witches and increased the public hysteria over witches in Scotland. however. The new law stiffened penalties for witchcraft. A mean and vindictive woman. who received their powers from the Devil. He noted the simplicity of JESUS’ instructions for EXORCISM: prayer. cat. The North Berwick witches confessed to raising these storms. In addition. Demonology. executions for witchcraft decreased. B. James’ health declined as a result of arthritis. 2002. Edited by G. FURTHER READING: King James I of England. James affirmed that witches. or SORCERY that caused bodily injury to people or damage to their goods and chattels was punishable by a year in jail with quarterly exposures in the pillory for the first offense and death for the second offense. To his credit. ape. Reginald. James took the English throne as James I. James made a study of witchcraft in Europe and read the works of the leading demonologists. On their return to Scotland. Thus. He believed in demonic POSSESSION but doubted the power of the church to cure it permanently. During James’ entire reign of 22 years. including the “possession” of a boy in Leicester that sent nine victims to the gallows in 1616. James did not uncover the fraud until after the executions. P. He had a stroke. he did not punish them. He was particularly incensed at the views expressed by R EGINALD SCOT in The Discoverie of Witchcraft (1854) and by JOHANN WEYER in De Praestigiis Daemonum (1563). which severely weakened him.” until one of the accused convinced him of their supernormal powers by repeating to him the private conversation he had had with Anne on their wedding night. who became possessed with major DEMONs in the famous LOUDUN POSSESSIONS case. and the guilty floated. The 1604 law was used to prosecute the trials of the accused witches in Salem. George Lyman. published in 1597. could cause illness and death by burning of waxen images. they were buffeted by yet more storms but managed to make land safely. when it was repealed and replaced by a new law under George II. on March 27. The first trials of major importance did not occur in England until 1612. Daemonologie was reissued in London the same year. James pardoned some accused witches because of the weak evidence against them and exposed a number of cases of fraudulent accusations of witches. After the North Berwick trials. WITCHCRAFT. the conjuring or evoking of DEMONs for any purpose whatsoever was made a capital offense. He was distressed by the arguments that Devil-worshipping witches and their SABBATs were all delusions. James believed in sexual acts with demons but did not believe in impregnation by an INCUBUS. The Discoverie of Witchcraft. Scot. He acknowledged that demons could make a woman appear falsely pregnant. James. the witch hysteria in Scotland had reached alarming proportions. gout. He defended swimming as a test for witches. 1625. Massachusetts. enchantment. Daemonologie. a new Witchcraft Act was passed by Parliament under pressure from the gentry. Publishing. He even advocated the death penalty for clients of “cunning men. Upon the death of Elizabeth I in 1603. In 1604. Yorkshire. Cambridge. Under Elizabethan law passed in 1563. in 1692. The sexual aspects of the nightmare were a “natural sickness. He accepted the execution of a witch as the therapeutic cure for the victim. Harrison. fasting. 1929. whereupon they were executed). James supported the widely held belief that more women than men were witches because women were inherently weak and predisposed to evil. Jeanne des Anges (1602–1665) Mother superior of the Ursuline convent in Poitiers. San Diego: Book Tree. France. England: E. could raise storms. and were followers of “Diana and her wandering court.” he said. or other “such-like beast” and was always inventing new techniques for deceiving others. was a fabulous tale. The Witchcraft Act of 1604 remained in force until 1736. caused by a thick phlegm upon the heart that made people imagine that a spirit was pressing down upon them. and other diseases. Though he was sorely displeased with the judge and sergeant. That. trials at Lancaster that saw 10 persons hanged and one pilloried. In his later years.: Harvard University Press. Bewitching a person to death was a capital offense. A sentence of life in jail with quarterly pillory exposures was given for the divining of treasure and the causing of “unlawful” love and intentional hurt. over which James supervised brutal tortures of the leader John Fian. in which the accused were bound and thrown into deep water (the innocent sank and usually drowned. fewer than 40 persons were executed for the crime of witchcraft.

Barre. since she had entered into no demonic PACT. Jeanne gave a much different and mocking account. and her mother was Charlotte Goumart d’Eschillais. After about three years. Through her false spirituality. She appointed to her vacancy a cleric. . in his third exorcism. He met with some of the curé’s enemies and conceived a plot in which Grandier could be accused of bewitching the nuns. Jeanne complied. and at the center of attention was the handsome curé of Loudun. In her autobiography. the nuns said they saw shadowy forms of men.Jeanne desAnges 125 cution of an innocent priest. according to her autobiography. She became angry when people talked to her about being possessed and felt that if demons were influencing her. Jeanne wrote later in her autobiography that when her possession started. Word spread through Loudun that the Ursuline nuns were plagued by demons. The conspirators enlisted the aid of Carmelite EXORCISTs. and besides. She said she deliberately made herself indispensable and used ingratiating behavior to gain her advantage. Teresa of Avila. Jeanne evidently suffered tuberculosis early in life. She allowed herself to believe she was indeed possessed. Suddenly. But Mignon persisted. he used these episodes as weapons against Grandier. Father Urbain Grandier. . an obsession that grew for about five years. I burned with love for him and when he presented himself to me . Canon Mignon did nothing to discourage the talk or the tales of sexual dreaming. Barre battled ASMODEUS. was administered an enema of a quart of holy water. On October 6. in which she rolled on the floor. Now Moussant was transformed into Grandier. he was too busy with parish duties. It took the curé two hours to expel the demon. which he began to reinforce by characterizing them as incubi sent by SATAN. Her father was Louis de Belciel. as her replacement. and who firmly believed the Devil was at work: Pierre Rangier. but the nuns tolerated her because her family was wealthy. Seven devils claimed to have hold of her. Mignon’s next move was to call in new exorcists who had higher standing. Grandier shrugged off the stories. who openly detested Grandier. These salacious stories found receptive ears. the curé of Saint-Jacques. The prioress. they were quite subtle about it. she was plunged into “continual . Jeanne retained the position of mother superior for all but three years from 1627 until her death in 1665. confident no one would believe he had done those things to women he had never met. who caressed her. Nonetheless. she performed as a demoniac during the public exorcisms. growled and howled. she was sent home. Meanwhile. moving about the convent at night. Although Mignon and Barre assured her that she was infested with demons. The nuns passed much of their time in gossip. for some of the other nuns were also having sexual dreams about other clergymen. saying he was not worthy of the post. she underwent a marked change of personality and became docile and extremely devout. which may have influenced Jeanne and spurred her on in her performances as a demoniac. pinned down to her bed. I lacked the faith to combat the impure thoughts and movements that I felt. at age 25. Jeanne became his enemy and began allying herself with a growing list of Grandier’s enemies in town. Shocked and insulted. She also became adept at feigning states of ecstasy and rapture. Rather. which she modeled on the autobiography of St. Barre sent Jeanne into convulsions. and exorcisms went on for months. who finally parted after Jeanne. Because of her unattractiveness Jeanne developed a withdrawn and defensive personality. told her he loved her. When the Ursulines’ director. eager to take revenge on Grandier for spurning her invitation to join the convent. She wrote: When I did not see him. At some point. She had already told of dreams in which the deceased Moussant returned from purgatory to ask for prayers. Jeanne became sexually obsessed with him from afar. died. The exorcisms were made public. . Shortly after Moussant’s death in 1632. Mignon lent her his book on the Marseilles Possessions and the death of Father Louis Gaufridi in the AIX-ENPROVENCE POSSESSIONS. and M. When she was old enough. and the demons blamed everything on Grandier. she was sent to the Ursuline convent. He declined. She ended her life near sainthood and wrote a vivid account of her experiences in her autobiography. At first. She automatically considered most people her enemies. who was well known for his sexual exploits. Never had the demons created such disorder in me. Canon Mignon. the curé of Veniers. she sought to prove herself better than the other nuns. 1632. Jeanne wasted no time in inviting Grandier to replace him. Two days later. She was born Jeanne de Belciel in 1602 to a noble family. She was careless in her duties and unpleasant in demeanor. The most gullible witnesses were uneducated Catholics. Canon Moussant. who was retiring. Most of the educated people who witnessed the exorcisms did not believe the nuns were genuinely possessed. URBAIN GRANDIER. and townspeople poured into the convent to witness them. Jeanne later claimed that she was so confused that she barely knew what was happening to her. including Moussant and Grandier. and she was quick to mock others. and pressed her to have sex with him. Jeanne regaled her nuns with stories of lurid dreams involving Grandier. . . baron de Coze. decided to recommend Jeanne. which stunted her growth and left her with a hunchback. Jeanne’s parents attempted to get rid of their disagreeable child at an early age by sending her to an aunt who was a prioress at a nearby abbey. and physicians believed their conditions had natural causes. and ground her teeth. who said he was residing in Jeanne’s belly. The crowd was entertained. Jeanne privately doubted that she could be.

Grandier’s defense was not allowed. for his alleged demonic pact. believed the case to be one of natural sickness and fraud. albeit in private. he gave me. and that they believed the devils were giving me these scruples. so that those who may read this will know how necessary it is that souls beleaguered by demons should hold firmly to God and greatly beware of themselves. for now it appeared that they were indeed playing out a deception. I know perfectly well that I did not perform that act freely. but it was because I was wicked. the devil seized my head. the Aix-en-Provence possessions of Ursuline nuns that resulted in the execution by burning of Father Louis Gaufridi. She appealed to the Parlement of Paris. she said: Beclouded me in such a way that I hardly distinguished his desires from mine. his mother protested with petitions against the illegal hearings. moreover. and he attempted to stop the exorcisms. At his preliminary hearings. suggested to the magistrates that this case bore all the hallmarks of a similar case 20 years earlier. I began to murmur about in my heart. de Cerisay. Her mind was filled with blasphemies. In autumn 1633. King Louis XIII’s commissioner. Grandier was advised by friends to flee. for although I submitted to believing what they were telling me at the time. She excused her performances as a weakness of mind and spirit that made her susceptible to suggestion—although she clung to the claim that the suggestion had been from “the demon”: In most cases I saw quite clearly that I was the prime cause of my turmoil and that the demon only acted according to the openings I gave him. The exorcists invited two magistrates to witness the possessions for themselves. to humiliate that father. a strong aversion for my religious calling. the nuns dropped their possession fits. But Mignon persuaded the bishop to order them to continue. Thus all their assurances blinded me. Mignon. Eventually the archbishop intervened and sent his personal physician to investigate. Upon “accepting” the roses. When I went to take communion. that I gave the devil occasion to do it. it entered my mind that. I disapproved of his way of conducting many small matters. cursing the hour when I took the vows. nevertheless my conscience. investigated and favored putting Grandier on trial. pleased at this performance. Scared. Baron Jean de Martin Laubardemont. Grandier was accused of SORCERY and of consorting with the Devil and his demons and witches at SABBATs. The demon. M. for the reception of the Eucharist the priest would either come into our chancel or have us go out to take communion in the church. Mignon reinforced daily to the nuns that they had been bewitched by Grandier. but I am very sure. It so happened. but he remained in town. both in important things and light matters. I was so miserable that I did not resist that thought strongly enough. which was my judge. to my great embarrassment. they told me it was the demon who gave me those feelings in order to hide within me. I was angry that he wanted to introduce a different practice. with Grandier seeking a restraining order and the exorcisms continuing. I trampled them underfoot. and they did. to my great embarrassment. confident that his innocence would allow him to prevail. I think I was not free. I chewed them. She hated God and the spectacle of his goodness and looked for ways to displease him. Mignon stuck two fingers in her mouth and performed exorcisms. All this was done with great violence. the devil threw it into the priest’s face. and her petitions were destroyed. Supposedly. so that sometimes when he was in my head I tore all my veils and such of my sisters’ as I could lay hands on. the demon within her forced her to fling the wafer in the face of the priest. the demon would have committed some irreverence toward the Very Holy Sacrament. Legal jockeying ensued.126 Jeanne d Anges es disturbance of mind” for almost three months. Even friends and families deserted them. I think the fact is that it was difficult for them to believe that I was so wicked. but the king barred the parlement from becoming involved in the case. The chief magistrate. One day he undertook to have us all take communion at our grille. She was in constant “rages and fits of madness” and could hardly remember what happened to her. . gave me no peace. The demons in her revealed that she was indeed under the influence of two diabolical pacts: one made of three hawthorn prickles and one a bunch of roses that she found on the convent stairs and stuck into her belt. As I dwelled negligently on that thought. and that he would not have had this power had I not allied myself with him. and they fell on hard times financially. and after I had received the holy host and had half moistened it. I must give a few examples. all of the witnesses who had recanted their testimonies in 1630 came forward and swore that they had in fact told the truth. although it was a very good way. Jeanne was bewitched with obsessive love for Grandier that interfered with her ability to think of anything else. The cessation of the fits caused supporters of the nuns to turn against them. To make myself better understood. which she uttered without control. since we were for the most part sorely afflicted with the inner turmoil and great convulsions. Jeanne went into violent contortions and grunted like a pig. and thought within myself that he would do better to follow the way of the other priests. that during the first days when Father Lactance was given to me to be my director and exorcist. Grandier had tossed the roses over the convent wall. I was not the more satisfied for that. or to cast me into a little despair at seeing myself in so much malignancy. At that time. When I spoke of that to my exorcists. When she took communion.

but Isacaaron. Jeanne vomited up a pact containing—according to her possessing demons—a piece of the heart of a child who had been sacrificed in 1631 at a witches’ sabbat near Orléans. who urged her to continue and thus undermine the progress made by Surin. She vomited frequently and secreted milk from her breasts. wormwood poured onto her food. Surin persisted in trying to rid Jeanne of devils. a test of demoniacs. if not by exorcisms alone. claimed it was all deception created by the demons in Jeanne.” Jeanne’s belly became greatly distended and she stopped menstruating. Jeanne continued to revile and resist Surin and then suddenly had a turnabout. then by spiritual instruction that would elevate her soul. the principal demon possessing Jeanne des Anges (© RICHARD COOK) At the hearings. the nuns fell into states of remorse and guilt. They performed as if they were circus animals. The priest wrote: I saw that this spirit was wholly opposed to the seriousness with which one ought to take the things of God. including Father JEAN-JOSEPH SURIN. she said “he performed an operation upon my body. Refusals resulted in beatings. she wanted to imitate St. She claimed ISACAARON began tempting her anew. Hebrew. while possessed by LEVIATHAN. Countering these shocking spectacles was the nuns’ obvious lack of command of previously unlearned foreign languages. and I induced in her a strong desire to rid herself of this enemy. stuck out her tongue. to whom Jeanne took an immediate dislike. BALAAM. but they were subjected to continuing exorcisms before crowds. the nuns screamed and screeched at Grandier. the strangest and most furious that could be imagined. After the death of Grandier. howled. in fact.Jeanne desAnges 127 The nuns also failed the test for clairvoyance. Often. Isacaaron once offered her a magic plaster that would terminate the pregnancy. she went into fits. speaking at an exorcism. Jeanne considered trying to abort herself with herbs and drugs but abandoned the idea. Whenever approached by him. and a belt spiked with nails. One pact was a piece of paper stained with three drops of BLOOD and containing eight orange seeds. but she refused it. And they claimed that Grandier’s magical books were kept in the home of one of his mistresses—but none were found there. and some of Grandier’s blood and semen. On June 17. I saw that in a single hour of this kind of jocularity was enough to ruin everything I had built up in the course of many days. A physician pronounced her pregnancy to be genuine. the nuns resorted to howling and contorting to avoid answering questions. they claimed that the pacts they had with Grandier forbade them to speak in certain languages. Jeanne diverted attention with a false pregnancy. four new Jesuit exorcists arrived. or Greek. She considered cutting the baby out of her womb with a knife but could not carry out the deed. Teresa of Avila. For Jeanne and Surin. thereafter he persuaded me that I was great with child. claiming his specter roamed the convent at night seducing them. Jeanne displayed little knowledge of Latin and made poor attempts to speak it. and then possessed. She laughed and mocked him. and her jokes seemed to energize one of the demons. and ran away. and hair and nail clippings. a miracle had taken place. In December 1634. She was in a state of extreme agitation nearly constantly and only experienced relief when Isacaaron visited her nightly and sexually assaulted her. Some of the other possessed nuns did not even try to understand or speak Latin. the ashes of a eucharist. She . She decided she wanted to become a saint. Other times. Another was a bundle of five straws and another was a package containing worms. She threw up a large quantity of blood and the pregnancy symptoms vanished. in such sort that I firmly believed the fact and exhibited all signs. He offered to take on her demons himself and soon became obsessed. and that it fostered in her a certain glee which destroys the compunction of heart indispensable to a perfect conversation with God. cinders. a bed of boards. She increased her prayer time and took on severe austerities: a hair shirt. Beelzebub. The prosecution produced “pacts” that appeared mysteriously in the nuns’ cells or were allegedly vomited up by them.

which were private instead of public. Surin viewed this as an extraordinary grace from God. The three wafers mysteriously appeared in a niche at the convent. He and a companion. Her account of events reveals a personality self-absorbed and unconcerned about the consequences of her actions. he broke down and was recalled to Bordeaux. On November 5. She had a vision in which God told her she would be taken to the point of death but would not die. Distressed. Surin had transformed himself from exorcist to Jeanne’s spiritual director. and the dying Cardinal Richelieu (who privately thought the Loudun affair was a fraud). She visited major cities. She reached a point where doctors felt she had only hours to live. Later. including Queen Anne. Rather. she revealed her chemise had an oil stain of five drops. Surin took on BEHEMOTH. she saw her life as a spiritual quest. In February 1635. Francis de Sales were added to her arm. but it took on the status of a relic. Surin. Joseph. the names of Jesus. followed by St. Isacaaron left Jeanne on January 7. Fran- cis of Sales at Annency. She claimed her heart split in two and was marked invisibly with the instruments of the Passion. dispensing even personal advice to visitors of the most petty nature. accompanied Jeanne on part of her pilgrimage. never to leave it again. not his own. He was replaced by Father Resses. she let the demons out to howl and complain. still seeking to be the center of attention to the end of her life. but she received no reply until 1657. Jeanne fell ill for several days and then asked to be exorcized. but now there were no devils and no miracles to use to gain attention. Mary. to beat her and harass her. Others believed it to be the product of autosuggestion. Grenoble. As she had with Surin. She fell ill and vomited blood. but 10 months went by with no progress. . She made little reference to the unfortunate Grandier. Behemoth kept his end of the bargain and departed from Jeanne. but he forced exorcisms on her anyway. making Jeanne scream. which the two ignored. where he expounded on mystical theology and they prayed together. Orléans. which they intended to burn. On October 15. her “miracles” were at an end. the demons reappeared. she was still the object of criticism and was called a witch and magician even in the last years of her life. She probably faked the evidence. Despite her saintliness. and by summer 1635. Blois. but this time the “miracle” was barely noticed. Jeanne began to write her autobiography in 1644. and Surin returned again to Bordeaux. The feat appeared to be a miracle. however. a great believer in discipline. Jeanne became more receptive to Surin. displeasing the Jesuit authorities. Her stained chemise was used as a blanket in the birth of Louis XIV. In October. who anointed her with oil. But the crowds saw her as a saint. She enjoyed a correspondence and close friendship with him. and she miraculously recovered. and the stained shirt. they were meeting privately in the convent’s attic. She fell seriously ill and miraculously recovered. Jeanne’s five-month pilgrimage was a triumphal march through France in 1638. Isacaaron announced that three anonymous magicians had three consecrated wafers. she had tried to commit suicide. 1636. A bloody cross appeared on her forehead and remained for three weeks. After the pilgrimage. Behemoth announced that he would not depart without Jeanne’s making a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. she wrote to Surin. Jeanne had audiences with royalty. including Paris. archbishops. encouraged her. confessing the state of her soul.128 Jeanne d Anges es beat herself up to seven hours a day. Lyon. and St. The demon departed on November 29. Her condition deteriorated and extreme unction was given. and Annency. in which she had allowed demons to act against her as a consequence of her own defective will. Everywhere she went. Tens of thousands turned out to see her and view her relics. Jeanne resisted Resses. A few times. he was ordered to return to Bordeaux and be replaced by another exorcist. Joseph. was more interested in producing heavenly miracles than engaging in fights with the infernal. Whenever Jeanne objected to the mortifications prescribed by Surin. At first. The names would fade after a few weeks and then be renewed by Jeanne’s good angel. These private sessions raised gossip in Loudun. By 1662. Surin ordered Isacaaron to fetch the wafers. Jeanne prayed mightily that the demon would inscribe the name of St. For years. Later. In October 1635. leaving Jeanne marked with the name Joseph. accompanied by Surin. Jeanne returned to the Loudun convent. she developed a relationship with her guardian angel and prayed for “true lights” to be revealed to her. At Annency. the demon refused and then relented. Jeanne. Surin expelled Leviathan from her and was allowed to stay on at the convent. Twice during the depths of her spiritual darkness. in front of a large crowd. and then she had a vision of her good angel in the form of a beautiful youth. a possessed girl was cured by touching the stained shirt. and then Surin’s job with her was done. even though at the height of the drama. she had confessed her guilt and remorse at framing him with lies. Father Thomas. when he resumed serving as her spiritual director until his death in 1665. the names on her arm. she was hailed and admired. Her angel complied. Increasingly. Souls in purgatory appeared to her and spoke. Then Balaam announced he was ready to go and would write his name on Jeanne’s left hand when he did so. She was bored and hungry for the limelight. Surin ordered the demons to whip themselves—and they did. The priest was recalled to Loudun in June to comply. wife of Louis XIII.

Translated by Michael B. the DEVIL. the convent was suppressed. Not long after the episode in Capernaum. Aldous. New York: Harper and Brothers. a look of ecstasy on her face. “Begone. Mark. London: Routledge. “Let us alone. the text appears in the Authorized (King James) Version translation in Mark: And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit. And the whole city was gathered together about the door. thou Jesus of Nazareth? Art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art.000 years later weighed heavily in the WITCHCRAFT trials of the Inquisition. The convent commissioned an artist to paint a huge image of the expulsion of Behemoth. 2004. The Devil then took him to the holy city (Jerusalem) and set him on the pinnacle of the temple. and he cried out. Second. In the center. The stained chemise was already in its own reliquary. Joseph. for he needed no higher authority. but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God’ ” (Mt. chemise. “The reason the Son of God appeared was to destroy the devil’s work. . saying. and cast out many demons. where they could see all the kingdoms of the world. saying. As such.” Such acts are differentiated from healing diseases or defects. Luke 4:38–41): That evening. Mark and Luke describe Jesus’ healing the sick and casting out more demons in Galilee (Mark 1:32–34. is to adjure (in Latin. Most exorcists of the period relied on ritual. The Devils of Loudun.” And when the unclean spirit had torn him. Demonic Possession and Exorcism in Early Modern France. Casting Out of Demons The Gospels of Matthew. The first instance of Jesus’ casting out demons occurred after his return from the wilderness. Satan! for it is written. Jeanne knelt before Surin. Both Mark (1:23–27) and Luke (4:33–36) tell the story. answering. 2000. adjuro) the spirits to depart in the name of God. Jesus answered. and DEMONs are central in the life and purpose of Christianity’s Son of God. FURTHER READING: Certeau. Jesus answered. Ferber. Then Satan appeared and ordered him to turn stones into loaves of bread to prove that he was the Son of God. the demon ultimately yielded to Jesus’ higher power. signs. the demon recognized Christ. the Holy One of God. he came out of him. The painting hung in the chapel for more than 80 years. Huxley. Third. when a bishop ordered it removed. He told Jesus to throw himself down and demonstrate that God’s ANGELs would protect him. Smith. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Her head was cut off and placed in a silver and gold reliquary. Sarah. they brought to him all who were sick or possessed with demons. “Hold thy peace. The term exorcize is from the Greek word exousia. meaning to “put under oath and command. then.” And Jesus rebuked him.” affirms 1 John 3:8. The offer of glory in exchange for worship implies a PACT with the Devil. And they were all amazed. The man’s POSSESSION and exorcism follow the traditional pattern. and mummified head were sent into hiding and disappeared. at sundown. Michel de.” invoking a higher authority to force compliance. And he healed many who were sick with various diseases. “It is written. Jesus rejected him. and a Carmelite. where he was tempted by SATAN. Shortly after that. 4:9). and he would not permit the demons to speak. He took him to a high mountain. ‘You shall worship the Lord your God and him only shall you serve’ ” (Mt. and angels appeared to minister to Jesus. The nuns hid the painting by covering it with another one. and cried with a loud voice. accompanied by cherubim. 4:4). and Luke refer to many instances when Jesus “cast out demons” or “unclean spirits. as follow. The painting. Finally. Jesus was not technically an EXORCIST. First. and they do obey him. Some of the descriptions of the EXORCISMs hint that epilepsy or seizures may have been responsible for what were assumed at the time to be the effects of demons. if you will fall down and worship me. insomuch that they questioned among themselves saying.” Jesus The fight against evil.Jesus 129 Jeanne died in January 1665. To exorcize. floated overhead with three thunderbolts intended for the demons leaving Jeanne’s mouth. He fasted for 40 days and 40 nights. Jesus used only his word as the source of ultimate power. Accounts in the New Testament tell of Jesus’ ability to overcome evil forces and to cast out demons afflicting people. 1952. coupled with loud voices and cries. a concept that more than 1. he spent 40 days in the wilderness. ‘Man shall not live by bread alone. because they knew him. and artifacts to expel evil spirits. “All this I will give you. and come out of him. These relics were the objects of popular devotion. Jesus began selecting his disciples and went into Capernaum to teach. “What thing is this? What new doctrine is this? For with authority commandeth he even the unclean spirits. 4:10). chants. Satan tried a third time to tempt Jesus. Baptism and Temptation in the Desert Jesus’ BAPTISM by John the Baptist marked the beginning of his ministry. the spirit’s departure caused great pain to the possessed. Tranquille. ‘You shall not tempt the Lord your God’ ” (Mt 4:6). Satan departed.” said the Devil (Mt. In 1772. “Again it is written. A radiant St. Jesus’ method of simple command over the demons differed greatly from that practiced by other holy men of his time. The Possession at Loudun. what have we to do with thee. Royalty and commoners looked on.

) and were choked in the sea. The episode most often told about Jesus’ casting out demons concerns the Gerasene or Gadarene demoniac.” Later. An estimate of 2. “I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven. and Luke (11:14–22) recount the incident: And the scribes who came down from Jerusalem said. Lord. and is divided. the Gerasene demoniac suffered great physical pain and spiritual anguish. and said. he cannot stand but is coming to an end. however. And cried with a loud voice. saying. And always. that kingdom cannot stand. saying. .” And he called them to him. Mt. Finally. Matthew (12:24–29). But immediately a woman. and by the prince of demons he casts out the demons. neither could any man tame him. and cutting himself with stones. “Yes. and some of the Jewish scribes considered him possessed by BEELZUBUB. Now the woman was a Greek. and his name would represent Satan to the Jews (1 Kings 18.000 may be low. he ran and worshipped him. that we may enter into them. and in the tombs. “Send us into the swine. People in Jesus’ day believed that demons hated water.” And he besought him much As did other possessed souls. immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit. And the unclean spirits went out. the story is the same. meaning “lord of the divine abode” or “lord of the heavens. and found the child lying in bed. as told in Mark: And they came over unto the other side of the sea. “Do not forbid him.” And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And he said to her. Some of his friends believed he was temporarily insane. 15:21–28). but that God had found them worthy (Luke 10:17–20): The seventy returned with joy. because he does not follow with us. And if a house is divided against itself. even cleansing the unclean spirit from the daughter of a Gentile woman who accepted him as the messiah (Mark 7:25–30. a Syrophoenician by birth. unless he first binds the strong man. Mark (3:22–27. “What have I to do with thee.” But Jesus said to him. After delivering the Sermon on the Mount. Jesus. “He is possessed by Beelzebul. so when the pigs drowned. (they were about two thousand. and the disciples told Jesus of an exorcist who claimed to cast out demons in his name (Luke 9:49–50): John answered. But no man can enter into a strong man’s house. which follows. whose little daughter was possessed by an unclean spirit. And all the devils besought him. night and day. sent out as disciples but not specifically given the power to exorcise. “For this saying you may go to your way. referring to the chief Canaanite or Phoenician god. Jesus reminded them that the joy was not that they were able to exorcise.” In the prophet Elijah’s day. The name Beelzebub. 2 Kings 1:3). the demons were destroyed. and entered into the swine and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the sea. and the chains had been plucked asunder by him. for he that is not against you is for you. the god Baal was the main rival to the Israelite god Yahweh (Jehovah). And when he was come out of the ship.” But she answered him. Such acts were crowd pleasers. and the fetters broken in pieces. thou unclean spirit. There they met a man possessed of an unclean spirit. and the demon gone. Because pigs were already deemed unclean animals in Jewish law. but the demon within denied Jesus’ power and adjured Jesus not to cast him out. “Master. the demons could not stand up to Jesus any longer and begged to enter the herd of swine. And if Satan has risen up against himself. then indeed he may plunder his house. Jesus and his disciples traveled by boat to the country of the Gerasenes.000 men. that thou torment me not. But when he saw Jesus afar off. even the demons are subject to us in your name!” and he said unto them. saying.” For he said unto him. thou Son of the most high God? I adjure thee by God. welcomed by great crowds of the faithful and curious. Another important part of this story is the naming of the demon. and we forbade him. a vital point in the exorcism ritual.” that he would not send them away out of the country. Although identified differently. the demon has left your daughter. He ran to Jesus for help.000–6.” And he asked him. and no man could bind him. “Come out of the man. “Lord. for it is not right to take the children’s bread and throw it to the dogs.” is a distortion of Baal-zebul. or Gadarenes.” And he said to her. and the two demoniacs in Matthew (8:28–32). we saw a man casting out demons in your name. crying. heard of him. yet even the dogs under the table eat the children’s crumbs. Jesus continued to cast out demons during his ministry. no. “What is thy name?” And he answered. found they were also able to cast out demons. the choice was appropriate. “Let the children first be fed. that house will not be able to stand. Now there was there nigh unto the mountains a great herd of swine feeding.130 Jesus After naming his 12 disciples—to whom he gave the power to cast out demons also—Jesus returned home. not with chains: Because that he had been often bound with fetters and chains. into the country of the Gadarenes. A legion is a major unit in the Roman army (who were considered demons by many) consisting of 4. according to Mark (5:1–13) and Luke (26–33). “How can Satan cast out Satan? If a kingdom be divided against itself.” And she went home. and came and fell down at his feet. and plunder his goods.” or the body of the possessed victim. who had his dwelling among the tombs. 70 other followers. as follows). This incident also presents the idea of binding Satan to the will of God before he can be thrown out of the “house. or “Lord of the Flies. he was in the mountains. and said to them in parables. And she begged him to cast the demon out of her daughter. “My name is Legion: for we are many.

placing it under the patronage of his favorite saint. “I adjure you by the Jesus whom Paul preaches. in which he encountered angels. Dreams John’s unusual dream life attracted the interest of Pope Pius IX. His lucid dreaming increased in frequency as he grew older. Dominic Savio. the power of his name grew. This is a technique used today by lucid dreamers to verify that their experience is real.” The dreams seemed more like real experiences than dreams. in which a man. St. plus four workshops and some 500 children in oratories. Mary. to a peasant farmer family. He went to Turin and enrolled at the Convitto Ecclesiastico. revealed his life purpose and destiny. they were logical and followed a complete story line from beginning to end. saying. at age 26. He was usually accompanied by a guide figure. known as the Salesians. “Jesus I know. John Bosco (1815–1888) Saint and founder of the Society of St. At age 16. 1841. and Paul I know. Piedmont. he kept detailed records of his dreams. But the evil spirit answered them. 1888. either an angel. He began a Sunday catechism for poor boys and soon was taking in and housing them. Francis de Sales in 1859. Francis de Sales. and nothing shall hurt you. possibly Jesus. John Bosco was known as the “Dreaming Saint” because of his frequent lucid dreams. and overpowered them. Unlike most ordinary dreams. and over all the power of the enemy. It also drove home the power of Jesus’ name. and other religious figures and journeyed to heaven and HELL. he had 150 resident boys. His visit to hell was particularly detailed. as demonstrated in Acts 19:13–16: Then some of the itinerant Jewish exorcists undertook to pronounce the name of the Lord Jesus over those who had evil spirits. Bosco was born in Becchi. He had his first lucid dream when he was about nine years old. who instructed him to record his dreams. and was canonized in 1934 by Pope Pius XI. Jesus exorcizing demons from a young man (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) Behold. and exorcists used it to quell demons. and a woman. a theological college that trained young priests for the pastoral life. Italy. However. couched in symbols of his religious life. John’s lucid dreams were quite long and involved much specific detail. He dedicated himself to his spiritual work with great and unwavering seriousness. Francis de Sales. Many of the dreams were prophetic and concerned his boys and the Salesian order. more like out-of-body travels. he began studying for the priesthood and was ordained on June 5. and concerned the need to follow Catholic doctrine in order to attain salvation. John died on January 31. then holy men of the Church everywhere had the same power to exorcise in the name of the Lord. but rejoice that your names are written in heaven. His sensory impressions were so strong that sometimes he would clap his hands or touch himself in the dream to try to ascertain whether he was dreaming or was awake. the name of Jesus was not always a guarantee of success. and he was raised by his mother. and he used this and other lucid dream experiences to teach his students religious lessons. I gave given you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions. This became the Society of St.John Bos co 131 only devoutly faithful—were able to cast out demons. By 1856. If not only Jesus Christ but his disciples—even those not specifically chosen but . influencing some to burn their books of “magical arts. JESUS.” After Jesus’ death. Nevertheless. Other dreams were in harmony with his religious training and beliefs. At the request of Pope Pius IX. but took possession of innocent souls at will. that the spirits are subject to you. so that they fled out of the house naked and wounded. St. mastered all of them. More than 150 of John’s unusual dreams were collected and recorded by his followers. possibly Mary. but who are you?” And the man in whom the evil spirit was leaped upon them. This example shows the dangers of exorcism to the exorcist. or a mysterious man he referred to as “the man with the cap. The Salesians work around the world.” These stories in the Gospels provided proof to medieval thinkers that Satan not only was real. His father died when he was two. Francis De Sales. He constructed a church.” Seven sons of a Jewish high priest named Sceva were doing this. do not rejoice in this.

ears fully stretched out and pointing upward. body and head swelled and grew more and more repugnant. and neatly paved. The visit to hell took place over two nights: No sooner had I fallen asleep than I dreamed that I saw a most loathsome toad. the toad drew back and let my head free. A road appears. red-lined mouth and throat. Jung’s “psychoid unconscious. Meanwhile.” I protested. In one dramatic dream where he was shown the horrors of hell. wide. but that has properties in common with the physical world. “Get up.” John is led to a lifeless desert. I stared breathlessly as its legs.” a level in the unconscious that is not accessible to consciousness. “Never mind. I spent the whole next day worrying about the miserable night in store for me. but soon in my exhaustion I simply fell asleep. and when evening came. As with all of John’s lucid dreams. He and his guide trudge across it. I set my pillow upright against the headboard and practically sat up. Besides. I kept muttering to myself: “But a toad has no ears. one of his longest and most vivid concerns a frightfully realistic visit to the bowels of hell. at the bottom of this precipice. at the entrance of a dark valley. As they continue along the downward-sloping road. However.” I complied and followed him. “You have no time to lose. I thought it was a demon from Hell. even in my predicament. Staring wildly. and since I had now dipped my hand in the holy water font. while a mysterious voice from on high clearly said: “Why don’t you tell them?” I turned in that direction and saw a distinguished person standing by my bed. this one follows a religious theme. The monster would not retreat. John realizes he has no choice but to follow. The guide explains that the boys fall because they are ensnared in traps—traps they have made themselves out of sin. With a frightening shriek it fell backward and vanished. “In the name of God. We continued our descent.”] before appeared at my bedside. The descent becomes so arduous that John falls repeatedly and finally he complains to the guide that he cannot go another step. Feeling guilty about my silence. The lush roses and flowers give way to hedges of thorns. opening its huge. but no one responded. Without warning. I felt such revulsion that I tried to jump out of bed. John notices that boys from the oratory are following him. it just crept forward. an enormous building loomed into sight. The mere thought of having more nightmares thoroughly scared me. Suddenly. I shouted. conforms to Catholic doctrine. with great effort.” he repeated. He would awaken exhausted. but it was so hideous that. the scenery changes. “leave me alone. As if in answer. but when that monster began edging closer to me. The boys who are stricter in their religious observances are able to walk without becoming ensnared. the road now becoming so frightfully steep that it was almost impossible to stand erect. because it looked like one. and its long tail ended in a forked tip. so that half of my body was inside its foul jaws. “Where are you taking me?” I asked. loath to go to bed. The road becomes gutted and filled with boulders. and small bony ears presented a terrifying sight. I rang the bell. “For heaven’s sake. Again. I did not dare to touch it. tooth-studded jaws. I made the Sign of the Cross. Most of the boys leave to follow other paths. I flung a few drops of water at the monster. vast in expanse. the monstrous toad had managed to mouth my head.” I also noticed two horns jutting from its snout and two greenish wings sprouting from its sides. huge as an ox. beautiful. I seemed not a bit afraid. Visit to Hell Among the many dreams recorded by John. “What do you want of me. resting its front paws on the top of the bedstead and raising itself on its hind legs. The guide merely continues on. but he could not put off whatever business was intended for him in the night. but in vain. but I only hit the wall. I sat at my desk browsing through books until midnight. Flowers and greenery grow along the sides. and provides John with guidance and instructions for running his oratory program for boys. Then. Immediately the same person of the night [“the man with the cap. I asked: “What should I tell my boys?” “What you have seen and heard in your last dreams and what you have wanted to know and what you shall have revealed to you tomorrow night!” He then vanished. its green body. which slopes into a furnace. I made the Sign of the Cross. John is accompanied by “the man with the cap. one by another falls to the ground and is dragged toward a drop in the distance. I finally went to bed. its towering portal. At the moment. I really became terribly frightened. but nothing happened. I am exhausted! I’ve been tormented by a toothache for several days now and need rest. I screamed and frenziedly reached behind me for the small holy water font. fiery eyes. but just then the monster opened its jaws wide. You’ll see. And then. Lest I should fall asleep immediately and start dreaming. it paused momentarily. I wanted to defend myself and shove the monster back.” John sometimes protested in his dream and tried to resist the guide.132 John Bos co Sometimes physical phenomena followed him out of the dream and into waking consciousness. tightly locked. This bleed-through between worlds is characteristic of shamanic journeys and belongs to Carl G.” I said this because this man’s apparition always means trouble. fatigue and terror for me. “why are you doing this to me?” At these words. the putrid smell of evil remained after he awakened. looked at me and crawled forward on by bed until its snout was close to my face. enter my room and squat at the foot of my bed. nightmares have completely worn me out. “Get up and follow me!” he said. facing our .” I shouted. Its legs looked like those of a lion. you ugly devil?” I asked. The road begins to slope downward.

When I finally got to the bottom. flatus Domini sicut torrens sulphuris succendens eam—“For in Topheth there has been prepared beforehand . for he cannot be condemned to hell without being judged. instantly. Omnis arbor quae non facit fructum bonum excidetur et in ignem mittetur—“Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire” (Matt. and plummeted into the center of the cave. John agrees to go forward. closed by a huge. so he remained. like one who is about to fall into a cauldron of liquid bronze. a compassionate glance. “Where are we? What is this?” I asked my guide. which gradually disappeared into recesses sunk far into the bowels of the mountains. iron. All that is gone forever. grim courtyard with a large.” I looked up and read these words: Ubi non est redemption—“The place of no reprieve. . but my guide restrained me: “There is no need. Suddenly the guide turned to me. You have them all in Holy Scripture. Nutrimenta eius. single crystal pane reaching from the pavement to the ceiling. or a benevolent word. Threatening inscriptions shone eerily over all the inner gateways. and his arms windmill as though he’s trying to resist a great force. As these bronze doors—one behind the other. As I looked again. The entire cave—walls. I simply cannot find words to describe the cavern’s horror. Ahead of me I could see something like an immense cave. Many more boys. He tumbles into a ravine and hits a bronze portal at the bottom. The guide then instructs John to enter the portal. 25:41). . Some I knew. “Look!” he said. sitting or lying on their backs or on their sides. [John pauses to read various biblical verses about the certain tortures of hell for the wicked. and he has not yet been judged. I did start back. irresistible gale.” [the guide] said. I noticed that the first seemed frozen to the spot.John Bos co 133 road. Others stood or hung in various other positions. like a stream of brimstone. stones. he stepped through that gate into a corridor at whose far end stood an observation platform. I tried to copy them into my notebook. “Read the inscription on that portal and you will know. John shrinks back in horror. will set fire to it” (Is. a comforting friend. standing or kneeling. ceiling. he too became incandescent and perfectly motionless. it sprang open with a roar. As swiftly as they had opened. John is startled to see one of his boys dashing down the road out of control. a rege praeparata. others were strangers to me. 7:19). As soon as I crossed its threshold. The guide replies that they have their rules and sacraments—let them observe them. horrible corridor and whizzed through it with lightning speed. such as: Discedite. screaming in terror. Other boys kept hurtling in the same way in increasing numbers. though at a considerable distance from each other—remained momentarily open. green-tinted smoke lit by flashes of scarlet flames rose from behind those enormous walls which loomed higher than mountains. you cursed into everlasting fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels” (Matt. a pit deep and wide with straw and wood in plenty.” I realized that we were at the gates of Hell. profunda et dilatata. the second boy seemed bent almost double to the floor. The boy is fleeing from God’s wrath. Do you just want to see or would you rather experience these things yourself?” “I only want to see!” I answered. He has a wild look about him. on each was an inscription. a loving heart. and instantly a thousand inner portals opened with a deafening clamor as if struck by a body that had been propelled by an invisible. John wants to help him. and coal—everything was a glowing white at temperatures of thousands of degrees. bronze portals like the first overlooked precipitous descents. one hand and one foot raised into the air. but my guide ignored my attempt. with leaping tongues of flames. At regular distances. ignis et ligna multa. saying he will learn much. I became smothered by a suffocating heat. Praeparata est enim ab heri Thopeth. I then recalled what is written in . most violent. The last one opened into a vast. we again came to the foot of the precipice facing the first portal.” my friend added. the portals then clanged shut again. Then he realizes that he is in no danger. Is there no way to save them? John asks. he motioned to me to step aside. He too emitted one single heartrending shriek that blended with the last echo of the scream that had come from the youth who had preceded him. Upset and startled. maledicti. They were all ablaze. Other lads hurtled into that same furnace. He too was from the oratory. Briefly. follow. all screaming the same way and then all becoming equally motionless and incandescent. I saw far into the distance something like furnace jaws spouting fiery balls the moment the youth hurtled into it. floor. . “Then come with me. I was staring in bewilderment around me when a lad dashed out of a gate.] “From here on. As he fell. The guide led me all around this horrible place. and. the scene resembled a large statuary group of youngsters cast into ever more painful postures. They are all swallowed through the portal. taking me in tow. wood. unbelievably forbidding entrance at the far end. After trudging through a steep. but the guide restrains him. The breath of Yahweh. Seemingly unaware of anything else. We entered that narrow. while the echo of his dying wail lingered for an instant more. Yet the fire did not incinerate. I felt an indescribable terror and dared not take another step. but theirs was not an earthly fire. another boy came hurtling down into the cave at break-neck speed. 30:33). while a greasy. “No one may have a helpful companion. did not consume.” At such a sight I wanted to turn back and return to the Oratory. he emitted a most shrilling scream. never-ending ravine. As a matter of fact. . As the boy crashed into the portal. balancing themselves on one foot or hand. . hands clutching their hair. You even have some of them inscribed in your porticoes. in ignem aeternum qui paratus est diabolo et angelis eius—“Depart from Me.

with absolutely no reprieve whatsoever. they were a prey to every kind of torment.”. Gripping my arm firmly. It seemed incredibly thick. but I kept refusing. “Go closer!” he advised.” I exclaimed. merciful invitations to do penance. yet now are irredeemably lost. I took a few steps forward and saw that many of those poor wretches were savagely striking at each other like mad dogs.” John and the guide then have a long conversation about what makes a good confession. Thus provoked. their efforts and their cries are all in vain. Look at this wall!” I did intently. but he held me back. in quocumque loco ceciderit. and their lack of response to the many favors promised and bestowed by the Virgin Mary. even extraordinary means they had to mend their ways. but they still choose to rush into the fire. “There are a thousand walls between this and the real fire of Hell. They have been warned a thousand times. “but isn’t there some other way out?” “Yes. Omnis dolor irruet super eos!— ‘All evil will fall upon them’ ” (Job 20:22). I asked my guide: “When these boys come dashing into this cave. Here one could see how atrocious was the remorse of those who had been pupils in our schools.” “No.” he told me. “Such are the mournful chants which shall echo here throughout eternity. there it shall lie” (Eccles. that they may feel for ever” (Judith 16:21).” When he said this. Divine Justice harries them. I instinctively pulled back. “just try it. Helpless and motionless. Hoping I might be able to speak with them or to hear something from them. forced it open. Touch this wall. hounds them. at whose entrance I read: Vermis eorum non morietur. I then asked my guide why. “And now. “so that you may say you have both seen and touched the walls of eternal suffering and that you may understand what the last wall must be like if the first to so unendurable. More frightened than ever. But their shouts. Each must fully endure his own punishment.” “Oh no!” I objected in terror. Leaving that hall. and about the need to cultivate the virtues and obedience to the church. legs and entire bodies so ferociously as to defy description. The guide tells John which boys are guilty of what crimes. I heard screams and sobs. “Do not be afraid. I drew closer to them and noticed that they were all covered with worms and vermin. “Now that you have seen what others suffer. Encouragingly. “A thousand walls encompass it. but no one spoke or even looked at me. because they do not detest sin and are loath to forsake it. But as soon as we stepped across the last bronze portal. et ignis non extinguetur—“Their worm shall not die and their fire shall not be quenched” (Is. hearts. “provided you do all you can. blasphemes and imprecations against the Saints. and pressed it against the first of the thousand walls. Others were clawing their own faces and hands.” he went on. . He gives permission to John to discuss anything of the dream with the boys. What a torment was theirs to remember each unforgiven sin and its just punishment. 13:3). Dabit Dominus omnipotens ignem et vermes in carnes eorum ut urantur et sentiant usque in sempiternum—“He will give fire and worms into their flesh. one has to be judged. eyes. I again saw those Oratory boys who had fallen into the fiery furnace. Here is only eternity. . or stay outside and leave them in agony?” For a moment I was struck speechless.” he said. but he seized my hand. It is just a remote rim of Hell itself.” “Oh. hands. don’t they know where they are going?” “They surely do. each a thousand measures thick and equally distant from the next one.” I replied. he turned to me and said. . John thanks him and asks to leave.” he insisted. “Before going to Hell. which gnawed at their vitals. It was a tumult of voices and cries. so that they cannot halt until they reach this place. Some are listening to me right now. so he shall forever remain. others are former pupils or even strangers to me. The sensation was so utterly .” he commanded. . He insisted. He led me away and we went down through a corridor into a lower cavern. “you too must enter that cavern. What a torture to think that they could have been saved so easily. “If you really want to know their innermost frenzy and fury. the countless. Each measure is a thousand miles. “Try it. go a little closer. Pressing my ear to the crystal window. how miserable these unfortunate boys must feel in knowing they no longer have any hope. shrill and confused. Furthermore. they despise and reject God’s incessant. and to remember the many good resolutions made and never kept. and so I will not go to Hell!” “Listen. This wall therefore is millions and millions of miles from Hell’s real fire. he pulled me to the wall.134 John Bos co the Bible to the effect that as one falls into Hell. I love my boys and wish to save them all. persevere in virtue and earn Paradise. tearing their own flesh and spitefully throwing it about. “What would you rather do: visit Hell and save your boys.” my guide continued. “Here time is no more. ibi erit—“Where the tree falls. he took my hand and held me up because I could hardly stand on my feet. you too must experience a touch of Hell. in no time at all we retraced our steps through that horrible courtyard and the long corridor. and goads them on.” my guide remarked. . Lignum. Hell is indeed paved with good intentions! In the lower cavern. and he explained that the damned are totally deprived of freedom. I drew even closer. “Only one touch. no!” I cried in terror. “Of course. there is a way. I have not been judged yet. 66:24). Just then the entire ceiling of the cave became as transparent as crystal and revealed a patch of Heaven and their radiant companions safe for all eternity.” he added.” I could not muster enough courage and tried to get away. “Why do I hear no sound?” I asked my guide.

Although the conversation sounded close enough to be clearly heard. whose members have starred in a popular reality television show. the skin of my palm peeled off. including ghosts. Rhode Island. She attended high school in Warwick and received her college degree in human services in Warwick as well. Rhode Island.” he said. Keith and Sandra teach classes and lecture on the paranormal. 1963. She was the seventh child of a seventh child.Jonah 135 excruciating that I leaped back with a scream and found myself sitting up in bed. They became involved for a time with The Atlantic Paranormal Research Society. . had He described it as it really is. such as disembodied voices and knockings at the walls and windows. Rockford.” FURTHER READING: Forty Dreams of St. Sandra also became actively involved in local theater in Warwick. By the time Keith and Carl were five. He began concentrating on the works of ALEISTER CROWLEY and Anton Szandor LaVey (see SATANISM). When Carl and Keith were 17. specializing in inhuman hauntings. Jonah See LEVIATHAN. Having my hand pressed against the wall. No mortal can comprehend these things. was a turning point for Keith. due in part to terrorism and the World Trade Center attacks in 2001. a birth order that in folklore indicates supernatural powers such as psychic abilities. soon experienced paranormal phenomena. Keith and Carl were born on December 9. because. DEMONs. Carl also moved to Warwick. While in school in Scituate. They host a weekly television talk show.nearparanormal. in Providence. Rhode Island. Jr. Sandra Ann Hutchings (1963– ) Paranormal investigators. and so I have not described these things in all their horror as I saw them and as they impressed felt so real that. Keith Edward Johnson. “We know that the Lord always portrayed Hell in symbols. One significant factor is the overall rise in global tensions and feelings of insecurity and vulnerability. Carl and Keith Johnson (identical twin brothers) have worked as demonologists with paranormal investigators and have appeared on reality television shows featuring demonic cases. especially of cases involving demonic activity. The Johnsons estimate that approximately 15 percent of hauntings involve nonhuman entities. Sandra Ann Hutchings was born in Warwick. Once. John. Carl Leonard (1954– ). inspiring him to pursue the field of demonology. later. “Bear in mind that I have not tried to frighten you very much. New England Anomalies Research. Keith and Sandra Johnson (husband and wife) founded the New England Anomalies Research organization. especially with Ed. Ghost Hunters. Ghosts R NEAR. In 2004. including the children. The Johnson family was the fi rst to occupy the new house in North Scituate. As vivid as his description is. This and other odd experiences led the boys to become intensely interested in spirit phenomena at an early age. Keith and Sandra branched off to found their own group. They have worked with lay demonologists such as JOHN ZAFFIS and ADAM BLAI and have appeared on other reality shows besides Ghost Hunters. Carl and Keith began serious study of the paranormal. The Lord knows them and He reveals them to whomever He wills. URL: http:// www. assisting in an EXORCISM. and other inhuman spirits. John assured others that he gave them only a watereddown. 1996. though only in a dream. They married in 1991 and live in Warwick with their son. The two participated in paranormal investigations with Rhode Island groups and worked occasionally with the Warrens. ANGELs. on May 17. Johnson. The dream so upset John that for several nights he had difficulty falling asleep. which Carl joined. 1954.: TAN Books and Publishers. Such cases have been on the rise since about the 1990s. In the 1990s. aired in New England. no specific words could be distinguished. When I got up this morning I noticed that it was swollen. Keith Edward (1954– ). Family members. Carl was especially interested in the demonic and the darker side of both human and spirit nature. abbreviated version of what really transpired in the dream. Carl serves as alternate cohost. Ill. the sounds of animated human conversation could be heard outside their bedroom window. we would not have understood Him. FURTHER READING: Near England Anomalies Research Web site. among others. They struck up a lifelong friendship with the famed paranormal investigators and demonologists. This meeting. where she met Keith. and grew up in North Scituate. they attended a lecture at Rhode Island College given by ED AND LORRAINE WARREN. Johnson. water in a glass held by the boys’ mother suddenly vanished with a loud “slurping” sound. Johnson.

Kings David and SOLOMON were initiates. who in turn initiated 70 elders.). the Practical Kabbalah. in which the first letters of words are used to make new words. in which letters are transposed into code.–1000 C. and lore about ANGELs and DEMONs. God taught what became the Kabbalah to ANGELS. overlapping branches of the Kabbalah: 1. This system.E. 100 B. angels taught the knowledge to Adam in order to provide humans a way back to God. The Classical. or Dogmatic. Influenced by Gnosticism and Neoplatonism. The Unwritten Kabbalah concerns the study of the Tree of Life (discussed later). Kabbalah concerns the study of the Torah and the central texts of the Kabbalah. The Literal Kabbalah concerns the relationship between the letters of the Hebrew alphabet and numbers. Of the four branches. Kabbalah is derived from the Hebrew word QBL (Qibel). Merkabah means “God’s Throne-Chariot” and refers to the chariot of Ezekiel’s vision. The Kabbalah is founded on the Torah.E. but it is not an intellectual or ascetic discipline. mystical. The term Kabbalah was first used in the 11th century by Ibn Gabirol. sometimes called the “Western Kabbalah” or “Western Qabalah. The knowledge was passed to Noah.K Kabbalah (Cabala. and part of the foundation of the Western magical tradition. Joined with Hermetic principles and philosophy.C. the oral tradition was passed on into the tradition and literature of the Merkabah mystics (ca. then to Abraham and Moses. Literal Kabbalah. meaning “to receive” or “that which is received. Temurah plays a role in interpreting the Torah and in making talismans. and magical system for the practice of ceremonial magic. the finding of acronyms through notarikon. The Practical Kabbalah concerns MAGIC. 3. such as the proper ways to make TALISMANs and AMULETs.” also plays a role in practical magic for the casting of spells.” It refers especially to a secret oral tradition handed down from teacher to pupil. Qabalah) The mysticism of classical Judaism. and has since become applied to all Jewish mystical practice. these parts of the Kabbalah create a philosophical. Branches of the Kabbalah There are four main. a system for determining the numerical values of 136 words and names. The goal of the Merkabah . such as the Sefer Yetzirah and the Sefer Zohar (see later discussion). 2. Kabala. a Spanish philosopher. It is a means for achieving union with God while maintaining an active life in the mundane world. History of the Kabbalah According to lore. It features the deciphering of relationships and correspondences through gematria. and an encryption system called temurah. 4. and Unwritten Kabbalah are the most important to the Western mystery tradition. After the Fall.

he said in The Book of Splendors. which supposedly proved the divinity of Christ. Interest in Kabbalah enjoyed a cross-cultural renewal that began in the late 20th century as part of a broad interest in esoteric subjects. The Hasidim are the only major branch of modern Judaism to follow mystical practices. The Classical Kabbalah was born in the 13th century in Provence. In 917. profound peace. Luria emphasized letter combinations as a medium for meditation and mystical prayer. contemplation. the Golden Dawn founder. the sacred names of angels. SEALs. a student of the great kabbalist Moses Cordovero (1522–70). whom the Romans martyred. Western occult interest in the Kabbalah grew first out of German kabbalism and then Lurianic kabbalism. or Yahweh. and letter permutations. alchemical symbols were integrated into the Christian Kabbalah. Samuel Liddle Macgregor Mathers. or traditional science of the Hebrews. the other two are Magic and Hermeticism. Eliphas Levi. The Tetragrammaton (YHVH. In the late 15th century. notarikon. by Knorr von Rosenroth. It gives to ideas the clarity and rigorous exactitude of numbers. The teachings of the Zohar became known as the Spanish Kabbalah and spread into Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries. a form of practical kabbalism was introduced by Aaron ben Samuel in Italy. Levi said: The Qabalah. founded in 1922 by Rabbi Mordecai M. secret codes of communication with angels. angelology. published the first English translation of a Latin translation of the Kabbalah. Christian occultists were attracted to the magical amulets. where it was developed most extensively by medieval Spanish Jews. might be called the mathematics of human thought. After the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492. but it may have been authored as early as the third century. a subject of intense fear and interest. demonology. Of the Kabbalah. Interest in the Kabbalah received renewed attention in the 19th century from non-Jewish occultists such as Francis Barrett. by isolating the unknowns. and moved into Spain. In the 14th century. France. The Kabbalah formed a central part of the teachings of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. an artificial human. a Practical Kabbalah developed. is one of three occult sciences of certitude. It was in use in the 10th century. It solves all problems of the soul as equations. Rabbi Simeon bar Yohai. which gave the Kabbalah a new terminology and complex new symbolism. and they used these as the basis for ritual magical texts (see GRIMOIRES). it later spread through Germany and became known as German kabbalism or Early Hasidim. attributed to a second-century sage. Kabbalah study became more public. Mathers describes the Kabbalah as the key that unlocks the mysteries of the Bible. are infallibility (always relative to the sphere of human knowledge) and for the heart. conceived of bold new theories. who is unknowable. had magic rituals. Levi’s works were especially important in the occult revival that spread through Europe in the 19th century. The magical power of words and names assumed great importance and gave rise to the techniques of gematria. Yod He Vau He. Kabbala Denuda. attributed to Rabbi Akiba. and temurah. the book comprises the teachings given to Rabbi Simeon by divine revelation. and had as primary techniques prayer. Talismans. The primary work from which Classical Kabbalah developed is the Sefer Zohar (Book of Splendor). for the mind. in that it was ecstatic. Levi related the Kabbalah to the Tarot and numerology and drew connections to Freemasonry. It also is reputed to contain the formula for creation of a golem. The passage of the mystic was dangerous. According to lore. called the Ari Luria. borrows from Hasidic traditions and espouses a more mystical Judaism. and meditation. Interest in the Kabbalah among Jews declined after the 18th century. unnamable. and beyond representation. Occult Philosophy (1531). The Kabbalah. The Practical Kabbalah is complex and features the use of magical alphabets. impeded by hostile angels. and incantations were required to navigate through the obstacles. its results. Also in the 16th century. It drew upon the Merkabah practices. in which he saw a fusion of Judaic kabbalism and Neoplatonic Christianity. and Papus. In 1888. but actually written between 1280 and 1286 by the Spanish kabbalist Moses de Leon. Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim included Kabbalah in his monumental work. The historical origin of the true Kabbalah centers on the Sefer Yetzirah (Book of Creation). the Kabbalah was harmonized with Christian doctrines. seals. It is the algebra of faith. Isaac Luria Ashkenazi (1534–72).Kabbalah 137 mystic was to enter the throne world and perceive God sitting upon his throne. Kaplan. Central Concepts of the Kabbalah God is Ain Soph (without end or unending). The reconstructionist movement. one of the most significant esoteric orders in the Western mystery tradition. The Sefer Yetzirah presents a discussion on cosmology and cosmogony and sets forth the central structure of the Kabbalah. incantations. the sacred name of God) was held in great awe for its power over all things in the universe. As did some of his contemporaries. The throne world was reached after passing through seven heavens while in an ecstatic trance state. which flourished in England during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. God . The Hasidic movement emerged from the Lurianic Kabbalah and made Kabbalah accessible to the masses. including DEMONs. In his introduction. The book’s exact date of origin is unknown. involving magical techniques for making amulets and talismans and for invoking spirits.

and repelled in magical rituals according to their hours. whose name in gematria means “pharaoh. such as Elohim. The lower seven sephirot are associated with the seven days of creation. with angels as their counterparts. Chockmah (Wisdom). the Tetragrammaton. Some. the upper ones representing hidden powers and the lower five representing manifest powers. and nothing can exist independently of all else. such as LILITH and Naamah. So sacred is the Tetragrammaton that other names. humans. and Binah (Intelligence)—are associated . Demons are made of fire and air and live in wastelands. Malkuth (Kingdom) penetrates the physical realm and is the only sephirah in direct contact with it. Adam spawned a hybrid human-demon race. side of the sephirot of the Tree of Life (see later discussion). Another division splits them into two groups of five. they occupy the space between the Moon and Earth. months. They have subtle bodies that allow them to fly through the air. They form a language that substitutes for God. They have life spans and die. Sometimes legitimate sons were forbidden to accompany the corpse of their father to the cemetery. which are formed of letters and numbers: the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet and 10 sephirot (from the Hebrew word for sapphire). the Tree of Life. there are contradictions about demons. He created the world by means of 32 secret paths of wisdom.138 Kabbalah created the world out of himself but is not diminished in any way through the act of creation. It is the realm of action in daily life. a ladder map that depicts the descent of the divine into the material world. As in most demonologies. The sephirot channel streams of divine light that become denser and coarser as they near the material plane. especially their kings and queens. Through sex. The hybrid demon-human children who continue to be born are banim shovavim (mischievous sons). were tainted with the impurity of the SERPENT who slept with Eve and spawned demonic children as well. It is the realm of meditation. they attend his funeral. or are expressions of God. They will even injure the legitimate sons in order to get what they want. which facilitate the understanding of their meanings. everything remains within him. The illegitimate demons also were repelled by circling a grave. The first sephirah. It is the world of speech and the realm of ritual magic. Adonai. and claim their inheritance. folk customs arose to repel these demons. One of the mysteries of the Kabbalah is why God chose to create imperfect. The sephirot are the source from which all numbers emanate and by which all reality is structured. in which the patterns are expressed. The 10 sephirot are arranged in different groups. Other demons are under the direction of Ashmedai (ASMODEUS). days. and Jehovah. and adapted Arabian. and God sits upon it and lowers his essence to the rest of his creation. Kether (Crown). In another division. demons can multiply and take on physical form. Demons gather at nocturnal revelries. or evil. are substituted in its place in Scripture. also elevate all other entities in the cosmos. where they have intercourse with Samael. The Throne of God is here. Demons cannot reproduce on their own. In the 17th century. is the closest to Ain Soph and is the source of all life and the highest object of prayer. They can be summoned. and SEALS. When a man dies. Demons are often described as under the direction of SAMAEL. and Eastern European demonologies and folk beliefs. The sephirot comprise the sacred.” Demons also are linked to the left-hand. commanded. The Tree of Life The sephirot form the central image of kabbalistic meditation. The aim of human beings is to realize union with the divine. Adam and Eve’s sons. unknowable. similar to the SABBATs attended by witches in Christian demonology. and the path by which humans can ascend to the divine while still in the flesh. Demons are assigned to all things in creation. The sephirot themselves exist here. by elevating their soul to unite with God. Thus. Sexual activities between demons and humans are prominent. planetary aspects. fumes. Cain and Abel. Various texts have long lists of individual demons and types of demons. though it is held that he did so because he wished to show the measure of his goodness. a syncretic blend of Talmudic and Midrashic lore. lament him. • Briah (also Beriyah) is the world of creation. will live until Judgment Day. Christian. and unspeakable personal name of God: YHVH (Yahweh). Atziluth is the realm of contemplation. but they live much longer than human beings. in which archetypal ideas become patterns. from which are derived all forms of manifestation. The divine light flows both down to the material world and up to God along these paths. which are vessels bearing the emanations of God. which has continued on down through the ages through the sexual intercourse between humans and demons. the top three—Kether. All things are reflected in a higher world. The letters YHVH correspond to the Four Worlds that constitute the cosmos: • Atziluth is the world of archetypes and emanation. • Assiah is the world of the material. Organization of the Tree Each sephirah is a state of consciousness and a level of attainment in knowledge: mystical steps to unity with God. They are associated with cold and the north. their nature and duties. lower worlds. • Yetzirah is the world of formation. Demonology in the Kabbalah Most of the demon lore is part of the Practical Kabbalah.

One must learn to oscillate between Chockmah and Binah states of consciousness in order to grasp the sephirot. The sephirot also serve as a means of communication with the unknowable God. Daath made its appearance in the 13th century. The Inscrutable Height. or “the Lord. The Middle Pillar alone also is called the Tree of Knowledge. By the 17th century. The Middle represents Mildness or Moderation and includes Kether. states that there can be only 10 sephirot. and descriptions of them cannot begin to approach their true essence. Greatness Divine Name: El (The Mighty One) Archangel: Tzadkiel Angelic Order: Hasmallim (The Shining Ones) Archdemon: Ashtaroth Demonic Order: Agshekeloh (The Smiters or Breakers) Heavenly Sphere: Jupiter Part of Man: Right arm GEBURAH Number: Five Titles: Strength. the key text of kabbalistic philosophy. God’s Creation is made through the essences of numbers and letters. The Ancient of the Ancient Ones. located on the Middle Pillar below Chockmah and Binah. which is nonverbal consciousness. each of which was assigned a letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Hod (Splendor). Binah (Intelligence) is verbal consciousness. it is also considered to be an external aspect of Kether. feminine. The Vast Countenance (Macroprosopus). The Smooth Point. and the lower three—Netzach (Victory). Daath cannot be a true sephirah. and Yesod (Foundation)—are associated with nature. The sephirot are ineffable. depict only 16 pathways. they serve as a permanent record of everything that has ever taken place and ever will take place—the memory of God. Daath (Knowledge). The Right Pillar. The pathways linking the sephirot have become more complex over time. Jehovah Elohim (The Lord God) Archangel: Tzaphkiel Angelic Order: Aralim (The Thrones) Archdemon: Lucifuge Demonic Order: Ghogiel (The Concealers) Heavenly Sphere: Saturn Part of Man: Heart CHESED Number: Four Titles: Love.” Following are the names and associations of the sephirot. masculine. When represented on the Tree. The Primordial Point. no less. The Supernal Father Divine Names: Jah. The Heavenly Man Divine Name: Eheieh (I Am) Archangel: Metatron Angelic Order: Hayyoth (The Holy Living Creatures) Archdemons: Satan. Yod Jehovah (given by Agrippa) Archangel: Raziel Angelic Order: Ophanim (The Wheels) Archdemon: Beelzebub Demonic Order: Ghogiel (The Hinderers) Heavenly Sphere: Zodiac Part of Man: Brain BINAH Number: Three Titles: Intelligence. The Ancient One. the middle three—Chesed (Love). for example. and Netzach. there were 22 pathways. Each sephirah is governed by angels and demons. and Hod. Geburah (Strength). The Great Productive Mother Divine Names: Elohim (Lord). and mediates the influences of the two. Illustrations in the early 16th century. The Most Holy Ancient One. Sometimes an 11th sephirah is included. The Concealed of the Concealed. Yesod. Judgment or Severity. The Aged. it is depicted as a sort of shadow sphere. given as YHVH (Yahweh). plus time. and Malkuth. as given in Agrippa’s Occult Philosophy: KETHER Number: One Titles: The Crown. The Left Pillar. Thus. Chesed. The demonic forces represent chaos and turbulence and are used in black magical practices. the sacred and unspeakable name of God. As do the Akashic Records. represents Severity and includes Binah. Elohim Gabor (God of Battles) Archangel: Camael Angelic Order: Seraphim (The Fiery Serpents) Archdemon: Asmodeus Demonic Order: Golohab (The Burners or Flaming Ones) Heavenly Sphere: Mars Part of Man: Left arm .Kabbalah 139 with the intellect. plus the spiritual realm. and Tipareth (Beauty)—are associated with the soul. Tipareth. The Ancient of Days. no more. Moloch Demonic Order: Thamiel (The Two Contenders) Heavenly Sphere: Primum Mobile Part of Man: Head CHOCKMAH Number: Two Titles: Wisdom. Jehovah (The Lord). Geburah. The Mother. The tree is split into three pillars. Together the sephiroth of the Tree of Life compose a unity and create a five-dimensional continuum: the three dimensions of the physical world. Chockmah (Wisdom). for the Sefer Yetzirah. They can be reached only through the second sephirah. Fear Divine Names: Eloh (The Almighty). represents Mercy and includes the sephirot Chockmah. The totality of the sephirot is expressed in the Tetragrammaton. The White Head. Divine Father.

Mantras of arrays of Hebrew letters. The kitsune appears in many Japanese POSSESSION. parts of the body. Some traditional meditations of arrays of numbers and Hebrew letters take days to complete. Kesilim means “fooling spirits. Kochbiel. angels. The King. the clinging demons of sin found in early Jewish mysticism and kabbalistic lore.: Samuel Weiser.140 Kakabel TIPHARETH Number: Six Titles: Beauty. the lezim (jesters). also Sandalphon Angelic Order: Issim (Souls of Flame) Archdemon: Nahema (The Strangler of Children) Demonic Order: Nahemoth (The Dolorous Ones) Heavenly Sphere: Elements Part of Man: Whole body Magical work with the Tree of Life The pathways between the sephirot are avenues of navigation on the astral plane. together with images of their corresponding Hebrew letters of the divine names of God and the planets. Donald Michael. contemplation. The Mystical Qabalah. and energy centers. Kokbiel) ANGEL who is both good and evil. The sephirot are contemplated by visualizing them vibrating with colors (which represent various qualities). The Queen Divine Names: Adonai (Lord). kelippah In Jewish demonology. Gray. 2004. Kakabel is a high angel and prince who rules over stars and constellations. Kochab. They became gross matter.000 DEMONs and teaches astrology. In 1 Enoch. The Manifest Glory of God. The Ladder of Lights. 2nd ed. kitsune In Japanese lore. Kelippah means “shell. who vampirizes her victims sexually as a SUCCUBUS. and make fun of them. Breath and sound also are utilized to raise consciousness. Modern Magick: Eleven Lessons in the High Magickal Arts. Kakabel (Kabaiel. York Beach. Related to them is a type of low demon. metals. are employed. Communication with the tree is accomplished through prayer. meditation. Dion. The Bride (of Microposopus). who act as poltergeists and throw things about a house. Kraig. Elohim (God) Archangel: Raphael Angelic Order: Malachim (Kings or Multitudes) Archdemon: Belphegor Demonic Order: Tagiriron (The Disputers) Heavenly Sphere: Sun Part of Man: Chest NETZACH Number: Seven Titles: Firmness. The Lesser Countenance (Microprosopus) Divine Names: Eloah Va-Daath (God Manifest). Gershom. Me. They were created as shards or residues of the light cast down from the spiritual lights that formed the sephirot of the Tree of Life (see KABBALAH).” or “skin. 1974. FURTHER READING: Fortune.” The kelippot (plural) are forces and the root of all evil. El Chai (Mighty Living One) Archangel: Gabriel Angelic Order: Cherubim (The Strong) Archdemon: Lilith (The Seducer) Demonic Order: Gamaliel (The Obscene Ones) Heavenly Sphere: Moon Part of Man: Genitals MALKUTH Number: Ten Titles: The Kingdom. a wild fox DEMON that causes The kitsune also appears in the form of a beautiful maiden. having specific numerical properties. Me. Victory Divine Name: Jehovah Sabaoth (Lord of Hosts) Archangel: Haniel Angelic Order: Elohim (Gods) Archdemon: Baal Demonic Order: Nogah (The Raveners) Heavenly Sphere: Venus Part of Man: Right leg HOD Number: Eight Titles: Splendor Divine Name: Elohim Sabaoth (God of Hosts) Archangel: Michael Angelic Order: Bene Elohim (Sons of Gods) Archdemon: Adrammelech Demonic Order: Samael (The False Accusers) Heavenly Sphere: Mercury Part of Man: Left leg YESOD Number: Nine Titles: The Foundation. a type of demon or demonic force not distinguished by individual names. Adonai he-Aretz (Lord of Earth) Archangel: Metatron in manifest aspect. Kakabel is a FALLEN ANGEL who commands 365.” “husk. DEMONs who play tricks.: Samuel Weiser. Scholem. Eternal Foundation of the World Divine Names: Shaddai (The Almighty). The Diadem. Compassion. Kabbalah. In the Sefer Raziel. kesilim In Jewish demonology. 1981. New York: New American Library. misguide people. The kelippot are intermediaries between the upper and lower worlds. 1984. York Beach. Paul: Llewellyn. the shadow side of the Tree of Life. Emek ha-Melekh. and ritual magic. Adonai Malekh (Lord and King). . William G.” The kesilim appear in a 17thcentury book.

She related that one day eight years earlier. and aberrant behavior. Little by little he grew bolder. If the skull remains in place and does not fall. specialists in dealing with kitsune-tsuki. and mounting into her head. She sought out help in a university clinic in Tokyo. The following case concerned a teenaged girl described as “nervous from birth. the family consulted an exorcist from the Nuhiren sect. Any emotional excitation brought on a fit. The victim also suffers insomnia. Everyone was telling how in the dusk there had been seen near the house a form resembling a northern fox. and immediately she became possessed: In the beginning the sinister guest contented himself with occasional stirrings in her bosom. . the kitsune flicks its fire-shooting tail once.” Shape Shifting To accomplish its shape shifting to human form. Professor. who first showed with twitching of her mouth and arm on her left side where the demon had entered. Her weakened condition. and abused those present. The same evening. Some are believed to be revenge for a family’s former offenses against a huli jing. You might do something more intelligent than trying to entice me by your questions. Efforts to cast him out with chloroform. and she repeatedly struck her left side with her fist. and “other suggestion” (perhaps hypnotism) also failed. not intelligent. The woman went to a succession of exorcists. plus strong belief in the kitsune. sometimes as a condition of its departure. After several weeks of this behavior. but in good physical health. The exorcist commenced a “solemn exorcism. The woman said that these fits occurred six to 10 times a day and even awakened her at night. None could help her. he consented to come out freely from the starved body of the sick person if a plentiful feast was offered to him. Don’t you know that I am really a gay young girl. of cheese cooked with beans. The fox had entered into her and spoke by her mouth several times a day. Hearing this. The fox spoke and called her a “stupid goose” and said he could not be stopped. and bows to the Big Dipper constellation. female relations chattering and smoking. The clinicians witnessed the appearance of the fox. although I live in this old frump? You should rather pay court to me properly. On a certain day at four o’clock there were to be placed in a temple sacred to foxes and situated twelve kilometers away two vessels of rice prepared in a particular way. puts on a human skull. The clinicians put her in a glass room for round-theclock observation. Around her bed sat. The fox spirit enters the body either through the breast or under the fingernails. The victim hears the fox spirit speak inside her head. irritable and capricious from childhood. the fox spirit takes on a different voice. . The speech of the fox deteriorated. This made quite an impression on her. the sick girl felt a trembling in the body and was possessed. the huli jing.kitsune        141 folktales and in the literature about possession. It resides on the left side of the body or in the stomach. restlessness. The fox spoke far more intelligently than the woman and even taunted the clinicians: “Look here. together with a great quantity of roast mice and raw vegetables. The victim exhibits cravings for certain food. was recovering from a very bad attack of typhus. An account from the early 20th century tells of a 47-year-old Japanese woman who became permanently possessed. turns around. rebuking and tyrannizing over the poor girl. She knew it was the fox. criticized by her mouth her own thoughts and made mock of them. and then the spirit left her. Nevertheless. where it is described as a lewd creature. It was suspicious. And so it happened. These became more violent. It originated in the lore of China.” who was recovering from typhus. she had been with friends when one of them said that a fox had been driven out of a woman from a nearby village and was seeking a new home. .” The kitsune said he would depart with the proper offering of food but never did so. The woman was released without a cure. the transformation is successful. sad-looking (and thus perhaps suffering from depression). Soon he assumed a domineering tone. mingled in all conversations. verbal orders.” The fox resisted all efforts until food was provided: Neither excommunication nor censing nor any other endeavor succeeded. There followed a fit in which the woman and the fox argued. . Possession Possession by the fox demon is called kitsune-tsuki. She was a peasant. the door was opened unexpectedly at her home. Cases have been recorded in Japan since the 12th century. It lasted about 10 minutes. especially beans or rice demanded by the demon. Not all cases of kitsune-tsuki are resolved. the fox saying ironically that he was too clever to be taken in by such maneuvers. including the hoiny. Punctually at four o’clock when the food was placed in the distant temple the girl sighed profoundly and cried: “He has gone!” The possession was cured. seemed to make her highly suggestible or vulnerable to possession: A girl of seventeen years. The pattern was consistent. and she felt a prick in the left side of her chest—the traditional entry point for a fox demon. mendicant monks from the mountains who specialized in exorcism. having been diagnosed as suffering from a chronic condition of “periodic delusion. Most possession victims are female. all favorite dishes of magic foxes: then he would leave the body of the girl exactly at the prescribed time. or rather squatted in Japanese fashion. when she talks out loud.

He also is associated with helping wizards in their magic. Kunopegos tells King SOLOMON that he can shape shift into a man. Charlesworth.” In 1 Enoch Kokabiel is a fallen angel who commands 365. Kunopegos (Kunopaston) DEMON in the shape of a sea horse. . and sinks ships in order to claim the bodies of men and their treasures.142 Klingenberg Possession Kitsune hide in forested areas and use human voices to lure victims and cast spells over them. they vanish without harming the victim. He consults the prince of demons. In the Sefer Raziel. the kitsune love to cut women’s hair and shave men’s heads as pranks. He is thwarted by the angel Iameth. In addition to sexually ravaging victims. 1 & 2. 1966. Solomon confines Kunopegos by casting him into a broad flat bowl filled with 10 receptacles of seawater. Secaucus. Kokabiel is a high-ranking angel. New York: Doubleday.000 myriads of ministering angels who make the stars run from city to city and from state to state in the Raqia’ of the heavens. A Field Guide to Demons. Kokabiel means “star of God.J: University Books. causes seasickness among sailors. Possession and Exorcism.. Kokabiel (Kabiel. He can go to shore as waves and shape shift into the form of a man. Kunda In ZOROASTRIANISM. the DEMON of drunkenness. Vols. Carol K. Edited by James H. 1983. Klingenberg Possession See MICHEL. N. annual rites traditionally are held to ward off kitsune troubles. a kitsune bride is going through the woods in a procession to the home of her groom. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. The top is fortified with marble and the bowl’s mouth is covered with asphalt. Kokbiel) FALLEN ANGEL also described as a good angel. and Dinah Mack.000 DEMONs. According to lore. Kochbiel. BEELZEBUB. Processions of people take straw foxes and dolls to a mountain outside the village. New York: Henry Holt/Owl Books. commanding 365. 1985. Fallen Angels. FURTHER READING: Mack. pitch. or the lights are the torches carried by the foxes who lead a wedding procession. where they are buried. The vessel is sealed and stored in the Temple of Jerusalem. Kakabiel. If they eat and drink too much themselves. and Other Subversive Spirits. and hemp rope. Oesterreich. Kunda becomes drunk without drinking. They also frequent eating and drinking establishments and prey upon people who eat and drink too much. In 3 Enoch he is prince of the stars. Reprint. ANNELIESE. Kunopegos is a cruel spirit who raises himself up like great waves in the open seas. whenever it rains when the Sun is shining brightly. Marsh lights are fireballs breathed by the foxes or created by their fire-shooting tails. Kochab. Traugott K. 1998. In the mountainous areas of Japan where kitsune lore is strong. Fairies. In the Testament of Solomon.

Lactance. Later. One of the DEMONs possessing Jeanne. Labartu carries a SERPENT in each hand and attacks young children. bled him. He worsened and began hallucinating and hearing things. Lactance was given a fine funeral. Mannoury. Lactance became pale and distant. exactly one month after Grandier’s execution. Mother Superior JEANNE DES ANGES. Shortly thereafter. Dicas!” at URBAIN GRANDIER. He was joined by a Jesuit. ISACAARON. Lactance was especially zealous in his persecution of Grandier. Lactance was on his deathbed. 1634. Within a week. The demons entered him and made him rave and contort. He repeated. Reassured that it was not by his colleagues. mothers. was carted about town on his way to be burned at the stake. Perhaps this had been a sin. Lactance remained ill at ease. he was dead. He passed a sleepless night and by morning was in a fever. he was obsessed to know precisely how Grandier was suffering in HELL. badly broken by torture. “God is punishing me. The doctor fell to the ground. FATHER JOSEPH SURIN. screaming for pardon. On September 18. He relived Grandier’s screaming under torture and asking God to forgive his enemies as he was strapped to the stake. Lactance was one of three exorcists sent to the Ursuline convent at Loudun when the POSSESSIONs and bewitchments of the nuns seemed to be getting out of control. The evening of the execution. God is punishing me. Lactance immediately suffered psychological and physical ailments. He knocked the crucifi x from the priest’s hand and died. Father Gabriel Lactance earned the nickname of “Father Dicas” because he kept shouting. a customary remedy at the time. the prototype of LILITH. 143 . “Dicas. but Jeanne went into convulsions to avoid further answers. 1634) Franciscan priest who was a principal EXORCIST in the LOUDUN POSSESSIONS in France from 1630 to 1634. A priest was summoned to give him extreme unction. and a Capuchin. when the priests continued their EXORCISMs of the principal DEMONIAC.” A physician. Father Tranquille. He was the fi rst to light the execution fi re. while the exorcists were at the convent. the priest accused of bewitching the nuns. and nurses. He saw swarms of demons. Father Gabriel (d. He spouted blasphemies. Father Lactance prevented supporters from helping him. Mannoury had a vision of the naked Grandier when he was pricked for DEVIL’S MARKS. tried his best to satisfy the priest. As the condemned priest.L Labartu Mesopotamian goddess with demonic characteristics. He worried that he had prevented Grandier from making his confession by tearing him away from one of his supporters as he was taken to the stake. associated with Lilitu. Father Tranquille preached the sermon and said Lactance was a model of holiness who was killed by SATAN.

the demonic children-killing offspring of LILITH. who was the mistress of Zeus. who. having no proper habitation. In exchange for her sexual favors. Huxley. In revenge. As does LILITH.” a description of the god’s long hair and beard. London: Routledge. picted as SERPENTs) and the face and breasts of beautiful women. also known as lemurs. She had several children. who became known as the lamiae. Lemures or Larvae if they are bad. leaving the residents alone until the following year’s festival. does not enter into another body. Aldous. Businesses and temples closed. observed in February or March. are punished with an uncertain wandering. when the larvae or lemures were exorcised. a hairy body. Ferber. I find that souls of this kind are called in the ancient Latin tongue Lemures. for appeasing the spirits of the dead. he who. tossing black beans over his shoulder.144 Lahmu FURTHER READING: Certeau. larvae In Roman lore. London: British Museum Press. having the head of a lion. They prey upon newborns. and Manes if it is . and Anthony Green.” She is hideous in appearance. placed black beans in his mouth. Smith. She steals infants from their wet nurses. but they harass men of evil intent. and that men become Lares if they are good. Lamastu causes disease in all humans. Of these Lemures. on account of the evil deeds of their life. and saying. who caught Zeus’ eye. Lahmu means “hairy. She joined the EMPOUSAI. 2000. exorcising them from households. Lamastu Babylonian and Assyrian goddess who practices evil for its own sake. Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. was so enraged by the liaison that she killed all the offspring who resulted from the union. The Possession at Loudun. Hera. are demonic ghosts of the dead who. Lamia bore a large family of children. She floats in a boat in the river of the underworld. the wife of Zeus. They have deformed lower limbs (often de- Romans observed a festival in May called Lemuria. Demonic Possession and Exorcism in Early Modern France. FURTHER READING: Black. because of their misdeeds in life. indeed. being allotted the guardianship of his posterity. dwells in a house with an appeased and tranquil power. Translated by Michael B. New York: Harper and Brothers. a destroyer deity in Babylonian and Assyrian lore. She suckles pigs and holds SERPENTs. Offerings of centipedes and brooches were made to tempt her away. Lam See CROWLEY. and walked barefoot through the house. in reference to comments made by Plotinus: He [Plotinus] says. St. and places. after its departure from the present life. Lamatsu goes into homes at night. Michel de. Lamastu is usually translated as “demonness. evil spirits that harm and frighten the living. She condemned Lamia to give birth only to stillborn infants. The DEMON god PAZUZU has power over her and can force her back into the underworld. JOHANN WEYER used the term lamia to describe female witches who had entered into a deceptive or imaginary PACT with the DEVIL in order to perpetrate evil. blood-stained hands with long fingers and fingernails. Augustine commented on larvae. and become a vain terror to good. “With these beans I do redeem me and mine. which. Lamia was the beautiful daughter of Belus. all female demons. The most important ritual took place on the last night of the festival. are punished in the afterlife by being sentenced to exile and eternal wandering without a home. according to a second signification. therefore.” This incantation was repeated nine times without looking backward. In The City of God. that the souls of men are demons. the king of Libya. 2004. and Lamia. naked breasts. drinking their BLOOD and consuming their flesh. lamiae Monstrous female birth DEMONs found in Middle Eastern and Greek lore. The lamiae are named after Lamme. women in childbed. The Devils of Loudun. Adam’s first wife. Jeremy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. In Hebrew lore. 1952. making the sign of the horns with his hands (see EVIL EYE). and the feet of a bird. 1992. homes. Apuleius described both of these types of spirits in De deo Socratis: There is also another species of daemons. Sarah. The Greeks had a similar festival. the teeth of a donkey. ALEISTER. Statues of Lahmu were placed in house and building foundations to ward off evil. benevolent ghosts of the dead who guard people. She kills pregnant women by tapping on their bellies seven times. and this is a human soul. lamiae are the lilim. The counterpart of the larvae are lares. Larvae. and are noxious to bad men. is called a familiar [or domestic] Lar. Women protected themselves against her by wearing AMULETs made of bronze and fashioned as the head of Pazuzu. But those are for the most part called Larvae. Sometimes she is shown with donkey ears. female demons similar to the SUCCUBUS. They do not bother good men. as with a certain exile. Zeus gave her the power to pluck out the eyes of people and replace them. Gods. she especially preys upon pregnant women. and preventing them from causing trouble. The homeowner or head of the household washed his hands three times. The evil ghosts who followed would pick up the beans and depart. Lamia became a demon and swore to kill the children of others. Lahmu Benevolent Assyrian god who protects against evil DEMONs. believing them to be wicked demons. and newborn infants.

A leyak can remain disguised to fellow human beings indefinitely. 2007. if they suppose they shall become Larvae or divine Manes. good demons. Barbara Black. The Book of Lilith. Anton Szandor See SATANISM. causing death and destruction to people. God sends a tempest. New York: Oxford University Press. LaVey. who flees from God’s wrath across the sea toward the city of Tarshish. and then God forces Leviathan to vomit him up on land. While the sorcerer sleeps. He also states that the blessed are called in Greek eudaimones. or a bird. Ogden. Berwick. And his eyes are like eyelids of the dawn. . See LARVAE. liderc Hungarian DEMON that shape shifts into three guises: an INCUBUS. they will become the worse the more love they have for inflicting injury. masquerading as long-absent lovers and dead husbands. 1986. a household spirit. In Hebrew lore. he would drag them down and sink them. When the ships were close. its human form dies instantly along with it. . J. A giveaway to the demon’s true nature is that it has one goose leg and foot. New York: Simon & Schuster. .liderc 145 uncertain whether they deserve well or ill. John Milton. New York: Facts On File. Lerajie (Leraie. He is ruler of Envy. He causes great battles and makes arrow wounds putrefy. In his neck abides strength. For three days. Victoria. and a death omen light.405. And terror dances before him. which it keeps hidden in trousers and boots. Sparks of fire leap forth. confirming his opinion that the souls of men are demons. New York: Modern Library. these men must suppose that after death they will be invoked with sacrifices and divine honors that they may inflict injuries. 1950. 3rd ed. Rosemary Ellen. oppress. If the leyak is destroyed. as the Larvae are hurtful demons made out of wicked men. and the ship’s crew find out that Jonah is the cause. however wicked men have been. The City of God. describes Leviathan as “the Arch-Fiend. He would rise to the surface and fool sailors into thinking his huge bulk was actually land. His sneezings flash forth light. Lerayou. 2002. because they are good souls. introduction by Thomas Merton. The legions are organized in military fashion. The Book of Demons. Who does not see at a glance that this is a mere whirlpool sucking men to moral destruction? For. Along the way. male— Leviathon. the leyak flies in the night skies in the form of a mysterious light. lezim See KESILIM. Usually. FURTHER READING: Augustine. The leyak also is the cause of all bad events and misfortunes. spears do no more than tickle him: His back is made of rows of shields. Leviathan is described in the book of Job as a huge whalelike creature who is nearly invulnerable. who has a wasting death. and Joseph W. for. Leviathan In Hebrew lore. the fourth of the SEVEN DEADLY SINS. The book of Jonah tells about Jonah. They are dispatched by SATAN to infest. The Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits. .926 underlings. that is to say. Smith. Leviathan was one of the possessing demons named in the LOUDUN POSSESSIONS. a monkey. in his epic poem Paradise Lost. . the Slant Serpent—and female—LILITH. FURTHER READING: Hyatt. legion A unit of DEMONs. Lerajie is a marquis who appears as an archer.666 demons per legion. it is unmasked only when it is killed in its shape-shifted form. Leviathan has two aspects.” who lurks about the seas around Scandinavia. Daniel. 1974. it returns night after night and fornicates with the victim. primordial monster DEMON of the seas and king of beasts. with ranks and specific duties assigned to each demon. Once in its victim’s bed. . Koltuv. See BEHEMOTH. The household liderc takes the form of a featherless chicken that suddenly appears or is hatched from an egg carried in the armpit. The incubus liderc takes advantage of loneliness. a sorcerer who has the ability to shape shift into a DEMON. Oray) FALLEN ANGEL and 14th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Guiley. and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook. Charles.: NicolasHays. Out of the mouth go flaming torches. George Wilson and J. leyak In Balinese lore. animals. But this question we must not pursue. listing 72 princes who commanded legions totaling 7. Legion lemures See JESUS. and possess victims. the Tortuous Serpent. he is imprisoned in the belly of the beast. They throw him overboard and he is swallowed by Leviathan. Shut up closely as with a seal. JOHANN WEYER cataloged demons. The legions attend their princes when summoned by a magician. Witchcraft. He commands 30 LEGIONs of DEMONs. Me. dressed in green and carrying a bow and quiver. and crops. Translated by Marcus Dods. It can never be banished once it has . Magic. There are 6.

when SABBATs. Teutonic. The bile of a BLACK DOG sprinkled on a house would neutralize a demon. Other means could cause ligature: a nut or acorn split in two and placed on either side of a bed. blind by day. appearing as early as 700 B. According to lore. New York: Owl Books/Henry Holt. and their parents went off in secret to celebrate the sacrament. the mark of the DEVIL. After the Fall. noting that couples living in Languedoc were so fearful of demonic castration that not 10 weddings in 100 were performed publicly in church. Materials toward a History of Witchcraft.C. Sumerian. during which Lilith went to him and satisfied him during sleep.. Remy said that when he was a boy. Adam complained to God that his wife had deserted him. was struck by lightning and marked with “deep claw marks. Folk magic remedies could remove a ligature. and adultery. and the couple was doomed to unhappiness. when witches were believed to use powers bestowed by the Devil to interfere in the sexual acts of people. however. 1939. Instead.” FURTHER READING: Remy. Babylonian. 1974. Lilith appears in different guises in various texts. and Semangelaf. Greek. to take Lilith back to Eden. Demonolatry. FURTHER READING: Lea. Persian. who sucks the breasts or navels of young children or the dugs of goats. She is the dark aspect of the Mother Goddess. the couple. The only solution is to keep it busy with tasks. it will destroy the occupants. PACTs with the DEVIL. who became a frog. Sanvi. NICHOLAS REMY. She was forced. ligature A knotted loop of thread used by witches to cause demonic castration or impotence in men. left him in anger. Fear of ligature increased in the witch hysteria of the Inquisition. or grandmother of SATAN. in the book of Isaiah. sterility. Lilith demanded equality with Adam and. a physician in the Montpellier region of France in 1596. Henry Charles. otherwise. Fallen Angels. Carol K. They had a son. the priest.146 ligature entered a home. and the evil acts of witches gained prominence in witch trials. a 16th-century demonologist. He concluded that the panic was so bad that there was a local danger of depopulation. She is the original “scarlet woman” and sometimes described as a screech owl. created by God as twins joined in the back. Platter believed fully in ligatures. and threw a coin on the ground while calling the Devil. The angels found her in the Red Sea and threatened her with the loss of 100 of her demon children every day unless she returned to Adam. Another remedy called for rubbing the entire body with raven’s bile and sesame oil. Only then.” Further evidence of the presence of the Devil was the “most foul smell of sulphur.E. these are claw marks of the Devil. and the BLOOD of a black dog sprinkled on the walls would clear all evil spells. N. and Dinah Mack. could the newlyweds enter their home. and go to bed. Nicholas. said that DEMONs mingle with lightning and determine where it strikes. lightning In folklore. she or beings similar to her also are found in myths from other cultures around the world. charred marks on objects. knotted a thread. She is sometimes associated with other characters in legend and myth. The victim would be cured by eating a woodpecker or by smelling the scent of a dead man’s tooth. or around the door. newborn infants—particularly males—and men who slept alone. as well as barrenness in women and unhappiness in marriage. France. Lilith appears in various forms in Iranian. She is best known as the fi rst wife of Adam. or three or four beans placed beneath the bed. and Native American legends. If the coin disappeared. Wormwood or squill flowers hung at the bedroom door would keep out a demon. The flickering light liderc is a ball of light (ignis fautis) that hovers over the household where someone will soon die. Lilith A female DEMON of the night and SUCCUBUS who flies about searching for newborn children to kidnap or strangle and sleeping men to seduce in order to produce demon children. Canaanite. Secaucus. A Field Guide to Demons: Fairies. Belief in impotence caused by SORCERY with DEMONs was not widespread until about the 14th century. Sansanvi. Lilith took revenge by launching a reign of terror against women in childbirth. to swear to the three angels that whenever she saw their names or images on an amulet. The ligature also served to bind couples in illicit amatory relationships. a needle used to sew a corpse’s shroud. English. She refused and was punished. and Other Subversive Spirits. concubine. Mexican. a witch went behind the husband. she was often portrayed as the wife. placed beneath a pillow. In medieval Europe.: University Books. Lightning strikes leave streaks and ragged. on the road outside a house. Adam spent 130 years separated from Eve. described how ligature happened to newlyweds: At the instant when a priest blessed a new marriage.J. In addition to Jewish folklore. including the queen of Sheba and Helen of Troy. Quicksilver (mercury) enclosed in a reed sealed with wax or sealed in an empty hazelnut shell could be placed beneath the afflicted person’s pillow or under the threshold of the house or the bedroom. Lilith is a major figure in Jewish demonology. she would leave infants and mothers alone. it meant that the Devil took it to keep until Judgment Day. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Arabic. 1998. Asian. Thomas Platter. FURTHER READING: Mack. hooked. enjoy the feasting. God sent three angels. Platter reported. his house at Charmes. failing to get it. .

The numerical value of Lilith’s name equals the Hebrew word for “screech. a KELIPPAH. waiting to seduce men. According to lore. Also on the Day of Atonement. Lilith’s powers are at their peak when the Moon is dark. in wells. Men who sleep alone are especially vulnerable to Lilith. as queen of Zemargad or queen of the desert. The Book of Lilith. The ardat-lili is incapable of sex and takes out her frustrations upon young men by rendering them impotent. her words are smooth like oil.” Thus. Lilith. Her hairy. including with demons. Lilith lurks under doorways. She is adorned with the “ornaments for seduction”: Her hair is long and red like the rose. her tongue is sharp like a sword. She is dressed in scarlet and adorned with forty ornaments less one. Alpha Bet Ben Sira. Lilith is the “demon of screeching” and “the princess of screeching” and is personified as a screech owl. and she refused to lie beneath him during intercourse. followed by the creation of Eve just a few passages later. in a union arranged by the Blind Dragon. Lilith is also known as Lady of the Beasts. Adam and Eve. Lion-demons hold a dagger . lion-demon Babylonian hybrid DEMON. her cheeks are white and red. usually in the shape of a bare-chested man with a lion head and tail. Lilith and Samael are born joined as androgynous twins from an emanation beneath the throne of glory. Her mouth is set like a narrow door comely in its decor. They taunt each other so much that the very earth trembles. men who had nocturnal emissions believed they had been seduced by Lilith during the night and had to say incantations to prevent the offspring from becoming demons. who has a SERPENT body. even marital sex. To end it. AMULETs and INCANTATION BOWLs traditionally protected new mothers and infants against Lilith. God diminished the Moon and made it rule the night. carries the fiery resentment of the Moon. seduction. the Tortuous Serpent. If a child laughed in its sleep. with a charm inscribed with the names of the three angels. In legend. who has the upper body of a beautiful woman and a lower body of fire. Me. the counterpart to the male aspect. Adam and Lilith were at odds with each other from the beginning. Gershom. donkey ears. She is the seducer of men and the strangler of children. some had bells attached. Sometimes amulets with such inscriptions were placed in all corners of and throughout the bedchamber. the DEVIL (in some accounts called Ashmodai. the animal side of human nature. and this created a rivalry. Kabbalah. or ASMODEUS). The lilu and lilitu haunt deserts and threaten pregnant women and infants. The ardat-lili is thought have the form of a scorpion-tailed she-wolf. from her ears hang six ornaments. Common amulets were knives and hands inscribed with CHARMs. In her guise as the queen of Sheba. lilitu and ardat-lili. an entity who has been castrated so that his offspring will not overcome the world. She became the bride of SAMAEL. She also persuades Eve to seduce Adam while she is menstruating and impure. God created Lilith in the same way as he did Adam. she attempted to seduce King SOLOMON. They are the lower aspects of another androgynous twin. Scholem. In the midrash. 1986. bestial legs were revealed in the reflection of the glass. Berwick. it was a sign that Lilith was present. Adam and Eve. composed of a male lilu and two females. Tapping the child on the nose made the demon go away. is at risk for becoming lilim. Leviathon. the Slant Serpent. Lilith spends the day in a screeching battle with MAHALATH. the Sun and Moon were equal. Any seed spilled during sex. and strangling. Male infants were vulnerable for the first week of life. and they march about while she screeches. Barbara Black. New York: New American Library. having hair everywhere on their faces and bodies except their heads. and the words barring Lilith or protect this newborn child from all harm. girls for the first three weeks. When she saw that Adam would gain power over her. In the beginning. The daughters all practice SORCERY. In the Zohar. she uttered the ineffable name of God and flew off to a cave in the desert near the Red Sea. a concubine to Samael. She also makes women sterile. He discovered her true nature by having the DJINN build a throne room with a floor of glass. that is created in the waning of the Moon. Sometimes a magic circle was drawn around the lying-in bed. on the Day of Atonement. In a text preceding the Zohar. she engaged in promiscuity. her lips are red like a rose and sweetened by all the sweetness in the world. and in latrines. The lilim are hairy beings. Lilith goes forth into the desert with 420 LEGIONs of her demons. Egyptian cords and all the ornaments of the Land of the East hang from her nape. There. 1974. and bird feet. but he used filth and impure sediment instead of dust from the earth. Lilith mistook it for water and raised her garments in order to cross it to his throne. Frogs also protect against her. The demons have associations with LILITH. She is Leviathan.: Nicolas-Hays. which attempts to resolve the discrepancies in the Torah about the creation of Lilith in Genesis. who rules the wilderness and all beasts. Lilith arises from an evil shell or husk. The Zohar also describes Lilith as a female aspect of LEVIATHAN.lion-demon 147 The earliest account of Lilith appears in a midrash. lilitu A family of Babylonian DEMONs. the latter role is sometimes attributed to NAAMAH. and gave birth to 100 demonic offspring called lilim every day. Lilith is the serpent who tempts Eve with the apple of forbidden knowledge in paradise and thus instigates the Fall. FURTHER READING: Koltuv.

Edited by James H. In the Testament of Solomon. 1983. Lix Tetrax claims he is “the direct offspring of the Great One. Reprint. He is thwarted by the angel Azael. loup-garou. In order to satisfy the Devil’s demand for blood. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. He slithers into houses at the corners night and day (see INCANTATION BOWL s). The term loogaroo was coined by French colonists and is a corruption of the French term for werewolf. Solomon invokes the name of “the great God Most High” and forces the demon to reveal that he is thwarted by Emmanuel (JESUS). the loogaroo preys as a vulture during the day. and renders households nonfunctional. the torments of Mother Superior JEANNE DES ANGES (Joan of the Angels) and the sisters by the handsome Grandier resulted in not only the priest’s fiery death but great Lion-demon of disease and evil (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . attacking people and animals and sucking their blood as a vampire. sets fields on fire. and she will die of exposure. He says he is of Arab descent. the king spits on the ground and seals the demon with his magical ring. This will force her to be naked in the daytime. If the loogaroo is injured while in her shape-shifted form.148 Lion-Shaped Demon upraised in one hand and a mace in the other. He is especially busy during the summertime. Solomon sentences the demon’s legions to carrying woods from a grove of trees and sentences the Lion-Shaped Demon to use his claws to saw it into kindling and throw it under a perpetually burning kiln. Edited by James H. and Melchal. where she removes her own skin and hides it in the tree.” perhaps a reference to Beelzebub. Vols. The Loudun Possessions were probably the most famous case of mass possession in history. At last. 1983. Charlesworth. who commands LEGIONs of DEMONs. New York: Doubleday. at the king’s orders. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. New York: Doubleday. Thallal. loogaroo In West Indies lore. the Prince of Demons. an old woman who has made a PACT with the DEVIL and must supply him with large quantities of warm BLOOD. Charlesworth. 1 & 2. He sneaks up to people who are lying in their sickbeds and makes it impossible for them to recover. She shape shifts into a blob of light and flies about. thus revealing her true identity. she will show her wound when she changes back to human form. who watches. At night. Solomon sentences Lix Tetrax to throw stones up to the workmen at the heights of the Temple of Jerusalem. Loudun Possessions (1630–1634) Mass POSSESSION of Ursuline nuns of Loudun. He has the power to heal the “day-and-a-half fever” if invoked to do so with the three names of Baltala. He raises up clouds of dust and wind and hurls them at Solomon. Emmanuel has bound the LionShaped Demon and his legions and will torture them by driving them off a cliff into water. 1 & 2. Vividly described in Aldous Huxley’s The Devils of Loudun (1952). 1985. creates whirlwinds. Lion-Shaped Demon FALLEN ANGEL in the shape of a roaring lion. He says he divides men. unharmed and in amazement at this display. The demon appears with his face high in the air and his body crawling like a small snail. Lix Tetrax is summoned to the presence of King SOLOMON by BEELZEBUB. 1985. Lix Tetrax FALLEN ANGEL and DEMON of the wind. France. Reprint. starts fires. who accused Father URBAIN GRANDIER as the source of their demonic afflictions. under construction. the Lion-Shaped Demon appears before King SOLOMON and says he cannot be bound. He lives in the constellation near the tip of the horn of the Moon when it is in the south. In the Testament of Solomon. she goes to a cottonwood tree. Another way of exposing her is to find her skin and grind it up with pepper and salt. Liondemons are benevolent and protect against evil demons that cause misfortune and disease. Vols.

the daughter of the king’s solicitor in Loudun. his aide. Next. He cut quite a figure. Townspeople suspected him of fathering a child by Philippa Trincant. The mother superior. Jeanne became sexually obsessed with Grandier and had strange dreams in which he appeared to her as a radiant angel but spoke more as a devil would. Contemporaries of Jeanne des Anges described her both as a living saint and as a strange. and he openly courted Madeleine de Brou. saw an opportunity for revenge against Grandier. Grandier’s first serious setback occurred June 2. and after flagellation and penance. Jeanne des Anges. causing none. The plan was for Father Mignon to persuade a few of the sisters to feign possession. It was a foolish mistake. and eloquent. Observers such as Dr. and the possibility that Grandier had been sacrificed for his political missteps. Grandier appealed to the bailiff of Loudun to have the nuns isolated. The EXORCISMs became a circus of public spectacles conducted at the Ursuline convent. especially concerning his seductions of women in town. and he enjoyed the support of powerful people. Everything he did was successful. Sent to the convent because her hunchback and unattractive appearance made her marriage prospects poor.Pierre-du-Marche in Loudun. Grandier was appointed parish priest of St. Fourneau. 1630. They did menial work and did not eat meat. he had no trouble finding women willing to help him bend his priestly vows. Her hysterical dreams and ravings disturbed the peace of the convent. cavorted. the bishop of Poitiers. causing his removal and downfall. They were not particularly pious but were sent to the convent because their families could not afford dowries large enough to attract suitors of comparable rank. urbane. Peace returned for a while. ambitious woman. falling into fits and convulsions. but the hysteria began again later that year. some accounts report Jeanne called for Father Mignon’s help. WITCHCRAFT. There was no furniture and the nuns slept on the floor. 1633. exorcisms continued until 1637. daughter of the king’s councilor. but the bailiff’s orders were ignored. The Ursuline Convent The Ursuline convent was new. holding their breath and speaking in hoarse voices. 1633. enticing her to sexual acts and vices. obsessed. In desperation. At this point. The development of sorcery accusations against Grandier had grave implications. even from the possessed nuns themselves. while Jeanne and the others shrieked. most of them of noble birth. Whether the rituals added to the performance or caused Jeanne’s mind to snap. Grandier’s Rise and Fall In 1617. rich. local chapels. A total of 27 nuns claimed to be possessed. When word circulated that the Ursuline nuns were bewitched and possessed and Grandier was responsible. and another nun readily complied. she swore that she and the others were possessed by two DEMONs. formerly Jeanne de Belciel. not the other way around. Most assumed Madeleine was Grandier’s mistress. the curé shrugged off the gossip. for he had made many. wealthy. a baron’s daughter. and diabolical PACT. causing pain. mean. Jeanne nursed secret resentments. for the revised Witchcraft Act of 1604 called for the death penalty upon conviction of sorcery. She feigned piety in order to become mother superior. The two priests began exorcizing the nuns. Grandier reveled in his popularity and often acted arrogantly. confessor to the Ursuline nuns at their convent and a relative of Trincant. and suffered convulsive fits. the archbishop sent his doctor to examine the nuns and found no evidence of possession. Most were resigned to their fate and lived lives of boredom at the convent. The only place they could afford to rent for their quarters was a gloomy house no one would live in because it was notoriously haunted. . Now realizing his peril. DEVIL’S MARKS were quickly found by lancing him in one part of the body. He inspired admiration and adoration and at the same time resentment and envy. a town in Poitiers. Father Mignon and Father Pierre Barre. and so they sent their daughters to the convent for education. a new superior was appointed: Jeanne des Anges. sent by Father Grandier via a bouquet of roses thrown over the convent walls. the physician who prepared Grandier for torture.Loudun P ossessions 149 debate on the veracity of the nuns’ sufferings. In 1627. She was arrogant. established in 1626 by 17 nuns. Grandier wrote to the archbishop of Bordeaux. and even private homes. Other voices were raised in Grandier’s defense. France. Soon the locals realized that the nuns were well connected by blood to important people. Though the case had generally ended by 1634 with the execution of Grandier. to whom he composed a treatise against the celibacy of priests. Jeanne was no quieter. and ordered the nuns to confinement in their cells. There was no shortage of other enemies of Grandier. and lightly touching him elsewhere. and extravagant in her secular life as the daughter of a baron. Still convinced he could not be convicted of such imaginary crimes. and more nuns had succumbed to hallucinations and dreams. Grandier was thrown into prison at the castle of Angiers on November 30. Handsome. and the apothecary from Poitiers protested the examiner’s hoax and found no such marks. But Grandier’s own political connections restored him to full clerical duties within the year. or bewitched. the theological probability of witchcraft. He quarreled with people and did not care whether they became enemies. Grandier’s enemies approached Father Mignon. The archbishop ended the exorcisms on March 21. ASMODEUS and Z ABULON. swearing that Father Grandier had bewitched them. when he was arrested for immorality and found guilty by his enemy.

levitation. Balaam under the second rib on the right side. The exorcisms resumed publicly under Mignon. and FATHER GABRIEL L ACTANCE. she disappeared into a convent. This was witnessed by the chief magistrate. Because of her father’s political connections. Verrine in the left temple. and even the chief magistrate. and under the left breast nipple • Françoise Filatreau: Ginnillion in the forebrain. Eager to prove his power in the church and in France. In part. Sometimes when given commands in Latin or Greek. Jabel throughout the body. called to the cardinal’s attention a libelous satire on Richelieu that Grandier was supposed to have written in 1618 and reports of the unsuccessful exorcisms. Gentlemen in town were accused of consorting with the Devil. the nuns had to be coached to respond correctly. The exorcists said Jeanne’s actions and the retractions were lies of SATAN. Experts continued to doubt that the possessions were genuine. Claire said tearfully that her possession and the accusations against Grandier were all lies she had been forced to tell by Mignon. and a crony of the powerful Cardinal Richelieu.150 Loudun Possessions Grandier’s enemies continued their efforts against him. A relative of Jeanne’s. and the Carmelites. Isacaaron under the last rib on the left • Agnes de la Motte-Barace: Asmodeus under the heart and Beherit in the stomach • Louise of Jesus: Eazaz under the heart and Caron in the center of the forehead • Claire de Sazilly: Zabulon in the forehead. incest. the enemy of the Virgin in the neck. but the nuns had been coached. below the heart. Pillet de la Mesnardiere. The dreams and physical responses of the nuns were overtly sexual. much to the delight of onlookers. the cardinal appointed Laubardemont head of a commission to arrest and convict Grandier as a witch. and devils under the navel. Lactance. determined exactly where some of demons resided in the bodies of the possessed nuns. and other sins committed not only by a priest but in the holiest places of the church. some burning sulfur accidentally fell on the lip of Sister Claire. the nuns repeatedly failed tests for clairvoyance. . Jeanne made a deranged appearance in the convent yard one day. Catholics and Protestants battled each other in possession and exorcism cases to try to demonstrate who had the greater spiritual authority. was accused of practicing black magic. Sister Agnes said repeatedly she did not believe herself to be possessed but was convinced by Jeanne and the exorcists. Finally. She burst into tears and said she was ready to believe that she was possessed as she had been told. the nuns resorted to contortions and gymnastics. Grandier’s former mistresses came forward with stories of adultery. Besides the accusations of the nuns. de Laubardemont. and Dog’s Tail of the Order of Archangels in the stomach The nuns’ accusations escalated. one of Cardinal Richelieu’s personal physicians. but was rescued by other sisters. replying that one of the terms of their pact had been never to use Greek. sacrilege. revealing their legs. the case was also being used against the Protestant Huguenots in general. and Concupiscence of the Order of the Cherubim in the left rib • Seraphica: A bewitchment of the stomach consisting of a drop of water guarded sometimes by Baruch and other times by Carreau • Anne d’Escoubleau: A magic bayberry leaf in her stomach guarded by Elymi Among the lay demoniacs and their resident demons were: • Elizabeth Blanchard: A devil under each armpit. threatening to hang herself. To test their knowledge of languages previously unknown to them—a sure sign of possession—Grandier spoke in Greek. a Franciscan. Similarly. Father Tranquille. the devil of debauchery. and stood for two hours in pouring rain with a rope around her neck and a candle in her hand. Nepthali in the right arm. On another occasion. and superhuman strength. and even went through a psychosomatic pregnancy. ISACAARON. along with a Capuchin monk. and released again. but she did not deserve to be treated in this manner. Barre. Other priests were accused of rape. Grandier failed. during an exorcism. San Fin (Grandier of the Dominions) under the second rib on the right. Beherit in the stomach. Most of the nuns failed the test of knowledge of foreign languages not known to them prior to their possession. Buffetison below the navel. rearrested. Sister Claire. arrested. and aware of his relative. Jeanne added a new possessor. dressed only in her shirt. Father Tranquille. On another occasion. Nuns who did not know Latin were conveniently possessed by demons who did not know Latin. Agnes attempted to escape the convent but was captured and returned. among them: • Jeanne des Anges: Leviathan in the center of the forehead. Even more glaring were other gaffes. Madeleine de Brou was accused of witchcraft. in the convent. the Coal of Impurity in the left buttock. She then tied herself to a tree. for the nuns all said that the Huguenots were disciples of Satan. de Cerisay. After the Protestant Reformation. Elymi on one side of the stomach. Father Grandier was forced to exorcize the nuns himself. she was released. providing shocking evidence of Grandier’s diabolical nature. Jean de Laubardemont. This time. Despite these problems. the case against Grandier continued full force. To make up for their shortcomings in crucial areas. Of course. and imprisoned. since he was the apparent cause of their sufferings.

as reported by an earlier exorcist. Cham. Croix! Given the nineteenth of May.” The recorder. BEELZEBUB. Celsus. Cedon. Many had to flee France. on the twentieth of May at five in the afternoon of Saturday. Naphthalim. and other defense witnesses were either pressured to keep silent or threatened with arrest as accessory witches or traitors to the king. the pact outlined Grandier’s duties to the Devil and the benefits he accrued thereby. allegedly stolen from Lucifer’s cabinet of devilish agreements by Asmodeus and presented to the court as proof of Grandier’s complicity. and from Achas of the angelic order of principalities. LEVIATHAN. from Asmodeus of the angelic order of thrones. Father Gault: I promise that when leaving this creature. Cosigners were SATAN. the exorcists. under pain of stiff fines and physical punishment. and Ureil. Other demonic “evidence” was that of Astaroth. the register of the church St. and my lords the princes of hell. from Easas. and ASTAROTH. skeptics and defenders of Grandier came forward to protest. On July 2. As the circus escalated. forbidden to speak out against the nuns. He appeared before the 14 judges only The Devil’s pact allegedly signed by Father Urbain Grandier (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . 1634. I promise that the demons Gresil and Amand will make their opening in the same way. BAALBERITH. Asmodeus also accommodatingly wrote out a promise to leave one of the nuns he was possessing. when leaving. and it was notarized by “signature and mark of the chief devil. or any others assisting in the exorcisms. but a little smaller—and I approve the promises made by Leviatam. they were officially silenced. a devil of the angelic order of seraphim and chief of the possessing devils.Loudun P ossessions 151 One of the most interesting items from the exorcisms and trial was the alleged written PACT between the Devil and Grandier. Alex. Zabulon. LUCIFER. Jeanne des Anges appeared in court with a noose around her neck. And tomorrow. threatening to hang herself if she could not expiate her previous perjury. The message is written in Jeanne des Anges hand. Beherie with their companions to sign. Behemot. ELIMI. Such efforts were ignored. 1629. that this slit will pierce her shirt. countersigned the pact. Acaos. Grandier believed almost to the end that he would be exonerated. bodice and cloth which will be bloody. I will make a slit below her heart as long as a pin. Purportedly written backward by Grandier in Latin and signed in BLOOD.

did he begin to recover. where he was finally banished from the church for conspiring to accuse a priest of rape on the altar. According to Bavent. glossolalia (talking in unknown languages). he was really invoking the Devil. and all showed the classic signs of possession: contortions. Grandier was to be burned alive at the stake. Surin finally wrote again in 1657 and walked in 1660. But Grandier had the last word. Louis and St. The priest died accordingly. Sarah. leaving Grandier to be burned alive. who arrived as an exorcist in 1634 after the death of Grandier. One of the clerics present. Oliver Reed plays the unfortunate Grandier. the nunnery’s deceased director. and sexually repressed woman. died in 1665. preventing him from speaking. allegedly as a result of bewitchment by Mathurin Picard. Demonic Possession and Exorcism in Early Modern France. Grandier told Father Lactance that he would see God in 30 days. dress himself. London: Routledge. Dagon disturbed the peace of some of the other nuns as well. Grandier’s death did not stop the possessions at Loudun. where she married the DEMON Dagon and committed horrible and obscene acts with him on the altar. For years after Grandier’s death. vicar at Louviers.” Such shows continued until 1637. appearing as a beautiful ANGEL. The bishop of Evreaux ordered Picard’s body to be exhumed. They beat their heads. The Louviers Possessions have similarities to the AIX-EN-PROVENCE POSSESSIONS and the LOUDUN POSSESSIONS. and used language that. reportedly crying. one of the judges who was skeptical of the possessions and who was denounced by Jeanne as a sorcerer himself. the Lord of the Flies. FATHER JEAN-JOSEPH SURIN. he tried to kill himself. and Father Thomas Boulle. bitter. insults. Grandier had been promised he could make a last statement and be mercifully strangled before burning. read. succumbed to possession by Jeanne’s devils. Inevitably. walked on their hands. Even under extreme torture. According to the account of the proceedings at Louviers published in 1652 by Father Bosroger. Father Barre left Loudun for an exorcism at Chinon. 2004. Public appreciation of the exorcisms had been so great that the convent continued the performances as a type of tourist attraction. SATAN tried to lead the nuns of Louviers down heretical roads as well. The Devils (1971). and the appearance of strange wounds. This. black wings. And the garotte was knotted so that it could not be tightened. walk. 18 nuns were possessed. babies were strangled and eaten. Louviers Possessions (1647) Mass demonic POSSESSIONs at a convent chapel of the Hospitaller sisters of St. He no longer prayed to God and continually saw visions of devils. Conviction of the priests involved hinged mainly on the evidence of the possessed DEMONIACs. bent backward. Picard was bewitching the nuns from his grave and causing them to become possessed. the Royal Commission passed sentence on August 18. One writer who observed the exorcisms tells that one young nun “ran with movements so abrupt that it was difficult to stop her. led by Mignon and three other Jesuit exorcists who arrived in December 1634 (one was Surin). stuck out blackened tongues. and two men who had attended out of curiosity were crucified and then disemboweled. Aldous. the afflicted nuns were exorcised for the amusement of the crowds. One monk who witnessed the execution reported that a large fly buzzed about Grandier’s head. “would have astonished the inmates of the lowest brothel in the country. Grandier maintained his innocence. she told. reported the fraud to her uncle. the new head of Surin’s Jesuit College at Saintes. engaged the .” Besides seducing the nuns to unspeakable sexual acts. niece to Cardinal Richelieu. or write. the Devil. symbolizing that Beelzebub. Jeanne des Anges. was due to certain questionable spiritual practices previously associated with the convent. so angering Father Tranquille and the others that they broke both his legs and claimed that everytime Grandier prayed to God. in 1648. fell into depression and insanity and died before the end of the winter. As he struggled. Bavent confessed to authorities that the two clergymen had taken her to a witches’ SABBAT. The Devils of Loudun. Huxley.” Father Tranquille died insane within five years. Surin was haunted by the exorcisms. Only after Father Surin received tender care from Father Bastide. Elizabeth in Louviers.) During the orgy. I was not responsible for your death. Vanessa Redgrave plays Jeanne des Anges. which just as quickly vanished. the fraudulent witch pricker. FURTHER READING: Ferber. Louis Chavet. having caught her by the arm. New York: Harper and Brothers. 1952. Mannoury. and Dr.152 Louviers Possessions three times. refusing to name accomplices. eventually becoming unable to eat. when the duchess d’Aiguillon. He died at peace in 1665. also died in delirium. but the friars who carried him to the stake deluged him with holy water. blasphemies. (See BLACK MASS. according to one account. In 1645. portrayed as a deformed. On the promptings of Sister Madeleine Bavent. Huxley’s account of the madness at Loudun forms the basis of Ken Russell’s film version. had appeared to carry Grandier’s soul to HELL. France. Having satisfied his original aim—to demonstrate his considerable power—Richelieu righteously cut off the performers’ salaries and put the convent at peace. in turn. unnatural body movements. the bloodstains turned out to be from a chicken. was surprised to find that it did not prevent the rest of her body from turning over and over as if the arm were fixed to the shoulder merely by a spring. Twice a day except Sundays. and other terrors. 1634: After the first and last degrees of torture. convinced of her saintliness by Father Surin. “Grandier. They lifted their skirts and coarsely begged for sexual relief.

FURTHER READING: Certeau. Translated by Michael B.Lucifer 153 nuns in theological conversations. O Day Star. such as in the works of Dante and John Milton. Huysmans’ 1891 novel about satanic decadence in Paris. Ferber. Satan replied that he was a messenger of heaven. Lucifer’s identity as a prideful angel cast out of heaven with his followers—who became DEMONs—rests mainly on legend and poetic literature. Lucifer (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . Chicago: University of Chicago Press.” and he originally was associated with Venus. Boulle became the model for a character in La-bas. 2004. the morning star. The Possession at Loudun. PACTs with the Devil were made. Michel de. Sarah. The dead Picard was convicted and his decomposing corpse was burned. cleverly spoken and so charming that the nuns began to doubt what they were taught. In Latin. Lucifer means “light bringer. Nearly everyone was questioned and harassed by the inquisitors. 2000. London: Routledge. meekly protesting that what the Devil told them had not been revealed by their teachers. and Father Boulle was burned alive. and the whole town of Louviers exhibited hysteria as the cries of the nuns rose with the tortured screams of Father Boulle. sent to speak the divine truth and reveal the errors in established dogma. The sole biblical reference to Lucifer occurs in Isaiah 14:12: “How you are fallen from heaven. In the end. the parliament at Rouen passed sentence: Sister Madeleine was imprisoned in the church dungeon. Demonic Possession and Exorcism in Early Modern France. As in Loudun. the exorcisms were public and became more of a circus than a holy ritual. K. Lucifer FALLEN ANGEL sometimes equated with SATAN. a prediction of the fall of Babylon and its king. son of Dawn!” The reference is probably to the boastful king of Babylon. Smith. J.

Augustine and Jerome were among those who followed suit. The fallen angels lost their beauty and power and became demons. together with the division that was under his authority. made Lucifer the chief fallen angel. Reprint. Russell. both Lucifer and Satan were used as names for the DEVIL. He gives orders that each one should stand in his own rank. 2006. FURTHER READING: Kelly. 1985.154 Luciferian witchcraft Jerome’s translation of the Bible. Henry Ansgar. perpetrated the fraud that Freemasonry was associated with worship of Lucifer. N. Lucifer and his demons will be exiled to the “Outer Darkness. Lucifuge Rofocale The prime minister of LUCIFER. ceaselessly. In the 19th century. And I hurled him out from the height.” completely cut off from divine light and love. In the early years of Christianity. By the Middle Ages. later. His rebellion against God with the sin of pride caused him and his followers to be cast from heaven. Lucifer has received most attention in Christianity. Luciferian witchcraft See WITCHCRAFT. Charlesworth. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages. Milton’s Paradise Lost and Dante’s Inferno strengthened the connection of Lucifer to Satan. In Mormonism. Lucifer is emperor of HELL and ranks above Satan. Lucifer became obsessed with pride and attempted to take over Elohim’s family and subvert the Father’s plan for his children. He thought up the impossible idea. God tells the prophet Enoch: But one from the order of the archangels deviated. 1984. Rocofale may . A struggle of wills ensued. Lucifer rules Europeans and Asiatics. because it exists only in Slavonic. Vols. He gives them clothing of burning flames and fiery weapons. The text may date to the late first century. a Frenchman who excelled in occult hoaxes. The book is especially significant for its feature of a specific PACT between a magician and Lucifuge Rofocale for the purpose of securing the services of DEMONs. equated Lucifer and Satan. also called the Slavonic Apocalypse of Enoch. 2 Enoch. 1 & 2. When Elohim’s purpose has been fulfilled. or Jesus) and to all of the children of Elohim including all of the souls of humanity.. the name was sometimes applied to Christ as the light bearer. Jeffrey Burton. When conjured. The early church father Origen. 1983. In the hierarchies of demons in magical lore. above the Bottomless. Taxil continues to be cited by opponents of Freemasonry. and Lucifer and his followers lost. Jehovah. Lucifer (Helel in Hebrew) is a brilliant and powerful archangel. one of his lieutenants.Y. and thus he might become equal to my power. According to the text. the Grand Grimoire. Edited by James H. a French magical handbook of black magic written in the 17th or 18th century (see GRIMOIRES). The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. And he was flying around in the air. a son of Elohim (God the Father) and brother to Yahweh (God the Son. that he might place his throne higher than the clouds which are above the earth. and London: Cornell University Press. Ithaca. Leo Taxil. New York: Cambridge University Press. God creates the ranks of angels on the second day of creation. names the leader of the fallen as SATANAEL (Satanail). Lucifuge Rofocale is featured only in one text. who lived in the second and third centuries. They are exiled to Earth and are permitted to tempt people. Lucifer could apply to the Devil in either his prefall or postfall state. he appears as a beautiful child. Lucifer and the souls of sinners (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) Some modern occultists and satanists see Lucifer as an archangel of light who will incarnate in human form at key times to confer enlightenment and redemption. although some scholars believe it to be of medieval origin. the Latin Vulgate. together with his angels. shaping them out of a great fire cut off from rock. New York: Doubleday. Although the hoax was thoroughly exposed. A Biography of Satan.

BEELZEBUB. A pact cannot be made with the three highest demons—Lucifer. having described the Kabbalistic circle and pronounced the word Rocofale. I promise thee to have friendly commerce with those who are fortified by the possession of the said Book. which must be signed by the magician with his own BLOOD. who is a reluctant and obstinate spirit who must be forced to appear with the use of the blasting rod and threats of CURSEs. I place myself at thy disposition. holding his written pact. on penalty of forfeiture of the magician’s soul: I also approve thy Book. The Spirit’s Reply I cannot comply with thy request except thou dost give thyself over to me in twenty years. LUCIFUGE ROFOCALE Thereupon throw him your pact. LUCIFUGE ROFOCALE IMPRIMATUR Lucifuge Rofocale (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) Manifestation of the Spirit Lo! I am here! What dost thou seek of me? Why dost thou disturb my repose? Answer me. on condition that thou keepest the secret for ever inviolable. which thou shalt affix at its end. a grimoire attributed to Henry Cornelius Agrippa.” After more bargaining that involves threats from the magician to send him into eternal fire with the blasting rod. provided that they invoke me according to rule. which must be written with your own hand. The Grand Grimoire states that if the magician cannot master a magic circle and a blasting rod for controlling demons. to appear before thee at thy call when. and two blessed candles. to do with thy body and soul as I please. and ASTAROTH—but only with one of their lieutenants. agrees to grant requested services if properly summoned. when Lucifuge Rofocale appears. thou shalt open the Book. then a pact is necessary. Beelzebub. being purified. to make use of at thy need. he demands that in exchange for his services. Further. I also engage to deliver thee the treasure which thou seekest. and demands certain services and payment in return.Lucifuge Rof cale o 155 be an anagram of Focalor. art charitable to the poor. a demon named in the Lemegeton. so as to obtain wealth at thy hands immediately. the magician “give thyself over to me in fifty years. It provides a Grand Conjuration for summoning Lucifuge Rofocale. on the first occasion that they require me. The Grand Grimoire tells how to make a pact with Lucifuge Rofocale. the Grand Conjuration of the Spirit. thou art mine everlastingly. the hazel wand. the grimoire. this exchange takes place: . When the demon finally appears. on a sheet of virgin parchment. He recognizes the authority of the magician and his grimoire. He makes a magic triangle with the bloodstone and enters it. If thou failest. and signed with your own blood: —I promise the grand Lucifige to reward him in twenty years’ time for all The reference to the “Book” is the spurious Fourth Book. to do with thy body and soul as I please. a bloodstone. and dost give me a gold or silver coin on the first day of every month. He goes to an isolated place either indoors or outdoors—the depths of a ruined castle are ideal. failing which I will torment thee by the potent words of the Clavicle. The magician collects the following tools: a wand of wild hazel (not a blasting rod). LUCIFUGE ROFOCALE Reply to the Spirit It is my wish to make a pact with thee. and holding the dreadful Blasting Rod. He first conjures Lucifer. it should be worded as follows. According to the Grand Grimoire. and Astaroth to ask them to send Lucifuge Rofocale for the purpose of entering into a pact. where my true signature stands. the demon agrees to appear twice a night except on Sundays and makes a written conditional pact with the magician. a major grimoire. and I give thee my true signature on parchment. and the discharge for dismissing the demon once business is concluded.

and fears about demonic interference and PACTs were rampant. especially the church’s practice of selling indulgences. Fail in thy promise. Instead. and the peasants were quelled in 1525. calling them “the Devil’s people” and worse. the family moved to Mansfeld. He was in demand as a public speaker. His anti-Semitism is believed by some scholars to have influenced the Nazi movement centuries later. Protestantism became embroiled in other factors of social and political unrest. The story may be more legend than fact. LUCIFUGE ROFOCALE In order to enforce his obedience. and thus addresses you: — Of the Spirit’s Second Manifestation Why dost thou torment me further? Leave me to rest. In 1523. on February 15. he did write a letter to his superiors on that date. was slow to respond. with the terrible words of the Clavicle. The Diet of Worms declared him an outlaw. including the Ninety-five Theses. and married her in 1525. and his health steadily declined. The document aroused instant sensation. and quickly spread throughout Germany. the Inquisition was gaining force. Germany. and thou shalt be mine at the end of twenty years. the Peasants’ War broke out. or be excommunicated. supposedly posted them as Ninety-five Theses by nailing them to the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg. Luther was born on November 10. Luther was opposed to Jews throughout his life. Luther publicly burned the bull in defi ance. Luther developed his arguments and on October 31. intervened and attempted to arrange a compromise. In 1519. to wit. Reply of the Spirit I cannot grant thy request. and I will confer upon thee the nearest treasure. after suffering chest pains and a stroke. a wealthy Catholic couple. Luther refused to support the revolt. in Eiselben. and the story arose after his death. In developing his reformist ideas. and the pope summoned him to Rome. The Lutheran Church repudiates his anti-Jewish views today. against the Jews. Leo dismissed Luther as “a drunken German” and thought the fuss would soon die down. Katharina von Bora. denouncing the sale of indulgences. the church undertook a major campaign to sell indulgences to raise money to refurbish St. and died three days later. Leo excommunicated him on January 3. Leo issued a bull demanding that Luther recant 41 points in his writings. Martin Luther was concerned with the influence and action of evil and the DEVIL in the world. again recite the Supreme Appellation. 1972. For much of his life. 1546.: Samuel Weiser. Luther helped a group of nuns to escape from a Cistercian convent in Nimbschen by hiding them in herring barrels. and called for his arrest. He was 42 and she was 26. Martin occurred on the day after he was baptized. Luther suffered from a variety of health problems. They made a former monastery their home and tilled the land to earn a living. At the time. 1521. In 1484. Luther. Luther devoted more attention to the Devil than had been seen in Christianity . Reprint. He preached his last sermon. between ten at night and two in the morning. and dos not call me oftener than once a week. He joined the Augustinian order in Erfurt in 1505 and devoted himself to an austere monastic life. In 1516. a movement grew. In 1524. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. 1517. till the spirit reappears. In 1520. The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts.156 Luther. Leo demanded an explanation from Luther of his theses. On December 20. He fell in love with one of them. it could be obtained only directly from God. 1483. witchcraft was considered a heresy. However. Luther responded. In witness thereof I have signed myself N. many of them believing that religious reform would lead to other reforms as well. They had five children and enjoyed a happy marriage. under Pope Leo X. Luther disappeared into exile. Despite Luther’s opposition to violence. York Beach. Take up thy pact. During his later years. the oldest son of Johan and Margarita (Margarethe) Luther. Arthur Edward. and he spoke out against the corruption he saw in the church. M artin the treasures he may give me. for Luther never commented about nailing anything to a church door. the Saxon elector. The letter included the Ninety-five Theses.N. LUCIFUGE ROFOCALE FURTHER READING: Waite. Martin (1483–1546) Founder of Protestantism and the Protestant Reformation. The church. Luther became increasingly disenchanted with Catholicism. Luther felt strongly that forgiveness for sins could not be purchased. banned his works. sheltered at the castle of Frederick III at Wartburg. I have signed it. He secretly returned to Wittenberg in 1521 and preached several sermons about trust in God and Christian values. Frederick III. He opposed the use of violence to spread the gospel and to further the ends of the church. with lower classes revolting against the upper classes. on condition that thou dost set apart for me one coin on the first Monday of each month. and was translated into other languages. 1899. Martin was given a good education as his father hoped that he would become a lawyer. He was given the name Martin because the feast of St. Me. 1520. Luther tried to follow that path and studied law at the University of Erfurt but felt no heart in it and left.

New York.. He said he combated them with prayer and “happy song. and laughing at him while remaining invisible. It can choose to be invisible. 1998. who grew impatient. Luther told him to have patience and to pray. N. The lutin is either male or female. tales circulated that Luther had been born of the Devil. but there is always a heavy price to pay. The Devil gave out a great stinking fart and left. and he ordered him to depart. He asked his father how to exact revenge and was told to write a commentary upon the Lord’s Prayer. poltergeist disturbances. and mental interferences that he attributed to the Devil. lutin French name for a hobgoblin common in French folklore and fairy tales. which is a revolt of the creature against the Creator.” The “monk” continued interrogating Luther. The changelings never lived beyond 18 or 19 years of age. Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther. The commentary vaulted him into the spotlight. Ronald. breaking them. it becomes invisible by donning a red cap with two feathers. The stench lasted for days. a common accusation levied against religious and political enemies of all kinds. stating. N. the Devil himself visited Luther while he was studying at the University of Wittenberg. where he encountered Margarita. I would burn all of them. the Devil increases attacks upon him. He ordered the demon to depart. he said. According to one. the pastor said. He considered the pope to be the ANTICHRIST. and London: Cornell University Press. Henry Charles. a denial to God of the authority which it accords to the demon?” Luther said his mother had been harassed by a witch. much as in lore of the FAIRIES and their changelings. Ithaca. Many physicians do not realize this. fi res. He was completely believing of the evil nature and powers of witches and their allegiance to the Devil. The lutin is comparable to house spirits such as brownies. then. and sprites. Luther performed at least one EXORCISM. he was pestered one night by the Devil and drove him away by throwing his inkwell at him. even wills. . According to one story. and seduced her. They are capable of blasting crops. which the sorcerer used to become rich. Luther felt attacked by DEMONs and evil spirits. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. his mother. He felt this in his own life. After the start of the Reformation.Y. and then rejected his monastic life. An ink stain remained in his room at the castle for a long time. From childhood. Johann. He confessed to his pact and repented but was burned at the stake anyway. a female is called a lutine. Does not witchcraft. God embraces both good and evil. Edited by Benjamin G. fairies.C. Erik Midelfort. the Devil counseled him in how to advance himself in the world. Even though God allows evil. The lutin has a trickster nature. After Luther’s birth. brewing tempests and storms. he said. pixies. Luther said. . FURTHER READING: Bainton. which may have been a reference to his writings. In some tales. He attributed his mood swings and depressions to the operations of demons. Weyer. the Devil is actually the servant of God. He related a case of a sorcerer in Erfurt who tried to escape his poverty by making such a pact. All mentally ill people are under POSSESSION by the Devil. The Devil caused diseases. The CURSE was broken by a preacher who collected the witch’s footprints and threw them into a river. the Devil disguised himself as a merchant of jewelry and went to Wittenberg. He went to Rome. He did well at school. that a human being has no free will but can follow only the will of God for good or the will of SATAN for evil.: Pegasus Press.” Reportedly. Russell. merit death. . therefore. attacks increased as he grew older and reached great intensity while he was exiled at Wartburg and was at work on translating the Bible into German. The Devil gave him a crystal for divination. Luther also believed that as one advances in faith. God fights evil at every opportunity. leprechauns. on a pastor from Torgau who went to him for advice. became a monk. then took their infants and exchanged them for others. who had cursed him and his siblings to cry themselves to death. evil. by throwing around pots and dishes. and causing pestilence. 1939. and he became the chief purveyor of the heresy that became Protestantism. and should add faith and prayer to their medical treatments. fevers. where he was treated poorly by the pope and his cardinals.lutin 157 since the early days of the religion. “I should have no compassion on these witches. But he accused innocent people of theft and was arrested. and severe diseases. He also said that he drove the Devil away with ink. . ravished a nun. Penguin. Asheville. He arrived disguised as a monk and asked for Luther’s advice on “papal errors. He believed firmly in predestination. Luther believed that witches shape shifted into animal forms and flew through the air to SABBATs. Luther also said the Devil raped maidens bathing in water and impregnated them. C. Materials toward a History of Witchcraft. as well as his ongoing health problems. gnomes. He said people do engage in pacts with the Devil to further their selfish gains. On Witchcraft (De praestigiis daemonum). Kohl and H. God is good but allows. enduring physical distress. Then Luther saw that his visitor had hands like bird talons. God uses the Devil to weed out the unworthy. We read in the old law that the priests threw the first stones at these malefactors. Jeffrey Burton. imps. Abridged. 1986. Lea. and are possessed with God’s permission. The Devil had been tormenting him for a year. and to elves. 1995. by making them appear to have natural causes. The pastor’s wife and children wanted to move. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World.

Lutins are fond of taking animal forms. while bad lutins will cause domestic upsets. Salt spilled on the ground or floor will prevent lutins from crossing it. Canada. Lutins can control the weather and be either good or bad. LODOVICI MARIA. and also especially white animals. especially pets and common animals such as rabbits. spread lutin lore there. and make messes. See SINISTRARI. misplace objects. . Good lutins will perform per- sonal services.158 lutin French immigrants to Quebec.

taking drugs. which means “great” (as in “great” science). rites or procedures. Charoel. The 12 chief dukes are Claniel. Through magic. chanting. referring to Zoroastrianism. Thuriel. The three elements are spells and incantations. Magic is not inherently good or evil but reflects the intent of the magician. Throughout history. from magein. dancing. Varpiel. visualizing symbols. and to destroy. such as spell casting. either from megus. magic A superior power created by the combining of inner power with supernatural forces and beings such as ANGEL s and DEMONs. inhaling fumes. or “threshold. Many systems of magic exist. and proscriptions. survival. transition. people and authorities have had an uneasy relationship with magic.” The word is from limen. each with its own procedures. predictable world to the instability of the liminal world. Low magic. Evil magic is associated with sorcery and WITCHCRAFT. sleep deprivation. Drusiel. and altered states of consciousness accomplished through fasting. The three functions are to produce. Magic is both part of religion and a competitor of religion. High magic has a spiritual nature.M Macariel DEMON and wandering duke of the air. The ethical and moral uses of magic have always been ambiguous. Brufiel. staring into flames. and so forth. and transformation are conditions that are conducive to psi and the supernatural. either by controlling natural forces or by appealing to higher powers for help. Andros. however. meditating. and Lemodac. Magic had its beginnings in humankind’s earliest attempts to control its environment. rules. Magic lies at the heart of all esoteric and occult traditions and is found in mystical and religious teachings. In modern times. to 159 protect. Magic ritual—and ritual in general—exposes the ordinary. a blurred borderland that is neither in the material world nor in the spiritual world but in both simultaneously. science is providing evidence in support of magic. Magic is practiced universally by skilled individuals who either are born into their powers or train themselves to acquire powers. depending on it and tolerating its practice and at the same time condemning it. who have 400 servants. It has been regarded as a science and has been discredited by science. and destiny. most commonly a dragon with a virgin head. Liminality is a term coined by the anthropologist Arthur van Gennup to refer to the condition of being “betwixt and between. is a form of SORCERY. Romyel. Asmadiel. Macariel has 12 chief dukes. The term magic is derived from Greek. Gremiel. Magical phenomena exist in a realm of liminality. a person can cause inner change and change in the physical world. They appear in many forms.” Change. referring to a Median tribe in Iran recognized for its magical skills and known to the Greeks. The anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski defined magic as having three functions and three elements. . all good-natured and willing to obey an EXORCIST. or from magoi. Mastuet.

mediumship. and the use of AMULETs. Platonists. and necromancy. Illnesses were believed to be caused by a host of demons who controlled various parts of the human body. celestial intelligences. Later. and Stoics. Egyptian priests were skilled in magical arts of spell casting. believing they could summon divine powers to Earth and enable their souls to ascend to heaven. Some incantations involved strings of names. Egyptian magic was mixed with classical magic. so below”) was espoused in variations by Pythagoreans.E. Hellenistic-Gnostic influences. Babylonians. Jewish magic depended almost entirely on the use of names and interventions of spirits. especially for healing.” in that many were corruptions of names of deities and angels. had religious overtones and was akin to ritual magic. borrowed from other cultures. Magic requiring the help of demons was forbidden and was punishable by death. never for private gain. for the Tanakh— the Old Testament—condemns sorcery. All magical arts were practiced. especially the Moon. making of amulets and talismans. By the Middle Ages. mystical. Black magic is called “apocryphal science” in the Kabbalah. This lore provided the basis for the later GRIMOIRE the Key of Solomon. How strictly these admonitions were followed is questionable. Dreams were consulted. Incantations involved long strings of magical words. Everything was connected by sympathetic bonds. It incorporates the low magic of spells and divination. later. philosophical. rather. the use of spirits and various forms of magic. the most important of the old handbooks of Western magic. Talmudic law reinterpreted sorcery. The gift was dubious. Magic Influences The Western magical tradition is rich and complex. the underworld domain of Osiris. and. Magic that did not require the help of demons was still forbidden but received lesser punishments. Kabbalists were divided on the issue of whether or not one could invoke demons as well as angels. In Natural History. the use of mystical names of God and angels and verses of Scripture were incorporated into incantations. Only the most virtuous persons should perform magic and do so only in times of public emergency and need. it was a collection of beliefs and practices chiefly concerning protection from demons and the procuring of blessings. The Kabbalah. the magical arts were taught to human by ANGELS.. use of magical figures similar to poppets. shape shifting. the dark magic of sorcery and witchcraft. and the high magic of spiritual enlightenment that is closer to mysticism than to spell casting. procuring and sending of dreams. The distinction between the two often was not clear. and use of magic in the practice of medicine. Magic was organized into systems around 500 C. As early as the first century C. SEAL s. spirits called DAIMONes. Egyptian magic Magic played an important role in ancient Egypt. a precursor to the K ABBALAH. The Neoplatonists favored theurgia. Magic was not organized into systems. a body of esoteric teachings dating to about the 10th century and in full bloom by the 13th century. about the same time as the development of Merkabah mysticism. in the search for cures. contemplation of the sacred and magical properties of letters and numbers. and the magic of the Egyptians became important in the development of Western ritual magic. both caused and cured illnesses.E. In addition. unpredictable one.160 magic Strange things happen. Jewish magic The early Jews were steeped in magical lore.. divination. and religious sources. necromancy. demons flying through the air and shooting arrows stirred up poisonous vapors that caused plagues and pestilence. divination. magical lore was attributed to the wisdom of King SOLOMON. The Egyptian Book of the Dead is a magical handbook of preparation for navigation through judgment into Amenti. Greek and Roman magic The Greek and Roman worlds teemed with magic. In Hellenistic times. According to Jewish lore. some incomprehensible. which allowed magical action at a distance. and TALISMANs. As adepts. The mummification of the dead was done according to precise ritual magic to ensure safe passage to the afterlife. Both Greeks and Romans practiced numerous forms of divination. often nonsensical. An exalted form of magic. the Greeks were especially interested in destiny and devoted great attention to the prophecy of oracles and to the fate forecast by the stars in a horoscope. and only theoretical knowl- . Especially important to Egyptian magic was the proper use of words and names of power. Cursing one’s competitors and enemies was routine in daily life. Pliny asserts that all magic originated in medicine. much of which was borrowed and adapted from the magical practices of the Canaanites. Individuals such as magicians thus are dangerous because they work in this uncertain world. does not forbid magic but warns of the dangers of it. It is strictly forbidden. and the dead. who fell from God’s grace when they departed heaven to cohabit with human women. they are themselves the agents of change and even chaos. There are several major streams of influence. evolving from a mixture of magical. A practical Kabbalah of magical procedures developed from about the 14th century on. chiefly the WATCHERS. The trance recitation of long incantations of names was similar to the Egyptians’ “barbarous names. The Hermetic principle that the microcosm reflects the macrocosm (“As above. Merkabah mystics performed elaborate rituals of purification. lord of the dead. the recitation of sacred names. such as enchantment. thus cures involved EXORCISMs. which had to be precisely pronounced along with the correct gestures. Egyptians. theurgia. Power was channeled from a host of sources: deities. especially lot casting and the examination of signs in nature. The liminal realm is considered to be a dangerous. The magical workings of the heavens.

philosophers. holy water. and pagan elements joined in syncretic mixtures. He described the Kabbalah as the “mathematics of human thought. and incantations that were more like prayers. magic was looked upon with disfavor. A considerable contribution to ritual magic was made by ALEISTER CROWLEY. Christian magic As did Judaism. and so forth • magical medical remedies The populace relied on the folk magic of local practitioners. a revival of interest in occultism and magic occurred. It was not originally intended to be a magical order. and if their spell casting or divination failed.” The individual is sovereign and responsible only to himself or herself. In the late 19th century. The early church fathers especially opposed divination. By the Middle Ages. as the practices of non-Christians that interfered with the new religion. The Golden Dawn was founded by Rosicrucians and Freemasons who were also familiar with the Eastern philosophy taught by the Theosophical Society. In general. they were persecuted. The proper use of will raises the individual to the highest purpose. From the 20th century on. Jews were renowned among Christians as magical adepts. but they were cast as miracles made possible by his divine nature. Any bad luck was liable to be blamed on the black magic or witchcraft of a rival or enemy. such as for healing. But the body of Christ. Mary. The church tolerated magic that was adequately Christianized. and placed importance on mystical names. such as herbal lore. Jesus performed magical acts. called by many names. and others. The rituals systematized by the Golden Dawn influenced much of the magical work that was yet to unfold. as did the name of Jesus and relics (body parts and possessions) of saints. The Book of the Law lays out the emergence of the New Aeon of Horus. Levi drew together the Kabbalah. and magic as the three occult sciences that lead to truth. The witch hysteria died in the advance of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. Everything springs from the Thelemic law. and others. Hermeticism. but was DEVIL worship. The occult revival and modern magic In the 19th century. magical fraternities and lodges rose in prominence. and wizards. Magical handbooks called grimoires circulated. but eventually its inner order taught and practiced the magical arts as well as rituals of high magic. Christian magic emphasized nature. for which Crowley was to be the chief prophet. who was already well versed in the subject by the time he was initiated into the Golden Dawn in 1898. Levi’s works were particularly influential and were translated into English by Arthur Edward Waite.magic 161 edge is permitted. A Western Kabbalah emerged that became the basis for Western ritual magic. Christian elements. held the greatest magic. Many possessed natural healing and psychic abilities and practiced homegrown magic passed down orally through generations. Papus (Gerard Encausse). such as cunning men. His most significant magical innovation is his Law of Thelema: “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law. Hermetic principles. and he was expelled two years later. Influences are fiction. In 1484. there have been cycles of revival of popular interest in magic. television (especially reality TV) and film. including demons (see CHORONZON). and angels for those of pagan deities and spirits. was practiced within certain limits. Manipulative “low” magic was forbidden. such as through the substitution of the names of Jesus. Christianity held paradoxical attitudes toward magic. The Inquisition capitalized on fear. wizards. Pope Innocent VIII declared witchcraft heretical. service to SATAN’s grand plan to subvert souls. Though many great scientists of the day were versed in alchemy and the principles of magic. Thousands of persons were executed. Crowley had numerous dealings with spirits. Witchcraft was not merely black magic. alchemists. centered in and spreading out from France through Eliphas Levi. which took one’s destiny out of the hands of God. not a selfi sh purpose. Those who choose to practice it become sorcerers in the thrall of FALLEN ANGELS. The Golden Dawn could not contain Crowley’s oversized personality. making the per- secution of any enemy of the church easy. doctors. A “witch craze” swept Europe and reached across the Atlantic to the American colonies. in which spells were imbued into knots and fabric • love magic and any other magic involving potions. the importance of the latter two declined. and the Eucharist. and magic is the “art and science of causing change to occur in conformity with Will. Medieval Europe was rife with magic of all sorts: folk practitioners. Gnostic and Neoplatonic lore. the growth of Wiccan and Pagan spiritual traditions (which emphasize . and students of oral transmission of mystical and esoteric knowledge. poppets. Folk magicians were often feared. It taught only theoretical magic in its outer order. an emissary of the god Horus. the use of the cross. teachers. These adepts were not professional magicians but were rabbis. The medieval church frowned upon magic of all sorts: • • • • divination of all kinds conjuration of spirits necromancy weaving and binding magic. the best known of which was the esoteric Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in England. but helpful magic. as represented by the Eucharist. The practical Kabbalah. witches. Magic is the knowledge of the secret laws and powers of nature and the universe.” which answers all questions through numbers.” The Thelemic law was dictated to an entranced Crowley in 1909 in Egypt by a spirit named Aiwass. cunning men and women.

such as the elements • Intermediate magic. Natural magic Natural magic is based on nature.” It involves communing with demons and evil spirits for material gain or harmful purpose. hair. Australian aborigines put sharp pebbles or ground glass in the footprints of enemies as sympathetic magic to weaken and destroy them. others involve the conjurations of spirits. 1971. Practitioners engage in a wide variety of magical activities. Types of Magic Though magic itself is neutral. According to tradition. shooting it and clubbing it until it is in pieces. The occultist Franz Bardon divided magic into three types: • Lower magic. Black magic is associated with sorcery and witchcraft. Wuppertal. black magic is accomplished with the aid of demonic entities. Some modern branches of ceremonial magic incorporate scientific principles and elements. good luck. 1991. though such distinctions are subjective. blessings.162 magic working with positive spirits for benevolent purposes). Franz. which attempts to identify the system or pattern behind seemingly random occurrences. and so forth. such as hair and nail clippings. also called high magic and ritual magic. which deals with the laws of human beings in the microcosm and how the microcosm can be influenced • Higher magic. The best items are from a person’s body. Germany: Dieter Ruggeberg. for example. also called practical magic. Flint. Manly P. a doll that substitutes for a person. and other entities. E. Personal possessions or any object handled by a person can be used. White magic can involve any form of magic when used for beneficence. The emphasis is on self-mastery and union with the godhead. Western Inner Workings. or personal objects of the victim to the doll. The connection is strengthened by attaching photographs. Whatever is done to the doll happens to the person. such as herbs. abundance. with folk magic. magic and bad. and to experience spirits and otherworldly beings. The initiate must develop inner plane contacts with gods. First published 1928. Folk magic blends other forms of magic. Butler. and so forth. Natural magic draws on the inherent magical properties of things. stones. or goetia. FURTHER READING: Bardon. Another term for it is goetic magic. Philters. Practitioners learn to access and travel in otherdimensional realities. attainment of goals and objectives. The Ojibwa use a straw effigy to drive evil spirits away from their communities.” White magic White magic is used for positive goals: healing. Levi said in The History of Magic. Composite magic is found in grimoires. Some are derived from folk magic and involve spell casting. or black magic. including the astral plane. N. Folk magic remedies and prescriptions are handed down in oral traditions and in small handbooks.: Princeton University Press. protection. luck. crystals. “Black Magic may be defined as the art of inducing artificial mania in ourselves and in others. such as chaos theory. smoke tobacco. The remains are burned. potions. . to harm or kill. but it is also above all the science of poisoning. healing. Christian and Jewish elements. often with mixed religious elements. If a member has a dream of disaster. Ceremonial magic Ceremonial magic. Composite magic has practical purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. They attack the straw ef- figy.J. Composite magic Composite magic. and even hexes and CURSES. M. The Secret Teachings of All Ages. powders. involves systems of spiritual development. 1949. Hall. angels. the commanding of the elements and the influences of planets and stars. Folk magic Folk magic comprises local traditions of simple magic for the purposes of casting spells for healing. Ritual Magic. A gift can be magically charged and enter into a home or place as a magical Trojan horse. Sympathetic magic Sympathetic magic is spell casting through associations that establish a sympathetic connection for the flow of power. Me. and ask for blessings. a straw man is erected that substitutes for the trouble. practitioners often distinguish between good. Princeton. Initiation into Hermetics: A Course of Instruction of Magic Theory and Practice.” Arthur Edward Waite termed black magic as the utterance of words and names of power for “unlawful purposes” and “the realm of delusion and nightmare. 1977. William G. Black magic Black magic is used for malevolent purposes. The Rise of Magic in Medieval Europe. some are paths of spiritual development. combined with folk magic incantations and CHARMs. Valerie I. J. One of the best-known sympathetic magic tools is the poppet. Los Angeles: Philosophic Research Society. which deals with the laws of nature and control of forces in nature. though phenomenal enough in its results. which deals with the universal laws of the macrocosm and how they can be controlled Other types of magic are known by their distinguishing characteristics. combines various religious influences. such as conjuring and spell casting for information. or white. and so forth. York Beach. and popular fascination with paranormal investigations of haunted places. The Christian Church associated all pagan and folk magic with “black magic. Anything can be used to establish a sympathetic connection. Gray.: Samuel Weiser. The people eat. ointments. are based on natural magic recipes. 1983.

It was. The White Spirit appeared frequently to the maid until May. the “maid. animalistic shapes. The maid fainted and was unconscious for several hours. St. the Black Spirit intensified his attacks on Magdalene. it began showing up as a monk. York Beach. A bag of coins mysteriously appeared in the barn. The spirit. and disembodied male voices that followed the maid. 1989. Bronislaw. The Black Spirit took various guises. Kraig. no matter what happened. her evil companion. N. Keith.: Doubleday Anchor Books. 1971. who lived in the tiny village of Orlach. a headless horse. would take Magdalene away to a place of safety when that happened. She could answer questions while entranced but could not remember anything when she awakened. the Black Spirit appeared as a horrible animal with its neck in the middle of its body. Magic. said the fires had been caused by an evil spirit. Her voice was no longer her own. she had been a 14-year-old girl who was sent against her will to a convent. Magdalene heard a child whimpering in the cottage house. “Flee from the house! Flee from the house! If it is not pulled down before the fifth of March of the coming year a misfortune will happen to you . Magdalene lay during the whole time with her head sunk towards her left side. From then on. She said that 400 years earlier. Garden City. Minn. 6th ed. The activity centered in the cowhouse and involved his daughter. where she had committed a sin she could not reveal. the White Spirit. The History of Magic. Magdalene fell under intensified attacks from the Black Spirit. A shadowy gray apparition of a woman appeared to Magdalene against a wall in the cow house. Levi. the White Spirit appeared and told the maid that the money must be given to the poor. Strange events began in February 1831 at the farm home of a Lutheran peasant named Grombach.: Llewellyn. . Religion and the Decline of Magic.Maid of Or lach P ossession 163 Hansen. which became known as the White Spirit. Donald Michael. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.” Then she always felt him tread on her left side. Luck. She said that the Black Spirit came upon her and then disappeared when the White Spirit arrived. Maid of Orlach Possession (1831) The most remarkable POSSESSION case from the files of the German mesmerist Justinus Kerner. Science and Religion. Magdalene should never answer him. a black cat. No one but she could see it. The left . Knight. The Golden Dawn. She lost consciousness and individuality. The fainting episodes happened again on the following days. The Black Spirit sometimes imitated the voices of neighbors in order to trick the girl into answering. approach and say. but that of the monk’s. The Maid of Orlach was a dairymaid over whom a White Spirit and a Black Spirit fought for control. 1996. Paul. A description of the manner of possession is as follows: In the midst of her work she would see the figure of a man clothed in a monk’s frock. and the Black Spirit said he put it there to compensate the maid for the box on the ear.Y. Paul. She told Magdalene that the house must be destroyed by March 5 the following year. 2004. New York: Scribners. After this. a house had to be destroyed to get rid of the possessing DEMON. St. Israel.: Llewellyn. It told her. to end her suffering. The account of the maid is in Kerner’s 1834 book Geschichten Besessener neurer Zeit (Histories of Modern Possession). Eliphas. Reprint. The spirits were those of a sinning nun and a murderous monk. Magdalene. the cows were affected and poltergeist phenomena occurred. Beginning on August 25. the White Spirit announced that she would not be able to visit for some time. but that she had protected the family. Wurtemberg. Germany. 2001. On August 21. and their tails were braided. These developments finally prompted Magdalene’s father to begin tearing down the house. On August 23.” First. who was able to take over her body and speak through her mouth. the White Spirit said she would protect Magdalene from harm but urged her to proceed with demolishing the family’s house. In the end. Malinowski. which seemed to be made from black mist. 1860. seize her with five cold fingers at the back of the neck and then enter her body. The Practice of Ritual Magic. Then. he appeared in various monstrous. Georg. The Trickster and the Paranormal. promising her money and threatening her with torture. Then. dogs. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds. but none could be seen. Me. mocking her. Regardie.: Samuel Weiser. when she refused to answer his questions: “Now I will enter thy body in spite of thee. Magdalene one day received a sharp blow to one of her ears that sent her cap flying. but that she. Thomas. New York: Xlibris. It read Magdalene’s thoughts and accurately predicted future events. It also spoke in religious language and prayed the 112th Psalm. Soon. Albuquerque: Sun Chalice Books. Gareth. He appeared as a bear on July 15 and threatened to plague her if she would not answer him. 2nd ed. From February 8 through February 11. The speeches which she uttered when in this state were worthy of a demon. mysterious fires broke out in the cow house. Modern Magick: Eleven Lessons in the High Magickal Arts. promise me that you will do it!” The girl agreed. and Magdalene would be persecuted by the Black Spirit. George. but she held fast in her silence to him. such as frogs. In May. Grombach kept watch but caught no visible person in the act. 1948. tempting her with questions. and her eyes firmly closed. . 2001. The cows would be mysteriously tied to new spots. The spirit said that the Black Spirit would take complete possession of her. Minn. 1985. if the eyelids were raised the pupils would be discovered upwards.

a phantom black dog appeared and spit fire. The parents prayed all night. He said there is a reckoning after death. TRAUGOTT KONSTANTIN OESTERREICH stated of these occurrences: He (the possessing spirit) speaks of her. Bible. Eight-year-old Loyse Maillat was the daughter of Claude and Humberte Maillat. For her young age. If a Bible was placed nearby. Françoise Secretain. the Redeemer. Kerner recommended prayer and a sparse diet. from then on. and he must appear at the judgment seat a second time after he departed the maid. FURTHER READING: Oesterreich. and after a period of praying. On March 4. T. The last wall of the Gromlach cottage was destroyed at 11:30 on the morning of March 5. But upon awakening. he had murdered her. Stead. presumably the way she perceived the protection of the White Spirit. church. and.” Magdalene’s head would move from side to side while the Black Spirit was in her and then flop to the right when it left. and Griffon identified themselves. She foamed at the mouth and had seizures. Secaucus. including murders. N. Four of them were red as fire. making himself at home. Loyse suddenly lost the use of her arms and legs and had to move about on all fours with her mouth twisted in a strange way. On June 5. The maid was taken to a neighbor’s house. Loyse’s condition was worse. The Black Spirit left Magdalene in an astounding transformation back to radiant health. In the morning. She confessed her sins: She had been seduced by the monk who was now the Black Spirit and had lived with him. Magdalene was taken to doctors. . Magdalene remembered nothing from the attacks. that it was “exactly as if a stronger man drove the owner from his house and looked out of the window at his ease. The cloth sparkled and then exhibited holes that matched a palm print. Maillat pointed to a woman. who touched it with a handkerchief.Y. Possession and Exorcism. Loyse said that two of the demons were dead. . Her parents backed up her account. Her transformation of personality was so marked. she could walk normally and felt nothing wrong with either foot. presided over by one of the most ruthless judges and witch hunters. where the Black Spirit took possession. 1970.”. Perche. including Boguet. but it is he who is there. He confessed all of his crimes. When the condition did not clear up. Henri Boguet. DELIVERANCE occurred when the Black Spirit prayed during the night of March 4 and for the first time could say the words JESUS. Old bones were found in the debris of the house. and the devils emerged from her mouth in the form of fist-size balls. The White Spirit reached her hand toward the maid. and Cat was black. and all the saints. Magdalene did not respond to those. Five DEMONs called Wolf. how and why Loyse came to be possessed. She fell to the ground. he knows quite well that she is alive.164 Maillat Possession foot constantly moved up and down upon the ground throughout the attack. whom he never calls anything except “the sow. who was among those in attendance. Finally Grombach took her to see Kerner. Asked by the priest who caused her problem. but none helped her. except a faint memory of having attended church. who people assumed were the victims of the monk. Secretain. The demons danced three or four times around the fire and departed. Jolly. Loyse and her parents told judges. but he pretends that she is not there. Three issued forth with great violence. Loyse was quite convincing in her testimony.: University Books. a young French DEMONIAC whose story of POSSESSION led to a mass witch hunt in the Burgundy region of France. during which the girl ate no food. N. A huge crowd gathered Maillat Possession (1598) Case of Loyse Maillat. Dog. and crowds would gather to watch her when she was possessed. During these fits the spirit of darkness now utters through her words worthy of a mad demon. including those of children. He tried magnetic passes two or three times. said Oesterreich. Word spread about the girl’s afflictions. to deliver her from the demons. Her left foot always went cold during the attacks. her parents assumed her to be possessed and took her on June 19 to the Church of Our Savior for EXORCISM. While the spirit spoke. She was never troubled again. W. Hyde Park. either. Back home. the White Spirit appeared to the maid at six in the morning. Traugott K. which gave accurate answers. but Kerner was confident the matter would resolve itself according to the White Spirit’s promise of a cure by March 5. and heaven. the Black Spirit hissed like a SERPENT and tried to spit on it. 1598. but the Black Spirit immediately neutralized them with countermovements of the girl’s hands. 1966. Cat.J: University Books. Borderland: A Casebook of True Supernatural Stories. a poor woman . things which have no place in this true-hearted maid. the day before the White Spirit’s deadline. and he pours out abuse and calumnies against the girl herself. which frequently lasted four or five hours. and the two that Loyse had said were dead emerged with less force. who said she had a natural illness and prescribed pills or medications. curses upon the Holy Scriptures. They complied. Loyse asked her parents to pray for her. and the others would follow if they kept praying. Loyse’s health improved. while her right foot stayed warm. When she tried to reveal his wickedness. The White Spirit said she was now freed from earthly concerns and said farewell. The demons did not depart. to witness this and to question the demon. who lived in the village of Coyrières.

London: John Rodker. had gone to the Maillat home on June 4 asking for lodging. thus enabling Boguet to launch a mass witch hunt. Maillot thought this to be the perfect deal: love in exchange for piety that he should practice anyway. 1974. . observe all holy days. and be a good Christian. The German was elated. The case. • She danced at the sabbats and beat water to cause hail. He complied and declined the pact. Maillot fell in love with a girl of high nobility. according to prevailing belief. fast twice a week. Nicholas. Henri. wrongdoing. and was killed instantly. He was the son of a tradesman and had no wealth. the child was possessed. Boguet commented that God allowed such innocents to become possessed in order for his works and justice to shine more gloriously. Maillot. pray daily. “led to the discovery of countless witches who have been punished as the gravity of their crimes deserved. She and many of the accused were sent to the stake to be burned alive. Sometimes. Maillot. • She had for a long time served the DEVIL. Maillot heard about a German fellow servant who had the services of a DEMON and sought out his help. The account of Thomas Maillot is related in Remy’s book Demonolatry (1595) and is retold by the demonologist FRANCESCO-MARIA GUAZZO in Compendium Maleficarum (1608). A priest Maillot knew sensed his trouble and inquired about his visible distress. She traveled to them through the air on a white staff she placed between her legs. later in life became governor of a province in Lorraine. In his book Discours des Sorciers (An Examen of Witches). Remy swore that the story was true and that it was confirmed to him by Maillot himself. Loys Monneret. and vices. he was in need of a victim. he said. For Boguet. But the more he thought about it. and near Coyrières. Boguet observed that she shed no tears. Makhlath In Jewish demonology. who presumably gave up his love for the noble girl. blasphemy. had murdered a woman. For days. lust. He should practice devotion. Demonolatry. At first. Maillot was given a few days to consider this offer and make his answer. She was stripped naked and shaved of body hair to search for a DEVIL’S MARK. a beautiful and seductive young woman (the demon in disguise) met him and promised to deliver the marriage he desired in exchange for some promises. which Boguet said later was “defective. but none was found. She prayed incessantly with a rosary. In youth. he was in the form of a dog. for part of his pact with the demon was to recruit someone to take over his demonic debt or have his neck broken. When the inquisitors started to cut off the hair from her head. St. she broke down and began confessing. Thomas (16th century) French official who resisted entering into a PACT with the DEVIL in order to procure love. and she refused at first. Secaucus. Demons were known to trick people in order to claim their souls. according to the French demonologist NICHOLAS REMY. having failed to find a substitute for his debt to the demon. drunkenness. he cites a long list of supporting cases in which people sent demons into others. or Secretain would kill her and eat her. He told Maillot to meet him at twilight the next day in a secret chamber. The next day. a man named Groz-Jacques Boquet. Secretain gave Loyse a crust of bread the color of dung and told her to eat it. Secretain named others. near the water. If he would bind himself by oath to this. but Loyse persuaded her to change her mind.” and thus usable by a witch. let alone winning her hand in marriage. Maillot told him and was persuaded by the priest to drop all communication and dealings with the demon. • She and an accomplice.Makhlath 165 of good repute. fell off his horse. Shortly thereafter. God sent “evil angels” among people to punish them. who appeared to her in the form of a black man. by making her eat a piece of bread dusted with a powder given to them by the Devil. The requirements sounded innocent and pious on the surface: Maillot should avoid all thieving. For all practical purposes. she added to her confessions as the pressure continued. Loyse and her two sisters sat by the fi re. far above his social station. An Examen of Witches: Discours Excrable des Sourciers.J. N. His semen was very cold. he had no hope of even declaring his love for her. thus experiencing the consequences of his failure. Humberte was alone. In Psalm 78. FURTHER READING: Remy.” FURTHER READING: Boguet. hit his head.: University Books. Makhlath (dancer) and her daughter. Humberte went out to tend to their cattle. the more he doubted the reliability of a demon. a powerful female DEMON. then he would win the noble girl as a bride. the German. a certain sign of witches. Even God and St. help the poor. After Secretain was admitted. Paul had done this. a cat. • She had copulated with the Devil four or five times. • She had caused several cows to die by touching them with her hand or a wand and uttering certain words. the Maillat case served his purpose to demonstrate that witches had the ability to send demons into the bodies of victims. the demon said. AGRATH. • She had attended SABBATs countless times at a place called Combes. Secretain was imprisoned and for three days vehemently maintained her innocence. When Maillot arrived. Her seven principal confessions were the following: • She had sent five devils into Loyse Maillat. 1929. or a fowl. and not speak of it to anyone. He had her tortured. Paul sent SATAN into several heretics.

instilling hatred. While they quarrel. The existence of witches and their maleficia is treated as unassailable fact. with “the permission of Almighty God. In 1500. Zamor. and St. Aspeil. to prosecute witches throughout northern Germany. Amiel. Agor. also known as Institoris. and he may have allowed Kramer to use his name in Kramer’s virulent antiwitch treatise. the prayers of Israel are able to rise to heaven. Cubi. Malleus Maleficarum (Witch Hammer) The most influential and important witch hunter’s guide of the Inquisition. the Malleus Maleficarum was translated into dozens of editions throughout Europe and England and was the leading reference for witch trials on the Continent for about 200 years. Borasy. his colleagues attempted to distance his legacy from Kramer. there were more than 30 editions. though historians now believe that it was written by Kramer. Part 1 concerns how the Devil and his witches. the most damaging book of its kind during the Inquisition. Doiel. characteristics. The papal edict was intended to quell Protestant opposition to the Inquisition and to solidify the case made in 1258 by Pope Alexander IV for the prosecution of witches as heretics. Authorship The Malleus Maleficarum is credited to the authorship of two Dominican inquisitors. and wild stories of SABBATs and other abominations are presented as truth. Thomas Aquinas as support. Particular emphasis is given to Devil’s PACTs. along with their own servants. obstructing or destroying fertility. to doubt witchcraft is heresy. He remained an inquisitor. the civil courts. He sought to establish a direct connection between women and diabolic witchcraft. He did praise the saintliness of certain holy women who were able to resist the lustful temptations indulged in by witches. Opriel. Some historians also think that Kramer was reacting to broader sentiments of the time that were responses to the influences of holy women and mystics such as St. Makhlath commands 478 hosts of evil spirits. OMON. Kramer. . a key to proving heresy. He was pursuing witches and heretics in Bohemia at the time of his death. By the end of the 17th century. Raboc. The book became the definitive guide by which inquisitors and judges conducted themselves and that subsequent writers used as a foundation for their own works. St. He had some association with Kramer in trials of accused witches. Kramer’s treatise was absorbed into the Malleus Maleficarum. Part 2 describes how witches cast spells and bewitchments and do their evil and how these actions can be prevented or remedied. Caron. Malgaras DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLMalgaras rules in the west and has dozens of dukes serving him both day and night. and causing the metamorphosis. Most of the stories are from the inquisitions conducted by Sprenger and Kramer and from material of other ecclesiastical witchcraft writers. and behavior of DEMONs and the DEVIL. the Devil would have unlimited power and destroy the world. in his view. Fourteen editions were published by 1520. admission of evidence. Relations between Kramer and Sprenger became strained. 1484. Little is known about Kramer’s activities after publication of the Malleus in 1487 until his death in 1505. including succubi and incubi. She and Agrath meet Lilith and battle on the Day of Atonement. It maintains that because God acknowledged witches. written by 1485. Deilas. God permits these acts. His 12 major dukes of the nighttime are Aros. and punishing accused witches and details the nature. It was adopted by both Protestant and Catholic civil and ecclesiastical judges. Part 3 sets forth the legal procedures for trying witches. of human beings into beasts. Sprenger was a distinguished friar. Published first in Germany in 1487. Both Kramer and Sprenger were prolific writers. Pope Alexander VI appointed him papal nuncio and inquisitor of Bohemia and Moravia. The book is divided into three parts and organized as questions answered by opposing arguments. Aspara. and Basiel. trying. Apologia auctoris in Malleus Maleficarum. Meliel. Masiel. He was violently op- posed to witchcraft and seemed also to harbor hatred against women. evidence surfaced that Kramer may have fabricated one of the official letters authorizing the work. His servants are courteous and appear in pairs. Liblel. Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger. The book gives instructions for interrogating. including the taking of testimony. Rabiel. another 16 editions appeared by 1669.166 Malgaras are in constant warfare with LILITH. Catherine of Siena. Kramer and Sprenger were empowered by Pope Innocent VIII in his bull of December 9. Contents The Malleus is based on the biblical pronouncement “Thou shall not suffer a witch to live” (Exodus 22:18) and draws on Scripture and the works of Aristotle. Barfas. rose to power as an inquisitor and was known to have framed some of his victims. After Sprenger died in 1496. Cabiel. His 12 major servants of the daytime are Camiel. or shape shifting. After its publication. a powerful figure consulted by royalty and heads of state. Casiet. whom he viewed as inherently weak and evil. otherwise. It has been described in the centuries since as a vicious and cruel work. The book was important in the way it linked witchcraft to heresy. It was second only to the Bible in sales until John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress was published in 1678. and Arois. Augustine. were not punishing enough witches solely on the basis of their evildoing. It was the opinion of the church that the secular arm. by far the more zealous of the two and one of the most zealous participants in the entire Inquisition. Udiel.” perpetrate a variety of evils upon men and animals. the latinized version of his name.

the text argues. She found it difficult to pray or attend church. Her mother. Jacquelin Germain. FURTHER READING: Herzig. who was inspired by her. and can converse with their owners. Some questions are not answered clearly and contradictions abound. When she went home. In 1614. who said that her problem started after she indulged in a “lascivious and sacrilegious dance” with a young man in a cemetery on a feast day. France. “Witches. she was living with a female tutor when the symptoms of demonic possession manifested. Mammon is equated with LUCIFER. In 1609. through witches. For example. The Malleus allows for light sentences of penance and imprisonment in certain cases but urges execution of as many witches as possible. After three years of unrest and near-sleepless nights. the cause of her possession was a witch’s CURSE. Judges are permitted to lie to the accused. and BEELZEBUB. with fire spewing from his mouth. Regardless. avarice. is all done in the best interest of society and the state. He appears first as a lion but will change into a man. witches cast spells over judges with the glance of an eye. to seek his advice. and she wandered for two years living with different people. at another. Judges are instructed to allow hostile witnesses because everyone hates witches. He will bring deceivers together quickly. died when she was 12. A young man proposed to her and she turned him down. He can change men into different shapes. The abuse forced her to leave home. mandragoras can predict the future by nodding their head. He knows about hidden and secret things. Marbas (Barbas) FALLEN ANGEL and fifth of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON.200 years.” From then on. He sought the help of a witch to force her to love him. the bishop of Coutances. when commanded. At one point. the authors say that the Devil. Most of the instructions on sentencing pertain to death. whose lifelong struggle with POSSESSION led to her cult recognition as a local mystic. Saints and Heretics. Julien.” He embodies the second of the SEVEN DEADLY SINS. Marie was in the grip of DEMONs.Marie desVallees 167 methods of interrogation and torture. that are inhabited by the DEVIL and used in spell-casting. The name Mammon in Aramaic means “riches. then says only the wicked are vulnerable. He imparts wisdom and knowledge of the mechanical arts. He is a strong fighter. He skillfully builds houses and high towers and brings down the temples and towers of enemies. He will receive a sacrifice kindly but then deceive the one who offers it. Jean Eudes. promising them mercy if they confess. Marbas is a president in HELL who . and accomplishments of anyone’s enemies. According to Marie. and protection of homes against evil. who beat Marie with a stick. They bestow good health. mandragora DEMON who appears in the shape of a little man with no beard and thin hair. Marchosias is a marquis ruling 30 LEGIONs of DEMONs. 24–55. Another version of the possession cause was publicized by one of Marie’s critics. This. judges are said to be immune to the bewitchments of witches. Soon after. Marie des Vallees was possessed for 44 of her 66 years and was called the Saint of Coutances. married a butcher. mainly afflicts good and just people. Summer 2006. The witch. Mandragoras also are small poppets. and she felt lustful stirrings within her. The demons Malphas (Malpas) FALLEN ANGEL and 39th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. He serves as hell’s ambassador to England. Her father. her problems increased. Mammon FALLEN ANGEL who rules in HELL as an archdemon and prince of tempters. Tamar. Malphas gives good FAMILIAR s. He appears as a cruel she-wolf with griffin wings and a serpent’s tail. rules 36 legions of DEMONs. Marie was born to a peasant family in Saint-SauveurLandelin in the diocese of Coutances in Lower Normandy. The bishop tried for three years to exorcise the demons but failed. Malpas commands 40 legions of DEMONs. thoughts.” Magic. The Malleus Maleficarum was refuted by JOHANN WEYER. Marie never disclosed the name of the young man but said that he left the parish permanently. she fell down and uttered “terrible cries. he pushed against her while they were in a procession for the feast of St. and judges are admonished to protect themselves with salt and sacraments. Malphas is a powerful president in HELL who appears first as a crow and then. to undergo EXORCISMs by the archbishop and several doctors. Torture is to be applied if the accused do not confess voluntarily. He will take a human form if commanded to do so. He faithfully serves the magician and gives true answers to all questions. and Witchcraft. Marie went to Rouen. The Malleus Maleficarum of Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger. According to lore. as a human who speaks in a hoarse voice. a tactic readily employed by Kramer. Doctors could not help her. 1971. and guidelines for sentencing. SATAN.” was later burned at the stake on unrelated charges of WITCHCRAFT. Once a member of the angelic order of dominions. or dolls. her adopted family took her to Bishop Briroy. once Marie was afflicted. New York: Dover. He destroys the desires. Mercouf. Ritual. Marchosias holds the futile hope that he will return to the Seventh Throne in Heaven after 1. who shared details of her life with St. curing of disease. Marie des Vallees (1590–1656) French girl of Coutances. He causes and cures diseases. Marchosias FALLEN ANGEL and 35th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. known as “La Grivelle.

Demonic Possession and Exorcism in Early Modern France. He also participated in several exorcisms and became an expert on possession. In 1655. written in the same period. He is buried in Gate of Heaven Cemetery. She calls at the home of her uncle and aunt for shelter. the nobleman denounced Marie as a witch. Mary lives in the land of Gelders. Malachi Martin. She tried to commit suicide by stabbing herself with a knife but said that God stopped her by stiffening her arm. a local church tribunal declared that she had been fooled by the Devil and had entered into a PACT with him. He went to live in Paris and then New York City. in Hawthorne. Marie’s possession left her. Ireland. he wrote more than 60 religious books. She was “matroned. he studied at Oxford in England and at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He continued as a lay priest and did not wear a collar in public. In 1990. Martin published a nonfiction book. was also professor at the Pontifical Biblical Institute of the Vatican. Marie was held in prison for six months. Key of This Blood. It was believed that witches had intercourse with demons and the DEVIL. gained popular fame with book about POSSESSION and EXORCISM. According to the story. she was able to take communion. she would not be a virgin. Windswept House.168 Martin. She was shaved and searched for a DEVIL’S MARK by being pricked with needles. but Martin declined. Sarah. she is caught by encroaching darkness and does not have enough time to return home before nightfall. New York. but she stands in stark contrast to the equally weak but doomed male counterpart in the Christopher Marlowe drama Dr. 1921. The aunt Martin. 2004. such as revulsion toward holy objects and the inability to take communion. His book acquainted the general public with the signs and stages of possession. county Kerry. but not chastity. Malachi Brendan (1921–1999) Catholic theologian and EXORCIST. The triumph of Mary is a female version of FAUST. In 1964. Malachi Br endan promised to leave at a certain time but did not. Marie displayed common signs of possession. She died in 1656. In addition. where he lived with a wealthy Greek-American family by the name of Livanos. She enjoyed great patronage but also was controversial and was severely criticized. His funeral wake took place in St. New Jersey. and so if she were indeed a witch. He believed that forces of evil are at work in the world. Outraged at this accusation. When asked why. Marie passed the virginity test and was released. in which he referred to diabolic rites and activities in the Vatican. At the time of his death. She operated outside the church. The identity of the author is uncertain. More on papal satanic forces was included in his 1996 novel. He was educated at Belvedere College in Dublin and became a Jesuit novice in 1939. From 1617 to 1619 she said she descended into a state of HELL during which she suffered all the tortures inflicted upon witches. he was working on a book about the Vatican’s involvement in the New World Order. Martin was an occasional guest on Art Bell’s Coast to Coast AM radio show. For the first time in 30 years. Martin was gravely concerned about corruption within the church. 1954. He . In 1651. Hostage to the Devil (1976). while shopping in Nemmegen. FURTHER READING: Ferber. they said that a local gentleman was using witchcraft to prevent them from leaving. The pope later made a comment that “the smoke of Satan has entered the Sanctuary. and later in Johann Goethe’s Faust.” a test for virginity. She turned the situation to her advantage by expressing compassion for witches and desiring to take on the punishments for all their crimes. Mary of Nemmegen was published at the beginning of the 16th century in Antwerp. but is believed to be Ann Binns or Byns. Marie never expressed a desire to be free of demons and used her possession to advance herself as a saintly person. During the 1990s. She wore a pigskin shirt with bristles and a horsehair ceinture and fasted. Martin was ordained a Jesuit priest on August 15. In the late 1970s. In all.” Martin said the ceremony had actually occurred prior to the election of Pope Paul VI. He studied theology at the University of Louvain in Belgium and earned a doctoral degree there. the New York City serial killer David Berkowitz (“son of Sam”) invited Martin to write his autobiography. Mary of Nemmegen A 16th-century fictional tale of a woman’s seduction by the DEVIL and her ultimate redemption and triumph over him. a former Jesuit. London: Routledge. including fiction. He received a bachelor’s degree in Semitic languages and Oriental history from the National University of Ireland and studied Assyriology at Trinity College Dublin. Anthony of Padua Roman Catholic Chapel of West Orange. and served the Holy See in Rome from 1958 to 1964. manifesting in possession and in satanic child abuse. and she was arrested. She said that witches gathered around her and accused her of sins she did not commit and added to her suffering.” Martin is best known for Hostage to the Devil. Martin pursued a literary career. Pope Paul VI released Martin from his vows of poverty and obedience. Faustus. 1999. Martin died at age 78 on July 27. One day. Martin was born on July 23. which describes a BLACK MASS ritual called “The Enthronement of the Fallen Archangel Lucifer. The story appeared at a time when women were seen as weak vessels easily used by demonic forces. and ordered him to report directly to the pope or one of his designates. after a second stroke and fall in his apartment in Manhattan. and the manner in which formal exorcisms are undertaken. in Ballylongford.

petitions God for justice. Mastema also aids the Egyptians in opposition to Moses and tries to kill him. Masscheroen See PROCESSUS SATHANE. she confesses only to her material sins and not to the desire to have learning and knowledge. is doomed to HELL beyond all hope once he makes his pact and falls into sin. she must give up her name. After seven years of a dissipated lifestyle. They live either on mountaintops or in the bowels of the earth. Faust. maskim Seven Sumerian DEMONs who are great princes of HELL or princes of the abyss. Vessur. and destruction. Assuel. He helps the pharaoh’s magicians compete with Moses and . but the Devil dissuades her from this. because “for one Mary [the Blessed Virgin] I and all my fellowship fare the worse. and Salvor. showing that God has indeed forgiven her. even killing each other in their rivalries. 1979. and MEPHISTOPHELES are among the maskim. She asks also to be taught magic and spell casting so that she can raise spirits. Mary. the Blessed Virgin Mary. Noguiel. The Devil answers her call. Saemiet. Isaac. Mastema (Mastemah. loaded with heavy parcels. In 10 references in Qumran texts. The Virgin Mary intervenes and makes a compassionate appeal to God for mercy. Maras. She takes up with the Devil. “There is nobody lost without the fall in despair. He introduces himself to Mary as a “man of many sciences. After two years. According to lore. Interestingly. His origins are not explained. considered to be among the most powerful of all. Maseriel’s 12 major daytime dukes are Mahue.” If she will promise to be his paramour. Mary agrees. is in despair.” its use in two references in the Old Testament (Hosea 9:7–8). Emmekyn enjoys it all. She becomes known as Emmekyn. He also is described as existing between the Prince of Light and the Angel of Darkness and ruling the children of falsehood. Atniel. Zeriel. adversity. as well as shower her with gifts of gold and silver and love her above all women. He appears in the guise of an ugly. They arrive on the day of a traditional procession and pageant for the Blessed Virgin. She cries out that she cares not whether God or the Devil will help her. England: Bear Book/The Compton Press. the rings miraculously fall away. in a fit of temper influenced by the Devil. Patiel. and they go to different cities. one-eyed young man. and Espoel. Mary wins the case. Ellet. In Jubilees. Azimel. Earviel.” She then has an audience with the pope to seek absolution. Mastema urges God to test Abraham with the sacrifice of his son. God acknowledges that he may be right. the advocate for the Devil. Woman and the Devil in Sixteenth-Century Literature. Bachile. They do not like humans and attack them with the most severe evil and spells. he will teach her all his knowledge. self-administers punishment for turning her niece away and cuts her own throat and dies. Amoyr. to whom she makes confession. He says that God has become too lenient. including her uncle. they are “strangers to benevolence. In a Dutch dramatic version of the story. Tisbury. Mastema is the only angel named and is equated with the Angel of Hostility. He leads the children of righteousness astray. He tells her.Mastema 169 refuses to let her in. Masscheroen. the accuser. but she never loses her connection to her namesake. a priest. they take no wives and have no children. Roriel. The sight of it causes Emmekyn to repent. whose purpose is to destroy. on the other hand. arguing that the sinfulness of humankind should be judged the same as that of the FALLEN ANGELs. Maseriel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Chasor. hoping to break her neck.” he tells her. Atriel. Maskim means “ensnarer” or “layers of ambush. Earos. But God does not allow it. As a SATAN. Emmekyn grows bored and persuades the Devil to leave Antwerp and return to Nemmegen. The maskim have the power to affect the earth and the cosmic order. and people have become increasingly wicked. The Devil carries her high up into the air and casts her down. Aliel. He has a great number of servants both day and night. Maseriel serves CASPIEL and rules in the west. The proper name Mastema has the same root as the Hebrew noun that means “hostility. though he is equated with SATAN and is the prince of evil beings who menace and harass humankind. Rabiel. Sumerian descriptions of the maskim say they are neither male nor female. Mastema is equated with BELIAL. and Masscheroen claims the right for the Devil to act as God’s avenger. Mastema once was the Angel of the Lord who delivered the punishments of the Lord and became demonized. and men vie for her favor. The Devil cannot embody perfection but must be defective in some way.” Azza. The pope gives her a heavy penance: She must wear three iron rings around her neck and arms. effectively making a PACT with the Devil. Mary of Nemeggen shows that no matter how far one falls from grace. AZAZEL. Baros. there is always the hope of redemp- tion and God’s forgiveness. Emmekyn falls into the street before many people. FURTHER READING: De Bruyn. Lucy. Meanwhile. the aunt. Emmekyn dazzles people with the knowledge she has been given. a prince of DEMONs and injustice. Mansemat) ANGEL of evil. hostility. each of whom has 30 servants. They can cause earthquakes and alter the courses of the stars in the sky.” and they pay no attention to prayers or wishes. an inset of the PROCESSUS SATHANE play is added. including Antwerp. In addition. The 12 major nighttime dukes are Arach.

Orders of Demons Menghi was influenced by the works of MICHAEL PSELLUS and envisioned a hierarchy of demons according to functions. They are cruel and enjoy tormenting people. evil spirits who injure. the Devil was not the principle of evil itself. One subclass includes the night terrors such as LILITH and her hordes. and in Warren. McKenna has retired from performing exorcisms. Girolamo (1529–1609) Franciscan friar and leading EXORCIST of the Italian Renaissance. FURTHER READING: Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Demonic Pacts Menghi wrote extensively on demonic pacts made by witches. The mazziqin are divided into two classes. Mich. Last and most deadly are the Lucifogo. The second order is that of demons of the air (Aerea). Grand Rapids. cause earthquakes. The second class is the SHEDIM. featured in the book Satan’s Harvest (1990). God gave him one-tenth of the fallen ones to be under his command. Edited by Karel van der Toorn. idolatry. The second class are half-spirit and half-human hybrids. Demons can dominate matter through possession and can appear in human form. Six chiefs dukes are Larmol. They push people to be conceited and vain. and Pieter W. Massachusetts. Menadiel has 20 dukes and 100 companions under his command. He has said that many officials in the church do not wish to believe that the DEVIL exists. know their weaknesses. His books were immediately successful. The third order is that of earth demons (Terreo). in much the same way that angels were arranged in hierarchies. whatever they consume dissolves into its preexisting matter. Nedriel. Bishop Robert McKenna has performed EXORCISMs. JOHN ZAFFIS. Menghi considered the battle against demons to be extremely important. the most famous of which were on DEMONs and exorcism: Flagellum daemonum (The Devil’s Scourge). Menadiel DEMON and wandering duke of the air. One class comprises FALLEN ANGELs who are led by SATAN. However. and habits. Eerdmans. Clamor. even in the guise of beautiful men and women and saints. and Tharson. if they do believe. McKenna. and know their future actions. Remedia probatissima in lamignos spiritus expellendos (1579). The Devil and demons were created as beings superior to humans. spheres of activity. 2nd ed. Italy. who live in the air nearest to humans. Charsiel. or. One legend holds that Mastema asked God to give him some demons so that he might have power over humankind. who inhabit the air near the Sun. He has worked with ED AND LORRAINE WARREN. The witches had sex with demonic mazziqin In Jewish lore. the first order of demons are the “fiery ones” (Leliureon). Menghi was born in 1529 in Viadana. who live in lakes. At age 20. but they do not digest any of it. seas. Benodiel. revelation. 1999. An excellent scholar and writer. and Fustis daemonum (Club against demons). who are dark and mysterious and avoid light. van der Horst. where they like to cause storms and sink ships. Drasiel. Baruch. with perfect intellect. Amasiel. The six lesser dukes are Barchiel. especially Compendio and Flagellum. and nature. He became famous as a preacher and was named superior of a Franciscan province in 1598. he authored numerous theological books. and other lay demonologists. Compendio dell’arte essorcistica. including at the haunted house known as the SMURL HAUNTING in Pennsylvania. Connecticut. The worst and most dangerous demons are in the fourth through sixth orders. They will eat and drink as humans. 1576. memory. The fourth order is that of water demons (Acquatile or Marino). Curasin. and will. and throw stones. he entered the Franciscan order of the Frati dell’Osservanza in Bologna. The demons must be summoned according to planetary hours. The Aerea are vain and constantly compare themselves to God. McKenna was ordained a priest in 1958 and a bishop in 1986. the offspring of Lilith or a SUCCUBUS and men. 1584. Menghi. The lowest types of demons are elflike demons (l’infimo choro) who appear at night to play tricks to harm people and the incubi and succubi who tempt people into sexual activities. According to Menghi. Bob Becking. they cannot force humans into sin but only tempt and persuade them to make sinful choices. Bishop Robert (1927– ) Dominican bishop at Our Lady of the Rosary Chapel in Monroe. and pollution. divided into two subclasses. who torment miners. plus many other servants.: William B. They engage in sexual intercourse with humans and are capable of producing children from such unions. All of these demons are harmful but not malevolent. or LAMIAE. destabilize the world. His demons lead the sons of Noah astray to commit sin. Mantua. and rivers. However. they do not want to become involved with him. 1576. They will kill people in cold blood and should be avoided at all costs. . Girolamo Menghi wrote extensively on demonology and EXORCISM prior to the codification of exorcism rites in Pope Paul V’s RITUALE ROMANUM in 1614. They are able to see into humans. The Sotteranei disguise themselves as servants of magicians and sorcerers (see FAMILIAR). Characteristics of Demons Menghi supported the view that the DEVIL was originally created good and chose evil.170 mazziqin Aaron. who tempt people to immorality and put filthy thoughts into their heads. where he studied theology. The fifth order includes subterranean demons (Sotterranei). and Samyel. Demons are clever and crafty and know the truth of all things by experience.

Menghi said it is best to perform exorcisms in a sacred place. Me. the other and fairer appearance is as of a little man with a black cape and a bald head. The origin of the name Mephistophiles is uncertain. 2002. In some accounts. The witches killed and ate babies. they put on great shows of magical tricks. if the demons have thoroughly contaminated everything in it.” The demon also manifests as an invisible ringing bell. Dr Fausts Hollenzwang describes “Mephistophiel” as one of the seven great princes of HELL. restless.” Even the most holy persons could become possessed. Mephistopheles. Mephostophiles) DEMON and representative of the DEVIL who is a principal figure in the legend of FAUST. The case was the basis for a film. after the acts of Jesus. Michel. his regent is named Zadkiel. He is usually described as a tall man wearing black clothing. disguised as a ram. The Devil’s Scourge: Exorcism during the Italian Renaissance. They must have great purity of heart and be morally sound. especially those who were unbaptized. malicious. who serves the lusts and desires of Faust. or “stinkers. who performed exorcisms before crowds. who bargains his soul to the Devil. . York Beach. FURTHER READING: Menghi. The chapbooks inspired Christopher Marlowe’s play The Tragic History of Doctor Faustus and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s drama Faust. The Exorcism of Emily Rose (2005). Anneliese 171 incubi and succubi and swore fidelity to the Devil. Sometimes it may be necessary for a demoniac to abandon his or her house. The chapbook tells the story of Dr. Mephistophiles is invisible to others but can be seen by Faust in various shape-shifted guises. Anything touched by a DEMONIAC must be blessed. Mephistophilus. and before an audience. stormy.” “Mephistophiles” appears in 1527 in a Renaissance magical text. Demonic Possession and Exorcism Menghi called possession victims fetoni. and had to be carried out with great pity. Great care should be taken in the use of saints’ relics and crucifixes. Johann Georg Faust. They caused abortions and killed with the EVIL EYE. Exorcisms were essential to the mission of the church. . Exorcists must be aware of their own unworthiness and have great humility. who described him as “a mysterious kind of demon. first published in 1587 by an anonymous author. Praxis Magia Faustiana. who trained them and always accompanied them. including as a grey friar monk. an enthroned angel of the holy Jehovah .: Samuel Weiser. Candidates for initiation worshipped the Devil as if he were God. he said. The name was known to the German occultist Johannes Trithemius (1442–1516). Mephistopheles is more of a literary figure than one belonging to mythology and demonology. The playing of sacred music is especially effective against demons. called Martinetto. (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) Mephistopheles (Mephistophilis. They used their Devil-given magical powers to predict the future and persuade others to follow the Devil. with Faust and Margaret. Menghi lamented the lack of skilled exorcists in his time. his form is firstly that of a fiery bear. In the end. the demons will mock them and render them useless. . he is a shrewd negotiator who has the last laugh by trapping Faust into damnation. such as a church. mezuzah See AMULET. Johann Fausten. the parents of Anneliese Michel and the two priests who conducted the exorcisms were convicted of negligent homicide. They were assigned a familiar demon. Shakespeare mentioned Mephistophilus in The Merry Wives of Windsor. Mephistopheles is a trickster and practical joker. Faust manages to redeem himself and escape eternal punishment in hell. right. however. who “stands under the planet Jupiter. and later as “Mephostophiles” in the Faust chapbook Historia von D. for if they are not genuine. Anneliese (1952–1976) German woman who died during prolonged EXORCISMs for demonic POSSESSION. dark through and through. Giolamo. In a sensational trial.Michel. When demons possess a person. Exorcists must use harsh words and CURSEs in their attacks against the demons.

Luthy in Aschaffenberg. She was also diagnosed with heart and circulatory problems. She had a hard time studying. She had thoughts of suicide. she did consult various priests. Dr. opined in a letter that she showed symptoms of possession. Michel was in the habit of praying intensely. She tore her rosary and refused to wear a saint medal bought by her father. 1970. She told Peter that she felt she was eternally damned. who ordered an electroencephalogram an (EEG). Stangl refused. Anneliese Michel was born on September 21. He referred her to Father Ernst Alt. torn in two. Michel was returned to the sanatorium. She suffered episodes in which her face and body contorted. When she starting . feces. after the visits. middle-class Catholic family. her mother told her she was dreaming them. Siegfried Luthy. She could not enter the chapel and said the ground burned her feet. Martha. or believed that she was someone else. horned demonic faces. who confirmed her circulatory problems and prescribed more anticonvulsants. Peter told others she was possessed. lest the demonic face intrude again. Father Adolf Rodewyk of Frankfurt. She was the second of five girls. Alt became involved in the case. she experienced her first demonic vision. she experienced a terrifying seizure of paralysis. Michel dutifully returned at several-month intervals into 1973. Her parents envisioned a career as a schoolteacher for her. while sitting in class. and she seemed better. and he prescribed anticonvulsant medication. but her grades were only average. asking for permission to say the prayer of exorcism over her. Michel was sent back to doctors. 1974. Michel’s parents were Josef and Anna Michel. Later. He prescribed an anticonvulsant and recommended regular checkups. She spoke with a man’s voice and exuded a stench. and she lost all interest in school. Josef worked as a carpenter. As a child. he recommended that they consult a Jesuit priest. but family members observed that she seemed changed: She was depressed and withdrawn. an expert on possession. The bishop thought she needed more medical help. Also. but was unable to be sexually responsive to him. She resumed school. However. She was hospitalized in a sanatorium in Mittelberg. or rotting flesh. because of his age and distance. in Klingenberg. That night. Michel was unbalanced by the death of her grandmother and the departures of sisters from the household. Anna returned her to Dr. where she grew increasingly depressed. telling Alt to monitor her. At any rate. Michel was still in the hospital on June 3. She did not inform her doctor of her increasing seizures and blackouts or tell him that she now smelled a horrible stench that others did not. She had periods of seeming to feel fine and then suddenly had seizures. or deep depression. Josef recommended prayer and said he would take her to a saint shrine. She told her skeptical husband that she had caught Michel staring at a statue of the Virgin Mary in the house. Knocking noises sounded in her bedroom. perhaps causing her illness. According to Anna and Michel. the Mother of God of San Damiano. pleurisy. pneumonia. Lithy denied this. She developed an aversion to holy objects and stopped going to church. and tuberculosis. Anna soon began to think that her daughter was being plagued by demons. On August 29. and she felt empty. She acquired a boyfriend. There were more stenches of something burning. Michel suffered her fi rst blackout. saying it suffocated her. on September 30. Michel had a terrible time at the shrine. cruel face that loomed before her for a brief moment. 1952. died at age eight of a kidney ailment. Bishop Stangl. Luthy. visions. and her eyes were jet black and her hands looked like paws with claws. She suffered another seizure. Her seizures. About one week after her visit to Kempten. Her mother sent her back to Dr. Alt wrote to his superior. but he declined to see her in person. Michel had increasing visions of ghastly. although she did not know why. A year passed before these episodes repeated. Michel’s health declined and she contracted tonsillitis. after Michel was dead. stating he would have only recommended another medical professional. Michel’s bouts grew worse. She made an effort to study to please her mother. Michel was frail and sickly but did well in school. She could barely walk. the first child. Studying became harder than ever. In 1968. She felt the medication was contributing to her apathy and listlessness. grimacing. Michel had sessions with Father Alt in which they talked and prayed. she was afraid to pray. So did the miraculous water there. She may not have taken them. who diagnosed probable epilepsy but prescribed no medication because of the infrequency of episodes. 1970. while Michel was shuttling around among various physicians. to a conservative. He seemed to possess psychic ability or sensitivity and had an empathic connection to Michel even before meeting her.172 Michel. In 1975. but after this. and uncontrolled urination. Bavaria. She began to wonder whether the demon was inside her. Peter. She exhibited signs of being hypersensitive and was overcome sometimes during Mass at church. she was sent home. She was sent to a neurologist in Kempten. suffocation. Her mother took her to a neurologist in Aschaffenberg. she saw a huge. Dr. While praying. He was inclined to see her as suffering from circumsessio (surrounded by evil forces) at the least and possibly from possession. She became convinced that demons were inside her. including Father Roth at the parish at San Damiano. sometimes severe. Her health and mental state continued to decline. and they sent her to study at the Gymnasium in Aschaffenberg. at least for long. continued. temporarily. She gave more thought to suicide. when she suffered another nighttime seizure. The results showed abnormal brain waves.

Roth. who witnessed one of these episodes himself. Mentally. Alt found records of the fallen priest. Judas remained the primary mouthpiece for the demons. she begged Alt to come to her aid. Cain and Hitler had little to say. Jesus communicated to Michel that she would be purified by her ordeal. Michel referred to him as “The Black One. Michel was out of control. “Judas. Shadowy animals were seen scurrying about. Michel had episodes of violence. gave details of his life that were in the records but unknown to the girl. in spite of the priests’ taking the steps to seal the door against the demons by singing the Te Deum and a prayer to Mary. followed by Lucifer. Stangl gave permission for the Rituale Romanum to be performed. Michel was held by three of the men while she struggled. It identified itself only as “I” and said it had been secretly lurking in Michel all along. People in attendance felt physically affected. After a time. but the suspect had died. kicked. they were mute. Anneliese 173 throwing things uncontrollably at Peter and others. The man selected for the job was Father Arnold Renz. Rodewyck met with Roth and Alt and gave them his opinion. On August 3. the sessions were recorded.” On November 9. and Fathers Alt. and a fallen priest named Fleischmann. She tore off her clothes. cursing and attacking. a new demon announced itself with a growl. a Salvatorian superior at a monastery in Ruck-Schippach. and striking out against others. she walked as though her legs were sticks. Clouds of flies suddenly appeared in the house and vanished just as suddenly. She attacked priests who arrived to see her with verbal abuse and blows. Further evidence was her repeated attempts to kiss people. She went home from school and lay stiff in bed. Alt appealed again to Stangl for permission to perform an exorcism. he said the prayer of exorcismus probativus. In January. She moaned and whimpered and said she felt as though she were burning. They were convinced they were dealing with genuine possession. and coal. the demons named three others. She swore. In attendance were Michel’s family. and chewed on panties soaked in urine. Michel’s condition worsened dramatically. Thus far. They expelled the six demons one by one. Hitler. growling like an animal. Still. he asked for her name and she replied. and screamed when she was sprinkled with holy water. She fell into rages. Stangl agreed to the small rite. screamed incessantly. 1974. the latter of whom also had attended and counseled the afflicted girl. “really pulled a fast one on you. and attempted to bite.” But just when they thought the ordeal was over. Josef Michel summoned Father Roth. and each departed with great vomiting and protests before it surrendered by saying. howled like a dog. Judas said he returned with the permission of Mary and would remain until her triumph. including growling. During one of her fits. Renz was able to goad the demon into admitting that it was Judas. When she finally got up. The first rite was performed at the Michel home on September 24. The family attempted to verify this. not speaking through her themselves. She ate flies.” The demonic activity ebbed and flowed and seemed to increase sometimes when Michel had medications renewed. complaining of burning up inside. In order for the two-hour RITUALE ROMANUM to be performed. urinated on the kitchen floor and tried to lick it up.” meaning the other demons. The demon told Renz that “they. a batterer. upon which all demons would be cast out. . and exuding a horrible stench. She was worst on Sundays and holy days. and they desired the exorcism to be performed. In Rodewyck’s assessment. spiders. 1975. some friends.Michel. and exhibited superhuman strength. that happened outside the exorcisms. she raced around bucking like a goat. who had lived in Ettleben in the 16th century. contorting. Michel was possessed by a demon named Judas. would become a saint. her face twisted into grotesque hostility. went rigid and catatonic. He was a womanizer. On October 31. After Alt departed. She suffered stigmata. “Hail Mary full of grace. and would marry. Judas suggested that he might be Lucifer. Alt and Roth performed the small rite on Michel. and Hermann. LUCIFER appeared. and then Nero. Alt arrived on July 1 and found her in a hysterical state. She destroyed religious objects. The demons— for more than one had been present—said that Michel was possessed because she was cursed by a jealous neighbor woman before she was born. her boyfriend Peter. though he was knowledgeable on the subject.” This identified the name of the demon. the character of the exorcisms changed. The demon. The second exorcism took place on September 28. through Michel. The demon has less and less to say and refused to state when he would depart. Renz had never before performed an exorcism. The extreme nature of the case finally made Father Rodewyck agree to see Michel in person. After Judas. the demons must speak through the mouth of the possessed and truthfully answer certain questions put to them. with subsidiary demons participating as well. which caused her to jump up and tear off her rosary. She required constant surveillance from her family. From then on. who had returned immediately upon being exorcized on October 31. After Christmas 1975. She stuck her head in icy water and in the toilet. as though the demons were making it difficult for them to participate. and a drunkard and had killed a man. Cain. The exorcisms proceeded. the exorcists believed they had achieved complete success. Michel and her family were convinced she was possessed. 1975. Her body swelled in odd places. her actions of the first exorcism were relatively mild compared to her earlier behavior. At home.

giving interviews and playing the exorcism tapes. Michel’s family physician. The court’s opinion held that Michel was incapable of helping herself. In April. her parents decided to take her home. After the exorcism on that date. The state attorney’s office initiated a criminal investigation and spent a year gathering evidence. During exorcisms. the nun said. and Renz complied on June 30. a characteristic of people who are in a religious altered state of consciousness. to be present as well. The event was a media frenzy. The parents agreed. Renz wished to view them but said he was turned away at the door of the mortuary. saying there was nothing a doctor could do for her. Michel continued to deteriorate. She had more frequent episodes of severe rigidity and spent more time in bed. resurrection. Alt visited Michel and told a physician friend. Michel was asked repeatedly whether she wanted a doctor. Charges were dropped against Stangl and Rodewyck. Furthermore. Renz was to see to it that this was done. The exorcisms and her environment aggravated her condition.174 Michel. Penance possession was extremely difficult for an exorcist to treat. June 8 was the last day that Alt saw Michel alive. She said the demons were choking her. The only explanation that made sense to Alt was that she was suffering a “penance possession” to atone for someone else’s sins. prior to the start of the trial in March. according to gossip. She bit the wall so harshly that her teeth chipped. seemingly unconscious and barely responsive. Dr. Nor was her body covered with sores typical of starvation. People made pilgrimages to Klingenberg to pray at Michel’s grave. her ordeal was over in July 1976. God would resurrect Michel. Alt con- tacted the state attorney general’s office in Aschaffenberg. Renz continued his exorcisms two or three times a week. perhaps those of a member of her family. and given responsibility to pay court costs. A Carmelite nun came forward and said Michel was communicating from beyond the grave to her. She smashed her head through a glass door without injury. until his superiors told him to stop. Her screams became unearthly. and then her ordeal would be over. She was running a high temperature. and administered electroshock therapy. 1978. who had listened to some of the exorcism tapes. screaming. The nun said that Michel had died as a penance to benefit Germany. Renz became a media hero. telling her mother she was afraid. and hell. wrote the certificate and said her death was not due to natural causes. She slept only one to two hours a night. She hit and bit herself and banged herself against the wall. Her pupils were greatly dilated. Upon arrival in Ettelben. Stories were told that the remains were incorrupt. Michel’s parents succeeded in having the body disinterred on the requested date. Anneliese By March 1976. her body would not be putrefied. Roth gave her no medical treatments. Indictments for negligent homicide were issued in July 1977 against Alt. There was much conflicting testimony over what had transpired and whether or not Michel had suffered from epilepsy and mental illness. she asked for absolution. On March 7. and medical help should have been provided. Just as the demons had predicted. its youth and priests. force-fed. But the mayor informed Michel’s parents and the audience that the girl’s remains were badly decomposed. An autopsy revealed that Michel had died of starvation. The old demons had been replaced by new ones. . Michel predicted another great trial was ahead of her. Renz. They awaited July because Michel had said her trials would be over then. she had chosen to die as a sacrifice. On May 30. in pain and screaming. without success. when she would order specific foods that she could gulp down in a hurry. She tried to exorcize herself. Renz carried out an exorcism with Michel in bed. Michel’s screaming degraded into monotonous moaning. Popular veneration of Michel elevated her to practical sainthood. On May 9. the Mother of God. before Easter. and her face was swollen and bruised. and he advised against seeing them. Dr. for that meant that evil could triumph over good. Michel was showing signs of physical deterioration. Gossip immediately spread. She was severely emaciated. On June 9 and June 30. who refused to talk or give their names. Her family said she would only consume a little fruit juice and milk. In early May. People refused to accept the idea that Michel was killed by demons. Michel went to bed. but she declined. She told her boyfriend Peter that she would suffer until July. 1978. and the exhumation would yield proof of the existence of demons. The trial began on March 30. One medical expert opined that she should have been immobilized with tranquilizers. God. Michel wished her body to be exhumed on February 25. Kehler. the demons were unresponsive. Michel was emaciated. She died in her sleep on the morning of July 1. She remained in bed. Richard Roth. and officials were keeping it a secret. unable to eat. Alt decided that Michel should go to Etteleben. She seemed exhausted and at Eastertide went through pain that she likened to the death agony of Jesus. She was unable to eat except at rare intervals. The guilty were sentenced to six months in prison. other spiritual beings. Rather. according to Michel. the nun said that. on the excuse that they wished to transfer her remains to a better coffin. eternal life. The demons remained uncommunicative. suspended for three years. The case caused a great deal of controversy. and Michel’s parents. Michael spent much of her time rigid. and exhausted in bed. The verdict of the court was that all four defendants were guilty of negligent homicide. Her brain showed no signs of damage characteristic of epileptic seizures. Roth was summoned but could not write out a death certificate because he did not have the proper forms.

This miracle occurred for Catholics. did not improve. Obry was exorcized daily in front of ever-growing crowds. but Obry was not deceived. the spirit of her maternal grandfather. 1981. one from a dog bite and one from a falling tile. his soul was in purgatory. when he releases all his demons upon the world. One day. Obry had a troubled past with problems of fits before she showed signs of possession in 1565. and a dish of human hearts. and make holy pilgrimages. give alms to the poor. They followed instructions to find out the name of the demon and. The first exorcisms were done in Vervin. where inexperienced priests first used a handbook on baptismal exorcism. Ethan Thomas (Campbell Scott). James. Requiem. Erin Bruner (Laura Linney). Mictantecutli Aztec lord of the underworld and king of DEMONs. Mictlampa. Goodman opined that the anticonvulsant medications prescribed to Michel. The Exorcism of Emily Rose. He occasionally travels to the realm of the living in search of new victims. Despite her history. interfered with the exorcism process. philosophy. The defense counsel. perhaps because of the expense involved. Joachim Willot. The central issue dividing French Catholics and Huguenots was transubstantiation. They have free reign until daybreak. At the time of her possession. The trial becomes a stage for the debate of religion. did as the manual directed . at age 15 or 16. when they succeeded in getting Beelzebub’s name. was released in 2006. At this point. James. and Moore is charged with negligent homicide. the family asked the local priest. Miracle of Laon (1566) Sensational POSSESSION case in Laon. had interfered with her own ability to regain control of herself. The principals suffer events of an apparent supernatural nature during the course of their arguments. Mictantecutli is the only Aztec deity besides the Sun god. and supernatural beliefs. The family arranged a fake departure for the pilgrimage. a precedent in exorcism. Garden City. James of Compostela. For two months. released in 2005. Seers throughout Europe continue to deliver messages from Michel about judgment and other religious matters. while Obry prayed alone in church. who wears a crown. a corpse. a clump of desert grass. present since Willot’s possession. The Exorcism of Anneliese Michel. she had been married for a short time to a merchant. gleefully noting that their supposed heresies made them even more precious to him. visited her. Knowing this to be heresy. the schoolmaster. whereas Huguenots considered such an interpretation to be idolatry. Through Obry.: Doubleday. and thus probably contributed to her death. By exorcising Beelzebub with the help of holy wafers. A German film purporting to follow the true story more closely. Obry’s family complied but evaded the pilgrimage to St. The demon was exorcised through repeated administration of holy wafers. Felicitas D. The daughter of a butcher in Vervins. Mictantecutli tortures the souls of those who are imprisoned in his dark kingdom. The Catholic Church used the daily EXORCISMs of Nicole Obry (also Aubry) before huge crowds as examples of the church’s power over the DEVIL to sup- port it in religious struggles with the French Huguenots. Louis Pierret. In her analysis of the case. N. especially to the shrine of St. and Moore killed the girl by preventing her from taking her necessary medication. a Catholic priest. Adding to the legend surrounding her are stories of deaths and accidents related to people who attacked her or the priests who tried to help her. all of which had serious side effects.Y. He asked for her help to enable him to ascend to heaven: Obry should have masses said in his name. As a result. The prosecutor. He rules the dreaded hour of midnight. and Obry blamed her family’s failure to visit St. and a Dominican monk to conjure the spirit. He is depicted as a skeleton on a throne and keeps with him an owl. she had spent eight years in a convent at Montreuil-les-Dames. unlike those of many other female demoniacs. the Catholic Church declared a victory for the power of the presence. not hysteria. near Laon in Picardy. Whether or not Rose actually suffered from demonic possession is never declared in the film. or the Real Presence: whether or not. She was a dull-witted student but learned to read. who admitted he was not the soul of Willot but his good ANGEL. The film was directed by Scott Derrickson and stars Jennifer Carpenter as Emily Rose and Tom Wilkinson as Father Moore. Her grave continues to be visited by pilgrims. FURTHER READING: Goodman. Her convulsive fits. Rose dies after Moore performs an exorcism on her. it is left to the viewer. claims that Rose’s condition and death were due to supernatural causes. efforts were made by critics of the case to have exorcism banned or at least changed. during communion. Willot entered the girl and explained that since he died suddenly after supper and had not confessed his sins nor accomplished certain vows. bases his case on the argument that Rose’s affliction had a medical explanation. the priests finally made the spirit admit he was a devil. and proved to the faithful the danger of the threat of Huguenot reform. Tonacaecutli. France. BEELZEBUB claimed the Huguenots as his own people.Miracle of Laon 175 In the aftermath. then obtained a book of demonic exorcisms. Michel’s story was made into a film. the bread and wine actually became the body and blood of Christ. the anthropologist Felicitas D. she was a stunning and convincing demoniac and exhibited uncanny and genuine clairvoyance via the possessing demons. She had suffered two severe head injuries. Her fits probably had physical causes. she suffered from chronic headache until she was exorcised.

176 Miracle of Laon The exorcism of Beelzebub at Laon (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) .

According to the account by Barthelemy Faye. They also are used for seeing visions of the future. The DEVIL and demons can enter through mirrors to attack people. leading to mass consumption of holy wafers. Future cases of possession and exorcisms relied on the happenings at Laon. priests were stationed everywhere in the cathedral to handle the demand. As well as identifying secret sinners. Unclean Spirits: Possession and Exorcism in France and England in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries. but by the holy relic of John the Baptist’s head. he sees his own reflection in water. with contortions.M. a doorway or portal through which spirits. She made one last bid for celebrity in 1577. or Eucharist—the body and BLOOD of Christ—tamed him. . 2001. Since ancient times. In widespread belief. including ghosts and DEMONs. not by the host. Mirrors also should be covered in sick rooms in the folk belief that the soul is weakened and more vulnerable to possession during illness. not a man. The demon quickly became immune to this procedure and even remarked that it was a waste of paper and ink. But Beelzebub protested again. But it may have been the possession of Obry at Laon that planted the seeds of such evidence. Such beliefs hark back to days when the corpses were laid out in homes. horrible noises. had bewitched her early in her possession. Through Obry. on Friday. Obry survived only on communion wafers. Beelzebub also pointed out sinners in the masses watching the exorcisms. they are “soul stealers” with the power to suck souls out of bodies. Ware. Beelzebub commanded center attention. Beelzebub shrieked but did not depart. On one occasion. Obry claimed that a gypsy woman. Still weak. Much of the folklore about mirrors is negative. any shiny surface has been regarded as a spirit doorway and can be used deliberately to summon spirits into the world. Obry was moved to the cathedral in Laon when Beelzebub complained that a prince of his rank could be expelled only by a bishop in a suitable location. Beelzebub called the Eucharist “Jack the White. Only the host. thousands confessed out of sheer fear of exposure by Beelzebub. used the accounts of it to their greatest advantage. In the account of Obry’s exorcism by the Hebrew professor Jean Boulaese in 1578. Many went to receive confession. Corpses seeing themselves in mirrors also will draw bad luck upon the household. including Florimond De Raemond. gleefully noting that their doubts of faith made them all the more precious to him. and a priest. it is a death omen. blackened tongue. through Obry. The Catholic Church. rigidity. Walker. according to some beliefs. and on stage. Dom Augustin. were converted. mirror According to folklore. French theologians did not use the accusations of demoniacs against the accused witch until the 17th century. The Phantom World: Concerning Apparitions and Vampires. can gain access to the physical world. Beelzebub told the priests that “it was not right to hide what God wanted to be manifested and known to all the world. unconfessed sins. When a person dies.” Before this. The exorcisms grew to two times a day. the Huguenots continually claimed SORCERY and MAGIC against Obry’s mother.” and that he would only leave Obry in “that great brothel” (the cathedral). but these only succeeded in angering Beelzebub. On some days. There also are numerous beliefs about mirrors and the dead. Obry’s sufferings were unparalleled. the historian of 16th-century heresy. Mirrors are problems in some cases of demonic infestations and hauntings. and even certain Huguenots. making this case unusual. the priests tried to use more traditional methods. Beelzebub finally left Obry at 3:00 P. 1566. relics. accused some women of witchcraft while still in Vervins. as some claimed. all the mirrors in a house should be turned over. In the Greek myth of Narcissus. Beelzebub taunted Huguenot doubters about Obry’s possession. Obry occasionally suffered repossessions as often as 50 times a day. The exorcisms continued on stage in the cathedral for two days but moved to a private chapel to prevent mob chaos. the Huguenots succeeded in barring Obry from the city. who accompanied Obry after her expulsion from Laon. pines away. the sign of the cross. P. Despinoys. the Eucharist had not been used as a principal weapon in exorcisms. one of the exorcists. and dies. Although he admitted that he was the father of lies. As propaganda for the Catholics. Beelzebub. During the rituals. for if a corpse sees itself in a mirror. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Beelzebub confirmed the power of the Real Presence. and some rejoined the church. D. and people believed that souls lingered about the body until burial. FURTHER READING: Calmet. Another folk belief holds that if a person sees his or her own reflection in a room where someone has died. The host began to be regarded as medicine for her spiritual sickness. revealing their secret. but 29 other demons also made appearances. England: Wordsworth Editions in association with the Folklore Society. a magistrate. rejoicing in this miraculous affirmation of transubstantiation. the soul of the dead will have no rest or will become a vampire. during which Obry gave an impressive demoniacal performance. and prayers to the Virgin Mary. By submitting to the host. In addition. 1981. After his expulsion. Obry’s redemption was celebrated at the Cathedral of Laon on February 8 until the French Revolution at the close of 18th century. and levitation. when she became blind and was cured. Obry and her husband remained in Laon until. fearing outright religious war. such as holy water. February 8.mirror 177 and wrote it on a piece of paper and burned it.

He was depicted as a bull-headed man with long arms sitting on a brass throne. 1564) German EXORCIST murdered by his wife. It is considered a negative influence for a person to be able to see himself or herself from any angle in a mirror while in bed. she pushed him through the trapdoor and attacked him with an ax. which the Warrens said invited demonic trouble into the life of the user. Mirrors can be closed as portals by rubbing the edges of them or washing the surfaces in holy water. Moloch was probably identified with BAAL. Simon (d. Oliver’s magic backfired on him. September 2007. To the Ammonites. FURTHER READING: Weyer. Kohl and H. His wife was arrested and jailed. She went upstairs and called to him to look for the missing money with her. First. She threw the head and arm into the fi re and intended to burn the rest of the body as well. Johann. Eventually. cutting off his head and left arm. The Demonologist: The Extraordinary Career of Ed and Lorraine Warren. Her fatal punishment consisted of having her body torn with red-hot pincers. Germany. Huge Molitor. followed by being lashed to a wheel and broken. Simon Mirrors in Problem Hauntings If a home is plagued with unpleasant spirit activity. with the help of demons he summoned. After months of practice. Edited by Benjamin G. doors opening by themselves. levitations of objects. N. a 45-year-old man of New Jersey. Moloch was a Sun god and personified the detrimental effects of the Sun’s rays. The misfortunes he conjured for others began happening to him. he could state whatever he wanted to see. Gerald Daniel. In addition. C. went to investigate and discovered Molitor’s grisly remains. of Hesse. Englewood Cliffs. The scene played out in the mirror. Neighbors.C. the magistrate there decided to expel him. He learned how to see future situations for himself. This stopped the demonic OPPRESSION. Erik Midelfort. On February 9. hearing the noise and noticing the awful smell of burning flesh. King SOLOMON was said to have built a temple to Moloch. and nullified the mirror magic spells. may recommend the removal or covering of mirrors. and after three years of questionable activities. Warren said.: Pegasus Press. Simon Molitor. Guiley. “Mirrors: Do You Know What’s Looking Back at You?” TAPS Paramagazine. Oliver B. Molitor quarreled with his wife over some stolen money. He projected an image of a person into the future and willed something bad to happen. and the image would appear. Oliver gave the Warrens the mirror to be placed in their museum of POSSESSED POSSESSIONS.: Prentice-Hall. N. When he arrived upstairs. Then. who investigated. he began conjuring images of people he did not like or who had wronged him. purchased a mirror in an ornate frame for the purpose of casting spells and CURSEs on others. 1998. He moved to Osbnabruck. Abridged. 12–13. 1980. Oliver learned to see images clearly in the mirror by spending long periods gazing into the mirror with intense concentration. and with the Assyrian/Babylonian Malik. this creates unstable psychic space. demons invaded his home and created unpleasant disturbances. and unearthly howlings in the night. Moloch Ammonite god demonized in Hebrew lore. and then it came to pass in physical reality. heavy breathing..178 Molitor. After a week of terrifying phenomena. made his living driving out DEMONs in Westphalia and neighboring areas Moloch (DICTIONNAIRE INFERNAL) . Ed Warren undid the ritual that Oliver had done repeatedly by performing it backward. mirrors should never be placed at the foot of a bed or at the head of a bed. investigators.J. Oliver contacted the Catholic Church and was referred to the Warrens. FURTHER READING: Brittle. such as footsteps. The reasoning goes that a spirit who looks in a window or attempts to cross a door threshold will see its own reflection and be scared away. On Witchcraft (De praestigiis daemonum). In bedrooms. Asheville. He also was the cause of plagues. Conjuring Mirrors One of the cases of ED AND LORRAINE WARREN involved a conjuring mirror. Rosemary Ellen. Mirrors should never reflect into each other. and had a shady reputation for fraud. 1564. A folk remedy calls for positioning a mirror so that it faces outward toward a door or window. including lay demonologists.

and resurrection. where the sacrificial rites were said to take place. he is the son of Kronos.Mot 179 bronze statues of him were erected in his honor. money In folklore. and other awful items. Mot conquers him. Magic. Paracelsus. He literally swallows the dead into the underworld. that it contained bear’s nails. Catharina Ruffa of Ville-sur-Moselle. the youth would then meet his true benefactor. animal claws. The youth took the paper home and was amazed when it spilled out gold coins. but it refused to burn for an hour. King Jeremiah defiled Topeth. the god of time. In sympathetic magic rituals. with SATAN. he saw. When he did.” lord of the underworld. toad’s feet. on a capital charge in 1587 because she claimed that a demon gave her three genuine gold coins. Baal tricks Mot into eating his own brothers. Mot is the enemy of BAAL. The ancient Greeks associated Moloch with Cronos. The Hebrews called Moloch “the abomination of the Ammonites” (1 Kings 11:7). If he managed to contain his curiosity. FURTHER READING: Davies. But he was unable to resist the temptation to unfold it. cows dissolve in running water. He threw the paper on the fi re. The riches were in purses or wrapped in paper and proved to be bits of brick and coal. The huntress Anat attacks Mot and vanquishes him. that the gold coins or currency are actually toads. In Kabbalistic lore. money from FAIRIES. and. swine dung. NICHOLAS REMY told in his witch-hunting handbook Demonolatry (1595) that false riches offered by a demon deceived a man in Nuremberg in 1530. Mot has associations with the agricultural cycles of growth and harvest. a 15-year-old youth met a strange man who was passing through a village. He knows the virtues of herbs and precious stones. Edited and translated by Wade Baskin. He was not worshipped as a deity but was associated with death and the underworld. Mot is also the name of a Canaanite warrior deitydemon found in Ugaritic literature. lead. to his horror. without redeeming features. In one tale. leaves of trees. In Greek lore. his opposite. the Devil gives a purse filled with gold to a victim. who fled and spread the story. Demons supposedly guard all the vast treasures of the earth but can never draw upon them. if he takes on a man’s head. FURTHER READING: Collin de Plancy. who devoured his own children in order to prevent them from challenging his rule. He gives good FAMILIAR s. Secaucus. roamed about Europe penniless during his last years. he will impart knowledge of astronomy and all liberal sciences. Demonolatry. cat’s claws. and the sacrificial practices declined. For example. The tragedy was witnessed by one of the man’s servants. and he was worshipped with human sacrifice rites in the belief that the people would be protected from disaster. Mot means “death” in Hebrew. Baal revives to battle him into at least temporary submission. the vault collapsed and crushed him to death. Divination and Demonology among the Hebrews and Their Neighbors. But when the man attempted to seize the chest. Morax (Foraii. He crushes them in his enormous jaws and mouth. The Phoenicians called him “Death” and “Pluto. .J. Moloch was called “the prince of the valley of tears. He appears as a bull. Witton. The man found a vault containing a chest guarded by a black dog. forcing him into the underworld. and a rusty-colored stone that crumbled to dust. Passages in the Old Testament refer to him as Death. god of the sea and fertility. he is. the 16th-century Swiss alchemist. scattering his body to the fields. Nicholas. Mot has a voracious appetite for gods and humans. the god of time. shells. moonlet See AMULET. the man gave him a folded piece of paper and told him it would produce as many gold coins as he wished as long as he did not unfold the paper. he is pruned as a vine is. Forfax) FALLEN ANGEL and 21st of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. T. who later finds it contains nothing but embers and smoke. Many tales exist of victims accepting payment for goods or services and discovering. the first of the evil DEMONs of the Tree of Life. 1974. New York: Philosophical Library. or other worthless objects. Mot In Jewish lore. 1965. Remy also related several cases of women being deceived by gifts of money and gold coins from demons. He is described as both the beloved of El and the son of El. Remy said he tried one woman. Originally published as Dictionary of Demonology. He carries a scepter of bereavement or widowhood. Remy. Illusory money parallels another folk belief that livestock purchased unwittingly from witches and fairies disappears or turns into something undesirable. First published 1898. and so forth. after it is too late. The victims were thrown into fires built in hollow bellies of the bronze statue. The gold pieces vanished.: University Books. When the youth agreed. Morax is an earl and president in HELL and rules 36 legions of DEMONs. According to legend. Dictionary of Witchcraft. paying innkeepers with gold coins that turned into seashells after he departed. For example. He undergoes ritual dismemberment and dissolution. The demon revealed a hiding place of a great treasure. His underworld abode is dank and dangerous. DEMONs and the DEVIL is worthless. N. witches. a DEMON of death who hovers around dying people. Jacques. sorcerers. and he is completely evil. horses turn into pigs.” a reference to Topheth in the Valley of Hinnom. The man inquired whether the youth would like to be rich.

and her siblings believed these to be magical objects used for spell casting. D. At last. By 1841. and other items. D. D. One night. would feel tapped and even struck sharply by invisible blows. 2nd ed. Blumhardt described the first time he saw her become possessed: Suddenly.” She had been cast out of people seven times. That winter. D. The victim was a single woman identified only by her initials. Between 1836 and 1838. born around 1816 in Mottlingen. Meanwhile. she became ill again. G. which made her “the devil’s bondswoman. Grand Rapids. G. I had never heard anything of the kind. D. Underneath the floor. On her very first day there. something seemed to enter into her. Germany. and 28 at a time. with an increasing number of demons entering into her. during which times “unearthly sounds” would fill the house. G. had some peace for a few weeks. He was at a loss to explain what was happening to her. but the spirit was defiant. D.180 Mottlingen P ossession van der Toorn. G. Her health declined. I said a few words of prayer. The case was published in English for the fi rst time by the spiritualist medium W. The skin blistered. eds. G. After this. D. “I cannot endure to hear that name!” All shuddered. Immediately she rolled her eyes. G. and she went to live with another relative. She was a servant who was by all accounts pious. lying unconscious “like dead” while more than 1. Now. Wurtemberg. 14. who lived on the ground floor of a house in Mottlingen. suffered frequent possessions. The previous house continued to be haunted until 1844. The possessions intensified. D. mentioning the name of Jesus. D. which were not visible to others. but he refused. and simultaneously G. weird sounds were heard in the house: a swishing. D. She felt an invisible force seize her hands at night and move them. The disturbances escalated. underwent a change in personality. Pfarrar Blumhardt. saw shadowy figures and moving lights. D. they exited in groups of 12. believing that magic would only strengthen SATAN against him. holding a dead child in her arms. Blumhardt questioned the spirit. van der Horst. felt invisible blows day and night. trailing noise and the sound of objects being rolled around on the floor. that she sought out a clergyman. She could not pray and could not endure the name of JESUS. bird bones..000 demons passed out of her through her mouth. making it impossible for her continue work as a servant. to move. and Pieter W. as of the expression and choice of words. G. she was in the midst of saying grace at dinner when she had a seizure and fell unconscious. immediately felt that a strange presence was in the house. The same side of her body was affected as well. D. and spoke in a voice that was at once recognized as that of a stranger—not only on account of the sound. there were hidden objects: money wrapped up in paper. she started having convulsions. One night. At night. who said she had no rest in death because she had killed two children and buried them in fields. and offered a silent prayer for wisdom and discretion. Eerdmans. D. Stead in his book Borderland: A Casebook of True Supernatural Stories (1891–92). T. G. the entire neighborhood could hear the noises at night. Blumhardt persuaded G. Mottlingen Possession (1836–1843) German peasant woman possessed by a ghost and more than 1. to her new residence. so her friends and neighbors were mystified at the sudden onset of supernatural attack followed by complete demonic POSSESSION. D. but she was extremely unpleasant to Blumhardt when he paid visits to her. Even the family who lived on the second floor heard the noises and was alarmed by them. The illness may have made G. Every Wednesday and Friday night. Blumhardt told her she could not remain in the body of G. A paper with writing was found underneath. and she was not about to be cast out again. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. He believed such folk magic practices. She also said that she had practiced magic. She said she was not alone. G. and her whole body began to move. D. D. vulnerable to spirit invasion. she awakened feeling a burning hand seize her neck. another mysterious light and a noise emerged from behind the stove. Others in the village urged the minister to use remedies of sympathetic magic. frequently saw the specter of a woman who had died two years prior in the village. the demons arrived. had a serious illness that weakened her overall health and left her with one leg shorter than the other. Subsequently. D. The dead woman kept appearing to her. packets of a strange powder. On July 25. the activity also followed G. Her possessions began. D. Sometimes. the nightly visitations and phenomena had become so distressing to G. . G. Onlookers often felt blows. but then the possessions returned. it left after being sternly ordered out by the minister. Blumhardt cast out as many as 14 at one time. but the dirt on it was so heavy that the writing could not be read. G. as well as fortune telling and divining the location of lost property. Two weeks later. By April 1842. threw out her hands. and the wound festered for weeks. Bob Becking. The ghost said she wanted rest. D. 1842.. suffered a particularly bad possession. Mich.000 DEMONs. According to Blumhardt. G. she was knocked down while walking on the street. The demons told him they could not harm him. She went to live with two sisters and a nearly blind brother. but the minister was never harmed. were the type of thing the Devil used to ensnare people. The voice cried. would fall unconscious. “the worst of all beings” was with her. a mysterious light in the house revealed a loose floorboard. G. becoming unpleasant to others. 1999. Karel. said the woman had confessed to grievous sins on her deathbed and could find no peace.: William B. worse than ever.

but no one else. He says that he has no head and he tries to get one by devouring the heads of his victims. D. Murder Headless DEMON who sees through his breasts and speaks with the voice taken over from his victims. She repeatedly vomited sand. D. It always afforded her relief. the demons said there were 1. Italian. Others were in despair. they did not possess her. and many of her tormenting demons were cast into the crater of a volcano.Murmur 181 Instead. then. in that he attacks infants at night. Charlesworth. A few days later. Hyde Park. the attacks started again. was the spirit of the dead woman. He takes the voices of the dumb by “closing up” their heads. He longs for a head to do what the king does. nails. she had a relative who was a witch. He opined that the Devil had the ability to dematerialize real objects and reassemble their atoms inside the body. 1983. He teaches philosophy and makes souls of the dead appear and answer questions. Murder is summoned to appear before King SOLOMON. FURTHER READING: Stead. even when he was not present with G. 1843. Blumhardt believed that G. the largest of the attacks. G. cuts them off. but when he stopped. Eventually. G. First. Murmur FALLEN ANGEL and 54th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. preceded by two ministers sounding trumpets. inflicts feet. she said. was still visited at night by spirits. Despite the expulsion of the demons. He harms premature infants.: University Books. and attaches them to himself. a real earthquake struck the West Indies. New York: Doubleday. Whenever Blumhardt cast them out. nose. and eyes. and a snake. nails. that were removed from her head and caused copious bleeding from her ears. 1970. They spoke in French. presumably because they had to go back to HELL. D. live grasshoppers. D. 1 & 2. W. and if one 10 days old cries at night. a frog. Vols. D.067 of them. pieces of glass. The last demon was expelled on February 8. who promised to teach her the arts when she turned 10. Among the first to leave G. and her brother and one sister were affected as well. A fi re (heat) that continually burns within him consumes the heads through his neck. but Blumhardt said the Devil evidently considered her his property because of the witch’s intentions. Her final struggle against the demons took place just before Christmas 1843. Murmur once was partly a member of the angelic orders of thrones and ANGELs. who asked to haunt the village church. G. lay unconscious for hours. He is thwarted by fiery flashes of lightning. they would pierce the skin. ancient clothing and always carried a book.’s native German. was eight. Blumhardt relied solely on prayer. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. D. D. and “unknown” tongues as well as G. she said. they stayed in the room for a long time. including the leader with the book. D. the description of which seemed to be the West Indies. . Some of them said they were delivered from servitude to the Devil by his prayer and were being sent to a place of rest until Judgment Day. When she awakened. and creates festering sores. However. T. D. Once. All three recovered. underwent these afflictions because as a child. visible to G.Y. She was later seen there by G. Blumhardt removed many of these pins. This demon seemed to be the leader. Reprint. The woman died when G. she said she had been to a foreign country. who touched her and forced something like bread into her mouth. and needles himself. See SCEPTER. shoe buckles. One of the demons. The worst were two large nails. dressed in rich. G. A terrible earthquake had happened there. working their way out. Edited by James H. Pins. She attempted suicide. needles. he would feel them under the skin. N. Blumhardt succeeded in casting them out and keeping them out of G. moved into Blumhardt’s house. In the Testament of Solomon. D. one of them bent. Murder causes quartan fever and inflames limbs. D.’s troubles were not over. D. he rushes in and attacks it through its voice. and knitting needles were drawn out of her body. Murmur is a duke and earl with 30 LEGIONs of DEMONs under his command. Murder grabs hold of heads. He appears as a soldier wearing a duke’s crown and riding on a griffin. Murder is like one of the hordes of LILITH. 1985. Borderland: A Casebook of True Supernatural Stories.

convicted and burned at the stake. but she declined. She seduces men and spirits and. the demon understood movements of their lips and even movements of their hands.” Naamah is the mother of the great demon ASMODEUS and other demons. France. Elizabeth de Ranfaing. Naberius (Cerberus) FALLEN ANGEL and 24th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. As a final recourse. The DEMON possessing her demonstrated a remarkable command of several foreign languages. and Latin. He appears as a crowing cock and flutters about the magic circle. The demon forced de Ranfaing to make signs of the cross. monks. and a partner of SAMAEL. A doctor named Povoit proposed marriage to her. 1619. and representatives of the royal court. de Ranfaing was sent to Nancy. Italian. The EXORCISTs included church officials. causes epilepsy in children. and the demon responded accordingly. De Ranfaing consulted other physicians but none could relieve her symptoms. When no relief was obtained. Naberius is a marquis who commands 19 LEGIONs of DEMONs. which worsened her condition. The demon gave correct answers to questions about Catholic theology and revealed secret sins of those present. theologians. the demon pointed out the grammatical error. Povoit attempted to force her to fall in love with him by slipping her herbal love philters.N Naamah In kabbalistic lore. In a hoarse voice. Once an attempt was made to trip up the demon with incorrect Greek. he imparts skill in arts and sciences. the capital of Lorraine. physicians. in Remiremont. The doctor soon was accused of SORCERY. for symptoms of possession manifested. kiss the feet of the bishop of Toul. Critics of the possession were reprimanded. where she was interviewed and examined by more physicians. one of four angels of prostitution. He also restores lost dignities and honors. The ingredients damaged her health. especially rhetoric. Sometimes the demon’s answers were split in languages. The demon also pointed out Calvinist and Puritan witnesses who were present to watch the exorcisms. they rec182 ommended that she seek EXORCISM. the DEMONIAC. the exorcists gave various instructions to the demon. They affirmed that her symptoms were caused by diabolical possession. with part of a sentence in French and part in Latin. declared that he should be- . and make body movements and postures. Using different languages. They interrogated the demon in various languages. carry holy water. was exorcized in Nancy. Claude Pithoy. Sometimes the exorcists did not even have to speak out loud. a DEMON. The exorcisms began on September 2. with LILITH. Nancy Possession (1620) Case of demonic POSSESSION of a young woman in Lorraine. a Minimite monk. which it understood and carried out. including Hebrew. Greek. De Ranfaing was a virtuous woman who was widowed in 1617. The concoctions must have had a psychological effect. The doctor then tried other magical concoctions. Naamah means “pleasing.

Nemesis-stone rings were AMULETs against evil. FURTHER READING: Ogden. He took the pulpit. FURTHER READING: Calmet. FURTHER READING: Lea. Bernard told all the townspeople to go to church with lighted candles. When worn around the neck. Pithoy was silenced by his superiors. it caused the demon to confess himself and flee. Materials toward a History of Witchcraft. Henry Charles. So the giants turned against the . The supernatural affair had lasted six years before she apparently felt guilty and confessed her sin to priests. When the candles were extinguished. and we seemed to ourselves like grasshoppers and so we seemed to them” (13:33).” was called upon by ancient Greeks and Romans to exorcise and avert DEMONs and POSSESSION. Dom Augustin. When St. Ware. Nemesis. with one foot on a wheel. The Anakim were later destroyed. as are their angel parents. The ring also cured “moonstruck” conditions (insanity). mit callous crimes. forbidding him in the name of Christ to assault the victim or any other woman. St. Magic. Nantes incubus (12th century) DEMON who had sex with a woman for at least six years. Bernard traveled to Nantes. and the case was documented in 1622 by a respected physician named Prichard. rein. the great flood. The Phantom World: Concerning Apparitions and Vampires.” The Nephilim sometimes are called the SONS OF GOD. however. Enraged. Lore also held that the ring would reveal the length of someone’s life and the manner of his or her death. England: Wordsworth Editions in association with The Folklore Society. the ring warded off nightmares caused by demons and protected children against LAMIAE. These (giants) consumed the produce of all the people until the people detested feeding them. 2001. Helel is their chief. those who are wicked and insolent. None of the remedies expelled the incubus. called “death plant. The incubus became more sexually aggressive. St. The woman was troubled no more. in 1135 to visit monks. the incubus could not approach her. She said the demon had told her that her appeal would be useless. Witchcraft. and also afterward. She is usually portrayed as a somber winged maiden with a whip. when the sons of god came into the daughters of men. France. The woman’s husband learned of the matter and left her. or scales in her left hand. Nemesis Greek goddess of vengeance. A Nemesis stone was a stone taken from an altar to Nemesis and engraved with her image. He decided to blot out not only the human race but every living thing on Earth. the men of renown. Genesis 6:4 implies that the Nephilim were already present upon the earth when the Sons of God began their relations with mortal women: “The Nephilim were upon the earth in those days. On the next Sunday. before being exorcized by St. a “nemesis” is one’s worst enemy. and those who have too much good fortune. for a later reference in Numbers refers to the Anakim. The exorcists signed statements attesting to the validity of her possession.” to effect equilibrium by making sure that wrongdoers get their due. the demon made threats of what he would do once the saint left town with his staff. Brittany. Bernard gave her his staff and told her to take it to bed with her. In order for the ring to work properly. De Ranfaing was finally exorcized of the demon and founded an order of nuns. She did and relayed the demon’s terrible threats to her. Her job is to be the “leveler.” “those who have fallen. Nemesis is the daughter of either Oceanus or Zeus. pilgrimages. Bernard comforted her and told her to return the next day. 1939. and they bore children to them. and then anathematized the demon. He selected Noah and his family to survive this disaster. Bernard. Evidently not all the Nephilim perished. divine justice.” When this ring amulet was given to a person who was possessed. She personifies resentment against men who com- Nephilim A race of giants spawned by the cohabitation of ANGELs (see WATCHERS) and human women. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. and repopulate the world. he learned of a woman who was said to have enjoyed sexual intercourse with an INCUBUS. Nephilim means “fallen. The Romans called Nemesis Invidia (Jealousy) and Rivalitas (Jealous Rivalry). 1 Enoch presents a more descriptive picture of the Nephilim as monstrous beings: And the women became pregnant and gave birth to great giants whose heights were 300 cubits. the wearer had to avoid everything abominable and wicked.” The corruption brought by the mingling of angels and humans caused God to regret that he had created human beings on Earth. told about the case. They prescribed for her almsgiving. Bernard and appealed for his help. the sons of the Nephilim: “And there we saw the Nephilim (the sons of Anak. Daniel. whose name means “dispenser of dues.Nephilim 183 come possessed himself if the case were real. and intercessory prayer to saints. In mythology. and retribution against evil deeds. The woman went to St. In modern terms. who come from the Nephilim). These were the mighty men that were of old. New York: Oxford University Press. and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook. sword. 2002. As long as the staff was in the bed.” or “those who were cast down. Sometimes she is portrayed as holding a cubit ruler in her left hand and a staff in her right. the demon’s powers were ended. The Nephilim displeased God. Placed under the stone were the tip of a duck wing and a piece of a mullein.

From the heavens above. and they drank blood.184 Nisroc (people) in order to eat them. The Nephilim also are the subject of a Qumran text referred to as the Enochic Book of Giants (4Q532). Mahawai rises up into the air like the whirlwinds and flies with the help of his hands like an eagle until he reaches Enoch. They petition God to intervene. gluttony. the angels Michael. He is saved by Enoch. The text tells that two Nephilim sons of SEMYAZA (leader of the Watchers). the DEMON of want. As a fallen angel in HELL. Mahawai transforms into a bird again to make another journey. 1992. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. (7:3–7) Meanwhile. Collins. Later in the text. He flies too close to the Sun and is threatened with incineration. They will beg you everything—for their fathers on behalf of themselves because they hope to live an eternal life. Robert. (They hope) that each one of them will live a period of 500 years. wild beasts. for length of days have they not. Niyaz is powerful and haughty and is behind the evil deeds and disasters of people’s lives and their ill-omened deaths. London: Element Books. reptiles and fish. New York: Doubleday. God declares that he will punish these transgressions with complete destruction in the flood. He tells Gabriel: Proceed against the bastards and the reprobates and the children of adultery. Eisenman. Andrew. Nisroc Assyrian deity who became both a good ANGEL and a FALLEN ANGEL. Niyaz is often paired with A Z. Edited by James H. The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered. Reprint. Mahawai. insatiability. As a holy angel. 1983. saying that the giants have filled Earth with blood and oppression. Niyaz In ZOROASTRIANISM. and destroy the children of adultery and expel the children of the Watchers from among the people and send them against one another (so that) they may be destroyed in the fight. named Ahya and Ohya. and lust. and Surafal observe in horror the bloodshed and oppression upon the earth. 1996. Nisroc rules cuisine in the House of Princes. And their flesh was devoured the one by the other. he rules the order of principalities. have a shared dream vision in which they visit a world garden and see 200 trees being cut down by angels. distress. Gabriel. Vols. whose voice descends from heaven to tell him to turn back and not die prematurely. to consult Enoch in paradise and ask him what it means. And then the earth brought an accusation against the oppressors. From the Ashes of Angels: The Forbidden Legacy of a Fallen Race. Enoch says that the 200 trees symbolize the 200 Watchers who are going to be destroyed in the coming flood. 1985. The council appoints one of their members. 1 & 2. (10:9–11) dream and so they take it to the Nephilim council. the Watchers spread more corruption by teaching people secret and magical arts they are not supposed to know. They do not understand the . Charlesworth. and scarcity. the demon of avarice. They hear the prayers of the people begging for help. London: Signet Books. and Michael Wise. And they began to sin against birds.

And the enemy could not disobey her [for she was a saint]. this is not accurate. Sometimes the term is used interchangeably with OPPRESSION or even POSSESSION.) Other holy or biblical figures. The literature of saints. kicking and trampling her and leaving her severely bruised. Obyzouth Female DEMON whose principal acts of evil are to kill newborn infants and cause others to be stillborn. Nicole See MIRACLE OF L AON. such as Saul. She is successful every night. Doña Micaela triumphed. Doña Micaela de Aguirre. The Life of St. Hilary describes how the saint’s “temptations were numerous. Obyzouth appears with disheveled hair and arrogantly refuses to answer questions until King SOLOMON has purified himself by washing his hands and has sat on his throne. In the end. Obyzouth says Solomon cannot give her orders. Obyzouth describes how she travels about every night. visiting women as they give birth and strangling their newborns. according to her biographer. . going to even the remotest parts of Earth. When he tried to sleep. however. how often when he lay down did naked women appear to him. and makes bodies feel pain. . for possession entails being completely taken over within. such as constantly checking to see whether a door is locked or believing that deadly germs are everywhere. monks. Irritated by Doña Micaela’s perfection. was obsessed by the Devil.O Obry. and hermits describes numerous cases of obsession as part of a holy person’s spiritual challenges. In the Testament of Solomon. Anthony endured the most famous obsession during his withdrawal into the desert. . destroys minds. making her comparable to the LAMIAE and the offspring of LILITH. the Devil began tormenting her. . However. “Mocking his 185 cunning she bade him fetch an ax and chop wood. which controls or affects all other actions. (See SUCCUBUS. appearing one night in the shape of a horse. he took the ax and chopped the wood up with all haste and departed in confusion. leaving her there all night. In the 17th century. also suffered obsessive spirits. obsession refers to total domination by a fixed idea. Obsession is derived from the Latin obsidere and refers to a state of siege or an attack on a person or personality from without. the DEVIL assumed the form of a woman and tried to seduce him with feminine gestures. Sometimes the Devil immersed Doña Micaela in the convent well up to her neck. a young Spanish nun. roaring with anger at being defeated by a young nun.” In modern psychiatry. condemns mouths. She also injures eyes. He stood on Micaela with his full weight. obsession A state of being besieged by DEMONs. The king complies. she is thwarted by the archangel Raphael (see THWARTING ANGELS) and admits that she will flee to the “other world” (the realm of demons) if women who are in labor write her name on a piece of parchment.” St.

the Antichrist. Unbeknownst to him. scripted by David Seltzer and directed by Richard Donner. and find an archaeologist. Directed by Don Taylor. which became a best-seller. who knows how to kill the Antichrist. The book has been reprinted as Possession and Exorcism. He was forced into retirement on a severely limited pension. the Nazi government dismissed him from his university post. living with his wealthy relatives in Chicago. was released in 1978. The priest deceived them in order to pass Damien on to them. N. whom they name Damien (Harvey Stephens). Deaths of people involved with Damien continue. since ancient times. features the birth of the son of SATAN to fulfill biblical prophecies of Armageddon. and the exorcisms applied for relief. The Omen was remade in 2006 in a film directed by John Moore and starring Liev Schrieber as Robert Thorn. Julia Stiles as Katharine. He may have been terminated because of his deep interest in psychical research and in cases of possession. Robert acquires the daggers but is emotionally unable to kill the child. Robert is approached by a priest and offered a newborn child whose mother has just died in childbirth. Traugott K. Before she realizes what has happened. Robert realizes the awful truth with the help of a photographer. Katharine dies when she is thrown over a railing by their new nanny. As the child grows. secret allies of Damien help . the Antichrist. The murdered child is the real son of the Thorns. Desperate to save his wife a crisis.J: University Books. Richard invests in Third World countries.” on his scalp (see SIX-SIX-SIX). He pulls out a dagger and then hesitates. The priest dies. which later provoked the dislike of the Nazis. Charlesworth. it stars William Holden and Lee Grant as Richard and Ann Thorn. K. Tragedy strikes when Katharine gives birth in a hospital. The film ends with the double funeral of Robert and Katharine. and in various cultures. Carl Bugenhagen. apparently because of his marriage in 1912 to a Jewish woman and his political writings in 1919. a comprehensive examination of states of possession. He reveals it to Katharine. Baylock (Billie Whitelaw). He removes the last bit of doubt about the true identity of his adopted son when he snips away some of Damien’s hair and discovers 666. Damien. Secaucus.) Oesterreich was born in Germany in 1880. Edited by James H.S. that Damien is the son of the DEVIL. Seltzer declined to write the screenplay. has triumphed and is shown holding the hand of the president of the United States. The film. The couple find the grave and disinter the woman. so that everyone who passes through will glorify the God of Israel. Damien. both voluntary and involuntary. Damien is not well liked. Robert seizes Damien and takes him to a church. New York: Doubleday. Jennings tries to take over the job but is killed himself in a gruesome accident of decapitation by a pane of glass atop a runaway truck. The family relocates to London. 1985. he was reinstated at the university but soon was dismissed again. including the apparent suicide of the nanny and a bizarre impaling of a priest who knows the real secret. They are horrified to find the skeleton of a jackal where the woman should be buried and that of a newborn whose skull has been smashed. In 1933. Robert takes the child and presents it to Katharine as their own son. FURTHER READING: Oesterreich. with seven special daggers. Peck and Remick are Robert (Jeremy in the novel) and Katharine Thorn. Robert and Jennings travel to Tel Megiddo. intending to lay him on the altar and stab him to death in a sacrificial manner. Little is known of his personal life. Possession and Exorcism. a prosperous American couple living in Italy. He is shot by police who pursued him and Damien into the church. Robert fights the nanny and manages to stab her to death. Keith Jennings (David Warner). and Seamus Davey-Fitzpatrick as Damien. Reprint. The (1976) Horror film about the birth of the ANTICHRIST. where Robert is the U. Richard’s son by his first marriage. 1 & 2.186 Oesterreich. They want to start a family. A sequel to the original film. Vols. and Robert is informed that the child was stillborn. he took a philosophy teaching post at a university in Tubingen. Robert returns to London. Oesterreich is the author of Possession: Demoniacal & Other. and Jonathan Scott-Taylor as Damien. Germany. Traugott K onstantin The horrified king has Obyzouth bound by her hair and hung in front of the Temple of Jerusalem. Oesterreich. the “Mark of the Beast. and he became professor there in 1922. allegedly because he was near retirement age. The Omen II. is now 13 and knows his true identity. who has given Solomon command over the demons. strange things happen in the household. Selzter wrote a novelization of the film. Omen. Mrs. 1966. The film stars Gregory Peck and Lee Remick as the unwitting adoptive parents of the Antichrist. After the defeat of the Nazis in 1945 in World War II. Damien’s aunt and uncle. where the nanny’s demonic Rottweiler attacks him. ambassador. Israel. He is enrolled in a military academy along with Mark. Traugott Konstantin (T. They return to the hospital and learn from the priest the location of the grave of Damien’s real mother. In 1910. 1983. An industrialist. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Traugott Konstantin (1880–1949) German professor of philosophy and author of a classic work on POSSESSION and EXORCISM.

this time heir to a fortune that will enable him to pursue his plans freely. But Reynolds sneaks up behind and fatally stabs Damien in the back. Joan Hart. and DeCarlo kills him instead. a journalist. He secretly orders the murders of all male infants in England. the U. Others who learn Damien’s secret also are dealt with in grisly ways. An unusual alignment of stars in the sky creates a new Star of Bethlehem and tells Damien that the Second Coming of Christ is at hand. and he does. Damien is left once again triumphant. Lisa Harrow as the journalist Kate Reynolds. Damien even kills his stepbrother. ambassador to England. who has the divine assignment to kill the Antichrist. In the Testament of Solomon. when the king asks whether there are any female demons and says he wants to see one. She tries to warn Richard but is neutralized when a satanic crow pecks out her eyes. investigates the strange earlier death of Carl Bugenhagen. People who refuse to sell to Thorn Industries are murdered. and a favorite to run for president of the United States. not as an infant. the Antichrist. He is romantically involved with Reynolds. He calls out for Christ to appear. Tragically.Onoskelis 187 Jonathan Scott-Taylor as Damien. Omen III: The Final Conflict was released in 1981. but he remains intent on slaying Damien. Father DeCarlo. . hunts for Damien with a band of priests. Those who try to thwart the plan die. Mark.S. the film stars Sam Neill as the now-adult Damien Thorn.” Onoskelis Female DEMON. telling Damien. who reveals herself as the Whore of Babylon. Damien is a charismatic figure with slavish followers. Richard tries in vain to stop Damien. but he is stabbed to death by Anne. All but DeCarlo are killed. who has the Seven Daggers of Megiddo. Damien uses Reynolds’ teenage son as a shield. “You have won nothing. She herself is killed when Damien causes a boiler to explode and she bursts into flames. Onoskelis is summoned by BEELZEBUB to the presence of King SOLOMON. Meanwhile. in Damien: The Omen II (1978) (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) him buy up land as part of the fulfillment of the Antichrist’s 10 kingdoms on Earth. Directed by Graham Baker. DeCarlo knows that Christ will reappear as an adult. and Rossano Brazzi as the priest Father DeCarlo. who knew Damien’s secret.

According to the Testament of Solomon. Edited by James H. He appears as a lion with a serpent’s tail that rides a horse and holds two huge. and excrement. He teaches the virtues of the planets and stars. New York: Doubleday. Solomon summons Uriel. where he strangles “those who reside in Aquarius because of their passion for women whose zodiacal sign is Virgo. promising to call up other demons. The boy grows thin. . and with their help you shall build Jerusalem when you bear this seal of God. who forces Ornias to cut stones by terrorizing him. extremes of hot and cold. There are dramatic personality changes and mood swings and deep depression. Solomon begs God for help to have authority over the demon. He has shape-shifting ability: He strangles men born under the sign of Aquarius because they have passion for women born under the sign of Virgo. Incensed. accompanied by the spiritual reform of the victim. hissing snakes. 1 & 2. It is also referred to as “vexation. he becomes a man who likes boys and causes them pain when he touches them. Charlesworth. I assume the appearance of a lion. 1983. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. grants dignities. The archangel Michael gives him a magical ring with a seal engraved upon it that will bestow the power upon Solomon. rappings. Reprint. rotting flesh. Those who are exhausted by doing so become FALLING STARS. they suffer great pain. and poundings. materializations of a black form that personifies evil. heavy breathing and footsteps. and. Terrified by IRON. Edited by James H. Ornias appears at sunset and takes half the wages and food of the master workman’s boy—Solomon’s favorite—and sucks out his soul through his right thumb. Reprint. Oppression follows INFESTATION and can progress to full demonic POSSESSION.188 oppression Onoskelis appears in the form of a beautiful woman with a fair complexion and the legs of a mule. She is thwarted by the name Yahweh (Holy One of Israel). hellish moans and inhuman voices through televisions or telephones. levitation of people or large objects and furniture. and when I touch them. prelacies. When Ornias next appears. and ravines and perverts men and strangles them. The Prince of Demons is unimpressed by the name of Solomon. often in succession. Friends and family feel the victim has undergone a marked personality change. Michael tells Solomon. Orias Ornias One of the FALLEN ANGELS. Solomon finds the demon trembling at his gates and goes to interrogate him.” Solomon binds the demon with his ring and sets him to work cutting stone from the quarry. psychological breakdown. Ornias has the gift of prophecy. either through a horrendous bombardment of external terrors or through an internal. She says she lives in caves. Vols. such as sulfur. When that work is done. vampirizing DEMON who lives in the constellation Aquarius. who is bested by King SOLOMON.” Ornias says that while in trance. Uriel calls up sea monsters and withers them. Internally. where they overhear God’s plans. Beelzebub cries out like one burned by fire and does as commanded. as a flaming fire. the demon begs for a measure of freedom. Sometimes I am a creature with wings (flying) up to the heavenly regions.” Oppressed victims are terrorized by demonic bloodcurdling screams. and the demon goes to BEELZEBUB. The victim becomes argumentative and makes heavy use of foul or obscene language. “You shall imprison all the demons. casting them to the ground. He gives Ornias the magical ring. he turns into a heavenly winged creature. FURTHER READING: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. OMON. Solomon asks him why he is losing weight. 1985. fi nally. Ornias is an annoying. She travels by the full Moon and is associated with the constellation of Capricorn. and confirmations. and he can assume the form of a lion. putrid and disgusting smells. knockings. He says he resides in the constellation Aquarius. Oppression is relieved by rites of EXORCISM. Vols. cliffs. male and female. 1985. Finally.” Solomon gives the ring to the boy and instructs him to fling it at the demon’s chest when he next appears and order him to go to Solomon. He transforms men. But the boy binds the demon and delivers him to the king. explaining to Solomon that demons fly up to heaven. 1983. nightmares and disturbed sleep. They think they will obtain gold through her. but she gives little to those who worship her. During the construction of Solomon’s Temple of Jerusalem. “Come! Solomon summons you!” Ornias screams and promises to give the boy all the gold and silver on Earth if he will give the ring back to Solomon. Charlesworth. FALLEN ANGEL and 59th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOrias is a marquis who has 30 LEGIONs of DEMONs. and the boy tells him about Ornias. Ornias says that he is descended from an archangel and is thwarted by the archangel Uriel (see THWARTING ANGELS). Solomon uses the name of Yahweh and his magical ring to bind Onoskelis in a standing position to work day and night spinning hemp for ropes used in the construction of the Temple of Jerusalem. so Ornias throws the ring at his chest and commands him to go to the king. New York: Doubleday. 1 & 2. oppression Demonic influence over a person that involves total domination of the victim’s will. the demon causes the victim to believe he or she is insane. he undergoes three transformations: “Sometimes I am a man who craves the bodies of effeminate boys. the boy does so and shouts. Solomon orders Ornias to fetch the Prince of Demons. and confers the favor of friends and enemies.

Advocates of the Ouija say the device reveals the subconscious of the user or is an interface to genuine spirit communication. and rocks. The users place fi ngertips on the pointer and ask questions. “Ouija. Isaac manipulated the financial books and was fired by William. The delusions only last for an hour. and he was impressed that heavy tables seemed to be easily manipulated by spirits. The spirit claimed it meant “good luck” in ancient Egyptian. the victims will not know they have been changed. used by many people for divination and attempts to contact the dead and spirits. however. but many people believed that he did. respectively. Reiche. so that they will believe they are kings and such. which appeared in Europe in 1853. who lived in Maryland in the 19th century.C. Reiche desired to create a device for communicating with the dead. Another story says that Reiche thought of the name. Reiche dropped out of the picture. the brothers Isaac and William Fuld. Fuld had tried to avoid paying taxes on the grounds that the Ouija . Ouija-like instruments were used through the Middle Ages. The patent for the Ouija was reregistered the same year in the name of William Fuld. who claim it provides a doorway for evil DEMONs to possess the users. He discovers all things past and present and bestows great favors. Orobas is faithful to magicians and does not like them to be tempted by any other demon. He commands three LEGIONs of DEMONs. William added a clear plastic window to his planchette. The forerunner of the modern Ouija was the planchette (French for little board).” As an interface between worlds. claiming credit himself for its invention. for in 1892 it was lost in a hostile takeover by two of Kennard’s own financial supporters. He teamed up with two friends. Also unclear is the origin of the name Ouija. which angered mediums. The Ouija may have been the idea of a coffin maker. who appears first as a leopard and then as a human. he was in the angelic order of thrones.” oui and ja. He gives true answers to questions about the past. in which a group of people sit around a table with hands lightly touching its surface and ask questions of spirits. divinity. Competitors jumped into the market. no. He teaches all liberal sciences and gives true answers to questions about divine and secret things. According to one story. The planchette was popular with spiritualists and was used in séances for automatic writing. which were circular boards with letters painted along the bottom rim. The Ouija seems to blend the characteristics of the planchette. The answers are given in the manner in which the table moves. and the words yes. William Fuld also reinvented some of the board’s history. William won. One leg was a pencil. Orobas is a prince in HELL. A generic term for devices similar to the Ouija is “talking board. Pythagoras was said to have a divination tool that was a table that rolled on wheels. Isaac set up a rival company called Oriole and began marketing a near-duplicate board. goodbye. Elijah Bond and Charles Kennard. MON. where he governs 20 LEGIONs of DEMONs. the Ouija is neutral. shakes.Ouija™ 189 Orobas FALLEN ANGEL and 55th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. Ose also will make people insane and delusional.E. as thousands of bereaved persons attempted to contact the spirits of soldiers killed in the war. It is not clear whether Kennard or Bond founded the company or if they worked together. and it rolled toward signs and symbols. Ose Ouija™ A patented game consisting of a board printed with letters and numbers. and future. Pythagoras or a pupil placed his hands on the table. According to lore. The early success of the company was shortlived. FALLEN ANGEL and 57th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOOse is a president in HELL. The new company had a difficult time. He said the name Ouija really was from the French and German words for “yes. He can change people into any shape desired by the magician. It is said to be dangerous by authorities in the Christian Church. A type of talking board used by Native Americans was called a squdilatc. History Precursors to the Ouija date to Greece around 540 B. to the Baltimore Talking Board Company. But later. and the company’s name was changed to the Ouija Novelty Company. Ouija is a trademarked name owned by Parker Brothers. At some point. present. Prior to his fall. a triangular or heart-shaped pointer on three legs. Fuld publicly claimed not to use the board himself. and dial plates. Kennard was given the name by a spirit while he was using the board himself. The patent for the Ouija was registered in Bond’s name in 1891. C. who then changed the company name again. the Mystifying Oracle” soared in popularity during and after World War I. Planchette. and the creation of the world. The Ouija board itself has had a turbulent history. and the pointer spells out the answers. Two persons concentrated on a rocking T-bar that spelled out messages by pointing to letters. The brothers engaged in a legal battle for control of the patent. In 1910. The company ran into federal tax trouble. Reiche had an interest in table tilting. E. The Kennard Novelty Company began manufacturing the Ouija in 1890. He makes his first appearance as a horse but then changes to a man upon command. neither good nor evil. over which players slide a three-legged triangular pointer. The origin of the board is murky: No one knows exactly where the inspiration originated and even who was the first to produce it. According to JOHANN WEYER. minus the pencil. The Ouija was sold initially as a device for talking to spirits. Its invention is usually attributed to a French spiritualist named M. each claimed to have been the founder. which wrote out words and drew pictures. who feared they would lose business.

In 1919. Parker Brothers purchased the trademark and rights in 1966 and markets the Ouija as entertainment.” One of the Warrens’ most sensational cases involved a Ouija board. people have claimed to be instructed to commit crimes—even murder—via the Ouija and have blamed cases of insanity on the board. The New Age author Ruth Montgomery began her channeling with a Ouija then moved to automatic typing. beatings. and automatic writing devices—“lead down a road of misfortune. nor . Pearl Curran. Jane Roberts was using the Ouija when she met Seth. cloven feet. Fuld. as they might any popular device or method used by people for do-it-yourself spirit contact. Any spirit interface device should not be used for entertainment or for open calls to the spirit world. the manifestation of black forms. and noises. However. even when the intent of communication is decidedly positive in nature. Some problems may arise from open-ended use without control or discernment: People ask for any spirit to manifest. Parker Brothers. A successful rite was performed on May 2. 54. who dispensed metaphysical wisdom. many of which are negative. The Ouija is credited with helping users discover spiritual insights and self-truths and aiding in creativity. In March 1974. you give permission for any unknown spirit to communicate with you. One school of thought holds that the subconscious prompts the hands to spell out the answers most desired. conjuring and candle rituals. Thus began a long relationship with the “Invisibles. called the Ouija “a notorious passkey to terror. Betty and Stewart Edward White were using a Ouija as a lark with friends. began receiving communications from “Patience Worth. Supreme Court. however. Fuld appealed to the U. In 1927. Louis homemaker. torment. they said four of 10 involved problems resulting from the Ouija. In 1913. bought the company. The Ouija has been a game or toy ever since. séances. At first. The great English magician and occultist ALEISTER CROWLEY was critical of this approach and once stated. and POSSESSION also have been blamed on spirit contacts initiated via Ouija boards. “When you use the Ouija board. for divination of the future and for entertainment.” a 16thcentury English woman. the maker of Monopoly and other games.” ED AND LORRAINE WARREN. during which a demon manifested as a seven-foot-tall being with horns. speaking in an old English dialect. The “evil spirit” may be only the prankster archetype. The Pulitzer Prize–winning poet James Merrill composed his epic The Changing Light at Sandover from two decades of spirit communications via the Ouija. was on the roof of his company when he fell three stories to his death. terror. Since some people expect problems from Ouija use. Pros and Cons of the Ouija Until the 1960s. and the key is responsible use. William and Hubert. Would you open the front door to your house and let in anybody who felt like it? Of course not. which in 1922 upheld the lower court ruling. when suddenly Betty was instructed to “get a pencil” and take dictation. 1974. The federal government considered it a “sporting game. earthbound spirits who have not accepted their deaths and are bent on possessing living human beings. His company was taken over by his sons. via the Ouija. OBSESSION. Patty asked the spirit to manifest.” A federal court ruled in favor of the government. and a tail. and the Donovan household began experiencing unpleasant phenomena of destruction. People used it to try to contact the dead. it is possible that such unstable individuals were already so inclined and were not “forced” by “spirits” to do anything beyond their inclinations and control. Patty. and the case was turned over to Catholic clergy for exorcism.” Of the thousands of demonic and negative cases the Warrens claimed to have investigated in their careers. dictated an astounding volume of poetry and novels. visions of monsters. whose daughter. who purported to be a highly developed entity. Ed said that all doors to the supernatural—the Ouija. The second holds that real entities are contacted. who dictated highly regarded books on metaphysics. of Salem. The demons engage in vicious attacks such as physical injury.” who seemed to be higher entities. users think they are talking with dead people they know or friendly spirits. A person who uses a Ouija invites entities to communicate. The Warrens investigated. they were consulted by the Donovan family. it is difficult to ascertain how many problems are genuine versus self-fulfilled expectations. to obtain messages from spirits. Stewart compiled it into The Betty Book. according to the Warrens. and ruin. Worth. nightmares. The Ouija has not been without problems. Throughout its history. Massachusetts. rape. Sexual assaults. poltergeistlike disturbances. In 1963.190 Ouija™ was a scientific device for mediumship and therefore qualified for religious status tax exemption. demonologists. providing an opening through which evil beings gain a foothold. had been using a Ouija board for months to talk to a spirit who said he had died as a teenager. By the late 1920s. rains of rocks. the Ouija was considered to be mostly benign in nature. and even levitation of victims. Some victims must seek psychiatric help. the Ouija fad was in decline. Responsibilities of Users Many paranormal investigators and occultists say they have no problem using the Ouija. levitation of objects. There are two theories as to the sources of answers derived from a Ouija board. a St. After benign beginnings. Clergy have criticized and denounced it.S. In 1966. Some psychiatrists and psychologists say the “possession” is not caused by entities but by material dredged up from the subconscious. the communications turn dark and threatening as malicious and evil demons reveal their true selves.

Troy. The Demonologist: The Extraordinary Career of Ed and Lorraine Warren. Ouija: The Most Dangerous Game. “Why Are We Bashing the Ouija?” TAPS Paramagazine. Englewood Cliffs.Ouija™ 191 should participants use alcohol or drugs prior to or during sessions. Los Angeles: Feral House. Alton. 2006.J. 1979. N. Stoker. Hunt. July 2007. The Ouija Book. Aleister Crowley and the Ouija Board. 1985. Rosemary Ellen. Covina. New York: Simon & Schuster. 1980. Taylor. Guiley. 2005.: Prentice-Hall. J. Cornelius. New York: Harper & Row. Gerald Daniel. .: Whitechapel Productions Press. FURTHER READING: Brittle. Edward. Boards should never be used to contact or conjure demonic entities. Louis: The True Story of the 1949 Exorcism. The Devil Came to St. 7–9. Gina. Ill.

The Devil’s pact is based on a long history of assumption among theologians that any practice of magic. we have made a covenant with hell” (28:15). The Devil’s pact is implied in biblical passages. Thomas Aquinas (ca. St. Jerome in the fifth century. It also boosted the cult of the Blessed Virgin Mary. A man who wishes to seduce a pretty girl goes to a magician for help. “For you have said: We have entered into a league with death. St. In the book of Isaiah. usually in exchange for one’s soul. Her father refuses to allow her to marry him. Lucifer insists that he sign a pact in writing. The man does as told and calls upon the powers of darkness. and he said to him. gave weight to the concept of Devil’s pacts in De Doctinia Christiana. love.P pact A binding agreement with a DEMON or the DEVIL for gain and services beyond the power of nature. Legendary Pacts Informal pacts with demons and the Devil exist in legend and folklore tales about individuals seduced into selling their souls. for it is she who often appears in the stories to save the person. Jerome’s story involves St. the prophet Isaiah says. Augustine (354–430). (See SIMON MAGUS. The victim usually was not . Formal pacts with the Devil appeared for the fi rst time in the writings of St. and saves the girl from going to HELL. and the Devil’s promises of glory and power in return for worship: “Again. he agrees to renounce Christ in writing. ‘All these I will give you.) Such assertions were made by Origen (185–254). Jesus refuses and the Devil leaves. the church’s greatest theologian. and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and the glory of them. 1227– 74). St. In the 13th century. helps the man repent. For 192 payment. The man does so. often to obtain treasure. Matthew 4 tells about the temptations of JESUS in the wilderness. treasurer of the church of Adana. He is taken to the presence of LUCIFER and undergoes a parody of a BAPTISM in which he reaffirms his renunciation of Christ. who condemned divination. The story of Theophilus was told in many variations throughout Europe and became the basis for the legend of FAUST. who allegedly sold his soul to the Devil around 538 in order to become a bishop. or even divination had to involve a demonic pact. The magician writes a letter to the Devil to advise him of his conquest. if you will fall down and worship me’ ” (4:8). Another of the earliest Christian stories of a pact with the Devil concerns THEOPHILUS. or power. the devil took him to a very high mountain. for he desires his daughter to become a nun. Basil learns about the pact. one of the most important fathers of the early church. and the Devil causes the girl to fall in love with the man.” Stories of Devil’s pacts were common in the Middle Ages. stated in Sententiae. Basil. “Magicians perform miracles through personal contracts made with demons. The girl gives in to her lover. and particularly in the 16th and 17th centuries during the witch hysteria. The magician tells the man to take his renunciation and go out at night and thrust it up into the air.

a leading Italian demonologist of the 17th century. signed his book in their own blood. but always had a catch. Devil pacts became a deadly matter. Delort said. Two Dominican monks are executed for signing pacts with the Devil. The implicit pact involves a written petition offered to the Devil. sometimes as a man and sometimes as an animal. The pact required them to renounce Christianity. If witches bewitched people into becoming possessed. NICHOLAS REMY. Sometimes the Virgin Mary would intercede for the victims and snatch the pacts away from the Devil. She let some blood from her left arm and allowed it to flow on to a fire made of human bones which had been stolen from the parish cemetery. The MALLEUS MALEFICARUM (1487). “The angel of darkness is not hard to deal with. pacts were made spontaneously. Since then she has made certain harmful concoctions and potions which cause men and beasts to die. (See MAILLOT. France. they were made privately. emphasized the importance of the Devil’s pact in recruiting witches and coercing them to evil acts. She pronounced certain strange words which she no longer remembers and the Devil Berit appeared to her in the form of a violet flame.” as the Devil was called. said that people who enter into any pacts. baptism. His belt was stained with pitch. The pact was said to be sometimes oral but traditionally was written on virgin parchment and signed in BLOOD. The victim. and deny the Eucharist. wrote of a case in 1587 in which a woman told of a demonic pact made by her mother and her. share the same 11 characteristics: . copulated with him and his demons. according to the daughter. The enticements started with a small price. Sometimes pacts were made in lewd rites at SABBATs. a married woman. Christ. They were out gathering rushes one day when a shoemaker appeared. said a shepherd with whom she had a tryst had forced her into a Devil’s pact. The trials also were significant for being the first to feature the diabolical SABBAT. deny his faith. Sometimes. according to the Malleus.” Pacts in Witchcraft and Possession During the Inquisition. and promised fealty to him. holding hands. usually had a dreadful demise. A female version of the Faust legend is MARY OF NEMMEGEN. according to tortured accused witches. pledging to serve the Devil or one of his satellite demons. seldom passes up an opportunity. The mother seemed to be expecting him. Demonologists said there are two types of diabolical pacts: explicit and implicit. in 1335. According to JACQUES COLLIN DE PLANCY. The accused witch Catherine Delort. such as the cost of one’s soul. Then he pledged himself to the “Little Master. One man from Berne said that the Devil required him to go to church and before Mass was said. These moralistic stories were publicized through pamphlets and portrayed Satan as a trickster. He made the women swear allegiance to him and marked them on the brow with his nail. In the legend of Faust. FRANCESCO-MARIA GUAZZO. in the presence of the priests. The Devil. The explicit pact is a solemn vow of fidelity and homage made to a visible form of the Devil in the presence of witnesses. The first appearance of a Devil’s pact in WITCHCRAFT trials occurred in Toulouse. (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) After that. and offer to help. despite supernatural favors. not so much for their personal gain but expressly for the power to harm others. The pact would last for a specified number of years. The Malleus describes other ways pacts were made.pact 193 a witch. provided of course that he receives the soul as a pledge. trample on the cross. but an ordinary person who was vulnerable to temptation. she attended obscene sabbats every Friday night. According to her deposition quoted by Julio Caro Baroja in The World of Witches: This loathsome ceremony took place at midnight at the edge of a wood at a place where two roads meet. If pacts were not made at sabbats or in public displays. He was burned at the stake. at which the initiates cooked and ate babies. according to witchcraft trial testimonials.) Satan or a demon would appear. and the church. The Devil. The money crumbled to dust. such as fealty for a certain number of years. a French demonologist. a scientist and alchemist sells his soul to MEPHISTOPHELES in exchange for youth and lust. the leading inquisitors’ handbook. kissed the anus of the Devil. explicit and implicit. European witch hunters believed that all witches entered into a Devil’s pact. He gave them money and vanished into the air. approached a candidate with an offer he could not refuse. THOMAS. either in person or through a proxy such as a witch. usually in the form of a man dressed in black. at which time Satan would collect: The victim would die and his soul would go to HELL. He had sex with the daughter and then the mother and then danced in a ring with them. it seems. their victims also might enter into Devil pacts.

In two famous trials in 17th-century France. Beelzebub. They vow to sacrifice to him on a regular basis. they make many vows. Paul. The vows are • never to adore the Eucharist • to insult and revile in both word and deed the Blessed Virgin Mary and the saints continually • to abstain from making the sign of the cross and from using anything consecrated by the church. in the council of the devils. The Devil forces them to deny their godfathers and godmothers. And according to the tenor of these terms have I signed and sealed. withdraw allegiance from God. It was written backward in Latin and signed in blood. In 1633.-Pierre-du-Marche in Loudun. Son and Holy Ghost. especially those he suspects will lose their faith in him. have today accepted the pact of alliance with Urbain Grandier. Astaroth. together with every good that I may ever possess (save always the benefits of the sacraments touching those who receive them). Peter.” This demonstrates that the Devil is their God of heaven and Earth. also involving bewitched nuns. 10. and S. (Countersigned by) Baalberith. Grandier was convicted and burned alive at the stake. in 1633. His Precious Blood and the merits thereof. The Devil brands them with his mark on some part of their body. the all-powerful Lucifer. In return. He will fornicate every three days. After being marked. he will live happily for twenty years on earth among men. They pray to the Devil to strike them out of the book of life and write their names in the book of death. Leviathan. One of Gaufridi’s victims was a woman named Madeleine de la Palud. worldly honors. 4. Louis Gaufridi. It read: We. including holy water and blessed salt and bread • never to make confessions again to a priest • to maintain silence concerning their pact with the Devil • to participate in sabbats when they can • to recruit others into the service of the Devil Guazzo agreed with other demonologists that these elaborate pacts were empty. They give the Devil a piece of their clothing as a symbol of the acquired goods that now belong to him. Elimi. and he will say his prayers to us. seconded by Stana. S. intoxication will be dear to him. “Notarized the signature and mark of the chief devil. who also confessed orally to making a Devil’s pact: With all my heart and most unfeignedly and with all my will most deliberately do I wholly renounce God. and others. the most Holy Mother of God. 5. Father Gaufridi was convicted and burned alive at the stake. renounce all good. 2. The Devil places a claw on their brow to rub off the Holy Chrism and destroy the mark of their baptism. fulfill all their prayers in this world. They undergo a mock baptism administered by the Devil. John-Baptist. 6. recorder. and I give myself body and soul to Lucifer. They make annual gifts to their demons in order to avoid being beaten by them. There was no need to produce an actual document. By virtue of this pact. They forswear their old name and are given a new name. 9. Sister Madeleine was convicted and banished from the parish. and award them happiness after death. a parish priest of St. The circle is a symbol of divinity. often by burning at the stake. and riches. They deny the Christian faith. an oral confession was sufficient to sentence the accused to death. Under torture he recited his pact verbally for the inquisitors: I. all the prayers which are made or may be made for me. France. Father Louis Gaufridi was tried in the AIX-ENPROVENCE POSSESSIONS involving bewitched nuns. and my lords the princes of hell. 11. both spiritual as well as temporal. 7. .194 pact 1. the Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Lucifer. Inquisitors tortured accused witches to force confessions of devil’s pacts. also the good inspirations which God may give me in the future. And we promise him the love of women. Father. the flower of virgins. he will trample under foot the sacraments of the church. Done in hell. 3. 8. all the Saints of Heaven. and finally will come among us to curse God. Leviathan. the Devil promises to stand by them. which were important to securing convictions. before whom I stand. Francis. as also S. Elimi. and the earth is “God’s footstool. particularly my Patron St. Astaroth. Devil’s pacts were produced. who is on our side. (Signed by) Satan. He will offer to us once a year a tribute marked with his blood. all the Angels and especially my Guardian Angel. my lot in Paradise. both of baptism and of confirmation. which may be bestowed upon me by God. the chastity of nuns. such as offering up children they murder. The gifts must be black. was brought to trial in the LOUDUN POSSESSIONS. one orally and one in writing. and deny their BAPTISM. the Blessed Virgin Mary. In 1611. for the Devil never keeps his word. repudiate the protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary. A written pact was introduced as evidence. They swear allegiance to the Devil within a circle traced upon the ground. pleasures. Beelzebub. Father URBAIN GRANDIER. and assigns them new ones.

Weyer said they were “illusory. while standing or sitting in a magic circle. in whatever part of the world you may be. states in The Satanic Bible (1969) that the Devil’s pact was a threat “devised by Christianity to terrorize people so they would not stray from the fold.” Weyer was one of the first authoritative voices to speak out against the witch hysteria and Devil pacts. in which a demon agrees to serve without condition. In witness thereof. Breaking Pacts Pacts with the Devil are not necessarily irrevocable. He said that one must renounce and abjure the pact. by means of the pact which I shall deliver to him. Master of All Rebellious Spirits. there could be no contract between a human and a demon. MEFFIAS. Emperor. A pact cannot be made directly with major demons such as LUCIFER. In moral tales.” a fabrication of mind that had “no weight. ONERA.” The pact is held while the following incantation in recited: LUCIFER. CLYORAN. I call you. GREAT DEMON. The Church of Satan holds that a formal pact is not necessary to become a satanist. and ASTAROTH. The church founder. EMMANUEL. which is made from the first calf borne by a cow.pact 195 In England in the mid-17th century. who intercede. There are two types of pacts: a unilateral pact. Prince. burn it if in writing. Pacts in Satanism In some practices of modern SATANISM. to come speak with me. talismans. on penalty of forfeiture of one’s body and soul. an influential physician and writer on demons and witchcraft in the 16th century. . He argued for forgiving accused witches if they renounced Satan and repented. followers pledge to serve Satan. and writings . . As for the pacts themselves. I pray thee also. ADONAI. caused harm. The most important grimoire. the Key of Solomon. there is no salvation once the pact is made). BEELZEBUB. a magical wand feared by every demon. but only with one of their lieutenants. ICION. gave advice for breaking demonic pacts. AMEN. leave thy dwelling. desiring to make a pact with him. then a pact is an absolute neces- sity. to protect me in my undertaking. St. The Grand Grimoire states that if the magician cannot master a magic circle and a blasting rod. The pact should read. not the witches. ASTAROTH. if not.” Legally. she did so by poison. The grimoire provides a lengthy pact for commanding LUCIFUGE ROFOCALE. I beseech thee to be favorable to me in calling upon thy GREAT MINISTER which I make. (In some versions of the Faust legend. VAYCHEON. however.” Pacts in Magic Magical GRIMOIRES give instructions for making pacts with demons for procuring favors. or murmuring. . acknowledged in his work De praestigiis daemonum (On the Illusions of Demons) that there were witches who made pacts with Satan but said that Satan. be propitious to me and cause that this night the GREAT DEMON appear to me in human form and without any evil smell. TETRAGRAMMATON. JOHANN WEYER. or when whistling. ERYONA. he who is constrained by the will or command of none but God and God’s good ministers. According to grimoires. BEELZEBUB. RETRASAMMATHON. who founded the Redemptorist order in the 18th century. is aroused in the organs of hearing by the evil spirit’s art. or declare it to be rejected. I shall thereto compel thee by the power of the mighty words of the Great Key of Solomon. the latter are dangerous and not to be trusted. not by supernatural means. The Devil will appear and offer a pact to be signed in the blood of the magician. in which a demon agrees to conditional service. SABAOTH. appeals are made to the Virgin Mary or Jesus. It states that pentacles—magical inscriptions of words and symbols—are sufficient to protect the magician from demons. SOTER. but they were not the same as those who were being persecuted by the church. One magical formula for conjuring the Devil for a pact calls for sacrificing a cock at the center of a CROSSROADS and letting its blood drip into the center while reciting a spell. Anton Szandor LaVey. a pact is advisable. or whispering. the prime minister of Lucifer. EROHARES. Count. Another formula calls for composing a pact and signing it in one’s own blood. I sign my name. STIMULAMATHON. Alphonso Maria de Liguori. I beseech thee. Appear then instantly or I shall continually torment thee with the mighty words of the Key: AGLON. He acknowledged that there were sorcerers who entered into demonic pacts for their own personal gain. the famous “witch finder” Matthew Hopkins tortured many accused witches into confessing Devil pacts. “I promise GREAT DEMON to repay him in seven years for all he shall give me. destroy all CHARMs. ERASYN. some spirits bind easily and some do not. If such a witch killed cattle. all the treasures of which I have need. whereof he made use to force the rebellious spirits to accept his pact. ESITION. Even with those two instruments of magic. mentions “penal bonds” and “pacts” only in connection with magic for love and favors. EXISTIEN. Satan needs the help of no second creature in displaying his power and declaring his actions. corresponding in form to the corrupt image. a form of pact. he said: “The deception occurs when an apparition of Satan’s choice is cunningly imposed upon the optic or visual nerves by the disturbing of the appropriate humors and spirits. MOYN. The pact must be written on virgin parchment. and a bilateral pact. and redemption is always possible. and that he grant me.

Secaucus. Me. Montague. Ithaca. AHRIMAN uses them to bewitch the stars in order to prevent rain and cause bad harvests. C. and London: Cornell University Press. Johann. 1972. He has 1.000 spirits by day and 20. he rules as a king and has 200 LEGIONs of DEMONs under his command. 1899. Pamersiel is the chief of the east and serves under CARNESIEL. they can be commanded to drive away other evil spirits who haunt any place or house.196 Padiel connected with black magic. They can be conjured only with Padiel’s permission. CHRISTOPHER. Compendium Maleficarum. He teaches all arts. Nicholas. According to Solomon. and the Path to Deliverance. 1939. The History of Witchcraft and Demonology. In HELL. Repenting will render a pact useless. N. The ritual must be done in the most secret room of a house. and several thousand more in addition. Pamersiel’s primary dukes are Anoyr. subjugates people to the will of the magician. Pamersiel and his dukes are evil and false. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. humans always have free will to revoke a diabolic pact. which must be called only during the daytime and with great care. The spirits can be summoned into a stone or glass and bound into the objects. New York: Dover Publications. Trench. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.000 by night. Secaucus. The lower spirits can be trusted. Asheville. Reprint. Demonolatry. and other instruments. The Lemegeton. 2006. Weyer. Other persons must not be able to observe the ritual. He is observed in the northwest. 1998. 1974. Fortea. Materials toward a History of Witchcraft. and not to be trusted.: University Books. 1975. New York: Avon Books. He was conceited with his own knowledge and fell with LUCIFER. Erik Midelfort. Rablion. 1974. A crystal stone must measure four inches in diameter and be set on a table consecrated to King Solomon. a GRIMOIRE. and gives good FAMILIARs. Julio Caro. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. and Nadrel. Pamersiel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. According to modern demonologists. Summers.Y. E. Padiel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. On Witchcraft (De praestigiis daemonum). He has a roaring voice. FURTHER READING: Baroja. Abridged. West Chester. N. He will give the answer to any question. wood.C.: Samuel Weiser. N. sciences. Russell. Butler. and secrets. Sotheano. M. and sterility. Padiel is the second-ranking spirit of the east and rules the south as king.J. the only powers they have are those conferred upon them by Padiel. Salt sprinkled around will repel the demon. palis In Arabian lore.: Pegasus Press. Ormenu. Waite. The World of the Witches.J. cymbals. for they are stubborn and arrogant. José Antonio. Pa. He appears as a crowned man seated on a camel. Henry Charles. 1971. or occult place. Lea. The palis waits until desert travelers are asleep and then licks their feet. Madriel. The Malleus Maleficarum of Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger. Diabolic Possession. and make whatever restitution is possible. The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts. Paimon was in the angelic order of dominations. power to bewitch in malevolent ways. The Pairikas exert their baleful influences on the elements. travelers should sleep with the soles of their feet touching the soles of another person’s feet. To prevent attack. Itrasbiel.000 spirits under his command. famine. Prior to his fall. Paimon FALLEN ANGEL and ninth of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. 1949. The place should be airy. Jeffrey Burton. Pairikas In Persian lore and ZOROASTRIANISM. Fr. Anton Szandor. Kohl and H. Abrulges. Ebra. Itules. Francesco-Maria.: Ascension Press. N. He governs 10. or a hidden grove. They also cause meteor showers.. cattle. Edited by Benjamin G. Arthur Edward. a desert DEMON that vampirizes people by licking the soles of their feet until their BLOOD is drained. Remy. a class of DAEVA or DEMON of beautiful seductresses who have the Seal of Pamersiel (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) . There is no known description of the palis. preceded by many musicians with trumpets. Interview with an Exorcist: An Insider’s Look at the Devil. See H AIZMANN. Trubner. gives instructions for summoning Pamersiel and his dukes. and all vegetation. The Satanic Bible. York Beach. Hamorphiel.: University Books. 1926. 1984. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages. The SEAL of Pamersiel must be worn upon the breast. Ritual Magic. However. 1969. LaVey. London: Kegan Paul. Guazzo.

when they have taken continual possession of certain places or roads. so seductive and sportive that. may be redeemed. who sends diseases. He called the process “soothing” rather than exorcising. and plagues into households. Phoenix will assume a human shape and then speak on all the sciences and deliver excellent poetry. Pazuzu plays a role as a reawakened demon who possesses a girl. CARL A. Cardiel. they delight themselves not indeed with tormenting the passers by whom they can deceive. because of these earthbound souls. the head of a dog. Many cases of possession are caused by souls confused by the transition to the afterlife and thus earthbound. . Pirichiel DEMON and a wandering duke of the air.planoi 197 Pazuzu Assyrian and Babylonian DEMON god of the first millennium B. Pithom is mentioned in the Talmud. though others are such slaves to fury and ferocity that they are not simply content with hurting the Pearce-Higgins.. planoi In Greek lore. Pazuzu vanquished the childbirth demon L AMASTU to the underworld. not monotheism. The eight chief knights are Damarsiell.” According to JOHN CASSIAN. and afterlife. the tail of a scorpion. but. and one of the founders of the Anglican Church’s Fellowship for Psychical and Spiritual Studies. He argued for a more serious attitude toward spirit POSSESSION and a gentle guiding of both the possessed and the possessing spirit into better understanding of death . Upon command. exists.200 years. then dualism. pestilence. the possessing spirit needs as much help as the victim. It is really a siren’s voice. Phoenix (Phenix. Figures of the head of Pazuzu were placed in windows facing outward to ward off his own effects. He believed that there are more haunted people and haunted places than anyone realizes. or the White Light. but some attempt greater harm. Pazuzu rules the hot desert winds of Arabia that wither and kill and is sometimes called upon to provide protection against airborne diseases. and so the magician must take precautions not to be seduced by it. but he has dukes beneath him. Pearce-Higgins persuaded rather than forced possessing entities to leave their living victims and enter the next realm of consciousness. Pearce-Higgins preferred to think that even the Devil is a FALLEN ANGEL. the paws of a lion. Canon John D. Nemariel. He did not damn the entity to eternal hellfire. has been distributed worldwide to those in need. Canon John D. He disagreed with the orthodox Christian notion of evil spirits and possessing DEMONs. Pazuzu has the feet of an eagle. he said. Hursiel. His ritual. including the incitement of bloodshed. The demon is human in form. Pithom In Jewish lore. Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. Pheynix) FALLEN ANGEL and the 37th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. most planoi are tricksters. Gods. In Pearce-Higgins’ view. . In William Peter Blatty’s novel THE EXORCIST. 1992. He was knowledgeable about psychology and took care to rule out psychiatric disorders in cases that seemed to involve spirit interference. along with human sinners. As did DR. a combination of Anglican liturgy and special prayers. In his view. Regan. Pearce-Higgins was former vice provost of Southwark Cathedral in London. Pearce-Higgins wrote a ritual to release earthbound souls and send them to heaven. bulging eyes. even the most intractable spirits may someday repent. contenting themselves merely with laughing at them and mocking them. sending it to everlasting damnation—does not take into account the idea that some people die but do not realize it. a father of the church in the fourth century. He said his religious service has no relation to the ideas of binding and adjuring present in other Christian exorcisms. Jeremy.000 servants. and four wings. He formerly was in the angelic order of thrones. The spirits must be summoned at the right planetary hour. and when they appear.E. stating that if the DEVIL and his minions really tormented the living. each with 2. Demediel. He “soothed” or depossessed both people and places. using the services of mediums. Planos (singular) means “vagabond” or “deceiver. The concept of Christian demonic EXORCISM—to bind and place the Devil under oath by the power of God.C. AMULETs of his head were worn around the necks of pregnant women. they are good-natured and obedient. with his head resting on his breast between his shoulders. Phoenix reigns as a marquis in HELL with 20 LEGIONs of DEMONs. a SERPENT DEMON summoned for prophecy. Anglican clergyman and spiritualist known for his “depossession” work. Pirichiel has no dukes or princes under his command. London: British Museum Press. Almasor. try to tire them out rather than to injure them: while some spend the night merely by harmlessly taking possession of men. who. Phoenix has the futile hope that he will return to the seventh throne in 1. He fulfi lls all commands well. In his work Conferences. and Cuprisiel. and Anthony Green. a type of DEMON that assaults travelers and taunts them. He appears as a phoenix bird and sings sweetly in a child’s voice. Cassian described the planoi as . He utters oracular pronouncements from his armpits or with his hands raised and his head lying between his armpits. Menariel. WICKLAND. Pearce-Higgins preferred not to use the term EXORCIST. believing the discarnate needs as much counseling and help as the victim. FURTHER READING: Black. He chaired its Psychic Phenomena Committee.

channelers. magical spell. A possessed person can seem normal for periods of time and then exhibit bizarre.osb. Demonic Possession In demonic possession. uncontrolled behavior attributed to the demon. Souls of the damned already in hell are capable of possessing a living person in much the same way as demons. In each case. Saul’s attendants said to him. and to attack them with most savage slaughter: like those described in the gospel. or deity. Md. words. who was relieved when David played his harp: Now the Spirit of the LORD had departed from Saul. which may cause disturbances in an environment. ghost. but sometimes the entities present an ongoing problem that requires stronger measures. condemned soul. and trance prophets undergo a type of temporary and voluntary possession. possession is associated with malevolent spirits under the direction of the DEVIL that threaten not only a person’s health and life but his or her afterlife as well. Demons were believed to cause . Downloaded February 3. sometimes by suicide. Remedies include spiritual cleansing of the object and premises. apparitions and dark. the victim is entranced. Translated and notes by Edgar C. and an evil spirit from the LORD tormented him. 1 Samuel 16:14–16 describes how an indwelling evil spirit was sent by the Lord tormented Saul. Mediums. the approaches to it differ widely. magician. or other expert. “Conference 7. In Christianity. demonic INFESTATION. Usually the paranormal problems stop after remedial measures are taken. demons cannot possess a person’s soul. The term possessed possessions was coined by Ed Okonowicz. Available online. a demon takes up residence in a person’s body and influences or controls his or her thoughts. remedies of EXORCISM. illness. Possessed Possessions: Haunted Antiques. such as the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost experienced as a religious altered state of consciousness. causing mental disturbances and personality changes. 2008. spirit. “See. And there is no doubt that these and such as these in their insatiable fury delight in wars and bloodshed. but they can influence a person to take actions that jeopardize his or her status in the afterlife. Gibson. If possession creates problems. While possession usually Demons and possession play a more prominent role in the New Testament. Ed. such as a priest. Another type of voluntary possession is spirit. Some objects seem to take on personalities of previous owners. Furniture and Collectibles. Elkton. URL: http://www. for fear of whom no man dared to pass by that way. the demons cause extreme deterioration of health to the point of death.: Myst and Lace Publishers. S. Md. Any object can become possessed by a spirit. a Delaware paranormal researcher. are sought from a trained practitioner. there have been beliefs that gods and other spirits interfere in human affairs on a daily basis. Let our lord command his servants here to search for someone who can play the conf/book1/conf7. an evil spirit from God is tormenting you. and.198 possessed possessions bodies of those. FURTHER READING: Cassian. there is a transition period of a return to normalcy. Possessed objects can remain dormant and then become activated if brought into the right environment by the right person. but actually are eager to rush upon those who are passing by at a distance. Some forms of possession are more psychiatric in nature. is regarded as undesirable.: Myst and Lace Publishers. in which they become a vehicle for discarnate entities to communicate through them. objects can be used to imprison entities. the evil spirit was sent by God to punish and torment people. In lore. Christian History of Demonic Possession There are few references to evil spirits in the Old Testament. or removal or destruction of the object. of whom they have taken possession. The spirits may possess a person’s mind and/or body and cause him or her to carry out certain acts for the possessing entity’s own purpose. the expulsion or banishing of the entity. EXORCISM. Since ancient times. He will play when the evil spirit from God comes upon you. Anything might be blamed on or credited to a possessing entity. Problems include poltergeist disturbances. when they end. or use in magical rituals. 1996. Most possessions are temporary and end when the goal of the possessing entity is accomplished.0. by tearing them in a dreadful manner. Okonowicz.” In The Conferences of John Cassian. According to Catholic theology.” possession The takeover and control of a person’s mind and body by a DEMON. 1998. Elkton. The Gospels and Acts tell how JESUS healed by casting out “unclean spirits. and so on. such as King SOLOMON did when he imprisoned the DJINN in vessels and rings. some traditions hold that it shows the favor of the gods. and you will feel better. Possessed Possessions 2. There are different forms of possession. Objects can become possessed through a CURSE. nightmares. most are not demonic. While possession is a universal and ancient belief. so that the soul goes to HELL.html#7.” a customary practice for healers at the time. shadowy figures. Unless they are exorcised. and actions. Possessed persons usually are under the influence of more than one demon. FURTHER READING: Okonowicz. possessed possessions Objects attached by spirits. During the demonic episodes. Ed. John.

most of the cases cited involve problems and illnesses caused by the possessing spirits. In 1585.” Then Jesus answered.” “Yes. greed. he is driving out demons. France. “Lord. Anyone found showing signs of unusual behavior or change in personality was assumed to be possessed by the Devil. Only a priest. demons were equated with the wicked FALLEN ANGELS cast out of heaven with LUCIFER. and it continues in modern use.” Then he put his hands on her. the demons begged Jesus to send them into a nearby herd of swine. The apple was considered a favorite demonic vehicle because it was the fruit involved in the fall of Adam and Eve. Revisions have been made to the text since then. Lord. demonic possession became a major concern of the church. Part of the Rituale Romanum was especially intended for demonic possession. In 1614. became alarmed over an apple that gave out a “great and confused noise. you are set free from your infirmity. “Send her away. Theologians said that the Devil worked through the agency of witches. such as APPLEs. and. tried. In no case in Scripture was a possessed person considered responsible for his or her condition on account of sin. and the crowd was amazed. When the demon left. after the unit of Roman soldiers numbering 6. The Protestant Reformation rejected the idea of demonic possession. he called her forward and said to her. By the end of the New Testament period. But some of them said.possession 199 Faith makes a woman worthy of having her demonpossessed daughter exorcised in Matthew 15:21–28: Leaving that place. Savoy. One who consulted Jesus was a deranged man who was possessed by demons who identified themselves as LEGION.000. Luke 11:14 describes a person who is rendered mute because of a demon: Jesus was driving out a demon that was mute. the townspeople of Annecy. an all-out spiritual battle between the forces of good and evil. “but even the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters’ table. Early Christian theologians considered possession to be orchestrated by the Devil and carried out by the demons who served him. the Catholic Church issued the RITUALE ROMANUM to standardize procedures. anger.” Luke 13:10–13 tells of a woman who was crippled for 18 years by a demon: On a Sabbath Jesus was teaching in one of the synagogues. for demons rode along into the body on the food. and he did. “Woman. taking the demons with them (Luke 8:30). crying out. the prince of demons. help me!” she said.” The woman came and knelt before him.” she said. Witches were accused of using black MAGIC or animal FAMILIAR s to send demons into people. such as saints. and fooled the innocent. and a woman was there who had been crippled by a spirit for eighteen years. there were famous . they pushed the apple into a river. have mercy on me! My daughter is suffering terribly from demon-possession. “Woman. When Jesus saw her. the man who had been mute spoke.” And her daughter was healed from that very hour. The pigs went berserk and plunged over a cliff to their deaths. Even eating certain foods. “It is not right to take the children’s bread and toss it to their dogs. Jesus withdrew to the region of Tyre and Sidon. During the Inquisition. So his disciples came to him and urged him. As with Legion. the practice of WITCHCRAFT also became a heresy. if found guilty. executed. She was bent over and could not straighten up at all. and so forth— to find an entry point for possession. “I was sent only to the lost sheep of Israel. Seeing that their possession of the man was at an end. although in the 16th and 17th centuries. you have great faith! Your request is granted.” Believing it to be full of demons. Asmodeus one of the principal demons in many cases of possession (AUTHOR’S COLLECTION) illness as well as their own torments. can perform it. and immediately she straightened up and praised God. In the Middle Ages. Luke 9:38–43 describes a case of apparent epilepsy in a boy who experiences convulsions believed to be caused by a demon. He replied.” He answered. Son of David. preferably one who is trained in exorcism. Demons also preyed upon the weaknesses of people—their lust. could result in possession. A Canaanite woman from that vicinity came to him. for she keeps crying out after us. possession became a heresy—a reason to be arrested. Demons plagued the holy. “Lord. “By Beelzebub.” Jesus did not answer a word.

In all cases. including playing with divination devices such as a OUIJA™ or doing automatic writing • offering or dedicating a child to SATAN • being the victim of a witchcraft spell or CURSE Engaging in these activities. many in France. the victim voluntarily yields control to the demon. • OPPRESSION or vexation. horrible facial expressions. and blasphemies at the exorcists and witnesses. in which the victim weakens and makes unethical or immoral choices or serious mistakes on vital matters. If presented with holy objects or splashed with holy water. and abditus (Latin for hidden). A sharp increase was seen at the turn of the 21st century. In addition to the exorcism rites. The victim’s appearance and behavior alter in radical ways. convulsions. An abditus demon is capable of hiding deep within a person’s interior and can show no signs for hours in an exorcism. the chief causes of possession are the following: • making a PACT with the Devil or demons • participating in occult or spiritualist rites. There are three types of possessing demons. A host of unpleasant phenomena manifest: lewd and obscene acts and thoughts. How a possessed person behaves depends on the type of demon involved. such as unpleasant phenomena. The numbers of reported possession cases began to rise. The possessed person does not move or speak out but is still possessed. Once demons are expelled. . when the demon first enters the victim and begins to exert an influence in the environment. Stages of Demonic Possession Demonic possession can progress through stages: • INFESTATION. • Full-blown demonic possession. even though he or she knows it is alien to his or her personality. vomiting. clausus (Latin for shut). Catholic clergy dealt with most cases. a victim recoils. If a demon is clausus. The church teaches that God allows possession to happen for a variety of reasons: • • • • to demonstrate the truth of the Catholic faith to punish sinners to confer spiritual benefits through lessons to produce teachings for humanity rather than suffering from mental illness or stress. Demonic possession cases continue in present times.200 possession possession cases. Some cases require repeated exorcisms and last for years before a person is liberated. usually as assistants or witnesses. apertus (Latin for open). and rising global fears over terrorism and war. give demons the right and license to take up residence. according to the church. The person will scream insults. and contortions • having knowledge of the future or other secret information • being able to understand and converse in languages previously unknown to the victim • exhibiting revulsion toward sacred objects or texts Exorcists develop discernment that enables them to determine whether or not a person is truly possessed. As oppression worsens. often accompanied by fits. a possessed person will not recall his or her behavior during possessed episodes. and sometimes the offending entity can be expelled before full possession is reached. spitting. Signs of Demonic Possession The Catholic Church defines the true signs of possession as • displaying superhuman strength and levitation. foul smells. such as murder or suicide. screaming in rage. Mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and multiple personality disorder are not considered to be caused by demonic possession. claiming that the person’s condition is only psychological. as well as leading a deliberately sinful life. prophesying. and so forth. which served as exorcism power contests between Catholics and Protestants to sway the faithful and win converts. but they can return if invited back through a relapse of sin and behavior. Causes of Demonic Possession According to the Catholic Church. they stay out. and the exorcist’s skill at recognizing the signs. mocking tone. based on a real case in 1949 (see ST. levitation. physical contortions. unusual strength. it can resist prayer for a short time before eventually revealing its presence in an entranced condition and rolled-back eyes. it will keep the possessed person’s eyes open and will laugh at and mock the exorcist. but some Protestant and evangelical ministers perform varying types of exorcism. The church increased the training of exorcists (see INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF EXORCISTS). If a demon is apertus. and urinating. Lay demonologists also investigate cases and work with clergy in exorcisms. the possessed person and his family must pray and make an effort to regain a spiritual life. Remedies for Demonic Possession Exorcisms can be performed at any stage. A DEMONIAC’s eyes will be rolled back into his head and his or her voice will be altered to an evil. cursing and swearing. profanities. In the 1970s. public attention was renewed by William Peter Blatty’s novel and film The Exorcist. the actual entry point. Church attention to possession cases dropped in the 20th century. The demon tries to cause the victim to commit heinous acts. speaking in tongues. emaciation through rapid weight loss. perhaps in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City. LOUIS EXORCISM CASE).

” Their phenomena are similar to cases of demonic possession. when a group of worshippers at Bethel College. Sometimes. Minor djinn called ZAR possess women and cause sickness. Sometimes possession of this sort is permitted by the victim. The best biblical example is that of Jesus driving demons out of a man and into a herd of swine. barrenness. the demons depart. After the Crucifi xion and Resurrection of Jesus. and witnesses—are in danger of suffering possession from departing demons. Members of Pentecostal churches may speak in tongues. while they are working on cases. the death of children. abuse by husbands or fathers. reportedly received the Holy Spirit. reciting prayers or mantras. some untrained paranormal investigators. possession permeates every facet of daily life. called glossolalia. If they die in a state of grace. may hurl their secret fears and vices in their faces. pour water on them. who may seize an opportunity to occupy a new host. self-infliction of pain. The djinn can possess a person out of lewdness. ANNELIESE). In possession. have supernormal strength. Views on possessing demons and their purposes vary. The word enthusiastic originally meant being filled with the Holy Ghost or Holy Spirit. Elsewhere. attracted by the danger. visions. Exorcism techniques include blowing cow-dung smoke. on the first day of Pentecost (the date seven weeks after Passover. The movement began on January 1. there are two principal causes of possession by DJINN. It will attack the weak. . KITSUNE). as do remedies against them. Such voluntary and temporary possessions are a “religious altered state of consciousness. and whim. or kill them. and insane. According to the church. and gifts. miscarriage. Without permission. love. Acts describes how fl ames appeared above their heads and they spoke in tongues previously unknown to them. Exorcists stress that amateurs should not meddle in possession. or the supreme state of oneness with God. beating the victim herself or pulling her hair. If a possessed animal dies or is sacrificed. perform faith healing. animals have the potential to become possessed. Once a victim is dead. but it is still forbidden. the apostles became possessed with the Holy Ghost. they will go to heaven. In that case. 1901. capriciousness. In modern Christianity. imitating the 40-day withdrawal of Jesus into the desert. Good health and a virtuous life are important defenses in dealing with possession cases. fasting. and other ecstatic communion with God characterized early Christian worship but by the Middle Ages had come to signify the work of the Devil instead. desire. Exorcists and demonologists also can suffer mishaps. engage in long prayer revivals. Topeka. but reported cases are not common. the demon. such as strange accidents. and both are forbidden by Allah. attention. who attributes her personal problems—menstrual pain. the possessed victims gain social status by becoming possessed. thus opening themselves and their families to unpleasant problems. have involved themselves in the field. the Pentecostal movement has revived interest in ecstatic religious practices. or body. djinn may possess a person out of revenge. Nonetheless. pressing rock salt between the fi ngers. causing the djinn to react by punishing the humans. property. if they die before their demons are expelled. “under Satan’s touch” describes madness. usually offerings of special foods. sensations of a burning death. which then commit suicide by drowning themselves in the sea (Mark 5:1–13). the demon departs. speaking through the victim. the husband’s infidelities—to the intervention of evil spirits. In Hinduism. fox fairies cause similar negative conditions (see HULI JING. interfering spirits to possess people are universal. In Japanese tradition. the possession becomes a grave offense of oppression. speaking in foreign languages or tongues. insomnia. Possession of Animals In the Catholic tradition.possession 201 Dangers of Demonic Possession Severely possessed people are in danger of dying (see MICHEL. assistants. such as running in front of vehicles. and the djinn are not permitted to occupy the person’s home. and even roll and writhe on the floor as the spirit fills them. dilation of pupils. djinn can make people speak in unintelligible languages. using copper coins as an offering. marital discord. and run unnaturally fast. and rebelliousness. Animals that become possessed by demons act strangely and may exhibit self-destructive behavior. The spirits communicate their requirements for departure. These states of consciousness can have 40-day cycles. in the Jewish calendar). In the second case. vulnerable. The victim is most often a woman. trickster horseplay. Kansas. Speaking in unknown tongues. Other Demonic Possession outside of Christianity Beliefs in the ability of negative. Possession by Djinn According to Islam. if they feel they have been wronged or injured. Those present at an exorcism—the exorcists. negative spirits and even mischievous deities are held responsible for all bad things that happen. burning pig excreta. Humans may inadvertently urinate on them. which entitles them to privileges. At the very least. the djinn should be informed that the harm was accidental. and offering gifts of candy or other presents. they are not necessarily condemned to hell. The djinn will rain blows upon people and make them have fits. and the djinn must be rebuked and informed that it has broken the laws of Allah. and catatonia. in which the possessed person exhibits rigidity of limbs. Possession by the Holy Ghost Voluntary possession by the divine presence is accepted in traditions of Christianity.

Mandingue. preferences for certain foods or colors. more than 15 generations of Brazilians—black. They are consulted for personal matters and healing. Their female counterparts are the pomba giras. Umbanda Umbanda was founded in 1904 and has its roots in Hinduism and Buddhism in addition to African tribal religions. the special treatment ends and the worshipper resumes his or her ordinary life. and strength and are valued when decisiveness is needed.202 possession Voluntary Spirit Possession In some non-Western cultures. In the Caribbean and South America and lands where tribal Africans were taken to be slaves. Once possession subsides. by three former slaves who became the cult’s high priestesses. The first candomblé center was organized in 1830 in Salvador. but soon fearful whites forbade their slaves not only from practicing their religion but gathering in any type of congregation. and restoring happiness and harmony in life. prayers. The teachings of spiritism—that communication with discarnate spirits is not only possible but necessary for spiritual healing and acceptance of one’s earlier incarnations—also plays a large part in the practices of umbanda. such as facial expressions. Forced to syncretize the worship of the gods. smoking. are temporarily possessed or “mounted” by a god or spirit. Penalties were . Worshippers. By the time the slaves won their independence in 1888. dance unceasingly for hours. In addition to the orishas. body postures and gestures. Under possession. Umbanda incorporates the worship of the Catholic saints with the beliefs of the Brazilian Indians. The exus are the spirits of the wicked and dangerous dead and of suicides. a celebration and dance held by the slaves on the coffee plantations. the blacks continued to follow the old ways and rituals in secret. encompassing members of the Bambara. patterns of speech. pretos velhos. called the “Daughters of the Saints. The worshipper becomes the deity and is accorded all appropriate rights and honors. The stronger the orisha the more violent the possession. the old capital city of Brazil and now the capital of the state of Bahia. possessing entities include the exus and pomba giras. suffer from cuts and bruises with no pain. The term umbanda probably derives from aum-gandha.” ensuring that the men were excluded from major responsibilities. worship of the religions of their ancestors—now practiced as Vodun. saved a marriage or a sick baby. They have a gentle nature and are good for personal matters and healing. the worshipper may endure great extremes of heat and cold. or Umbanda—involves the possession of the faithful by the gods to obtain true communion and protection. Foula. The priest may beg the orisha to treat the initiate gently. The pretos velhos are the spirits of dead Afro-Brazilian slaves. caboclos. a Sanskrit description of the divine principle. The orishas go by their Catholic names and personae. These “Mothers of the Saints” trained other women. Such possession is often intense. requiring constant aid from the other worshippers. curing illness. Ibo. Santeria. Often the possessed issue prophesies and deliver pronouncements about local affairs. formerly called Macumba. Fon. divining the future. Devotees believe the moment of greatest spiritual healing occurs when a person becomes one with his or her orisha during initiation into the cult. voluntary possession as a means to communicate with spirits and deities serves as the centerpiece of religious worship and is used to obtain beneficial help in solving problems. and criancas. Possession by a god shows the possessed to be worthy of the god’s notice and protection. use of profanity. The caboclos are the spirits of dead Indians. more that of a trickster. perfumes. and even tear off the heads of live chickens used for sacrifice with his or her own teeth. The term candomblé probably derives from candombe. Candomblé ceremonies involve invocations to the gods. Vodun Vodun entered the Caribbean islands of Jamaica and Saint-Domingue. The slave women inherited the formerly all-male ceremonial duties when the men spent their time in slave field labor. and Congo tribes. offerings.” They take on that spirit’s personal characteristics. Iwe. The criancas are the spirits of children who died between ages three and five. Arada (or Ardra). Yoruba. candomblé. but their nature is not evil and satanic. Also serving as mistresses to the white Portuguese. or eliminated a wicked enemy. white and Indian—had heard the stories of the orishas and how their magical intervention had snared a lover. Their light is diminished. They possess good herbal knowledge. Candomblé Candomblé closely resembles the ancient Yoruban practices from Africa. They are sometimes equated with demons by outsiders. entranced by rites of chanting and drumming. offering a pigeon or other sacrifice to the orisha in return for his or her mercy. pride. and voluntary possession. Their religious practices perhaps first amused white masters. the women claimed the exercise of their magi- cal rites helped maintain their sexual skill and prowess. Nago. with the millions of black African slaves. into the veneration of Catholic saints to escape persecution. and so forth. Quimbanda. Black slaves transported to Brazil by the Portuguese in the 1550s found their tribal religion had much in common with the spiritual practices of Indian tribes along the Amazon River. especially concerning herbal remedies. Healing is emphasized. involves black magic in which lower spirits are contacted. now divided into the nations of the Dominican Republic and Haiti. including shamanic traditions. becoming the entity’s “horse. or orishas.

prayers transmitted in work songs. The syncretic practices that evolved featured worship rites in which voluntary possession was invited of the loas or mystères. there is a period of transition in the return to normal awareness. causing mental imbalance and deterioration of health. belief in diabolical possession declined in the West. acts as intermediary to summon the loas and help them to depart when their business is finished. with strong desires. while belief in spirit possession increased. performing feats of great strength. in which the spirits use the medium’s body and voice to communicate directly. Trained as a doctor. Any slave found possessing a fetish (a figurine or carved image of a god) was to be imprisoned. rather than the dead. Its chief proponent was a French writer and physician named Hippolyte-Léon-Denizard Rivail. these subsystems dominate the present life. a medium learns how to control spirit access. flaying alive. Rites held deep in the woods. a denial of the need for salvation. Sometimes. either from the dead or from remnants of the patients’ own past lives. fasting. preferences. Catholics and others are counseled not to consult psychics and mediums. When possessed. Santeria is derived from the Spanish word santo. To save the blacks from the “animal” natures that they were believed to have. including mutilation. Mediumship involves communicating with the dead and other spirits. the gods of their ancestors were not forgotten. In order for the temporary possession to take place. Voluntary Possession in Spiritualism and Spiritism Life everlasting for the spirit and the ability to contact such spirits through mediums. Over time. proving their survival. There are many ways of inducing entranced states for mediumistic possession. respectively. One of the purposes of mediumship is to validate the tenets of spiritualism: belief in an immanent God as the active moving principle in nature. a place of perpetual summer where the departed spirits spend eternity. possession can be frightening and even dangerous. In physical mediumship. The possessed lose all consciousness. masters baptized their slaves as Catholic Christians. or “saint”. the devotees assume the orishas’ supernatural characteristics. Kardec believed that certain illnesses have a spiritual cause and can be treated psychically through communication with spirit guides. Mediumship takes a physical and sometimes mental toll and can adversely affect health. Santeria Similar in practice to Vodun. in which they are fully aware of what happens. Once the trance is ended. a religious movement that began in the mid-19th century and swept both sides of the Atlantic. eating and drinking huge quantities of food and alcohol. Though mediumship is voluntary.possession 203 sadistic and severe. in which they have no awareness of events. The orishas who possess worshippers have complex human personalities. it sometimes begins as involuntary episodes in which spirits take over a person. Young women possessed by the older spirits seem frail and decrepit. but among each other. schizophrenia. underlie spiritualism. Rather. the affirmation of the essential goodness of human beings. Santeria centers around the worship of the ancient African gods (mostly Yoruban) who were blended with Catholic saints. and worship of saints while secretly praying to the gods preserved the old traditions while giving them a new twist. Channeling is essentially the same as mediumship and is a newer term. hanged. blacks practiced Catholicism. In mental mediumship. and prayer. sexual disfigurement. the old gods and ancestral spirits. To use that power for good or evil rests with the santeros alone. It declined in popularity in the 20th century but still continues today. and extraterrestrials. A central feature of spiritualism is communication with the dead through mediums. or flayed alive. Even facial expressions change to resemble that of the god or goddess. practitioners are called santeros and santeras. who knew Latin and Greek and wrote under the pseudonym Allan Kardec. called houngan and mambo. and multiple personality showed signs of spirit interference or possession. having knowledge that can change a person’s life either through their own skill or by the help of the orishas. blocking out reality and controlling the . and temperaments. mediums enter into altered states of consciousness that range from dissociated states. while the infirm possessed by young. communication is impressed on a medium’s thoughts. the medium allows a form of temporary possession to take place. Spiritism evolved from spiritualism in the mid-19th century. he said that persons suffering from epilepsy. The santeros wield enormous power. including drugs. Specifically. Kardec theorized that within each person’s personality are what he called “subsystems” of past lives inherited with each new incarnation. usually applied to contact with highly evolved human spirits or nonhuman spirits. meditation. to deep trance. angels. the dead go to Summerland. and burial alive. virile gods dance with no thought to their disabilities. Voluntary Possession in Mediumship and Channeling During the 19th century. The houngan and mambo receive total authority from the mystères. Religious critics of both mediumship and channeling contend that the true identities of the possessing spirits are demons intent on deception and demonic possession. In front of whites. Although sacred. Entranced mediums may exhibit physical symptoms similar to religious altered states of consciousness. and divining the future with great accuracy. and the repudiation of HELL. The priest or priestess. totally becoming the possessing loas with all their desires and eccentricities.

in his view. unmistakable signs of invasion by discarnate entities. evil heaviness. JAMES HERVEY HYSLOP. In many cases of multiple personality. claims that two of his patients suffered from possession in addition to their other symptoms of multiple personality. and darting efforts to bite the exorcism team members. or the true Serpent—was in the room. Successful treatment depends not only on counseling and therapy but on communication with these spirits to understand their presence and persuade them to depart the victim. may project fragments of their own personality as external “demons” or spirits. Allison consulted a religious expert. some psychiatrists find that only exorcism. vomiting. a rare neurological disorder. Scott Peck. 370 B. The oldest extant text on epilepsy. and visual. Peck describes these patients. and the man was relieved of all symptoms. some physicians and medical professionals even into modern times have postulated demonic interference as a cause of certain health problems. demons and spirits were held to be the cause of diseases and illnesses. They found enthusiastic audiences in Brazil. Obsession always represents an abnormal condition. the patients’ faces were completely transformed into masks of utter malevolence. upward eye rolling. Under hypnosis.). According to Allison. angels. dementia praecox. common in the disorder. Hyslop also stated that persons diagnosed as suffering from hysteria. states in his book Contact with the Other World (1919) that if people be- lieve in telepathy. He had convulsive seizures that could not be explained neurologically. 460–ca. DR. some cases of multiple personality may be the result of spirit possession. the New Testament distinguishes between illness and possession. Epileptic seizures are characterized by unconsciousness. he found it unlikely that sane and intelligent spirits were the only ones able to exert influence from beyond. both physical and psychological. In People of the Lie (1983). or other spirits. both nonthreatening and demonic. multiple personality. Peck found the spirits to be evil. actively working to destroy the mind of the host patients. and olfactory hallucinations that may seem supernatural. He reports that everyone present felt such a presence. bizarre growls. holds that the repression of a great deal of hatred. Tourette’s syndrome. On the Sacred Disease. eliminates one or more of the troubling personalities so that the patient can eventually become one person. the idea of spirit obsession cannot be ignored.E. perhaps simply invoking the Lord’s name. blasphemous. One case cited by Allison was that of a young man who began hearing a voice in his head after being struck on the head by a heavy object. He called on medical practitioners to take such situations into account during treatment. He performed an exorcism. When the demonic entities finally revealed themselves. or other mental disturbances showed. Possession as Physical or Mental Illness In ancient times. a graduate of Harvard University. According to Catholicism. but probably authored by several of his students. and grunts. only relieved when the exorcism succeeded. auditory. violent behavior. and verbal outbursts of a sexual. M. with writhing body. They may smell terrible stenches resembling brimstone or rotting flesh. However. One patient became a SERPENT. states that bizarre emotions. Severe physical or psychological trauma may so upset the victim that a “window” in the mind opens. and sensations commonly believed to be due to demonic possession were instead due to a brain disease. or scatological nature—all characteristics of demonic possession. who also experience altered states of consciousness and various hallucinations. The Devil entered him at that time and was the cause of all his physical and mental problems. in descriptions of Jesus both performing the casting out of unclean spirits and healing the sick. Epileptics report feeling the presence of God. and the exorcisms that eventually cleared the way for spiritual healing. barks. The man had rushed into a burning house to rescue someone and was blown out by an explosion. Schizophrenia sufferers. an American psychologist famous for his research of obsession cases. Ralph Allison.204 possession body for extended periods. hooded reptilian eyes. Peck’s experiences have corroborated those of the California psychiatrist Dr. A theory about multiple personality sufferers. however. At least one personality in each patient—sometimes the primary but usually a secondary one—displayed striking psychic abilities. who opined that the spirit was not the Devil but a stupid but evil entity who thought it was the Devil. starts in childhood and manifests with facial contortions. allowing spirit influences to enter. including the dead. . their awareness from the beginning of an alien presence. acts as a magnet for evil influences. often misdiagnosed as schizophrenia. In both cases. And if that is true. Kardec’s theories were fashionable in France for a while but did not catch on in the rest of Europe. behavior. and once one admits the existence of spirit influence. then invasion of a personality over distance is possible. But what really overwhelmed Peck was not the performance but the feeling that a tremendous weight—an ageless. attributed to the Greek physician Hippocrates (ca. the voice identified itself as the Devil and said it had entered the man when he was on military duty in Japan. trained at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Medicine and Stanford Medical Center. His controversial book Minds in Many Pieces (1980) discusses some of these patients and the inexplicable paranormal occurrences surrounding them.C. The American psychiatrist Dr. It is likely that some cases of alleged demonic possession were either cases of epilepsy or of Tourette’s syndrome. The voice told him he was about to die.

trapping everyone.: Princeton University Press. A voice repeats. Carolyn Duke (a pseudonym). Once possessed. which comes under siege by an army of possessed people outside. New Hyde Park. an anti-God. In writing the script. Possession: Demonical and Other among Primitive Races. Prince of Darkness Title given to SATAN and BELIAL. The student finds a larger mirror and begins to draw the hand of Satan’s father through it. Detroit: Free Press. Wickland. 1974. about the attempt of SATAN to release the ultimate evil into the world. has discovered a mysterious large glass cylinder in the basement of an abandoned church in Los Angeles. the Middle Ages and Modern Times. Goodman. who. a well-respected physician and neurologist in New York City.” He is followed by the children of falsehood. Dr. another student. Shamanism. Mrs.: Newcastle. New Delhi: Islamic Book Service. Pa. in Antiquity. Abridged. Kelly. the solar plexus. ———. leaving the victim in peace and finding happiness themselves. except that the dark figure that emerges from the church is recognizable as a possessed Danforth. a warning sent back in time from the year 1999. José Antonio. 2005. Henry Ansgar. On the basis of his experiences. New York: Harper & Row. He awakens screaming and goes to his bedroom mirror. Adam. Prince of Darkness (1987) Horror film written and directed by John Carpenter. Procel is a duke who appears in . The priest shatters the mirror.: Wipf & Stock. enabling Satan to take POSSESSION of the students one by one. with other priests. Later. The evil is dispelled.Y. manic-depressives.: Garden City. Inc. People of the Lie. There are swarms of insects. has the recurring dream again. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Carpenter sought to merge the idea of evil with the physics of matter and antimatter. Mircea. inside. and he is the son of an even more evil force.. 1988. Tracy. Adam.: University Books. Birack arrives with a team of students. they share a chilling dream. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Thirty Years among the Dead. A Celebration of Demons. and Brian McIntyre. 1981. but the mirror is too small and the attempt fails.: Ascension Press. Martin. 1983. annotated and translated by Dr. Exorcism and Redemption.html. Hollywood. K. Scott. 2004. Carl. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips. 1924.” Available online. Martin. The Vatican’s Exorcists: Driving Out the Devil in the 21st Century. or the reproductive organs. The film is regarded as one of the creepiest good-versus-evil horror films. Explorations in Possession and Multiple Personality. Oreg. in which a fragment of video shows a dark figure emerging from the church. Pucel) FALLEN ANGEL and 49th of the 72 SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. T. How About Demons? Possession and Exorcism in the Modern World. including the satanic Father. Oesterreich. 1966. New York: Simon & Schuster. Fr. and the Path to Deliverance. The students are prevented from fleeing the church. Wilkinson. Brian Marsh. Ebon. Bull found that spirits enter the victim through the base of the brain. 2007. N. a pioneer in the spiritual exorcism of unwanted spirits as treatment for mental disorders. Loomis invites a college professor. treated many of his patients spiritually as well as physically. Donald Pleasance stars as Father Loomis. Bull claimed to treat and sometimes cure schizophrenics. New York: Harper & Row. Satan will seek an interdimensional portal to draw his father through into the world. Malachi. the entities could pass on to their proper plane. Hostage to the Devil. Princeton. Reprint. Multiple Man. He is tackled by Catherine Danforth (Lisa Blount). 1987. the unpossessed recover. Fortea. Felicitas D. John. 1964. They learn from a text that the liquid is actually Satan himself. Diabolic Possession. touching it as the film ends. FURTHER READING: Blai. com/ghosts. Ibn Taymeeyah’s Essay on the Jinn (Demons).Y. Shadows of the Dark. The Exorcism of Anneliese Michel. If released from the cylinder. especially if that spirit suffered in life. New York: Warner Books. Procel (Crocell. West Chester. The liquid begins spilling out of the cylinder. he rolls over in bed to find Danforth in the form of Satan lying beside him. to investigate. “Warning. this is not a dream. Oreg. they turn on the others. Eugene. 1974. Dr. In addition. Eliade. Crabtree. Danforth’s lover. 1974. who is trapped in another dimension. ———. With the assistance of a medium. The Prince of Darkness also is the Angel of Death. URL: http://www. 2006. and the possessed crowd disperses. 1985. Demonology. Bull believed that the possessing spirits were not necessarily evil but merely confused. 2006. Glimpses of the Devil: A Psychiatrist’s Personal Accounts of Possession. With help from either the doctor or other spirits. and alcoholics. Still dreaming. WICKLAND. CARL A. Peck. New York: Praeger. 1983. In the Dead Sea Scrolls. He also postulated that pains suffered by the living might be pains produced by the obsessing dead spirit.visionaryliving. Interview with an Exorcist: An Insider’s Look at the Devil.Procel 205 In the 1920s and 1930s. Downloaded August 14. The possessed students die. M. N. Belial is appointed by God to corrupt and to serve as “the prince of the dominion of wickedness. who tackle the problem via physics.: Doubleday. N. As had his predecessor DR. 2002.” One possessed student tries to draw the anti-God through a MIRROR portal. Zaffis. Howard Birack (Victor Wong). Exorcism: Past and Present. and both fall into the mirror and the portal. The Devil’s Bride. Titus Bull. The Devil. New York: iUniverse. Kapferer. N. and Witchcraft: The Development of Christian Beliefs in Evil Spirits. Calif.J. “Demonology from a Roman Catholic Perspective. Bruce. The cylinder contains a swirling green liquid. also one of the investigators (Jameson Parker).

In the Neoplatonic view. or devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. for thou shalt die the one after the other. and she blames him for the Fall. The general story line is as follows: Now that mankind can be forgiven for sins. Lucy. Mankind sinned publicly. Michael Psellus was born in Constantinople. when thou didst hang on the cross. Psellus. where he rose to prominence in the royal court as a lawyer and philosopher. Upon command. It was produced as a pageant by the 14th century in a variety of languages. deciding that Good Friday shall be the day. Michael (1018–ca. demons who live in the water • hypochthonia. He taught philosophy at the Academy at Constantinople. Mary counters that the DEVIL is guilty of falsehood for beguiling Adam and Eve. Masscheroen is laughed at by the court. and prophets. England: Bear Book/The Compton Press. dates to the 12th century. Processus Sathane Devil’s advocate drama in which a representative of SATAN appeals to God for his right to lead humanity astray. He is armed with the Bible for reference. and the counterpart to God. for good people are only a mustard seed. imagination. It is hard to have the Judge’s mother as opponent. and Masscheroen makes a humiliating retreat. and Justice and Truth are given to him. he will make a commotion and make the sound of roaring water. I knew this would happen. Masscheroen appears early on Good Friday and susses out the court for the best place to make his case as the accuser. morally ambivalent intermediary beings rather than FALLEN ANGELS. and she selects Mercy and Peace. Masscheroen replies: “Flesh and blood have counseled thee and not the justice of heaven. the elected one. demons who live beneath the earth • misophaes. all four side with Mary. The next day. much to Masscheroen’s dismay. He advocates dividing up mankind. The angels advise Mary to choose advocates. Mary sits at the side of JESUS. Woman and the Devil in Sixteenth-Century Literature.” But he does not give up and refigures his strategy. the judge. The earliest known version of the Processus Sathane dates to 1260 in Jacob van Maerlant’s Merlijn. Jesus denies Masscheroen. he was in the angelic order of powers. author. therefore. He said the DEVIL was the artificer of all evils. We shall. Nothing happens—no representative of the accused arrives—and. Masscheroen. 1979. The four advocates continue the debate. and lower demons are animalistic. and senses. God agrees.” God adjourns court until the following day. Mary answers by addressing Jesus. nor Mary can have any bearing on the case. Weeping. The Processus Sathane. and statesman. FURTHER READING: de Bruyn. Masscheroen pulls out his Bible and reads a verse God spoke to Adam and Eve: “This thou shalt know: thou mayest eat from all the fruits except this one and thou shalt regret the hour thou eatest thereof. a rarified sphere beyond the Moon • aeria. The devils decide to elect a representative to go to the Court of Heaven to plead their case. God tells him to have patience. who undertook a classification of DEMONs in his work On the Work of Demons. He speaks mystically of hidden and secret things and teaches geometry and the liberal sciences. Satan and his DEMONs worry that they will be cheated out of their right to tempt people into sin. This worries Mary. blind and nearly senseless demons who hate the light and live in the lowest parts of HELL Demons swarm everywhere. Higher demons act on the intellect. Meanwhile. but Mary is allowed to remain. Masscheroen is impatient. demons were more like the Greek DAIMONES. Before his fall.206 Processus Sathane the form of an ANGEL. or “play of Masscheroen. and then into Italian by a mid-16th-century scholar. patriarchs. asks God to summon mankind before the court and plead against him. demons who live on the land • hydraia or enalia. reminding Jesus how she bore and fed him.” Masscheroen demands that these words be executed at all times. Psellus’ demonic classes are • leliouria. Psellus’ book On the Work of Demons was translated into Latin by Marsilio Ficino. Masscheroen snaps. and neither he. Masscheroen. He rules over 48 LEGIONs of DEMONs. He demands two advocates. but God assures him that he will be given dispensation. causing disease and bad luck and engag- . philosopher. shining or glowing ones who live in the ether. she asks him to choose between her and Masscheroen. demons of the air below the Moon • chthonia. Eventually. but there is no justice. citations from canonical law were added. He should get the lion’s share. Masscheroen objects. Masscheroen protests. He says that offenses should be punished even if there is no accuser. She tears off her clothes and exposes her breast. was at a peak. she arrives in court with a retinue of ANGELs.” as it is also known. “I have spent all this day in the kingdom of justice. “This was done long ago. Over time. and she makes a compassionate appeal to the court. a time when mariolatry.” Masscheroen roars in fury. Tisbury. 1078) Byzantine scholar. a translation of Robert de Boron’s Merlin. He also warms waters and tempers thermal spring baths. by noon. where he advocated the ideas of Plato over those of the more popular Aristotle. and bought mankind. the lord of subcelestial things. The original form of the Processus Sathane was that of a debate. have no further weighing. He became imperial secretary under Emperor Michael V in 1041–42. Mary finds out about the situation and offers herself as the advocate of humankind.

Purson 207 ing in POSSESSION. who can cause them great pain. Demons can be repelled by sacred words and objects in Christianity. He appears as a lion-headed man. and future. Purson hides and reveals treasure. In HELL. and they utter false prophecies. Purson once was in the angelic SPIRITS OF order of virtues and partly in the order of thrones. He commands 22 LEGIONs of DEMONs. present. provides good FAMILIAR s. riding on a bear and carrying a viper. . discerns the past. Purson (Curson) FALLEN ANGEL and 20th of the 72 SOLOMON. he is a great king. and by holy women and men. Psellus said. He is preceded by many trumpeters. Lower demons can speak. and gives true answers about matters both human and divine.

He has a regal bearing. “dark faces. and cannibalize people. His body is covered with the scars of battle wounds. 20 arms. two to four crooked legs. bright teeth. Inverted bowls inscribed with magical charms were placed at the corners of foundations in an effort to trap and contain them. Gilles de. The Ramayana tells a great deal about Ravana. The city of Lanka. rakshasas The most powerful and numerous DEMONs of the Indian underworld. He breaks all laws and ravishes any woman of his choice. Raum (Raym) FALLEN ANGEL and 40th of the 72 SPIRITS Raum is an earl who appears as a crow but will shift to human form when commanded to do so. The rakshasas are ruled by R AVANA and live on the island of Lanka. even from kings. Ravana has 10 heads. feared as cannibals. Ravana Powerful Indian DEMON who is lord and master of the fearsome RAKSHASAS.) An ancient inscription about them says that doors and bolts will not stop them. Ravana is equal in stature to SATAN. He destroys cities and the dignities of men. and carries it anywhere. waiting to attack humans. copper-colored eyes. See BAR EGARA. Some are beautiful. Before his fall.R rabisu A type of Babylonian DEMON who lurks at the thresholds of homes. . OF SOLOMON. Rais. He steals treasure. He governs 30 LEGIONs of DEMONs. some are good. Rabisu also perch on rooftops waiting to devour newborn infants. See GILLES DE R AIS. Kuvera. Not all rabisu are evil. Ravana overthrew him and stole his magical chariot. They have a multitude of grotesque shapes. Raum also discerns the past. He can stand as tall as a mountain and with a single look stop the Sun and Moon in their paths. Elizabeth de See NANCY POSSESSION. They can glide into doors as SERPENTs do and enter through windows as the wind does. (See INCANTATION BOWL. with the heads of SERPENTs or animals. present. assassins. and future and makes friends and enemies love each other. and long sharp teeth. Rakshasa means “to guard” and refers to the demons’ task of guarding the elixir of immortality found on the floor of the ocean. however. Ravana’s parents are Visravas and Nikasha. He and his hordes of demons live on the island of Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon). Rabisu means “the ones that lie in wait.” and biters. vampires. They haunt burial grounds. reanimate dead bodies. which he uses to leave the island and stir up trouble in the world. he was in the angelic order of thrones. solid gold. and go about in magnificent clothing.” The rabisu were deeply feared in Babylonian times. was built by Visva-Karma for Ravana’s half brother. 208 Ranfaing. night stalkers. descendants of the first demons created. and a huge form.

Each duke has 50 servants. Baetasiel. Ravana declared war on the gods again. activities. who conferred a noble title upon him as a reward. and Vriel. and it seemed that he would have to cut off the last one. for Siva tricked Ravana on his return to Lanka and forced him to return all the favors. No village was too small for his inspection. France. As a youth Remy had witnessed the trials of witches. Finally. Several days after refusing to give money to a beggar woman. There were four to six provosts. As did his contemporary Jean Bodin. Sadar. Betasiel.” His dedication impressed the duke. the most beautiful woman in the world. stubborn. Vishnu cut himself into quarters. Paras. Siva at last granted Ravana immortality. if he could not judge them himself. and they constituted a ducal court that judged all criminal cases. The daytime demons are good-natured. then forced the great god to repay him by making him invulnerable to all the gods. when he was appointed lieutenant general of Vosges. Ravana went next to Siva and did penance. extinguishing the stars. He earned the title of “scourge of the witches. His father was mayor of Charmes. Sarach. The 14 of the night are Thariel. demonologist. wild SABBATs. and their infernal escapades with demons and the DEVIL. who could not defeat him. Nicholas (Nicholas Rémy. served as a leading guide for witch hunters. He captured many of them. He practiced in Paris from 1563 to 1570. Nicholas Remy claimed to have sent 900 witches to their deaths over a 15-year period in Lorraine. Then he declared war on the gods. He believed fantastic stories about demons raising mountains in the blink of an eye. Remy took up his own personal crusade against witches in greater earnest. He asserted that witches and demons were inextricably linked. Dubarus. The boons were short-lived. Siva was unmoved. they appealed to Vishnu for help. attended by 50 dukes during the day and 50 more at night.000 years. and making the sky fall. which shaped his later opinions that witches were thoroughly evil and must be exterminated. Chanael. Culmar.” In 1575. There. powders. killing him. Atmalingham. Arepach. The 16 major dukes of the day are Baciar.000 years. and poisons for witches to use against human beings and beasts. In 1582. filling a vacancy created by his retiring uncle. had detailed reports submitted to him. and Thurcal. He described witches’ black magic and spells. Ravana cut off the head and stood on another one for 1. He devoted much space to describing satanic pacts and the feasting. Armena. Fursiel. Terath. Sebach. Melcha. Belsay. Lamas. and limitations of demons. which was published in 1595 in Lyons. He even believed that everything unexplained and not normal is in the “cursed domain of demonology. he compiled Demonolatry. Tharas. forcing them into servitude on Lanka. hoping for the favor of immortality. He stood on one of his heads for 1. including those involving sorcery and witchcraft. Remy. making rivers run backward. He was married and had “numerous” children. He held chairs in law and literature at several French universities. Eventually they escaped and plotted their revenge. Remy was born in Charmes to a Roman Catholic family of distinguished lawyers. and witch hunter. The book is divided into three parts: a study of SATANISM. the nighttime demons are evil. Morael. Sita held him off long enough for Rama to build a bridge to Lanka. Astael. Remy believed in Devil’s PACTs. Remy was appointed secretary and privy councillor to Duke Charles III of Lorraine and went to live in Nancy. He followed the family tradition and studied law at the University of Toulouse. He believed that France was riddled with secret covens of witches plotting malicious acts in league with DEMONs and the DEVIL. and the sacred phallus. including three sons. his eldest son died. Sita. and sexual orgies that took place at sabbats. In 1592. each of which became mortal. however. He described how the Devil drew people into his . and Remy’s conclusions. Remy was zealous in pursuing the latter cases and. dancing. Remy retired to the countryside to escape the plague. Remy also was a historian and poet and wrote several works on history. Albhadur. accounts of the activities of witches. Ravana kidnapped Rama’s wife. who had the power to kill Ravana. Arayl. The strongest and purest was Rama. and imprisoned her on Lanka. Demons prepared ointments. Thoac. and maleficia against people and beasts. Remigius) (1530– 1616) French lawyer. he advocated the torture of witches and their execution by burning. for his mother. Rama shot an arrow clean through the demon. He even took to the road himself to make certain that his orders were followed. Raysiel DEMON among the 31 AERIAL SPIRITS OF SOLOMON. based on confessions and evidence obtained in the 900 trials. after a decade of prosecuting witches. The duke also made him a provost of Nancy. Rarnica. He threatened to eat her unless she agreed to marry him. the various ways in which they poisoned people.Remy. This went on until Ravana had exhausted all of his heads. Remy discussed the powers. Still unable to defeat him because of his invulnerability. and disobedient. Nicholas 209 Ravana has a trickster side to him. Remy’s book. As did Bodin and other authorities. where Rama engaged in battles with Ravana. He controlled all the courts within his jurisdiction and ordered all the magistrates to prosecute witches. He spent years in penance to Brahma. Raysiel serves under DEMORIEL and rules as a king in the north. Aleisi. Sequiel. Demonolatry. Remy was convinced the woman was a witch and successfully prosecuted her for bewitching his son to death. Lazaba.

meaning beyond or past) hold that the book tells the story of the contemporary condition of the state of Rome and the church. Revelation (© RICHARD COOK) Revelation The last book of the New Testament. Revelation is the only book of the New Testament whose character is exclusively prophetic. hope and fear.E. chasms in the earth. N. the author of the Gospel of John. . secure in the righteousness of his work. it is clear that Demons use the two most powerful weapons of persuasion against the feeble wills of mortals.210 Revelation service. Remy. It is more likely that the text was written by various authors who blended Christian and Jewish symbolism. desire and terror. There are four main schools of interpretation of the book. which portrays a final conflict between the forces of good and evil. Certainly there are many examples in pagan histories of houses being cast down. 1974. Secondly. then with threats of disaster or death. Such entities. namely. including two German translations. the final triumph of the kingdom of God. first with cajoling and promises of wealth. fiery blasts and other such disastrous tempests stirred up by Demons for the destruction of men for no other purpose than to bind their minds to the observance of some new cult and to establish their mastery more and more firmly over them. FURTHER READING: Finlay. The identity of the author. the destruction of the crops.” It is a message sent by God through the celestial Jesus to an angel and then to the author.. Those of the historical school hold that the symbolic form tells the story of the entire historical life of the church. Demonolatry was an immediate success and was reprinted eight times. Nicholas.J. Secaucus. The preterists (from the Latin term praeter. 1999. 19th Dec. Remy said the body is completely dissolved by death and cannot be reconstituted in any way. . and the destruction of all evil. power. for they well know how to induce and inspire such emotions. Demonolatry.” Remy’s claim of sending 900 witches to their deaths cannot be corroborated by existing records. and he cited similar statements by St. he said.: University Books. for he seemed on the very point of fulfilling his threat. . It became a leading handbook of witch hunters. London: Blandford. . he cites only 128 cases himself in his book. Also called the book of the Apocalypse and the Apocalypse of John. such as the following: At Guermingen. remains in doubt. love. The book officially became part of the Christian canon by the fourth century C. Remy believed that ghosts of the dead could not remain on Earth and could not be summoned from the grave through necromancy. Therefore we may first conclude that it is no mere fable that witches meet and converse with Demons in very person. Ghosts were in reality “foul and unclean spirits” inhabiting “stinking corpses. one of the early fathers of the church. Demons! The Devil. or comfort. an exile on the island of Patmos. Anthony. his arguments impressed others as reasoned and beyond refute. not just its contemporary condition. Revelation portrays the Second Coming of Christ. Justin Martyr. replacing the MALLEUS MALEFICARUM in some parts of Europe. Possession and Exorcism. The text has been the subject of criticisms and commentaries for centuries and was even controversial in the early times of Christianity. The opening verse presents the book’s title as meaning either “the revelation that Christ possesses and imparts” or “the unveiling of the person of Christ. Even some of the church fathers assumed he was John the Evangelist. were demons masquerading as souls of the dead. 1589. John. Remy continued in the service of the duke until his death in Charmes in April 1612. Antoine Welch no longer dared oppose the Demon in anything after he threatened to twist his neck unless he obeyed his commands. told in a mystical code that hides the meaning from hostile pagans. John. Nevertheless.

The seventh seal tells how ANGELs are ordered to wreak destruction upon the land. seventh. for Satan rises anew as beasts from the land and sea. John is taken to a high mountain. The Abyss opens and belches smoke and pours out locusts with scorpion tails upon the earth. There are a river of life and trees of life. constructed on the number 12. An angel warns that beast worshippers will be condemned to eternal torture and punishment (HELL). Part three features a vision of heaven. and a seven-headed red dragon with 10 horns and crowns of coronets. who fights back with his own army of DEMONs. The angels blow their trumpets. A war— Armageddon—breaks out in heaven. The dead are summoned to the throne of God and are judged. Part 2 features the visions of judgment and the victory of God over the forces of evil. These are symbols of the evils to come at the Second Coming: a white horse (conquest). while Jesus and his special 144. and some to the return of Christ at the end of time. But it is not yet the end for evil. and hurled to the earth. God and the Lamb are in radiant glory. By extensive use of the number 7 and other mystical numbers and symbols.000—those who will ascend to heaven—are marked with the name of God. including demon spirits who look like frogs and are able to work miracles. One-third of everything. The beast worshippers are marked with the number equivalent to its name. The symbolic school sees the book as a dramatic picture of the war between good and evil. and a pale horse (plague). All the people of the earth. who have been “killed on account of the Word of God. The four great visions presented in Revelation are each introduced with the phrase “in the spirit. and each advances the previous vision. The beast that rises out of the sea is like a leopard with bear paws and a lion’s mouth. a red horse (war). driven out of heaven. Signs appear in heaven: a woman clothed with the Sun and standing on a crescent Moon. Each of the four visions presents the seer in a different location. The fifth seal concerns the vengeance of the saints. the Moon turns red as BLOOD. seven seals are broken on a scroll that reveal visions of what is to come. including the celestial bodies.000 people marked with a cross on their foreheads.” appears riding the Satanic seven-headed. hide. each paints a distinctive picture of Christ. Part 1 features letters addressed to seven of the groups of Christians of the Roman province of Asia. Seven angels unleash seven plagues upon the earth. John sees a new heaven and a new Revelation (© RICHARD COOK) . Michael and his an- gels attack the dragon. fire falls from the sky. which exists in varying degrees in every historical age. including the mighty. The satanic forces are defeated. who gives birth to a boy who is taken into heaven. The seven local churches may have been chosen to represent successive periods in the life of the church as a whole. The letters of the churches (chapters 1–3) are thought to have originally existed as a separate text. the Sun goes black. and 21st chapters. however. The first four seals reveal the Four Horsemen. often called the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. The faithful are exhorted to fear God and glorify him. and stars fall from the sky. They depict Christ’s continuing relationship with his followers.” There is a violent earthquake. The sixth seal reveals a cosmic catastrophe caused by the “wrath of the Lamb. First. The beast that emerges from the earth has two horns like a lamb and makes noise like a dragon. The whore of Babylon. is destroyed. and water turns to wormwood. demonic forces that torture people. The book is written in three parts. 666 (see SIX-SIX-SIX). 10-horned beast. and the earth burns. God’s wrath has not ended. where he looks down on the perfect holy city of Jerusalem. the book foretells (or “reveals”) a violent end of the world. a black horse (famine). to strike and kill everyone save for 144. known as the DEVIL or SATAN. the “mother of all the prostitutes and all the filthy practices on the earth.” They are given white robes and told to be patient a little longer while more of their fellow servants and brothers will be killed. the seas turn to blood. fourth.” near the beginning of the first.Revelation 211 The futurists hold that some passages refer to the contemporary scene. and the dragon’s seven heads and 10 horns.

The new version eliminates some of the rough medieval language used to describe the Devil. Nettles died of cancer in 1985. and. originally described as “those who suffer from melancholia or any other illness. Koresh was among those killed in the blaze. he is Rimmon FALLEN ANGEL. epilepsy. believed in the coming end of the world as described in Revelation and thought that they and their followers would be martyred by the beast of the abyss and would ascend to heaven. FURTHER READING: Edinger. schizophrenia. Study of the Book of Revelation. the seven pentential psalms and liturgy of the saints. theatrics. Creation is made anew. the exorcist now calls on God to command the demons to leave. De Exorcismus et Supplicationibus Quibusdam (Concerning Exorcisms and Certain Supplications). The appearance of the comet Hale-Bopp in 1997 was seen as a sign that Nettles was approaching in a ship behind the comet to collect her flock for the Rapture to heaven. to mean these events were to happen in their lifetime. the Branch Davidians. By 1997. As medical science further defines illnesses previously thought to be the result of demonic interference—hysteria. was the god of thunder and storms. the group grew tired of waiting for biblical martyrdom and contemplated provoking the government to speed events along. penance. born in 1959 as Vernon Howell. ruling it with an iron hand. As a infernal ambassador to Russia. They also believed that the resurrection cloud described in Revelation would manifest as a UFO or spaceship full of aliens. the compounded was raided by federal agents of the Bureau of Alcohol. Edinger said. Rimmon means “exalted” or “roarer” in Hebrew. the two lampstands and two olive trees in attendance to the Lord. when two small revisions were made in the language.” Those in alternative states to possession. The book concludes with a call to all those who listen to “come. processions. Koresh.000. The entire group of 39 persons committed mass suicide by drinking poison. As early as its 17th-century publication. And instead of having the exorcist command the demons or Devil to leave the victim. shows superhuman strength. Such individuals become religious zealots and exhibit the traits of both criminals and the insane. Since 1999. Augustine believed that the Second Coming of Christ would happen in the year 1. the exorcism portion has been reissued in a new 90-page document. Even the first-century Christians interpreted the New Testament. the Rituale Romanum remained untouched until 1952. St. The rite includes prayers and passages from the Bible and calls upon the demons. especially the closing two verses of Revelation. However. Possession by the Apocalypse Archetype The Apocalypse presented in Revelation is deeply embedded in the Western collective ps