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Authors: Goldie Ann Tejada, Allain Joseph S. Templo, Kristinlyn Trajano, Kevin Viray, Quennie Yu Group 10, 2F-PH, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santo Tomas
ABSTRACT The test compounds undergo different physical and chemical tests to differentiate their intrinsic physical properties and chemical properties. Physical state, color, and odor were noted through simple observation. Miscibility of the test compounds were noted through color change or a warming effect. Flammability was tested by igniting 3-5 drops of the sample in a small evaporating dish. Baeyer’s test and Bromine test were used for tests for active unsaturation. Aromaticity of the compound was determined through nitration. Oxidation was tested by introducing 8 drops of 2% KMnO4 solution and 3 drops of 10% NaOH solution to 4 drops of the sample organic compound in a test tube and warming the mixture through water bath. All of the test compounds are liquid and colorless and observed to have a plastic like odor. Miscibility test shows that all of the organic compounds are immiscible and all are flammable. Tests for active unsaturation indicate that hexane, heptane, cyclohexane, benzene and toluene are saturated while cyclohexene is actively unsaturated. Hexane, heptane, benzene, and toluene are classified as aliphatic while cyclohexane, and cyclohexene are aromatic. All are not oxidized except for cyclohexene.
Introduction Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons can be aromatic or aliphatic depending on their structure. Hydrocarbons that contain a delocalized ring of pi bonds are called aromatic hydrocarbons and those without a delocalized ring of pi bonds are called aliphatic hydrocarbons. To be classified as Aromatic, a compound must have an uninterrupted cyclic cloud of pi electrons above and below the plane of the molecule and there should be an odd number of pairs of pi electrons in its pi cloud. To be classified as Aliphatic, a compound must have higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. Aliphatic hydrocarbons that contain only sigma bonds are called saturated hydrocarbons and those containing both sigma and pi bonds are called unsaturated hydrocarbon. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are divided into 3 classes: alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons that contain only carbon-carbon single bonds. Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. Most hydrocarbons are colorless and odorless. Solubility of organic compounds in H2SO4 indicates whether the sample is a very weak base (can be protonated) or a neutral compound (can’t be protonated). The dissolution of compounds in H2SO4 may also produce large amounts of heat and/or a change in the color of the solution and precipitation; this means that the reaction can be either violent or slow.
Ignition test indicates the presence of unsaturation or high carbon to hydrogen ratio. The Degree of luminosity can be assessed by the presence of yellow flame and soot. Aromatic compounds burn with sooty flame due to the incomplete combustion which causes the formation of an unburned carbon. Bayer’s test is a test for double bonds or alkenes. The reagent used for the test is 2% KMnO4. Aromatic compounds show no reation in the test, because of their stability. A positive result for Bayer’s test shows decolorization of a purple solution and formation of a brown precipitate (MnO2). Bayer’s test involves a redox reaction were in Mn7+ is reduced to Mn4+ and alkene is oxidized to a diol. Alkenes react with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) to give a diol and MnO2. Bromine test, like Bayer’s test, is a test for double bonds and aromatic compounds also show no reaction in the test as they are known for their stability. The reagents used are 0.5% Br2 in CCl4. A Positive result shows decolorization of an orange solution. Bromine test involves electrophilic addition reaction were in Alkenes react with Br2 to form a trans-dibromoalkane. Test for Aromaticity is determined through Nitration. The reagents used are HNO3, H2SO4. A Positive result shows a yellow oily layer. The reaction involves electrophilic substitution reaction were in H2SO4 acts as a catalyst and facilitates the formation of nitronium ion (electrophile) and one hydrogen atom in the benzene ring is substituted by the nitronium ion. Oxidation was tested using 2% KMnO4 and 10% NaOH. A Positive result shows a green solution and a brown precipitate. The reaction involves redox
reaction and NaOH is used to provide a basic environment. Heptane. Hexane. once the reagent decolorized within a minute. Basic Oxidation 8 drops of 2% KMnO4 and 3 drops of 10% NaOH solution were added to 4 drops of the sample in a test tube. Solubility in Concentrated H2SO4 1 ml of concentrated H2SO4 was added to each 6 test tubes. Ignition Test 3-5 drops of the sample were placed in a small evaporating dish and was lighted by using a match. 2mL of conc. Tests for Active Unsaturation Baeyer’s Test 2 drops of 2% KMnO4 was added to 5 drops of the sample in a dry test tube. color. Bromine Test 10 drops of 0. If there was no apparent reaction observed within a minute. Benzene. . It was diluted with 20 drops of water and the results were noted down. since alkanes. All except hexane and heptane produced soot due to incomplete combustion which causes the formation of an unburned carbon. It was compared to water as a negative control. The formation of a yellow layer or droplet was noted and was diluted with 20 drops of water. The mixture was vigorously shaken and the rate and extent by which the reagent is decolorized was observed. aryl halides. and Toluene were considered as aromatic while the cyclohexane and cyclohexene are aliphatic. Only cyclohexene was oxidized. The resulting mixture will serve as nitrating mixture. H2SO4 was gradually added to the flask and was allowed to cool at room temperature. 8 drops of the nitrating mixture was added to 5 drops of the sample in a dry test tube and was vigorously shaken to ensure complete mixing. Experimental Physical state. By using dry and calibrated droppers. All 6 test compounds are flammable. Then the color and odor was noted.5% Br2 in CCl4 reagent were added 5 drops of the sample. a drop of each sample was added to the test tubes. the test tube was placed in a water bath (50°C) for 10 minutes. Presence and color of the flame were noted. alkyl halides. The formation of a brown suspension was noted and compared to water as a negative control. The alkyl group of the aromatic compound is oxidized to a carboxylic acid while Mn7+ is reduced to Mn6+ or Mn4+ depending on the extent of the reaction. Any color change or warming effects were noted. Test for Aromaticity 2 mL of conc. and odor The physical states of the sample were observed at room temperature. The result must be noted. Results and Discussions It was observed that all 6 test compounds are immiscible in concentrated H2SO4. expose the reaction mixture to sunlight and note down the results. Each test tube was warmed in a water bath for 2 minutes and formation of a brown precipitate was noted. Only cyclohexene behaved as an actively unsaturated hydrocarbon. and most hydrocarbons are insoluble in concentrated H2SO4. HNO3 was placed in an Erlenmeyer flask and was immersed in an evaporating dish containing water. If the reagent failed to decolorize within a minute. The solution was vigorously shaken and the rate and extent at which the reagent is decolorized was observed.
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