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# ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Conduction

## Saint Louis University , Baguio city 1

PROBLEMS:

1. The front slab of lead ( k = 35 W/m. K ) is kept at 1100C and the back is kept at 500C. If the
area of the slab is 0.4 m2 and it is 0.03 m thick, compute the heat transfer rate

k = 35 W/ m. K

T1 = 110oC T2 = 50oC

0.03m

Required : q/A , q

Solution:

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Conduction

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 2

2. A copper slab ( k = 372 W/m .K ) is 3mm thick . it is protected from the corrosion on each
side by a 2 mm thick layer of stainless steel ( k = 17 W/m .K ) . The temperature is 40oC on
one side of this composite wall and 100oC on the other. Find the temperature distribution in
the copper slab and the heat conducted through the wall.

## Steel Copper Steel

T1 = 40oC T2 T3 T4 = 10oC
q

## 2mm 3mm 2mm

Required: T2, T3 , q/ A

Solution:

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Conduction

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 3
3. The flux q, is 6000 W/m2 at the surface of an electrical heater . The heater temperature is
120oC when it cooled by air at 70oC .What is the average convective heat transfer
coeffiencient , h ? What will be the heater temperature if the power is reduced so that q is
2000 W/ m2?

Given : T = 120o C

q /A = 6000 W/m2

Solution :

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Conduction

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 4
4. Consider a 0.8 m high and 1.5 m wide glass window with a thickness of 8 mm and a
thermal conductivity of k = 0.78 W/m. oC . Determine the steady state rate of heat transfer
through this glass window and the temperature of its inner surface for a day during which
the room is maintained at 20oC while the temperature of the outdoors is – 10oC. Take the
heat transfer coefficients on thec inner and outer surfaces of the window to be h1 = 10
W/m2 .oC and h2 = 40 W/m2 .oC, which includes the effects of radiation.

## Given : glass W = 1.5 m

k = 0 .78 W/m .oC

T1 = 20oC q T2 = -10oC
0.8 m

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Conduction

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 5

5. Consider a 0.8 m high and 1.5 m wide double pane window consisting of two 4 –mm thick
layers of glass (k = 0.78 W/m .oC) separated by a 10 –mm wide stagnant air space (k = .
026 W/m .0C ). Determine the steady rate of heat transfer through this double – pane
window and the temperarure of its inner surface for a day during which the room is
maintained at 20oC while the temperature of the outdoors is – 10oC. Take the heat transfer
coefficients on the inner and outer surfaces of the window to be h1 = 10 W/m2 .oC and h2 =
40 W/m2 .oC, which includes the effects of radiation.

## Given: glass air glass

( kglass = 0.78 W/m .oC ) ( kair = 0.026 W/m .oC)
W = 1.5 m
glass
T1 = 200C
0.8m ti
T1 = 200C q

Required: q , ti

Solution:

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Conduction

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 6

Problems:
1. A 3-m high and 5-m wide wall consist of long 16-cm x 22 –cm cross section horizontal bricks
(k= 0.72 W/ m. oC) seperated by 3- cm – thick plaster layers ( k = 0.22 W/m . oC ). There
are also 2- cm – thick plaster layers on each side of the brick and a 3- cm thick rigid foam
foam ( k = 0.026 W/m oC) on the inner side of the wall, as shown. The indoor and the
outdoor temperatures are 20oC and h1 = 10 W/m.oC and h2 = 25 W/m. oC, repectively.
Assume one – dimensional heat transfer through thec wall.

Given:

Foam Plaster

1.5 cm

## h1 = 10 W/m. oC Brick 22 cm , h2 = 25 W/m. oC

T1 = 200C T2 = -100C

1.5 cm

3 2 16 cm 2
Required: q total

Solution:

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Conduction

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 7

2. Steam at 320oC flows in a cast iron pipe ( k = 80 Wm oC) whose inner and outer diameters
are 5 cm and 5.5 cm , respectively . The pipe is covered with 3 cm thick glass wool
insulation with k = 0.05 W/m 0C. Heat is lost to the surrounding at 50C by natural convection
and radiation , with a combined heat transfer coefficient inside the pipe to be h2 = 18 W/ m2
0
C. taking the heat transfer coefficient of h1 = 60 W/m 0C ,determine the rate of heat loss
from the steam per unit length of the pipe . Also determine the temperature drops across
the pipe shell and the insulation.

Given:
50C , h1 = 60 W/m 0C

glass wool
k = 80 Wm oC

Pipe

320o C
k = 0.05 W/m 0C
h2 = 18 W/ m2 0C ,

Solution:

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Conduction

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 8

## CRITICAL RADIUS OF INSULATION , rc

○ Outer radius that provides maximum rate of heat transfer

CYLINDER: ri=kh
SPHERE:
rc=2kh
where: r2 < rc – increases HT rate
r2 = rc - reaches the maximum value of HT rate
r2 >rc – decreases HT rate

Problem:

## A 5 –mm diameter spherical ball at 50 oC is covered by a 1mm thick plastic insulation ( k =

0.13 W/ moC). The ball is exposed and radiation heat transfer coefficient of 20 W/m 2 .oC.
Determine the plastic insulation on the ball will help or hurt heat transfer from the ball?

1-mm

Required:

Solution:

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Conduction

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 9

## ○ Time varying conduction

○ Average temperature changes quite rapidly with time.

BIOT NUMBER:
Bi =hSk(slab) Bi=hrmk (cylinder)/sphere )
FOURIER NUMBER :
Fo = αt/S2 (slab) Fo=αt/rm2 (cylinder/sphere)

A 7.5 cm diameter orange originally at 26oC is placed in a refrigerator where the air
temperature is 2oC and the average convective heat transfer coefficient over the surface of the
orange is 57 W/m2. K. estimate the time required for the time temperature of the orange to
reach 4oC?

## Given: d = 7.5 cm ( orange )

Tf = 2oC ( air )
Ta = 26oC , Tb = 4oC , h = 57 W/m2 .K

Required: tT

Solution:

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Principles of Heat Flow in Fluids

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 1

Problems:
1. A double pipe heat exchanger is constructed of a copper ( k = 380 W/m. oC ) inner tube of
internal tube diameter Di = 1.2cm and external diameter Do = 1.6 cm and an outer tube of
diameter 3.0 cm .The convection heat transfer coefficient is reported to be hi = 700 W/m2 .oC
on the inner surface of the tube and ho = 1400 W/m2 .oC on its inner surface. For a fouling
factor Rf,i = 0.0005m2 oC/W on the tube side and Rf,o = 0.0002m2. oC/W on the shell side,
determine (a) the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger per unit length and (b) the
overall heat transfer coefficients Ui and Uo based on the inner and outer surface areas of
the tube respectively.
Given: double pipe HE

Solution:

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Principles of Heat Flow in Fluids

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 2

## 2. Steam in condenser of a steam power plant is to be condensed of a temperature of 50 oC

(hfg = 2305 KJ/Kg) with coolimg water (Cp = 4180 J/Kg . oC) from a nearby lake, which
enters the tubes of the condsenser at 18oC and leaves at 27oC. The surface area of the
tubes is 58m2, and the overall heat transfer coefficient is 2400 W/m2. oC. Determine the
mass flow rate of the cooling water needed and the rate of condensation of the steam in
the condenser?

27oC
18oC Water

50oC

Solution:

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Principles of Heat Flow in Fluids

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 3

3. A double – pipe parallel – flow heat exchanger is to heat water (Cp = 4180 J/Kg .oC) from
25oC to 60oC at a rate of 0.2 kg/s. The heating is to be accomplished by geothermal water
(Cp = 4310 J/Kg . oC) b available at 140oC at a mass flow raste of 0.3 kg/s. The inner tube
is thin –walled and has a diameter of 0.8cm. if the overall heat transfer coefficient of the
heat exchanger is 550 W/m2. oC, determine the length of the heat exchanger required to
achieve the desired heating.

## Tca = 25oC , m = 0.2 kg/s

Geot. water
Tha = 140oC
Thb = ?
m = 0.3 kg/s
Cp = 4310 J/Kg oC

Tcb = 60oC

Required: L

Solution

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Principles of Heat Flow in Fluids

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 4

4. A double – pipe counter flow heat exchanger is to cool ethylene glycol (Cp = 2560 J/Kg oC)
flowing at a rate of 3.5 Kg/s from 80oC to 40oC by water (Cp = 4180 J/Kg oC) that enters at
20oC and leaves at 55oC . The overall heat transfer coefficient based on the inner surface
area of the tube is 250 W/m2 .oC, Determine (a) the rate of heat transfer , (b) the mass flow
rate of water, and (c) the heat transfer surface area on the inner side of the tube.

Given:

## 3.5 kg/s 40oC

Required: (a) q (b) m water (c) Ai

Solution:

## ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Principles of Heat Flow in Fluids

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 5

## where: = heat generation per unit volume

An electric current of 200 Amperes is passed through a stainless steel wire with radius of
0.001268m. The wire is 0.91 m long with electrical resistance of 0.126 ohm. The outer surface
temperature is held at 422.1K , k = 22.5 W/m.K
(a) Find the center temperature
(b) Find the temperature between the surface and the center.
Given: r1 =0.001268 , T1 = 422.1 K
I = 200 A 4
R = .126 ohm r = 0 ,To

## L = .91 m k = 22.5 W/m.K

Required: (a) To
(b) T

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids without Phase Change
Saint Louis University , Baguio city 1

Problems:
12.8 From Mc Cabe , Smith and Hariott (7th ed.)
Water must be heated from 15 to 50oC in a simple double –pipe exchanger at a rate of
3500 kg/h. The water is flowing inside the inner tube with steam condensing at 110 oC on
the outside. The tube wall is so thin that the wall resistance may be neglected. Assume
that the steam film coefficient ho is 11kW/m2 .oC. What is the length of the shortest heat
exchanger that will heat the water to the desired temperature? Average properties of
water are as follows:

## ρ= 993 kg/m3 k = 0.61 W/m . oC µ = 0.78 cP Cp = 4.19 J/g . oC

Given: Steam @
110oC , ho = 112 kW/m2. oC

Water

Ta = 15oC Tb = 50oC
m = 3500 kg/h
Required: Lmin

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids without Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city 2

## 12.15 Mc Cabe , Smith and Harriott (7th ed.)

Water at 15oC is flowing at right angles across a heated 25-mm- OD cylinder, the
surface temperature of which is 120oC. The approach velocity of the water is 1 m/s.
(a)What is heat flux in killowatts per square meter, from the surface of the cylinder to
the water?(b) What would be the flux if the cylinder were replaced by a 25- mm – OD
sphere, also with a surface temperature of 120OC?

## (a) Given: Water @ 15oC ,v = 1 m/s

120OC

Required:q/A

Solution:
= 25 mm
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids without Phase Change
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## (b) 120oC OD sphere = 25 mm

Water@
15oC

Required: q/A

Solution:
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids without Phase Change
Saint Louis University , Baguio city 4

## 12.21 Mc Cabe, Smith and Harriott (Seventh edition)

Air is 1 atm and 20oC flows at 10m/s past a horizontal flat plate which has a surface
temperature of 80oC. The length of the plate is 1.6 m. (a) calculate the average heat flux
in W/m2 and the local heat flux at the discharge end of the plate. (b) What is the
thickness of the thermal boundary layer at the end of the plate?

Tw =80oC

L = 1.6 m

## Required: (a) Average heat flux , local heat flux

(b) thickness of boundary layer

Solution:
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids without Phase Change
Saint Louis University , Baguio city 5

Estimate the heat loss from a vertical wall exposed to nitrogen @ 1 atm and 4oC. The wall is
1.8 m high and 2.45 m wide. It is maintained at 50oC.

Given:
N2 @ 1 atm and 4oC

1.8 m

2.45 m
Required: q

Solution:
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University , Baguio city 1

## CHAPTER 13 : HEAT TRANSFER TO FLUIDS WITH PHASE CHANGE

○ BOILING:
• Pool boiling – absence of bulk fluid flow

heating

## • Flow boiling or forced convection boiling

heating

Types :
Sub-cooled boiling Saturated boiling
80oC 100oC

Sub-cooled Saturated
water water
1 1
o
07 C 07oC
Figure 1 Figure 2

## Note: Figure 1 : T main body of liquid < Tsat

Figure 2 : T main body Tsat

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University , Baguio city 2

Boiling Curve
Max. critical heat flux Burn out point
C

bubbles
collapsed E
1 2 3 4
B

q,
boiling
W/m2
A
bubbles rised
to the free
surface

D Leidenfrost point

5 30 120
∆T excess = Ts – Tsat ,oC

## For boiling regime:

1. Natural convection boiling 2. Nucleate Boiling
100oC 100oC

heating heating

## 3. Transition Boiling 4. Film Boiling

100oC 100oC

Heating heating
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
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NUCLEATE BOILING

Rohsenow equation:
qnucleate=µlλ g(ρl-ρv) σ 12 Cp(Ts-Tsat) Csf λPrln 3

## where: q nucleate = nucleate boiling heat flux, W/m2

µl = liquid viscosity, kg/m . s
λ = enthalpy of vaporization, J/Kg
ρl = liquid density, kg/m3
ρv = vapor density , kg/m3
σ = surface tension of liquid vapor interface, N/m
Cp = liquid specific heat, J/kg. or
Ts = surface temperature of heater, oC
Tsat = saturation temperature of heater, oC
Csf, n = constants
Prl =liquid Prandtl number
PEAK HEAT FLUX

## Kutate ladze and Zuber equation:

qmax=Crλ σg ρv2(ρl-ρv)14

## MINIMUM HEAT FLUX

Zuber equation:
qmin=0.09ρvλ σ g (ρl-ρv) (ρl-ρv) 14

FILM BOILING

Brownley equation:

## qfilm=Cfilm gkv3ρv ρl-ρv [λ+ 0.4 CpvTs-Tsat] D µv (Ts-Tsat) 14(Ts-Tsat)

where : Kv= thermal conductivity of vapor , W/m oC
Cfilm = 0.62 ( for horizontal cylinder )
= 0.67 ( for spheres )

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
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Examples:
1. Water is to be boiled @ atmospheric pressure mechanically polished stainless steel pan placed on a
top of a unit. The inner surface of the bottom of the bottom of the pan is maintained @ 108oC. If inner
diameter of the pan is 3cm , determine (a) the rate of heat transfer to the water (b) the rate of
evaporation of water.

Given: P = I atm
100oC
D = 30 cm

heating

## Required: (a) q (b) mevaporation

Solution:
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University , Baguio city 5

2. Water in a tank is to be boiled at sea level by a 1-cm-diameter nickel plated steel heating element
equipped with electrical resistance wires inside. Determine the maximum heat flux that can be
attained in the nucleate boiling regime and the surface temperature of the heater surface in that
case.

Given:

T
d = 1cm s
heating element

heating

## Required: q max ,Ts

Solution:
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city 6

## 3. Water is boiled at atmospheric pressure by a horizontal polished copper heating element of D = 5

mm immersed in water. If the surface temperature of the wire is 350oC,determine the rate of heat
transfer from the wire to the water per unit length of the wire.

Given:

100oC

D= 5 mm Heating element
Ts = 350oC Vapor film

Required: qfilm

Solution:
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city 7

4. Water is to be boiled at atmospheric pressure in a mechanically polished steel pan placed on the
heating unit. The inner surface of the bottom of the pan is maintained at 110oC. If the diameter of the
bottom of the pan is 25 cm , determine the (a) the rate of heat transfer to the water and (b) the rate
of evaporation.

Given:

100oC

D = 25 cm

## Required: (a) q (b) ms

Solution:
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city 8

## 5. Water is to be boiled at atmospheric pressure on a 3 – cm diameter mechanically polished steel

heater. Determine the maximum heat flux that can be attained in the nucleate boiling regime and the
surface in that case.

Given:

100oC

Ts
D = 3 cm

Heating
Required: q max

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city 9
○ CONDENSATION HEAT TRANSFER

Condensation occur when the temperature of a vapor is reduced below its saturation
temperature.

## 2 distinct form of condensation

 Film condensation – condensate wets the surface and forms a liquid film on the surface
that slides down under the influence of gravity.

 Dropwise condensation – the condensed vapor forms droplets on the surface instead of
continuous film and the surface is covered by countless droplets of varying diameters.

FLOW REGIME Re = 0

## Laminar( wave free)

Re = 30
Laminar (wavy )

Re = 1800

Turbulent

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city 10

## Vertical Plate or Tube

For wave free laminar ( Re<30 )

## hvert=0.943 kf ρf2 g λ* ∆To L µf14

λ*=λ+0.68Cpl (Tsat-Ts)

Re=4g3Vl2 kl 3h4 3

hvert=1.47 klRe-13gVl213

## Re= 0.690 Lkl Pr.50(Tsat- T s) µlλ* gVl213- 151Pr.50+ 253 43

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city 11

Inclined Plates

Condensate vapor

Inclined plate

## Horizontal Tubes and Spheres

h=0.729 kf3ρl(ρl-ρv)( g λ* µlTsat-Ts D14

## where: N = number of tubes

hverthhori=1.29 DL1k

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
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Problems:

1.Saturated steam at atmospheric condenses an a 2-m high and 3-m wide vertical plate and that is
maintained at 80oC by circulating cooling water through the other side.
Determine the ff:
(a) the rate of heat transfer by condensation to the plate
(b) the rate at which the condensate drops off the plate at the bottom.

Given: 3m

Ts = 80oC

2m

condensate

## Required: (a) q (b) ms

Solution:
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city 13

2. What would your answer be to the preceding problem if the plate were tilted 30o from the vertical?

Given:

plate

30o

## Required: (a) q (b) ms

Solution:
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city 15

4. Repeat the preceding problem for the case of 12 horizontal tube arranged in a rectangular array of 3
tubes high and 4 tubes wide

Given:

3 tubes

4 tubes

## Required: (a) q (b) ms

Solution:
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city 14

3. The condenser of a steam power plant operates at 40oC and a pressure of 7.38 kPa. Steam at this
pressure condenses on the surface of horizontal pipes through which cooling water circulates. The
outer diameter of the pipe is 3cm, and the outer surfaces of the pipes are maintained at 30oC.
Determine the ff:
(a) the rate of heat transfer to the cooling water circulating in the pipes.
(b) the rate of condensation of steam per unit length of a horizontal pipe.

Given:
Steam, 40oC
30oC

Cooling water

## Required: (a) q (b) ms

Solution:
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Conduction
Saint Louis University, Baguio city
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids Without Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change
Saint Louis University, Baguio city
ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Principles of Heat Flow in Fluids
Saint Louis University , Baguio city