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PROBLEMS:

1. The front slab of lead ( k = 35 W/m. K ) is kept at 1100C and the back is kept at 500C. If the

area of the slab is 0.4 m2 and it is 0.03 m thick, compute the heat transfer rate

Given: lead, Pb

k = 35 W/ m. K

T1 = 110oC T2 = 50oC

0.03m

Required : q/A , q

Solution:

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 2

2. A copper slab ( k = 372 W/m .K ) is 3mm thick . it is protected from the corrosion on each

side by a 2 mm thick layer of stainless steel ( k = 17 W/m .K ) . The temperature is 40oC on

one side of this composite wall and 100oC on the other. Find the temperature distribution in

the copper slab and the heat conducted through the wall.

T1 = 40oC T2 T3 T4 = 10oC

q

Required: T2, T3 , q/ A

Solution:

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 3

3. The flux q, is 6000 W/m2 at the surface of an electrical heater . The heater temperature is

120oC when it cooled by air at 70oC .What is the average convective heat transfer

coeffiencient , h ? What will be the heater temperature if the power is reduced so that q is

2000 W/ m2?

Given : T = 120o C

q /A = 6000 W/m2

Solution :

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 4

4. Consider a 0.8 m high and 1.5 m wide glass window with a thickness of 8 mm and a

thermal conductivity of k = 0.78 W/m. oC . Determine the steady state rate of heat transfer

through this glass window and the temperature of its inner surface for a day during which

the room is maintained at 20oC while the temperature of the outdoors is – 10oC. Take the

heat transfer coefficients on thec inner and outer surfaces of the window to be h1 = 10

W/m2 .oC and h2 = 40 W/m2 .oC, which includes the effects of radiation.

k = 0 .78 W/m .oC

T1 = 20oC q T2 = -10oC

0.8 m

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 5

5. Consider a 0.8 m high and 1.5 m wide double pane window consisting of two 4 –mm thick

layers of glass (k = 0.78 W/m .oC) separated by a 10 –mm wide stagnant air space (k = .

026 W/m .0C ). Determine the steady rate of heat transfer through this double – pane

window and the temperarure of its inner surface for a day during which the room is

maintained at 20oC while the temperature of the outdoors is – 10oC. Take the heat transfer

coefficients on the inner and outer surfaces of the window to be h1 = 10 W/m2 .oC and h2 =

40 W/m2 .oC, which includes the effects of radiation.

( kglass = 0.78 W/m .oC ) ( kair = 0.026 W/m .oC)

W = 1.5 m

glass

T1 = 200C

0.8m ti

T1 = 200C q

Required: q , ti

Solution:

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 6

Problems:

1. A 3-m high and 5-m wide wall consist of long 16-cm x 22 –cm cross section horizontal bricks

(k= 0.72 W/ m. oC) seperated by 3- cm – thick plaster layers ( k = 0.22 W/m . oC ). There

are also 2- cm – thick plaster layers on each side of the brick and a 3- cm thick rigid foam

foam ( k = 0.026 W/m oC) on the inner side of the wall, as shown. The indoor and the

outdoor temperatures are 20oC and h1 = 10 W/m.oC and h2 = 25 W/m. oC, repectively.

Assume one – dimensional heat transfer through thec wall.

Given:

Foam Plaster

1.5 cm

T1 = 200C T2 = -100C

1.5 cm

3 2 16 cm 2

Required: q total

Solution:

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 7

2. Steam at 320oC flows in a cast iron pipe ( k = 80 Wm oC) whose inner and outer diameters

are 5 cm and 5.5 cm , respectively . The pipe is covered with 3 cm thick glass wool

insulation with k = 0.05 W/m 0C. Heat is lost to the surrounding at 50C by natural convection

and radiation , with a combined heat transfer coefficient inside the pipe to be h2 = 18 W/ m2

0

C. taking the heat transfer coefficient of h1 = 60 W/m 0C ,determine the rate of heat loss

from the steam per unit length of the pipe . Also determine the temperature drops across

the pipe shell and the insulation.

Given:

50C , h1 = 60 W/m 0C

glass wool

k = 80 Wm oC

Pipe

320o C

k = 0.05 W/m 0C

h2 = 18 W/ m2 0C ,

Solution:

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 8

○ Outer radius that provides maximum rate of heat transfer

CYLINDER: ri=kh

SPHERE:

rc=2kh

where: r2 < rc – increases HT rate

r2 = rc - reaches the maximum value of HT rate

r2 >rc – decreases HT rate

Problem:

0.13 W/ moC). The ball is exposed and radiation heat transfer coefficient of 20 W/m 2 .oC.

Determine the plastic insulation on the ball will help or hurt heat transfer from the ball?

1-mm

Required:

Solution:

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 9

○ Average temperature changes quite rapidly with time.

BIOT NUMBER:

Bi =hSk(slab) Bi=hrmk (cylinder)/sphere )

FOURIER NUMBER :

Fo = αt/S2 (slab) Fo=αt/rm2 (cylinder/sphere)

A 7.5 cm diameter orange originally at 26oC is placed in a refrigerator where the air

temperature is 2oC and the average convective heat transfer coefficient over the surface of the

orange is 57 W/m2. K. estimate the time required for the time temperature of the orange to

reach 4oC?

Tf = 2oC ( air )

Ta = 26oC , Tb = 4oC , h = 57 W/m2 .K

Required: tT

Solution:

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 1

Problems:

1. A double pipe heat exchanger is constructed of a copper ( k = 380 W/m. oC ) inner tube of

internal tube diameter Di = 1.2cm and external diameter Do = 1.6 cm and an outer tube of

diameter 3.0 cm .The convection heat transfer coefficient is reported to be hi = 700 W/m2 .oC

on the inner surface of the tube and ho = 1400 W/m2 .oC on its inner surface. For a fouling

factor Rf,i = 0.0005m2 oC/W on the tube side and Rf,o = 0.0002m2. oC/W on the shell side,

determine (a) the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger per unit length and (b) the

overall heat transfer coefficients Ui and Uo based on the inner and outer surface areas of

the tube respectively.

Given: double pipe HE

Solution:

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 2

(hfg = 2305 KJ/Kg) with coolimg water (Cp = 4180 J/Kg . oC) from a nearby lake, which

enters the tubes of the condsenser at 18oC and leaves at 27oC. The surface area of the

tubes is 58m2, and the overall heat transfer coefficient is 2400 W/m2. oC. Determine the

mass flow rate of the cooling water needed and the rate of condensation of the steam in

the condenser?

27oC

18oC Water

50oC

Solution:

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 3

3. A double – pipe parallel – flow heat exchanger is to heat water (Cp = 4180 J/Kg .oC) from

25oC to 60oC at a rate of 0.2 kg/s. The heating is to be accomplished by geothermal water

(Cp = 4310 J/Kg . oC) b available at 140oC at a mass flow raste of 0.3 kg/s. The inner tube

is thin –walled and has a diameter of 0.8cm. if the overall heat transfer coefficient of the

heat exchanger is 550 W/m2. oC, determine the length of the heat exchanger required to

achieve the desired heating.

Geot. water

Tha = 140oC

Thb = ?

m = 0.3 kg/s

Cp = 4310 J/Kg oC

Tcb = 60oC

Required: L

Solution

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 4

4. A double – pipe counter flow heat exchanger is to cool ethylene glycol (Cp = 2560 J/Kg oC)

flowing at a rate of 3.5 Kg/s from 80oC to 40oC by water (Cp = 4180 J/Kg oC) that enters at

20oC and leaves at 55oC . The overall heat transfer coefficient based on the inner surface

area of the tube is 250 W/m2 .oC, Determine (a) the rate of heat transfer , (b) the mass flow

rate of water, and (c) the heat transfer surface area on the inner side of the tube.

Given:

Required: (a) q (b) m water (c) Ai

Solution:

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 5

An electric current of 200 Amperes is passed through a stainless steel wire with radius of

0.001268m. The wire is 0.91 m long with electrical resistance of 0.126 ohm. The outer surface

temperature is held at 422.1K , k = 22.5 W/m.K

(a) Find the center temperature

(b) Find the temperature between the surface and the center.

Given: r1 =0.001268 , T1 = 422.1 K

I = 200 A 4

R = .126 ohm r = 0 ,To

Required: (a) To

(b) T

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids without Phase Change

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 1

Problems:

12.8 From Mc Cabe , Smith and Hariott (7th ed.)

Water must be heated from 15 to 50oC in a simple double –pipe exchanger at a rate of

3500 kg/h. The water is flowing inside the inner tube with steam condensing at 110 oC on

the outside. The tube wall is so thin that the wall resistance may be neglected. Assume

that the steam film coefficient ho is 11kW/m2 .oC. What is the length of the shortest heat

exchanger that will heat the water to the desired temperature? Average properties of

water are as follows:

Given: Steam @

110oC , ho = 112 kW/m2. oC

Water

Ta = 15oC Tb = 50oC

m = 3500 kg/h

Required: Lmin

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids without Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 2

Water at 15oC is flowing at right angles across a heated 25-mm- OD cylinder, the

surface temperature of which is 120oC. The approach velocity of the water is 1 m/s.

(a)What is heat flux in killowatts per square meter, from the surface of the cylinder to

the water?(b) What would be the flux if the cylinder were replaced by a 25- mm – OD

sphere, also with a surface temperature of 120OC?

120OC

Required:q/A

Solution:

= 25 mm

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids without Phase Change

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 3

Water@

15oC

Required: q/A

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids without Phase Change

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 4

Air is 1 atm and 20oC flows at 10m/s past a horizontal flat plate which has a surface

temperature of 80oC. The length of the plate is 1.6 m. (a) calculate the average heat flux

in W/m2 and the local heat flux at the discharge end of the plate. (b) What is the

thickness of the thermal boundary layer at the end of the plate?

Tw =80oC

L = 1.6 m

(b) thickness of boundary layer

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids without Phase Change

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 5

Estimate the heat loss from a vertical wall exposed to nitrogen @ 1 atm and 4oC. The wall is

1.8 m high and 2.45 m wide. It is maintained at 50oC.

Given:

N2 @ 1 atm and 4oC

1.8 m

2.45 m

Required: q

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 1

○ BOILING:

• Pool boiling – absence of bulk fluid flow

heating

heating

Types :

Sub-cooled boiling Saturated boiling

80oC 100oC

Sub-cooled Saturated

water water

1 1

o

07 C 07oC

Figure 1 Figure 2

Figure 2 : T main body Tsat

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 2

Boiling Curve

Max. critical heat flux Burn out point

C

bubbles

collapsed E

1 2 3 4

B

q,

boiling

W/m2

A

bubbles rised

to the free

surface

D Leidenfrost point

5 30 120

∆T excess = Ts – Tsat ,oC

1. Natural convection boiling 2. Nucleate Boiling

100oC 100oC

heating heating

100oC 100oC

Heating heating

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 3

NUCLEATE BOILING

Rohsenow equation:

qnucleate=µlλ g(ρl-ρv) σ 12 Cp(Ts-Tsat) Csf λPrln 3

µl = liquid viscosity, kg/m . s

λ = enthalpy of vaporization, J/Kg

ρl = liquid density, kg/m3

ρv = vapor density , kg/m3

σ = surface tension of liquid vapor interface, N/m

Cp = liquid specific heat, J/kg. or

Ts = surface temperature of heater, oC

Tsat = saturation temperature of heater, oC

Csf, n = constants

Prl =liquid Prandtl number

PEAK HEAT FLUX

qmax=Crλ σg ρv2(ρl-ρv)14

Zuber equation:

qmin=0.09ρvλ σ g (ρl-ρv) (ρl-ρv) 14

FILM BOILING

Brownley equation:

where : Kv= thermal conductivity of vapor , W/m oC

Cfilm = 0.62 ( for horizontal cylinder )

= 0.67 ( for spheres )

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 4

Examples:

1. Water is to be boiled @ atmospheric pressure mechanically polished stainless steel pan placed on a

top of a unit. The inner surface of the bottom of the bottom of the pan is maintained @ 108oC. If inner

diameter of the pan is 3cm , determine (a) the rate of heat transfer to the water (b) the rate of

evaporation of water.

Given: P = I atm

100oC

D = 30 cm

heating

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University , Baguio city 5

2. Water in a tank is to be boiled at sea level by a 1-cm-diameter nickel plated steel heating element

equipped with electrical resistance wires inside. Determine the maximum heat flux that can be

attained in the nucleate boiling regime and the surface temperature of the heater surface in that

case.

Given:

T

d = 1cm s

heating element

heating

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 6

mm immersed in water. If the surface temperature of the wire is 350oC,determine the rate of heat

transfer from the wire to the water per unit length of the wire.

Given:

100oC

D= 5 mm Heating element

Ts = 350oC Vapor film

Required: qfilm

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 7

4. Water is to be boiled at atmospheric pressure in a mechanically polished steel pan placed on the

heating unit. The inner surface of the bottom of the pan is maintained at 110oC. If the diameter of the

bottom of the pan is 25 cm , determine the (a) the rate of heat transfer to the water and (b) the rate

of evaporation.

Given:

100oC

D = 25 cm

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 8

heater. Determine the maximum heat flux that can be attained in the nucleate boiling regime and the

surface in that case.

Given:

100oC

Ts

D = 3 cm

Heating

Required: q max

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 9

○ CONDENSATION HEAT TRANSFER

Condensation occur when the temperature of a vapor is reduced below its saturation

temperature.

Film condensation – condensate wets the surface and forms a liquid film on the surface

that slides down under the influence of gravity.

Dropwise condensation – the condensed vapor forms droplets on the surface instead of

continuous film and the surface is covered by countless droplets of varying diameters.

FLOW REGIME Re = 0

Re = 30

Laminar (wavy )

Re = 1800

Turbulent

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 10

For wave free laminar ( Re<30 )

λ*=λ+0.68Cpl (Tsat-Ts)

Re=4g3Vl2 kl 3h4 3

hvert=1.47 klRe-13gVl213

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 11

Inclined Plates

Condensate vapor

Inclined plate

h=0.729 kf3ρl(ρl-ρv)( g λ* µlTsat-Ts D14

hverthhori=1.29 DL1k

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 12

Problems:

1.Saturated steam at atmospheric condenses an a 2-m high and 3-m wide vertical plate and that is

maintained at 80oC by circulating cooling water through the other side.

Determine the ff:

(a) the rate of heat transfer by condensation to the plate

(b) the rate at which the condensate drops off the plate at the bottom.

Given: 3m

Ts = 80oC

2m

condensate

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 13

2. What would your answer be to the preceding problem if the plate were tilted 30o from the vertical?

Given:

plate

30o

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 15

4. Repeat the preceding problem for the case of 12 horizontal tube arranged in a rectangular array of 3

tubes high and 4 tubes wide

Given:

3 tubes

4 tubes

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city 14

3. The condenser of a steam power plant operates at 40oC and a pressure of 7.38 kPa. Steam at this

pressure condenses on the surface of horizontal pipes through which cooling water circulates. The

outer diameter of the pipe is 3cm, and the outer surfaces of the pipes are maintained at 30oC.

Determine the ff:

(a) the rate of heat transfer to the cooling water circulating in the pipes.

(b) the rate of condensation of steam per unit length of a horizontal pipe.

Given:

Steam, 40oC

30oC

Cooling water

Solution:

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Conduction

Saint Louis University, Baguio city

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids Without Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Heat Transfer to Fluids With Phase Change

Saint Louis University, Baguio city

ChE 421:Unit Operations 2 Heat Transfer Principles of Heat Flow in Fluids

Saint Louis University , Baguio city

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