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Role of Information Systems

Information Flows in an Organisation

Business
objectives

Manager

External factors Questions & Answers


Interaction

Information
System

Changes
Real World
Updates

Detector
Speed of Response to Change

• Delays in changing
Business
the model
• Valid time
objectives

Manager

External factors
Interaction
Questions & Answers
• Transaction time
Information
System

Changes
Real World

• Less delay = more


Updates

Detector
cost
Types of Decision

• Operational – day
Business
to day
• Tactical –
objectives

Manager

External factors
Interaction
Questions & Answers managing the
Information
System
business
• Strategic –
Changes
Real World
Updates

Detector changing the


business
Information Needs
• Operational – day • Operational
to day reports
• Tactical – • Management
managing the assessments
business
• Strategic – • “What if” studies
changing the
business
Information at Work in a Sainsbury’s
Supermarket

Points to ponder:
• What decision does the client make?
• What information is needed to make the
decision?
• What data needs to be stored?
• How can changes in the real world be captured?
• How can the information be presented to the
user?
• How much delay is acceptable?
Pattern of Processing
O u tp u t
In form ation

O u tp u t
Processor Devices

M em ory
(Processes +
Data)

Storage
Devices
In p u t
Devices

Data Flow
In p u t Data
Design Cycle
Design Cycle Stages

1. Investigation
2. Design
3. Feasibility
4. Implementation
5. Review
Feasibility Study
1. Fact Finding, Data modelling,
Logical data model,Requirements,
Project Plan
2. Define Required System
3. Create Options & Shortlist them
4. Present Feasibility Report