Red Hat Linux 9

Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide

Red Hat Linux 9: Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc.
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Table of Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... i 1. Changes to This Manual ........................................................................................................ i 2. Document Conventions......................................................................................................... ii 3. Copying and Pasting Text With X........................................................................................ iv 4. Using the Mouse ................................................................................................................... v 5. We Need Feedback! .............................................................................................................. v 6. Sign Up for Support .............................................................................................................. v 1. Getting Started ................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1. Setup Agent....................................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Introductory Terms............................................................................................................. 3 1.3. Logging In.......................................................................................................................... 5 1.3.1. Graphical Login .................................................................................................. 5 1.3.2. Virtual Console Login......................................................................................... 6 1.4. Graphical Interface............................................................................................................. 6 1.5. Opening a Shell Prompt ..................................................................................................... 7 1.6. Creating a User Account.................................................................................................... 7 1.7. Documentation and Help ................................................................................................... 8 1.7.1. Manual Pages ...................................................................................................... 9 1.7.2. Red Hat Linux Documentation ......................................................................... 10 1.8. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 11 1.8.1. Graphical Logout .............................................................................................. 11 1.8.2. Virtual Console Logout..................................................................................... 11 1.9. Shutting Down your Computer ........................................................................................ 11 1.9.1. Graphical Shutdown.......................................................................................... 11 1.9.2. Virtual Console Shutdown ................................................................................ 12 2. Using the Graphical Desktop ....................................................................................................... 13 2.1. Using the Desktop............................................................................................................ 13 2.2. Using the Panel ................................................................................................................ 14 2.2.1. Using the Main Menu ...................................................................................... 14 2.2.2. Using Applets.................................................................................................... 14 2.2.3. Using the Notification Area .............................................................................. 15 2.2.4. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel............................................................. 16 2.2.5. Configuring the Desktop Panel ......................................................................... 16 2.3. Using Nautilus ................................................................................................................ 16 2.4. Start Here ......................................................................................................................... 17 2.4.1. Customizing the Desktop.................................................................................. 18 2.4.2. Customizing your System ................................................................................. 19 2.5. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 20 3. Configuring the Date and Time ................................................................................................... 21 3.1. Time and Date Properties................................................................................................. 21 3.2. Time Zone Configuration................................................................................................. 21 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs .............................................................................................................. 23 4.1. Using Diskettes ................................................................................................................ 23 4.1.1. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette.............................................................. 23 4.1.2. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette ................................................... 24 4.1.3. Formatting a Diskette........................................................................................ 24 4.2. CD-ROMs ........................................................................................................................ 25 4.2.1. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager ....................................................... 26 4.2.2. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt ............................................................ 26 4.3. CD-Rs and CD-RWs ........................................................................................................ 26 4.3.1. Using CD Creator............................................................................................ 27 4.3.2. Using X-CD-Roast........................................................................................... 28

........................................................... Useful Websites ...............................................................................3... Adding a Local Printer.5................................................1...................................................................................... 58 8.................................................................... 75 10......................................................................................................... 57 8.....6............................................................ Shell Prompt Text Editors ..................................................1... Printer Configuration .................................... 67 9.org Draw................... Installed Documentation ....................... Queue Type .............. The Printer Configuration Tool .....................................................1............................................................. Additional Resources ............ 43 7.......................................5.................3................ 73 10............................ Working with Documents..............................org Suite............. OpenOffice........................................................................................ 45 7............. 65 9.....................................................................................................................................5............. Troubleshooting Your Video Card ............................................................4.................................. Galeon ................org Calc .. OpenOffice.3....................... Useful Websites ........................................................................................................1.................................. Mozilla Mail............. Using XMMS ..........................1...................................................1. Mozilla Composer....2..org Features......................................................................3...........................................1................ 50 7................... 57 8.............................................1..............3................... Web Browsing.....................................................................2...4........................... Using Mutt .................................... 63 9................... 63 9................ OpenOffice.................... Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing........ Driver Options...................... Printer Driver........... 47 7.........................2.........2.................. Confirming Printer Configuration ...........1............................................................1.... 55 8.....1.............................................................. Games .. 41 6.................................... 32 4............................................................4..............................................2.. 45 7.................................... Playing Digital Audio Files .................. 60 8....................4..............................................................4............................. Modifying Existing Printers......4............................................... 60 8... 64 9................................................................................. 39 6. 69 9..........1........... Plain Text Email Clients ............ Email Applications.................... 73 10................... 73 10........1................ Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools .............. 39 6... 74 10................................................ 56 8......... 77 ............................ 75 10.................................................................................................................................................5.............................................3........................ and General Amusement...................................2......................................... 57 8................................ Video.........................................2.....3............................. Additional Resources ............. OpenOffice.............................................................3...........org Writer .........2................................................................................................5................... Finding Games Online ...................... 63 9.............. Troubleshooting Your Sound Card .....................7............... 49 7.................................4...............1.................................1....................2..........................................2........................................ Evolution.1................................................1..3..... 53 8......................................... Getting Online .........................................7................. 39 6.......... The OpenOffice.................. Playing Audio CDs ........................ Queue Name .........................1.. Mozilla and Newsgroups ........................................................org Impress......... 30 4................................................................1... 76 10...................... 54 8............................................ 35 6.............. 71 10..........1. 53 8............................. 71 9..................... OpenOffice.... 74 10........................... 55 8..................................................7......................... Installed Documentation ............... Mozilla...................4............................ Managing Print Jobs . 50 8.........2... 32 4....................5................................. Editing Text Files ................... 61 9.........2..... 53 8.. Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts ..... 33 5...............6..........................1........................................................................................................... 41 6.3........................3....................... If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work................................................................1............... 69 9.............................................................................1........ Viewing PDFs ...............3................ Audio..................................................5.....2................ Using Mozilla................................. 57 8............................. Printing a Test Page..

.........................................................9..........1.....................2..2..................................3...2............................................................9..................................... Why Use a Shell Prompt............... 85 11.........1....................................... 101 13......................................................1........................................................................... Related Books ............................... 79 11..........................2............. Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt.................9................................................. Changing Directories with cd ..................................5................................................. Manipulating Images with the GIMP........ 79 11............ 103 13................ Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt ........... 83 11.......................... Using gtKam .................................................................... 82 11................... GIMP Basics .......................................................... The tail Command.................3.......................... 80 11................................................. 111 14....... Working with Images.................................. 95 13.......... 119 .................................................................. 102 13...................14................................ File Formats ....... Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt............................................................................3............2......................................... Printing From The Command Line.................. A Larger Picture of the File System ...........................10..3.....................1...... Appending Standard Output .................................................................... 87 12............... Determining Your Current Directory with pwd ................................. Pipes and Pagers .................. 106 13..2...........3.................. Redirecting Standard Input ............. 100 13... 89 13.......................................3...3..4.... Using File Roller..................3............................................. View Directory Contents with ls............................. 84 11.................................................................................2............................................... Managing Files and Directories ..... 98 13...................... 96 13......................2........................... Shell Prompt Basics ........4....13........................ The grep Command................. 111 14.......4.... The head Command .......................................1.................................................... Programming and Scripting Files ....................3....................................................................................... 90 13......................................... GIMP Options .......... 82 11........... The chmod Command......................................................1.......................... 85 11.................. 113 14......1................................................................................. 112 14........... Additional Resources ........... Using gThumb .........................2.1............................................. 101 13........... 99 13......... System Files ..........................................8....................2................................................................. Using Nautilus to View Images...........................................2.......2................................. The more Command ....1.............................3...........................................1.. 85 11.................................... 84 11.1........................... Creating Files ................................................................ 89 13....... Wildcards and Regular Expressions..............................................................................14................ 104 13.......................... 87 13................... 113 14...........4..........................11...............................................2...3............................................................ Loading a File . Identifying and Working with File Types ......11........................................1........ 89 13.......................10.................... Command History and Tab Completion ..... 99 13......2.................................................................... 102 13................................ 112 14........................................ 90 13.............2.........................11...................... 101 13.....................................................14............12..................................... File Compression and Archiving ..11......................... 86 12........................ 95 13............................................... 93 13..............1....................................................... 115 14. 94 13...................9.3.2.... I/O Redirection and Pipes ...........................1....... 108 14............................ Clearing and Resetting the Terminal..... Using Multiple Commands .......4............ 117 14............. 104 13................................. 114 14. Using Redirection ................3... Viewing Images......................... The History of the Shell.................................... Compressed and Archived Files ..2........................................................... 112 14.........................3............... 79 11.................5......1......... Manipulating Files with cat........................................ Changing Permissions With Numbers ....................11....7...................................1........................................................2..................6........................ 96 13..... 101 13............................ Ownership and Permissions.................. Working with Digital Cameras .. Installed Documentation .................................................................3........................................ Locating Files and Directories ...... 119 14...11................ More Commands for Reading Text Files....... Useful Websites .............................................................4............................................................... 112 14............ Saving a File .............................................2...........11.....................................

..........................7...................5....... Forgotten Password....................... Finding Help ............................ 135 A...................................................... Using Applets............................... Introducing KDE......... 127 16.......................................................................................................................................................................4............ The Navigation Panel..................................................................................................8................ Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages..... Browsing the Web with Konqueror ......................... 147 C...........14..................................................................................8...........1...... 140 A......................... 131 16.............................................................. Finding Commands Quickly .................................................................................................................5...... 120 14..... 121 15...............................................1..... 131 16........ 125 15............ 137 A..................1.....................10................................. Editing Your PATH ........................6.................................. KMail ..... 131 16........2...........................2....................... Deleting Files and Directories .............. Using The Main Menu............................................................................................................... Error Messages During Installation of RPMs............... 130 16...................... 128 16...................................................... 140 A................................................................................. 130 16........................10............................................................. Downloaded Packages ........................... 131 16.... 132 A.............................. Using The Desktop... 135 A............. 136 A..............................4.................... Red Hat Network .......................................................................... Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel ....................7..................................................... 149 D..2....................................................................................................................................................................................6.................. 141 A....................................... 153 Index............................ Keep ls Output from Scrolling ................ 127 16..........6................. 155 Colophon...................... A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands ......................... 135 A.1................................................4................. Copying Files .............. Keyboard Shortcuts ......................................................................1........................................................ Frequently Asked Questions ....... Moving Files ......................................................................................................................................9...3.............2........................ 143 A....................................... Other Shortcuts ............................................9.......................... 127 16....... 141 A........... Localhost Login and Password .................................................................................................................................................5...................... 119 14.............. 137 A.........................2............................4.......................................................... Managing Files........................................... 123 15............................ 126 16...................... 125 15..... Password Maintenance....... KDE: The K Desktop Environment ........... Tips on Using Command History ............7..................................... Using Konqueror to View Images ................... Printing ls Output......3....1.............................................................4............... Changing Login from Console to X at Startup ......... Errata List.. Customizing KDE ............................................................. Using The Panel ...... 144 A......................................................................................................................... 146 B..................................................................... Accessing a Windows Partition ...4.................................................. Logging Out of KDE......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 127 16..........4....................4............ Starting Applications ...................... Installation CD-ROMs ...... 139 A........................................3............ 151 E. Configuring the KDE Panel ......................................... 132 16...........3.........................................4.......... System Directories.................................................................................3................. 123 15...... 135 A......1. 161 .............3............................ Applications ................................ 129 16......................................... 146 A..........4......................................4......1.....4.......

feels. hints. Topics discussed include: • • • • • Using the graphical desktop environment Managing files and directories Working with documents Using the Web and email Working with a digital camera After conquering the basics of your Red Hat Linux system. and versatile alternative. interesting. and getting online. you should have read the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide and successfully installed Red Hat Linux. HTML and PDF versions of the Red Hat Linux manuals are available on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD and online at http://www. you should read the Red Hat Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to our documentation being finalized. They can be found on the Red Hat Linux CD #1 and online at: http://www. . Forget about the conventions of other operating systems and. the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer. the tasks covered in this manual become progressively more advanced. configuring a printer. Once the basics are covered.com/docs/ 1. The Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide focuses primarily on how to perform tasks in these two environments. and performs differently from other operating systems you may have used. You will find useful tips. with an open mind. This manual is designed to help new and intermediate Linux users navigate and perform common tasks. warnings. and the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. Changes to this manual include: Working with Digital Cameras This new chapter discusses using a digital camera with gtKam. and screen shots interspersed throughout. you may need information on more advanced topics.redhat. you will learn the basics of using Red Hat Linux. Changes to This Manual This manual has been expanded to include new features in Red Hat Linux 9 as well as topics requested by our readers.redhat. Note Although this manual reflects the most current information possible. Keep in mind that Linux looks. This manual is task-oriented.com/docs/. Most users choose to work within either the GNOME or KDE graphical desktop environments (other desktop environments are also available). You can find this information in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.Introduction Welcome to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide! By now. such as customizing a desktop. the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. approach Red Hat Linux as a new. First.

so the entire phrase will be displayed as a command. This style should indicate that a particular file or directory exists by that name on your Red Hat Linux system. Sometimes a command contains words that would be displayed in a different style on their own (such as filenames). In these cases. typefaces. Document Conventions When you read this manual. 2. manage your printer. when used) are represented this way. The types of words that are represented this way include the following: command Linux commands (and other operating system commands.ii Configuring Date and Time Introduction A chapter on configuring your system time. For example: Use Mozilla to browse the Web. Diskettes and CD-ROMs This chapter now includes information about backing up files to CD-R and CD-RW media using CD Creator in Nautilus. . Examples: The . you will see that certain words are represented in different fonts. named testfile. Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program. and weights. application This style indicates that the program is an end-user application (as opposed to system software). directory names. they are considered to be part of the command. and RPM package names are represented this way.bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases for your own use. This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on the command line and press [Enter] to invoke a command. in the current working directory. Using the Graphical Desktop This chapter has been modified to reflect the new desktop environment and the various ways you can use and configure it. sizes. For example: Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file. filename Filenames. The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and filesystems. paths. and how to connect to a network time server to get accurate time and date information for your Red Hat Linux system has been moved from the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide to this manual. This highlighting is systematic. Working with Documents This chapter includes information on editing text files in a graphical environment (with gEdit) and at a shell prompt (with vi). different words are represented in the same style to indicate their inclusion in a specific category. and more. including how to change your desktop background. your time zone.

it indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu. type in a character and then press the [Tab] key. [key]-[combination] A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window will be shown in this style. prompt A prompt.png reports The output returned in response to the command (in this case. will be shown in this style. Example: Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require a password before stopping. it indicates text displayed by the computer on the command line. For example: Use the ls command to display the contents of a directory: $ ls Desktop Mail about. You will see responses to commands you typed in.html backupfiles logs mail paulwesterberg. error messages. and interactive prompts for your input during scripts or programs shown this way. For example: Under File on a GNOME terminal. computer output When you see text in this style. When you see text shown in this style. For example: The [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[Backspace] key combination will exit your graphical session and return you to the graphical login screen or the console. If you click on the word on the GUI screen. top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window When you see a word in this style. For example: iii To use [Tab] completion. text found on a GUI interface A title. Examples: $ # [stephen@maturin stephen]$ . button on a GUI screen or window This style indicates that the text will be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen. word. it is being used to identify a particular GUI screen or an element on a GUI screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or field). they will be shown like the following example: Go to Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => Programming => Emacs to start the Emacs text editor. Your terminal will display the list of files in the directory that start with that letter.Introduction [key] A key on the keyboard is shown in this style. For example: Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed. the rest of the menu should appear. you will see the New Tab option that allows you to open multiple shell prompts in the same window. the contents of the directory) is shown in this style. If you need to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu. which is a computer’s way of signifying that it is ready for you to input something.

these items will be marked as note. Additionally. a rose is not a ROSE is not a rOsE. you will need to type in the text command at the boot: prompt. important. a server installation will remove all existing partitions on all installed hard drives. either on the command line. . text is displayed in this style: To boot your system into the text based installation program. or a warning. In order of how critical the information is to your system. Do not choose this installation class unless you are sure you have no data you need to save. Caution Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you need to use the root account for system administration tasks. In other words. In the following example.iv Introduction leopard login: user input Text that the user has to type. Warning If you choose not to partition manually. Important If you modify the DHCP configuration file. caution. the changes will not take effect until you restart the DHCP daemon. is displayed in this style. Tip The directory /usr/share/doc contains additional documentation for packages installed on your system. tip. or into a text box on a GUI screen. we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of information. For example: Note Remember that Linux is case sensitive.

To sign up. drag the item by moving the mouse to a new location. Sign Up for Support If you have an edition of Red Hat Linux 9. Copying and Pasting Text With X Copying and pasting text is easy using your mouse and the X Window System. Inc. If you have a two-button mouse. if you are instructed to click with the mouse on something. be sure to mention the manual’s identifier: rhl-gsg(EN)-9-Print-RHI (2003-02-20T01:05) If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation. In this document. To paste the text somewhere.) The phrase "drag and drop" may be familiar to you. red.com for more details.redhat. You will find your Product ID on a black. You will be entitled to any or all of the following benefits. pressing both mouse buttons at the same time equates to pressing the missing third (middle) button. or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better. 5.’s support team. click the middle mouse button in the spot where the text should be placed. We Need Feedback! If you spot a typographical error in the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. please remember to sign up for the benefits you are entitled to as a Red Hat customer. (This will be reversed if you’ve configured your mouse to be used by a left handed person. Go to http://rhn. Under the Brim: The Red Hat E-Newsletter — Every month. Using the Mouse Red Hat Linux is designed to use a three-button mouse.Introduction v 3. To copy text. simply click and drag your mouse over the text to highlight it. When submitting a bug report. If you’re instructed to drag and drop an item on your GUI desktop. 4. When you’ve reached the desired location. . go to http://www. If you’re using three-button emulation.redhat.redhat. If you need to use the middle or right mouse button. Red Hat Network — Easily update your packages and receive security notices that are customized for your system. get the latest news and product information directly from Red Hat. click on something and hold the mouse button down. depending upon the Red Hat Linux product you purchased: • • • Red Hat support — Get help with your installation questions from Red Hat.com/apps/activate/. While continuing to hold down the mouse button.com/bugzilla/) against the component rhl-gsg. If you have found an error. we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla (http://bugzilla. try to be as specific as possible when describing it. that will be explicitly stated. that means click the left mouse button. and white card in your Red Hat Linux box. 6. you should have selected three-button emulation during the installation process. release the mouse button to drop the item. please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily.

refer to the Getting Technical Support Appendix in the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide. Good luck.vi Introduction To read more about technical support for Red Hat Linux. and thank you for choosing Red Hat Linux! The Red Hat Documentation Team .

Setup Agent The first time you start your Red Hat Linux system. Red Hat Linux provides tools and applications to help you get the most out of your computing environment. and more.Chapter 1. Using this tool. This chapter guides you through some basic tasks that you can perform on your Red Hat Linux system. This creates a user account that you can use to log into your Red Hat Linux system and which has its own home directory on the system to store files. as you may damage your system or unintentionally delete a file. add users to your system. whether you are working or playing. install software. . register your machine with the Red Hat Network. an optional full name for the account. Setup Agent The Setup Agent first prompts you to create a user account that you should use on a routine basis.1. Figure 1-1. Getting Started From booting up to shutting down. the Setup Agent is presented. 1. It is not recommended to log in to your root account for common computing tasks. The Setup Agent lets you enter a username. and a password (which you must enter twice). so that you can get started using your Red Hat Linux system quickly. Setup Agent allows you to configure your environment at the beginning. you can set your system time and date. The Setup Agent guides you through the configuration of your Red Hat Linux system.

and year on your system. To set the day. month. refer to the Red Hat Network documentation at http://www. Once you have set your time and date. Check the box labeled Enable Network Time Protocol and use the drop-down menu to select the time server you want to use. Selecting No. choose Yes. . which adjusts the clock on your computer’s BIOS (Basic Input Output System).redhat. User Account The Setup Agent allows you to manually set your machine’s date and time. and seconds. use the provided text boxes.2 Chapter 1. click Forward to continue. This will start the Red Hat Update Agent — a utility that guides you step-by-step through the registration of your machine with Red Hat Network. Figure 1-3. To set your time in hours. Getting Started Figure 1-2. You may also synchronize your date and time automatically with a network time server — a computer that sends accurate date and time settings to your system through a network connection. For more information about Red Hat Network and registering your machine.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/. use the calendar interface. I would like to register my system with Red Hat Network. I do not want to register my system skips the registration. Date and Time Configuration To register your system with Red Hat Network and receive automatic updates of your Red Hat Linux system. minutes.

Getting Started 3 Figure 1-4. and. click the Install.. you are ready to log in and start using Red Hat Linux. choose the package(s) or component you want to install. Figure 1-5. Press Forward to exit the Setup Agent. Installing Additional Software Now that your system is configured. software from third-party providers. you should also learn new terminology.. or documentation from the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD. change the CD. click the Install. 1. button. and follow the instructions.2. Red Hat Network Registration Client To install Red Hat Linux RPM packages that you did not install during installation.Chapter 1. Note If you are installing a package from the Red Hat Linux Installation CDs. button. Insert the CD containing the software or documentation you want to install. if prompted . This section defines a few basic terms you should learn. Introductory Terms When you learn about a new operating system.. you must insert CD 1. you can do so at the Additional CDs screen. You will see these terms often throughout all Red Hat Linux documentation including the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide: ..

icons. and pictures to add a personal touch. such as changing administrative passwords and running system configuration tools. For example. You can customize your desktop to have special backgrounds. The panel contains the Main Menu button and shortcut icons to start commonly used programs. type man su at a shell prompt (or type info su for the info page). Getting Started Command: An instruction given to the computer. which can reduce the chance of damaging your Red Hat Linux installation or applications permanently. Icons are small images representing an application. • • • • • • • Figure 1-6. A Shell Prompt . User accounts are created so that typical user tasks can be done without using the root account. The Desktop Panel Root: Root is an administrative user account created during installation and has complete access to the system. usually located across the bottom of your desktop (such as Figure 1-6). colors. Panel: A desktop toolbar. RPM: RPM stands for RPM Package manager and is how Red Hat builds and delivers its software files. An RPM is a software package file you can install on your Red Hat Linux computer. Graphical Desktop: The most visible area of a GUI.4 Chapter 1. to read the man page for the su command. Launcher icons usually refer to application shortcuts. To close man or Info pages. Shell prompt: A command line interface between the user and the operating system (Figure 1-7). most often with the keyboard or mouse. Panels can also be customized to suit your needs. Man page and Info page: Man (short for manual) and Info pages give detailed information about a command or file (man pages tend to be brief and provide less explanation than Info pages). The desktop is where your user Home and Start Here icons are located. menus. and panels which allow a user to initiate actions such as starting applications and opening files using a mouse and keyboard. press [q]. • • • Figure 1-7. Graphical User Interface (GUI): A general term for interactive windows. folder. The shell interprets commands entered by the user and passes them on to the operating system. You must be logged in as root to accomplish certain system administration tasks. shortcut or system resource (such as a diskette drive). Command line: The space at the shell prompt where commands are typed.

root refers to the root user (also known as the superuser). Logging in with the su . When you log in. Not all accounts are created equal: some accounts have fewer rights to access files or services than others.command makes you root within the root account shell. Getting Started 5 • su and su -: The command su gives you access to the root account or other accounts on your system. 1. Unlike some other operating systems. Caution Because your Red Hat Linux system creates the root account during installation. refer to Section 1. you are working in a GUI rather than a console environment. you are introducing yourself to the system (also called authentication). If you are "in X" or "running X". If you have already created and logged in to a user account. it is highly recommended that you log in as that user instead of root to prevent accidental damage to your Red Hat Linux installation. By default. Logging In The next step to using your Red Hat Linux system is to log in. When you type su to switch to your root account while still inside your user account shell. Note Red Hat Linux applications and files are case sensitive. If you type the wrong user name or password. You may be tempted to forego creating and using a user account during or after installation. . 1. maintain security. This is a dangerous idea. You can easily damage your system by accidentally deleting or modifying sensitive system files.1. After you create a user account. you must log in as root.3. Use caution when you are logged in as root. some new users are tempted to use only this account for all of their activities. which is primarily used in a network setting. because the root account is allowed to do anything on the system. you have access to important system files that you can change (or damage if you are not careful). your Red Hat Linux system uses accounts to manage privileges.3. but it is not recommended.6 Creating a User Account to learn how to set up a user account. you will not be allowed access to your system. • Although the emphasis throughout this book is on navigation and productivity using the graphical desktop environment. X or X Window System: These terms refer to the graphical user interface environments.Chapter 1. your machine will probably be called localhost. Again. or system administrator. Graphical Login When your system has booted. If you did not create a user account using the Setup Agent. unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname. If you created only the root account. which means that typing root refers to a different account than Root. you can skip ahead to Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop. and more. a graphical login screen is displayed as shown in Figure 1-8. both the graphical and shell prompt methods of logging in and using your Red Hat Linux system are discussed for your reference.

After logging in. and press [Enter]. The Graphical Login Screen To log in as root from the graphical login screen. Once you start the X Window System. To log in as a normal user. 1. you will see a login prompt similar to the following after booting your system: Red Hat Linux release 9 Kernel 2.4. your machine will probably be called localhost. type your username at the login prompt. you will find a graphical interface known as a desktop similar to Figure 1-9.4. Virtual Console Login During installation. To log in as root from the console. Graphical Interface When you installed Red Hat Linux you had the opportunity to install a graphical environment. press [Enter]. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt. type root at the login prompt.3. if you selected an installation type other than Workstation or Personal Desktop and chose text as your login type. Getting Started Figure 1-8. press [Enter]. and press [Enter]. then type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt and press [Enter]. type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt. and press [Enter]. To log in as a normal user. type root at the login prompt. 1. Logging in from the graphical login screen automatically starts the graphical desktop for you. .localdomain.6 Chapter 1. press [Enter]. type your username at the login prompt.2.18-14 on an i686 localhost login: Unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname. which is primarily used in a network setting. press [Enter]. you can type the command startx to start the graphical desktop.

Creating a User Account When you first started your Red Hat Linux system after installation. Refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics for further details. Click Add User. 1. type exit at the prompt.Chapter 1. You should avoid working in the root account for daily tasks. you will be prompted for your root password. click the System Settings icon. If you did not create at least one account (not including the root account) you should do so now. you were given the opportunity to create one or more user accounts using the Setup Agent. You can also start a shell prompt by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing New Terminal from the menu.6. or press [Ctrl]-[D] at the prompt. In the new window that opens. Opening a Shell Prompt The desktop offers access to a shell prompt. Click the Start Here icon on the desktop. You can open a shell prompt by selecting Main Menu => System Tools => Terminal. To create a user account graphically using the User Manager: 1. . it is sometimes useful and faster to perform tasks from a shell prompt. You can also select Main Menu => System Settings => Users & Groups from the panel.5. To exit a shell prompt. There are two ways to create new and/or additional user accounts: using the graphical User Manager application or from a shell prompt. and then click the Users & Groups icon. an application that allows you to type commands instead of using a graphical interface for all computing activities. Getting Started 7 Figure 1-9. The Graphical Desktop 1. You can also start the User Manager by typing redhat-config-users at a shell prompt. 3. If you are not logged in as root. click the X button on the upper right corner of the shell prompt window. 2. While the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide primarily focuses on performing tasks using the graphical interface and graphical tools. The window shown in Figure 1-10 will appear.

If you are not logged in as root. 2. documents that detail usage of important applications and files. Type passwd followed by a space and the username again (for example. Type useradd followed by a space and the username for the new account you are creating at the command line (for example. the full name of the user for whom this account is being created.and enter the root password. To create a user account from a shell prompt: 1. Documentation and Help There are several resources available to get the information you need to use and configure your Red Hat Linux system. Your password should be at least six characters. In the Create New User dialog box. INFO pages which break information about an . For most users. such as qwerty or password. If you want to pick an easy-to-remember but somewhat unique password. or birthplace to something more creative. you can accept the defaults for the other configuration options. Avoid easy selections. type the command su . Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details about additional options. useradd jsmith). as well as numbers and characters. passwd jsmith). so it should be both unique and easy for you to remember. The password is the key to your account. and a password (which you will enter a second time for verification). You can use both uppercase and lowercase letters. User account names can be anything from the user’s name. Getting Started Figure 1-10. 3. Press [Enter]. The name of this user’s home directory and the name of the login shell should appear by default. 6. Open a shell prompt. The new user will appear in the user list. enter a username (this can be an abbreviation or nickname). Often. 5. Along with the Red Hat Linux documentation there are manual pages. consider a variation of a word. signaling that the user account creation is complete. such as a1rPl4nE for airplane. enter the same password to confirm your selection.7. Important You should take precautions when you choose a password. 5. such as jsmith for John Smith. At the New password: prompt enter a password for the new user and press [Enter]. The Red Hat User Manager 4. 4. Click OK. usernames are variations on the user’s name. At the Retype new password: prompt. initials.8 Chapter 1. 1.

The SYNOPSIS field shows the common usage of the executable. 1.1. Man Pages are structured in such a way that users can quickly scan the page for pertinent information. such as what options are declared and what types of input (such as files or values) the executable supports. All instances of the keyword will be highlighted throughout the man page.7.Chapter 1. 1. Getting Started 9 application down by context-sensitive menus. The DESCRIPTION field shows available options and values associated with a file or executable. to access the man page for the ls command. Manual Pages Applications. .1. See Also shows related terms. as all of these resources are either already installed on your Red Hat Linux system or can be easily installed. files. which is important when dealing with commands that they have never previously encountered. type [Q]. Figure 1-11. and shell prompt commands usually have corresponding manual pages (also called man pages) that show the reader available options and values of file or executable. For example. To exit the man page. utilities. Reading a Man Page with the Shell Prompt To navigate the man page you can use the [Page Down] and [Page Up] keys or use the [Spacebar] to move down one page and [B] to move up.1. You can choose any method of accessing documentation that best suits your needs.7. To search a man page for keywords type [/] and then a keyword or phrase and press [Enter]. and help files that are included in the main menubar of graphical applications. Using man Man Pages can be accessed via shell prompt by typing the command man and the name of the executable. allowing you to quickly read the keyword in context. and programs. type the following: man ls The NAME field shows the executable’s name and a brief explanation of what function the executable performs.

redhat. inserting the Documentation CD in your CD-ROM drive should automatically start the Package Management Tool and allow you to install any of the Red Hat Linux documentation. All of the Red Hat Linux manuals are on this CD. Once you have logged in to your user account. Type man man at the shell prompt for more information. 1.2. The lpr command sends the formatted content to the printer. Getting Started Printing man pages is a useful way to archive commonly used commands. Red Hat Linux Documentation If you have the Red Hat Linux boxed set. If you have a printer available and configured for use with Red Hat Linux (refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information). man has its own man page. and type the following at the command line: su .10 1. you can access them at any time by clicking Main Menu => Documentation. Individual downloads of our documentation in HTML. you can print a man page by typing the following command at a shell prompt: man command| col -b | lpr The example above combines separates commands into one unique function. Figure 1-12. 1.3. Package Management Tool Displaying Documentation Available for Installation After you have installed the documentation packages you want.com/docs/.7. Printing a Man Page Chapter 1. If you have downloaded individual documentation RPM packages from the Red Hat website at http://www. man command will output the contents of the command man page to col.redhat. RPM.com/docs/ you can install these manuals from a shell prompt.1.7.1.7. PDF.tar. Follow the instructions and choose the documentation you would like to install.gz) are also available at http://www. and compressed tarball format (. The man Man Page Just like other commands. which formats the contents to fit within a printed page. perhaps in bound form for quick reference. remember to take a look at the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD.2. Open a shell prompt.

You will be asked for your root password. You are now logged in as root.9. To install only certain manuals. it is important to properly shut down Red Hat Linux. To save the configuration of your desktop.8. and you logged in at the console. Getting Started 11 Press [Enter]. . as you may lose unsaved data or damage your system. 1. Type exit at the command line and press [Enter].rpm. 1.rpm with the full file name of the manual that you want to install.noarch. replace rhl-*. Shutting Down your Computer Before turning off your computer. so you would type the following to install it on your system: rpm -ivh /mnt/cdrom/rhl-gsg-en-9.8. This logs you out of the root account and back to your user account. select Main Menu => Log Out. Graphical Logout To log out your graphical desktop session. change to the directory that contains the RPM files and type the following: rpm -ivh rhl-*. To install all of the Red Hat Linux manuals.noarch. Logging Out 1. the file name for the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide will look something like rhl-gsg-en-9.rpm Press [Enter]. For example. Enter the password at the prompt and press [Enter].rpm Press [Enter].1. Logout Confirmation 1. Now go to Main Menu => Documentation and select the manual you want to read. When the confirmation dialog appears as shown in Figure 1-13. select the Logout option and click the Yes button.Chapter 1. type exit or [Ctrl]-[D] to log out of the console session. check the Save current setup option. Figure 1-13.2. Virtual Console Logout If you are not using the X Window System. Never turn your computer off without shutting down first. as well as any programs which are running.8.

9.9. If your computer does not. you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: System halted.2. 1.8 Logging Out. Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux. . From the graphical desktop logout screen shown in Figure 1-13. Getting Started 1. you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: Power down.1. Graphical Shutdown If you are in the graphical desktop. select Shutdown and click OK to confirm. log out of your session as described in Section 1. type the following command: halt Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux. Virtual Console Shutdown To shutdown your computer at a shell prompt. If your computer does not.12 Chapter 1.

a notification area for notification icons. Figure 2-1. and small applications called applets that let you control sound volume. and shortcuts to removable devices such as CD-ROM and diskettes when they have been mounted. They can also be found on the desktop and then clicking the Applications The desktop works in the manner you might expect it to when working with other operating systems. You will notice that it offers three main tools to make use of the applications on your system: panel icons. You can add new . The menu systems can be found by clicking on the Main Menu button by double-clicking on the Start Here icon icon. and system resources. The icons elsewhere on the desktop can be shortcuts to file folders. You can drag and drop files and application icons to areas that are easily accessible. The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel.Chapter 2. and menus. and displays the status of your system. double-click on its icon. Both new and experienced users will be able to take full advantage of their Red Hat Linux systems using the graphical desktop. . The panel contains application launcher icons. desktop icons. application launchers. Using the Desktop Your first view of the graphical desktop will look something like Figure 2-1.1. Using the Graphical Desktop Red Hat Linux includes a powerful graphical desktop environment where you can easily access your applications. This chapter covers the fundamentals of the desktop and how you can configure it for your needs. switch workspaces. To open a folder or launch an application. The Graphical Desktop The graphical desktop gives you access to the applications and system settings on your computer. 2. files.

you can start most applications included in Red Hat Linux. Some applets perform useful tasks while others are designed to be entertaining. You can change the appearance of most of the tools and applications and change system settings with provided configuration tools. 2. and file manager. Workspace Switcher . There are a few applets that run on your panel by default. Workspace Switcher The graphical desktop gives you the ability to use multiple workspaces so you do not have to have all of your running applications crowding one viewable desktop area. or [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[left-arrow] to switch between desktops. Applets let you monitor various aspects of your system. These applets are fairly important and are covered in the following list. The notification area holds alert icons such as the one for Red Hat Network so that you can be quickly alerted to critical messages. From the Main Menu.14 Chapter 2. The Panel 2. and lock your screen (which runs a password protected screen saver). These sub-menus give you access to a full range of applications on your system.1.2. to expand it into a large set of menus that allow you to From here. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[down-arrow]. The Workspace Switcher represents each workspace (or desktop) in small squares and show the applications running on them. The panel also holds the Main Menu. you can also access additional applications within each sub-menu.2. Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel. run applications from a command line. You can also use the keyboard shortcut [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[up-arrow]. Notice that. you can also log out. Using the Graphical Desktop icons for files and applications to the desktop. which contains shortcuts for all of your applications.2. Figure 2-2. 2. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[right-arrow]. Figure 2-3. Using the Main Menu You can click on the Main Menu button access the applications on your system. Click on one of the squares with your mouse to move to that desktop.2. Applets embedded on the panel allow you to run specific tasks or monitor your system or services while remaining out of your way. in addition to the recommended applications. Using the Panel The desktop panel is the bar that stretches across the bottom of the screen and holds icons and small applications which makes using your system easier. find files. panel.

Using the Notification Area Red Hat Network Notification Tool Part of the Notification Area. Figure 2-4. Once it disappears. the Red Hat Network Notification Tool provides you with an easy way to make sure your system is up-to-date with current errata and bug fixes from Red Hat.Chapter 2. If you are not registered with Red Hat Network. It disappears when the authentication times out. The Taskbar is an applet which shows you the titles of running applications on any one virtual desktop.2. Figure 2-6. Click on the icon to view running print jobs. The applet shows you different images that indicate whether your system is up to date or needs upgrades. To update your system. Right-click on the applet icon for a list of options from which to choose. click the button to launch the Red Hat Update Agent. Figure 2-5. a list of available updates will be displayed. Using the Graphical Desktop Taskbar 15 Next to the Workspace Switcher is the Taskbar. Authentication Icon Printer Notification Icon The Printer Notification Icon allows you to manage your print jobs. The Taskbar 2. The Printer Notification Icon . and cancel jobs by right-clicking on the job and selecting Cancel. Red Hat Network Notification Tool The Authentication Icon The key icon that is sometimes displayed in the Notification Area is a security notification that displays whenever you have gained root authentication for your system (such as running a graphical system configuration tool). Figure 2-7. This is very helpful if you decide to minimize an application as it will seem to disappear from the desktop. it will launch the registration component. you can bring it back by clicking on its title in the Taskbar.3. If you click on the icon.

right-click in an unused area of the panel and select Properties. In essence. access your network resources.. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To make the panel fit your needs. Tip Another quick and easy way to add a launcher to the panel is to right-click on an unused area of the panel and choose Add to Panel => Launcher from menu. Figure 2-8. Using the Graphical Desktop Warning If you cannot see any of the notification icons. 2. browse your photo collection. it will not appear on the desktop until you move your mouse pointer over the panel area (called hovering). select Add to Panel. This will launch a dialog box that allows you to enter the name of the application. In Figure 2-8. however. You can set the size of the panel.2.. 2. right-click in an unused area on the panel and select Add to Panel => Launcher.. place it on any edge of your desktop. Click OK and the new launcher icon will appear on the panel. it will appear on your panel. the location and name of the command that starts the application (such as /usr/bin/foo). its position on the desktop. Nautilus is designed to be much more than a visual listing of files. and even choose an icon for the application. The Weather Report Applet on the Panel To add a launcher icon to the panel. Using Nautilus The graphical desktop includes a file manager called Nautilus that gives you a graphical display of your system and personal files.4. Configuring the Desktop Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually. This will automatically add a launcher icon based on the properties of the item in the Main Menu. Then select an application that appears in the menu. change its size and color. . and more all from one integrated interface. right-click on the panel and choose Add to Panel => Utility => Notification Area.3.5. the Weather Report applet has been added to show the current local weather and temperature.2. and whether you want the panel to be automatically hidden (Autohide) when not in use. When you select an applet. you may want to add more applets and launcher icons. To add the it back to your panel. Nautilus becomes a shell for your entire desktop experience. right-click in an unused area on the panel. To add an applet to the panel. To alter the default panel settings. and change the way it behaves. 2. and choose from the various types of applets. then the notification area was removed from the desktop panel. If you choose to autohide the panel.16 Chapter 2. configure your Red Hat Linux system. It allows you to configure your desktop.

this means you see a portion of the actual text in the icon. the Start Here window provides a central location for using and customizing your system. For text files. Select the Preview tab. You can open another Nautilus window by selecting File => New Window. To copy the file to another directory. you can navigate through your home directory or the rest of the file system. Using the Graphical Desktop 17 Working in Nautilus is efficient and provides an alternative to searching through the various submenus connected to the Main Menu or using a shell prompt to navigate the file system. you can drag and drop files to different directories. 2. You can access the Start Here screen at any time by double-clicking on the desktop icon labeled Start Here. dragging a file from one directory to another moves the file. Main Menu items. press the [Ctrl] key while dragging and dropping the file. To start Nautilus as a file manager.Chapter 2. For images. Once you have another Nautilus window. The Start Here Window Start Here was designed to hold all of the tools and applications you need to access when using your system. By default. By default. To return to your home directory. desktop preferences. you see a scaled-down (or thumbnail) version of the image.4. The following sections explain how to use the Nautilus to enhance your desktop experience. Disabling this (and other) previewing feature increases the speed of Nautilus. then select Never in the drop down for Show Thumbnails. The browser window contains folders and files which you can drag with your mouse to move and copy into new locations. select Edit => Preferences. . and system settings. From your favorite applications to system and configuration tools. click the Home button. Start Here Figure 2-9. double-click on your home directory icon: Once Nautilus appears. server configuration tools. image files in your home directory will be seen as thumbnails. To turn off this feature. The Start Here screen includes icons that allow you to access your favorite applications.

To start the Background Preferences tool. Using the Graphical Desktop Tip You can add your favorite locations to the Bookmarks.4.1.1. you can configure a shortcut to move from your current Workspace to Workspace 2 by pressing [Ctrl]-[F2]. and finally select Background. Sound In this section you can configure the system sounds associated with various functions.1. Navigate to the location you want to bookmark. to play a sound when you log in to your desktop. The following lists some of the options and tools in each area. or you can use your own image. You can also double-click the Start Here icon. you can configure it. The Background Preferences Tool . To learn more about configuring your desktop background. refer to Section 2. and then select Bookmarks => Add Bookmark. right-click on the desktop and choose Change Desktop Background from the menu.4.1.4. you can select the Preferences icon to configure your desktop. Background You can configure your background with new colors or a new image. Figure 2-10. Keyboard Shortcuts You can configure shortcuts — pressing a combination of keystrokes on the keyboard — to perform actions within an application or on your desktop. which presents you with a wide selection of configuration options. Changing your Desktop Background One way to dramatically alter the appearance of your graphical desktop is to change the background using the Background Preferences tool.18 Chapter 2. For example. 2. For example.1 Changing your Desktop Background. 2. select Preferences. Customizing the Desktop From the Start Here screen. You can choose from several background images included with Red Hat Linux in the /usr/share/backgrounds/ directory.

Click Close to save and exit the Background Preferences tool. Refer to Chapter 3 Configuring the Date and Time for details on using this tool. leaving the default background colors to fill in any remaining desktop space. To fill the desktop with an image without tiling it. You will be able to set your time zone information as well. Figure 2-11. The following lists some of the tools included in System Settings and what you can do with them.2. The Centered option places your image in the center of the desktop. The Wallpaper option displays multiple instances of your image across the desktop. choose the No Picture option and adjust your colors using the Background Style options. Date & Time This tool allows you to set the date and time of your machine. The Desktop with a New Background If you want to create a background with your own custom colors and no images.4.Chapter 2. Choose your own Top Color and Bottom Color and the color gradient (or the blending of colors). Using the Graphical Desktop 19 The Background Preferences tool allows you to load a new background from a directory of provided images (/usr/share/backgrounds/images/). You can also drag an image into the window from your own image directory. use the Scaled or Stretched options. There are several additional options for displaying your background image. 2. . The System Settings icon includes tools that help you set up your system for personal everyday use. Figure 2-11 shows a background image of flowers and plants that is stretched to fill the entire desktop. Customizing your System The Start Here screen in Nautilus contains additional configuration tools that help you with your new Red Hat Linux system and the server applications included. which is useful if you use a small image or if you use a tile (or pattern) image from /usr/share/backgrounds/tiles/ or from your own image collection.

This will bring up a dialog which presents you with the options listed above. depending on which install type you specified during installation. Refer to Section 10. The server configuration tools are found by clicking on the System Settings icon and then the Server Settings icon. A few examples of the tools found in this area are the HTTP Configuration Tool and the Bind Configuration Tool. or halting the system completely. Logging Out When you have finished working and want to quit GNOME. . Printing The Printer Configuration Tool allows you to add a new printer to your system. Users & Groups The User Manager tool allows you to add and remove users from your system. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details. restarting the machine. These tools help you configure services and applications you are using on the local machine to serve other machines. 2. select the Log Out menu item from the Main Menu. you are presented with the choice of logging out of GNOME (leaving the system running). You must have those server applications installed before these tools appear in this section. Using the Graphical Desktop The Sound Card Configuration Tool tool probes your machine for available sound devices.3 Troubleshooting Your Sound Card for more details on configuring your sound hardware.6 Creating a User Account for details. Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details.5. The printer may be connected to your machine or available on a network.20 Soundcard Detection Chapter 2. The Desktop Log Out Confirmation To quit the graphical desktop. Refer to Section 1. You may also find server configuration tools in the Start Here area. Figure 2-12.

Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. The application allows you to configure a NTP daemon to synchronize your system clock with a remote server. and to setup the Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon to synchronize the system clock with a time server. Time and Date Properties As shown in Figure 3-1. Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. Configuring the Date and Time The Time and Date Properties Tool allows the user to change the system date and time. Time and Date Properties To change the date. Minute. You must be running the X Window System and have root privileges. . You can choose one of the predefined servers or type a server name in the pulldown menu. Your system will not start synchronizing with the NTP server until you click OK. The Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon synchronizes the system clock with a remote time server or time source (such as a satellite). the NTP daemon settings. and the time zone settings and then exit the program. use the up and down arrow buttons beside the Hour.Chapter 3. To change the time. Figure 3-1. use the arrows to the left and right of the month to change the month. After you click OK. and click on the day of the week to change the day of the week. This will enable the Server pulldown menu. To start the application from the desktop go to the Main Menu Button => System Settings => Date & Time or type the command redhat-config-date at a shell prompt (for example. in an XTerm or a GNOME terminal). To enable this feature. to configure the time zone used by the system. 3. Clicking the OK button will apply any changes that you have made to the date and time. and Second in the Time section.1. the configuration will be saved and the NTP daemon will be started (or restarted if it is already running). Use the arrows to the left and right of the year to change the year. click the Enable Network Time Protocol button. the first tabbed window that appears is for configuring the system date and time and the NTP daemon (ntpd).

Timezone Properties If your system clock is set to use UTC. Figure 3-2. click the Time Zone tab. Configuring the Date and Time 3. select the System clock uses UTC option. UTC stands for the universal time zone. Other time zones are determined by adding or subtracting from the UTC time. also known as Greenwich mean time (GMT). click on the city that represents the desired time zone. The time zone can be changed by either using the interactive map or by choosing the desired time zone from the list below the map. A red X will appear and the time zone selection will change in the list below the map.22 Chapter 3.2. To use the map. Click OK to apply the changes and exit the program. Time Zone Configuration To configure the system time zone. .

Chapter 4. Using Diskettes Diskettes are one of the oldest removable media solutions available for the personal computer (PC). 4. and at a shell prompt type the following command : umount /mnt/floppy/ . you can also mount a diskette by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing Disks => Floppy. Alternatively. To do this. Figure 4-1.1. To mount a diskette. You can even explore the diskette’s contents in Nautilus (as shown in Figure 4-1) or Konqueror. and how to read and copy data from a CD-ROM. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Using diskettes and CD-ROMs with Red Hat Linux requires some understanding about removable media.1. 4. you should unmount it before ejecting it from the drive.1. Now that the diskette has been mounted it is available to be copied from or written to. The diskette drive activity light should blink as the diskette’s file system is mounted to the /mnt/floppy directory. and copy files to/from it as you would normally do to your hard drive. close any applications that may be using files on the diskette or exploring the diskette’s contents (such as Nautilus or Konqueror). This chapter discusses how to read and write files to and from diskettes. diskettes are a great solution to transfer files from one computer to the other. This mounts the diskette and adds a desktop icon which you can double-click to explore the diskette contents. how to format diskettes. For example. Diskettes are ideal as a portable storage solution for small files that need to be physically moved around. You can access the contents of the diskette by changing into that directory with the cd /mnt/floppy/ command. insert it into the diskette drive and type mount /mnt/floppy/ at a shell prompt. save. if two PCs are not on the same network. This chapter also covers using CD-writable and CD-rewritable drives. Viewing files on a Diskette with Nautilus When you are done using the diskette. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette A diskette must first be mounted before it can be used. You can open.

4. .1. 4. ext2 is one of the file systems supported by Red Hat Linux. Warning Formatting a diskette will erase all of its contents. you can manipulate its contents in the same ways that you manipulate directories and files on your hard drive. Diskettes and CD-ROMs icon and choosing If you are using GNOME. The default settings are sufficient for most users and needs.1. The new file on the diskette should now be accessible from your Windows machine. Formatting a Diskette To use a diskette specifically with Red Hat Linux.3.1 Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette. As shown in Figure 4-2. You can now safely eject the diskette from the drive. you need to format the diskette using the ext2 file system. you can unmount the diskette by right-clicking on the Unmount Volume from the menu. the gfloppy interface is small and has few options.2. Using gfloppy To start gfloppy. 4. Then mount it in Linux as described in Section 4. Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette. Copy files using the following command (substituting filename with the name of the file you wish to copy): cp filename /mnt/floppy You can then unmount the diskette and eject it from the drive.5" 1. type /usr/bin/gfloppy.1.1. you can format your diskette with an MS-DOS file system type if necessary.24 Chapter 4. choose Main Menu => System Tools => Floppy Formatter.3.1. From a shell prompt.3. You can also elect to quick format the diskette if it was previously formatted as ext2. This can be done with the Windows OS or with gfloppy (see Section 4. You can also choose the density of your diskette (if you are not using the usual high density 3. Be sure to backup any files that you need before performing any of the following operations on your diskettes. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette To copy files from a Linux machine to an MS-DOS formatted diskette so that a Windows machine can read it you should format your diskette with an MS-DOS (FAT) file system.1. however. and is the default method used for formatting diskettes.44MB diskette).1 Using gfloppy).

The other options are covered in the mke2fs man page. you can eject the diskette and close gfloppy. gfloppy Status Box 4. Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 25 Figure 4-2. Insert your diskette into the drive and issue the following command at a shell prompt: /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 On Linux systems. showing you the status of formatting and verification (see Figure 4-3). Figure 4-3. /dev/fd0 refers to the first diskette drive. The -c option makes the mke2fs command check the device for bad blocks before creating the file system. your second /dev/fd1. then click Format. Using mke2fs The mke2fs command is used to create a Linux ext2 file system on a device such as a hard drive partition or (in this case) a diskette.3. If your computer has more than one diskette drive. and so on. The mke2fs utility has a number of options.1. The status box will appear on top of the main window. it is ready to be used with your Red Hat Linux system. . gfloppy Insert a diskette and change the settings in gfloppy to suit your needs.Chapter 4.2. your primary diskette drive is /dev/fd0. mke2fs essentially formats the device and creates an empty. Once complete. Linux-compatible device which can then be used for storing files and data.

4. Contents of a CD-ROM in Nautilus A CD desktop icon also appears. This section shows you how to use CD-ROMs on your Red Hat Linux system. and type the following command: mount /mnt/cdrom The CD-ROM should now be mounted and available for use with your file manager. Most of the software that can be purchased from retail outlets come in the form of CD-ROMs. choose Eject from the menu. which you can use to unmount and eject your CD-ROM after use. open a shell prompt. After working with your CD.3. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt You can also manually mount and unmount your CD-ROMs from a shell prompt. CDs are automatically mounted and the file manager is displayed allowing you to explore the contents of the CD. CD-ROMs The CD-ROM format is a popular medium to deliver typically large software applications as well as multimedia games and presentations.1. You can access your CD-ROM by clicking the home icon on the desktop and typing /mnt/cdrom in the location bar.2. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 4. Right-click on the icon to view all of the available choices. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager By default. CD-Rs and CD-RWs CD-writable (CD-R) drives have grown in popularity as an inexpensive way to backup and archive several megabytes of data. and even multimedia (audio/video and . you must unmount it before you can eject it from your CD-ROM drive. including applications. Insert a CD into your CD-ROM drive. personal files. Figure 4-4. 4.2.26 Chapter 4. Figure 4-4 shows the contents of a CD-ROM within the Nautilus file manager.2. For example. to unmount and eject the CD-ROM. Close any applications or file managers that are using the CD-ROM and type the following command at a shell prompt: umount /mnt/cdrom You can now safely press the eject button on your CD-ROM drive to retrieve your CD.2. 4.

You can also type burn: in the Location bar to start CD Creator. When you are ready to write the files to your CD-R(W). there is a tool included in the Nautilus file manager called CD Creator. 4. To select multiple files. Figure 4-6. name the CD. which displays a dialog box where you can select the writing speed. Using CD Creator If you want to perform a quick file or directory backup to a CD-R or CD-RW. and choose other options. Then release the [Ctrl] key. The CD Creator Interface in Nautilus Open a new Nautilus window and select the files or directories you want to write to CD-R(W).Chapter 4. and click on the files and folders. click the Write to CD button in the CD Creator window. CD Creator allows you to drag and drop files from a Nautilus window to the CD Creator interface. To access the CD Creator feature in Nautilus. The CD Creator Write Dialog Box . Figure 4-5. You can also double click your home directory icon from the desktop and choose Go => CD Creator from the window menus. press and hold the [Ctrl] key.1. and drag the files and folders to the CD Creator window. Red Hat Linux includes several tools for using CD-Rs and CD-rewritable (CD-RW) drives.3. insert a blank CD-R(W) into your drive and the CD Creator window will automatically display. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 27 still image) presentations. press and hold the left mouse button.

Using X-CD-Roast X-CD-Roast is a graphical application for duplicating and creating (also known as mastering) CDROMs. the CD Creator can help you do so quickly. You must specify a path on your hard drive’s file system that has at least 700 Megabytes (MB) of free space available. such as CD Writer Speed and CD Writer FIFO-Buffer Size. It then allows you to configure settings for CD-writer.iso or . . You can configure the path where you wish to store CD images in the HD Settings tab under Path. X-CD-Roast automates the process of burning CD-Rs and CD-RWs and is highly configurable to many CD mastering or duplicating needs. and more. To start it at a shell prompt. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Click the Write files to CD button to start burning.3. type /usr/bin/xcdroast.img) files need to be stored in a central location accessible to X-CD-Roast. The CD Creator Write Status Window By default. Since it is generally recommended to periodically backup personal files. X-CD-Roast first scans your device busses and find your CDR(W) drive. the CD-R(W) should automatically eject from your drive when it is finished. Figure 4-8. as shown in Figure 4-7. Figure 4-7. Figure 4-8 illustrates the Setup screen and its configuration options.2. All CD image (. CD-ROM drive. To start X-CD-Roast choose Main Menu => System Tools => CD Writer. A status window displays the writing progress. X-CD-Roast Setup Screen Check your CD-R(W) manufacturer documentation to set some of the CD Settings options.28 Chapter 4. Note that your CD-R(W) drive brand may be different from the drive shown. 4.

is stored on tracks — by clicking Read CD.2. 4. the defaults are set correctly to create data CD-ROMs. Click the Write CD button to start the burning process.1. including data and audio. Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CD-ROMs To duplicate an existing CD-ROM for backup purposes. you can delete unwanted tracks with Delete Tracks. X-CD-Roast allows you to backup files on your hard drive partition using Create CD. You can set the speed at which you read a CD-ROM as well as find out some information about the CD-ROM track such as its type and size.Chapter 4. Finally. Since X-CD-Roast reads all tracks of a CD-ROM by default. Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CDs 4. however.2. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 29 X-CD-Roast is well-documented within the interface itself. You can access these tooltips by leaving your mouse pointer on a button or drop-down menu for at least two seconds. Using X-CD-Roast to Create a CD It is always recommended to backup personal data and information often in case of hardware failure or file system corruption. descriptive pop-up tips that informs you of the associated function in detail. so no further configuration is necessary. you can preview each track with Play Audio-Tracks.3. click the Duplicate CD button in the main panel. as several of the options have long. This facility allows you to add files and directories into a CD session using Master Tracks. . Figure 4-9. where you can configure the speed at which you read and write the tracks to CD-R(W). to burn your tracks onto CD-R(W) media. Figure 4-10 shows a session that is preparing the entire /home directory for backup. You can read all of the tracks on a CD — all CD-ROM information.2. Figure 4-9 shows the Write CD dialog box. as well as whether you wish to copy the CD-ROM on-the-fly or create an image file first before burning (which is recommended to prevent write or read errors from occurring during the duplication process).3. There are other options within the Master Tracks dialog that allows you to configure advanced settings. choose Write CD. If you are copying tracks from an audio CD.

click Write Tracks from the panel on the left. In the Layout Tracks tab. highlight the ISO image file you wish to burn and click Add. Using X-CD-Roast to Back-up Hard Drive Files Highlight the files and directories that you wish to add to the session and click Add. These utilities have several advanced options that are beyond the scope of . Click Write tracks to write the image to the CDR(W). There are other file types that can be burned as images. move the ISO file to the path specified during setup. You must first click Calculate size.3.img and .3.raw. For example. there are two utilities available: mkisofs and cdrecord. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Figure 4-10. then click Create CD. Tip You can also create and write the image to the CD-R(W) in one step by clicking Master and write onthe-fly in the Create session image tab. Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast Large files that end in . then Accept track layout. where you can click Write Tracks to burn the image to the CD-R(W). To write an ISO image file to a CD-R(W) with X-CD-Roast. It is recommended that you use the multi-step method instead of the on-the-fly methods. and click Add. This automatically loads the Write Tracks tab. This saves a few steps but can sometimes cause read-write errors.3.2.30 Chapter 4. After you have added all files and directories you want to write to the CD-R(W). The image displays in the Tracks to write box on the left side.iso are known as ISO9660 (or ISO) image files.3. Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools If you want to use a shell prompt to write images to CD-R or CD-RWs. and click the Write Tracks tab to return to the main writing dialog. but ISO images are the most common CD image format. 4. Click Accept track layout. Red Hat Linux is freely available as ISO images that you can download and write to the CD-R(W). highlight the image file you created in the box on the right. 4. then click Master to image file to create the image. To write your tracks to the CD-R(W). There are also other ISO image files available on FTP and websites. click the Create session/image tab to create the .img file. such as . In the Layout tracks tab.

3.3. Sets an Application ID — a text string that will be written into the volume header of the image which can be useful to determine what applications are on the CD. To use cdrecord. and mixed-mode (a combination of audio.3. You can now use the ISO image file with either X-CD-Roast as described in Section 4. It is most useful for archival and file backup purposes. the command line based CD recording utility.. Generates Joliet naming records. for basic image creation and writing. video. mkisofs Options 4. Table 4-1 explains each command line option. you must first establish the device address of your CD-R(W) device by running the following command as root at a shell prompt: . The images created by mkisofs can include all types of files.iso -x /home/joeuser/junk/ -J -R -A -V -v /home/joeuser/ The image is created in the same directory that you ran the command.3. and the disc is mounted in Solaris and Windows environments. however. this option can be repeated (for example. This can be done with mkisofs by running the following command: mkisofs -o backup. For more information on using mkisofs. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 31 this guide.Chapter 4. Sets a Volume ID — a name that is assigned to it if the image is burned. . and data settings. For more information about using cdrecord. -V -v -x Table 4-1.2. which is useful for viewing the status of the image as it is being made. but exclude the subdirectory /home/joeuser/junk/ because it contains unnecessary files. -x /home/joe/trash -x /home/joe/delete .3.iso and write it to CD-R(W) so that you can use it on your Red Hat Linux PC at work and your Windows laptop for trips.3. Sets verbose execution. refer to the additional resources in Section 4.3. Using mkisofs The mkisofs utility creates ISO9660 image files that can be written to a CD-R(W).. Generates Rock Ridge (RR) naming records to preserve filename length and casing. Suppose you wish to backup a directory called /home/joeuser/. Option -o -J -R -A Function Specifies an output file name of the ISO image. useful if the CD is used in Windows environments. You want to create an ISO image called backup. Using cdrecord The cdrecord utility writes audio. 4.3 Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast. data. especially for UNIX/Linux environments. device.4 Additional Resources.. these tools save some time over the graphical alternatives such as X-CD-Roast. refer to Section 4.2 Using cdrecord .2. Excludes any directory immediately following this option. and/or data) CD-ROMs using options to configure several aspects of the write process.).. or using cdrecord. including speed.1.

3. Cdrecord 1.version (where version is the version of mkisofs installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information.0 0) * 0.5.2.0 5) * 0.0 2) * 0.3.0 7) * To write the backup file image created with mkisofs in the previous section. The -eject argument ejects the CDROM after the write process is complete.0c’ Removable CD-ROM 0. switch to the root user and type the following at a shell prompt: cdrecord -v -eject speed=4 dev=0.0 3) ’HP ’ ’CD-Writer+ 9200 ’ ’1. You can use cdrecord to blank CD-RW discs for reuse by typing the following: cdrecord --dev=0. Offers all options and commands in detail.6.0 backup.0 4) * 0. The following is an example output from running cdrecord -scanbus. Refer to the following resources for more information about the applications in this chapter 4.8 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Jorg Schilling Using libscg version ’schily-0. including some example commands for common CD-R(W) burning tasks.1.1.0. including some example commands for creating common ISO image files.     . • mkisofs man page — Comprehensive detail of the utility.4.32 Chapter 4. Additional Resources This chapter briefly covers several applications. including some warnings about creating certain types of ISO images.version (where version is the version of cdrecord installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information.3.4.0 --blank=fast 4.7.0 1) * 0.1’ scsibus0: 0.iso The command sets the write speed (4). which is useful for tracking the status of the write process. Offers all options and commands in detail.0 6) * 0. It is important to remember the device address of the device used to write your CD. such as Red Hat Linux ISO images. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/mkisofs.4.3. the device address (0. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/cdrecord. The same command can also be used for burning ISO image files downloaded from the Internet. Installed Documentation • cdrecord man page — Discusses how to burn data. Diskettes and CD-ROMs cdrecord -scanbus This command shows all CD-R(W) devices on your computer. audio and mixed-mode CD-ROMs.0). and sets write output (verbose [-v]).

http://freshmeat. this set of documentation helps you get started mastering DVD-ROMs for data backup and multimedia presentation. Useful Websites • • • http://www.freesoftware.version / (where version § ¦ ¥ ¥ • /usr/share/doc/xcdroast.Chapter 4. news.fsf.net/projects/cdrecord/ — The cdrecord project page on Freshmeat is regularly updated with the newest releases.org/dvdrtools/ — The official website of the dvdrtools project.xcdroast. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 33 dvdrecord installed on your system) — For users who have DVD-R(+W) devices. 4. § ¦ • /usr/share/doc/dvdrecord. which includes the dvdrecord utility for writing DVD-R(+W) discs.4.org/ — The Official website of the X-CD-Roast project.2. and user commentary.version (where version is the version of X-CD-Roast installed on your system) — Contains useful command-line options and usage information for this graphical CD-R(W) mastering application. http://www. ¤ ¤ is the version of .

34 Chapter 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs .

DNS tracks IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. There are many types of Internet connections.2. To use Internet Configuration Wizard. go to the Main Menu => System Tools => Internet Configuration Wizard. which is a unique set of numbers like 2xx. Your own ISP may have specific connection requirements for their service which differ from the instructions in this chapter. When you use the Internet. To start the application. in order to use the Internet. Before connecting.Chapter 5. the DNS tells your machine where to send its traffic. A gateway address. type the command internet-druid In both cases you will have to enter your root password to continue. You may receive one or more DNS entries from your Internet provider when you sign up. use one of the following methods: • • In the graphical desktop environment. each computer connected to the Internet must have an IP address. check with your ISP for any specific instructions that they provide. Getting Online Exploring the Internet has become a popular activity. which can be used to create an Internet connection. you must have a connection to it. Some ISPs may require you to configure a master address (called the gateway) that authenticates your computer and allows it to connect to the Internet. including: • • • • • ISDN Connection Modem Connection Wireless Connection xDSL Connection Ethernet Connections Red Hat Linux includes the Internet Configuration Wizard. Your login name and password for your account if you are using an xDSL or modem connection. . People use the Internet for everything from information to finances to getting medical prescriptions on the Web.2x. More information about the Network Administration Tool can be found in the chapter entitled Network Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. including the following information: • • • • The phone number that your modem must dial to connect to your ISP if you are using a modem. you must be running the X Window System and have root privileges. However. You can then configure the connection that you created at any time using the Network Administration Tool. DNS entries: DNS means Domain Name System. At a shell prompt.2xx. DNS servers act as a road map for the Internet.

the cable modem connects to the coaxial cable. and SDSL. IDSL. start Internet Configuration Wizard. Ask your DSL provider which method you should use. This special phone line must be installed by a phone company. Most cable Internet providers require you to install an Ethernet card in your computer that connects to the cable modem. select Modem Connection. To configure this type of connection. To configure this type of connection. and follow the steps in the wizard. start Internet Configuration Wizard. start Internet Configuration Wizard. To configure this type of connection. xDSL Connection An xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) connection uses high-speed transmissions through telephone lines. select ISDN Connection. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. select Ethernet Connection. Some DSL providers require you to configure your system to obtain an IP address through DHCP with an Ethernet card. Digital data is modulated into analog signals and sent over phone lines. Getting Online Figure 5-1. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. Modem Connection A modem connection uses a modem to establish a connection to the Internet. If you must supply a username and password to connect. To configure this type of connection.36 Chapter 5. start Internet Configuration Wizard. and follow the steps in the wizard. . you are probably using PPPoE. select xDSL Connection. start the Internet Configuration Wizard. and follow the steps in the wizard. There are different types of DSL such as ADSL. To configure this type of connection. Internet Configuration Wizard uses the term xDSL to mean all types of DSL connections. Then. Cable Modem Connection A cable modem connection uses the same coaxial cable that your TV cable travels on to transmit data. high-quality digital telecommunication lines as opposed to an analog modem connection. The Ethernet card is usually required to be configured for DHCP. Some DSL providers require you to configure a PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) connection with an Ethernet card. select Ethernet Connection. Internet Configuration Wizard ISDN Connection An ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) connection uses high-speed.

Chapter 5. Getting Online Wireless Connection

37

If you are connecting your Red Hat Linux computer to a wireless access point (WAP) or peerto-peer (also called ad-hoc) network with a wireless (802.11x) network card, then you will need to configure your wireless device. Choose the Wireless Connection, then select the device from the list provided. You can then configure the device for DHCP or fixed IP addresses In the pop-up device configuration window. The Internet Configuration Wizard is a utility that guides you step-by-step through the process of establishing your Internet connection. Once your connection is up and running, you can then configure it to suit your needs or particular connection. For more detailed instructions, refer to the Network Configuration chapter in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.

38

Chapter 5. Getting Online

Chapter 6. Web Browsing
Once you have configured your Internet connection (see Chapter 5 Getting Online), you are ready to get online. Red Hat Linux comes with several Web browsers, graphical applications that use your Internet connection to access the World Wide Web: news, research, shopping, banking, and more. This chapter briefly explains how to surf the Web using Mozilla and Galeon. For information about using the Konqueror Web browser, refer to Section A.6 Browsing the Web with Konqueror.

6.1. Mozilla
Part of the mozilla.org organization’s wide range of Open Source Internet application developments, Mozilla is a powerful, integrated, and standards-compliant Web browser, email client, news reader, and more. The Web browsing component displays Web content such as webpages and images. Mozilla also uses plug-ins for interactive multimedia such as streaming video and Web animation. This section shows you how to use the Mozilla Web browser to explore the Internet. To start Mozilla click the Mozilla Web Browser launcher on the panel or choose Main Menu => Internet => Mozilla Web Browser.

Figure 6-1. Mozilla Main Browser Window

6.1.1. Using Mozilla
Mozilla functions like any Web browser that you may have used before. It has the standard navigational toolbars, buttons, and menus.

The search results appears in the main browsing area. You can access Personal Toolbar folders by clicking the icon and choosing the website from the drop-down menu. To add a site to your Personal Toolbar. For information on using the Mozilla Mail email client. Composer. bookmarks. Web Browsing The navigation bar has an address field with which you can type a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) — the name or address of a website — into the address field at the top of the browser window. Figure 6-3. news. The Mozilla SideBar At the bottom left corner of the browser window. and IRC Chat. . click and hold the left mouse button on the small icon next to the URL in the address field and drag it directly to the Personal Toolbar or into a folder icon. Type in a keyword or phrase into the address field and click the Search button. These are separate applications integrated into the Mozilla suite and are useful for experiencing email. there is the Personal Toolbar. Finally. The Mozilla Navigational Bar There is also a sidebar on the left that contains additional options. The Personal Toolbar is useful for keeping and categorizing webpages so that you do not have to type the address every time you want to access the page. chat. and a What’s Related option that displays webpages similar in topic to the page currently displayed in the main browsing area. Address Book.40 Chapter 6. Figure 6-2. such as integrated search functionality. refer to Chapter 7 Email Applications. Mozilla supports keyword searching via the address field as well. there are the following small icons: Navigator. which you can customize with your own bookmarks or quickly go back to your homepage. and other aspects of the Internet besides the Web. Mail.

When the help screen opens. To open Composer. Web Browsing 41 Mozilla also allows you to browse multiple websites within one browser window using navigational tabs. go to Window => Composer on the Mozilla main menu. Mozilla Composer 6. A list of topics will appear and clicking on any of these will provide you with information for creating and editing webpages using Mozilla Composer. To use Galeon. Instead of using two or more separate windows to read multiple webpages. Galeon also has some extra features that are not included in Mozilla. It is only a Web browser and does not feature email.1. you can open a tab by clicking File => New => Navigation Tab or by pressing [Ctrl] and [T] at the same time. right-click on the tab and choose Close Tab from the menu or click the X at the right of the tab bar to close the tab currently displayed. This will open the new tab and allow you to switch between tabs by clicking on them. a working installation of Mozilla is required.2.Chapter 6. click on the Contents tab and expand the Creating Webpages menu by clicking on the arrow next to it. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Help Contents. Galeon uses Mozilla’s HTML and image renderer and plug-in system to display Web and multimedia content. . Go to Help on the main menu and select Help Contents. This can be useful if you want to browse the Web without the need to email or chat with others. or click on the Composer icon in the lower left part of the screen: . 6. or anything other than Web browsing and searching. For additional information on using Mozilla. You do not need to know HTML to use this tool. newsgroups. Figure 6-4. Mozilla Composer You can use Mozilla Composer to create webpages. To close a tab.2. Galeon Galeon is a Web browser that is based on Mozilla. The Mozilla help files provide information on creating webpages with Composer.

the main browser will appear. respectively. you have the option of importing bookmarks and preferences from Mozilla or other Web applications you may have installed on your system. There are navigational buttons for moving from one visited webpage to another using the Forward. Online with Galeon Using Galeon is much like using Mozilla. Configuring Galeon During the initial configuration. and Home buttons. You can also configure Galeon’ personal toolbar with bookmarks. Figure 6-5. The first time you launch Galeon. Web Browsing To launch Galeon. and even browser navigation shortcuts. . Figure 6-6. Once you have finished your configuration of Galeon. integrated search features. as well as Reload and Stop buttons to refresh a webpage and stop it from loading. go to Main Menu => Internet => More Internet => Galeon. it will take you through the configuration process. Back.42 Chapter 6.

or right-click the tab and choose Close Tab from the drop-down menu.Chapter 6. which is accessible by choosing Settings => Preferences from the browser’s main menu. For additional information or help with Galeon. Keyboard Shortcuts Description Open a new tab for browsing multiple websites within one browser window Open a new browser window Close all browser windows and exits the application Move the cursor to the browser’s address field Print the current displayed webpage or document Move forward by one link or page Move backward by one link or page Reload the current page Open the browsing history Find a keyword or string within a page . Shortcut [Ctrl]-[T] [Ctrl]-[N] [Ctrl]-[Q] [Ctrl]-[L] [Ctrl]-[P] [Ctrl]-[right arrow] [Ctrl]-[left arrow] [Ctrl]-[R] [Ctrl]-[H] [Ctrl]-[F] Table 6-1. To close a tab. 6. The tabbed browsing mode can be configured in the Tabs page of the Preferences Window. use the [Ctrl]-[T] key combination or select New Tab from the File menu. click Help on the top menu bar. Keyboard shortcuts can help you efficiently browse the Web. you can choose to view the Galeon FAQ and Galeon manual.3. click the X button within the tab. To launch a new Tab. Galeon also has a navigational tab feature that can help you avoid having your desktop cluttered with browser windows. and you can switch between them by clicking on the each tab. Multiple pages can be stored in a single Galeon window. From there. Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts Table 6-1 shows some common keyboard shortcuts available in both Mozilla and Galeon. Web Browsing 43 Like Mozilla.

44 Chapter 6. Web Browsing .

This chapter will briefly discuss the following email clients: • • • Evolution Mozilla Mail Text-based email clients Before you launch an email client. All of the email client applications are designed to suit certain types of users. short for Post Office Protocol. .Chapter 7. whereas POP mail is downloaded to your email client directly and does not stay on the server. Unless properly configured. you will not be able to make full use of the email clients discussed in this chapter.net. and text-based clients like mutt. the place where incoming email is stored.net. receive. an application that understands the various email transmission standards and allows you to send. including graphical email clients like Evolution and Mozilla Mail. This is usually in the form of yourname@yourisp. is used to send email from a mail server to your email client’s inbox. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your email application. you must know what type of server your network administrator or ISP is using. is usually in the form of mail. This POP or IMAP address. Most email systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another. Red Hat Linux includes several email applications. The following lists a few important things you may need to know: Your email address The email address you will use to send and receive mail. Since all email clients perform the same basic tasks (send and receive email). choose the one that is most convenient and easy to use. you can choose one with the features that best suits your particular needs.someisp. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate how to use some of the popular email applications included in Red Hat Linux. IMAP differs from POP in that email from IMAP servers are stored on the server and stays there even as you download and read your mail. SMTP is also used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. you should have some information from your Internet Service Provider (ISP) handy so that you can configure the client properly. and read email. is a protocol for retrieving email messages from your ISP’s email server. POP. You can use email with an email client. although some can use the newer IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol). Email Applications Email is a very popular way of communicating with others over the Internet. contact your ISP or network administrator. Server type for receiving email (POP or IMAP) In order to receive mail. the messages can then be retrieved with an email client using either POP or IMAP. If you have any questions regarding what information you need. short for Internet Message Access Protocol. Most ISP email servers use the POP protocol. Server type for sending email (SMTP) The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol for sending email messages between servers. so. IMAP.

including powerful mailbox management. click on the Inbox icon. Evolution is a full-featured personal and workgroup information management tool for Linux and UNIX-based systems. Evolution Welcome Screen The first time you start Evolution you will be presented with the Welcome Screen (Figure 7-1). When you are done. user-defined filters. which allows you to configure your email connection. To launch Evolution from the desktop panel. Figure 7-2.1. go to Main Menu => Internet => Email. Evolution Main Screen To see what is in your inbox or to send an email. and quick searches. It provides all of the standard email client features. Follow the on-screen instructions and fill in the information you collected from your ISP or administrator in the text boxes provided. Email Applications 7. and is the default email client for Red Hat Linux. Figure 7-1. Evolution Evolution is more than just an email client. click Finish. and you will be presented with the Main Screen as shown in Figure 7-2. .46 Chapter 7. It additionally features a flexible calendar/scheduler which allows users to create and confirm group meetings and special events online.

select New Message from the toolbar. click Help from the main toolbar and choose the component you want to learn more about. click Send on the toolbar. like calendering/scheduling and group messaging. Email Applications 47 Figure 7-3. Evolution Inbox Screen To compose a mail. Figure 7-4. While Evolution does so much more than read and send email. this chapter focusses exclusively on its email capabilities.Chapter 7. Evolution New Email Message Screen Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to. If you would like to learn more about using some of the other features of Evolution. .

2. the Mozilla Help contents are located under Help on the main menu. select Main Menu => Extras Internet => Mozilla Mail. Mozilla Mail and News Figure 7-6. Email Applications 7. To open Mozilla Mail while in Mozilla. Mozilla Mail This section briefly covers the basic steps for sending and receiving email with Mozilla. To start Mozilla Mail. Mozilla Mail New Email Message Screen . If you need further information about using Mozilla Mail. click on the mail icon near the lower left corner of the Mozilla screen. Figure 7-5.48 Chapter 7.

you can go back to the main mail screen and go to File => Send unsent messages. click on the arrow next to the newsgroup account name and the list of groups you are subscribed to will appear beneath.1. Posting to a newsgroup is just like writing . If you choose to send later. You can even post and download pictures and files to Newsgroups (although your ISP may restrict Newsgroups to text-based postings only). you can just lurk. Newsgroup Account Setup Enter your name and email address on the next screen and click Next. When you are done. The New Account Setup screen will appear. Select Newsgroup account and then click Next. Right-click on this account name and select Subscribe. To read email. Select the newsgroup you want to access and a dialog box appears with information about downloading and reading existing messages. You do not have to post messages if you do not want to. listing all the newsgroups available. On the last few screens. There are a great many newsgroups on the Web with topics ranging from politics to computer games to random strange thoughts. On the following screen. enter the name of your news server (if you do not know the name of your news server.Chapter 7. click on OK. Select the groups you are interested in reading and click Subscribe. Email Applications 49 To send an email. The discussions are in threaded format (which means all topics and responses to the topic are sorted and organized for convenient reading) and subscribing to a group is very easy. click on the mail folder you created for yourself to see a list of messages waiting for you. Now. click on the message you want to read.2. 7. you can delete it. The newsgroup account you created will appear in the sidebar of the Mozilla mail screen. click on the Send button or go to File => Send Now or Send Later. you can determine the name that this account will be referred to and review your settings. A dialog box appears. save it to a separate folder. Click on your mail account name in the sidebar and select Create a new account from the options that appear on the right of the screen. Mozilla and Newsgroups Newsgroups are Internet discussion groups with specific topics. and more. Once you read a message. contact your Internet service provider or network administrator for this information). you first need to set up a newsgroup account. To join a newsgroup. Figure 7-7. which is a Newsgroup term for reading without posting messages. Then.

On the other hand. . e.3. You do not have to type all your preferred configuration commands each time you run mutt. set folder = ~/Mail. gives mutt its flexibility and configurability. Plain Text Email Clients Most modern email clients allow the user to select whether they want to send their emails in plain text or in HTML. To unsubscribe from a newsgroup. To turn those hints back on. Plain text emails are simple. They is nothing fancy.muttrc or ~/. there is always tab-completion to help you. textures. Using Mutt Mutt is a small but very powerful text-based mail client for UNIX operating systems. Plain text (also called clear text) is the most portable format because it is supported by nearly every email application on various types of machines. If you cannot remember the command you want to use. This chapter will discuss the mutt plain text email client. it takes time to understand the features and what they can do for you.1. the first thing you see is a screen with a list of email messages. except that the newsgroup name appears in the To field rather than an email address. and read your mail. As is true with all powerful software. and pictures or backgrounds can be added. It is also this file that might give new users problems. and there are no special fonts. type :set help.muttrc. The advantage of HTML formatted email is that they can contain graphics and interactive links to Web sites. This initial menu is called the index. mutt allows the user to control nearly all of the functions that mutt uses to send. Email Applications an email.50 Chapter 7. ~/. there are no pictures embedded in the email. 7. All configuration options can be changed at any time by typing a [:] followed by the relevant command. 7.3. This configuration file must exist in your home directory. The term plain text refers to textual data in ASCII format. the layout is very controllable. with either boolean or string values.g. you can save them in a file which is loaded every time the program starts up. it has to be named either ~/. The number of options that mutt has available to it are truly astounding. When you launch mutt. Mutt’s configuration file. Most of the options are invoked using the set or unset commands.mutt/muttrc. plain text email is just that — plain text. all this makes for a visually appealing message when it gets to the recipient. For example :unset help turns off the handy keyboard command hints at the top of the screen. right-click on the group name and select Unsubscribe. receive. The particular font can be specified.

change the encoding. Mutt will prompt for the To: address and the Subject: line. Type your message. save your file and exit the editor. add file attachments or simply press the [Y] key to send your email on its way. To learn more about mutt. Email Applications 51 Figure 7-8. You may also find the mutt manual to be very helpful.x . mutt Main Screen These messages are in a default mail folder. The mutt manual is installed in /usr/share/doc/mutt-1. where you can customize your message headers. use the [R] key to reply to a message or the [M] key to create a new one. where x is the version number of mutt installed on your system.2. Use the [K] and [J] keys on your keyboard to move the highlighted cursor up and down the list of messages. often called the mailspool. . refer to the man pages for muttrc and mutt (type man muttrc or man mutt at the shell prompt). After editing your email. A text editor (defined by your $EDITOR environmental variable in the configuration file) will then launch allowing you to compose your message. Mutt displays the compose menu. that you can think of as your inbox.Chapter 7. In the index or pager views.

Email Applications .52 Chapter 7.

click the New button in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to display the window in Figure 8-1. enter a short description for the printer. With few exceptions. refer to the chapter called Printer Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. Printer hardware manufacturers distribute CD-ROMs or diskettes with their printers. as most operating systems require these CD-ROMs because they contain printer drivers — software that communicates with both the printer and the operating system. such as one attached through a parallel port or USB port on your computer. and configure it with the useful tools provided by Red Hat Linux. Adding a Printer In the window shown in Figure 8-2. This chapter shows you how to set up and test a printer directly connected to your Red Hat Linux system. Click Forward to proceed. Adding a Local Printer To add a local printer.1. 8. Printers have become a very popular PC peripheral due to their increasing quality and decreasing prices.2. Red Hat Linux provides drivers for most printer models. The Printer Configuration Tool uses a step-by-step process that can help you configure a printer faster than editing configuration files manually. The Printer Configuration Tool Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility for configuring local and remote printers without the need to install additional drivers and applications. and underscores (_). thus the drivers and software on the printer manufacturer’s CD-ROM and diskettes are not needed. Optionally.Chapter 8. For remote printer setup and more advanced printer configuration issues. enter a unique name for the printer in the Name text field. . The printer name may contain letters. which can contain spaces. dashes (-). 8. all you need to do is attach the printer to your Red Hat Linux system. turn on the printer. The printer name cannot contain spaces and must begin with a letter. Printer Configuration Most computer users either own a printer at home or use one at work. numbers. Figure 8-1.

Go to Section 8. The printers are divided by manufacturers. Figure 8-3 appears. 8. You will see a window similar to Figure 8-4.54 Chapter 8. Selecting a Queue Name After clicking Forward. . Adding a Local Printer The next step is to select the type of printer. If it was not auto-detected. If no devices appear in the list. Select the name of the printer manufacturer from the pulldown menu. The device is usually /dev/lp0 for a parallel printer or /dev/usb/lp0 for a USB printer. The printer models are updated each time a different manufacturer is selected. and select the device. Click Forward to continue.3. Select the printer model from the list.3 Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing to continue. the next step is to select the printer model. Figure 8-3. click Rescan devices to rescan the computer or click Custom device to specify it manually. Printer Configuration Figure 8-2. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing After selecting the queue type of the printer. Select Locally-connected from the Select a queue type menu. select the model from the list.

After applying the changes. Tip You can select a different print driver after adding a printer by starting the Printer Configuration Tool. You can also configure options such as paper size if you edit the print queue after adding it. Selecting a Printer Model The recommended print driver is selected based on the printer model selected. clicking Edit. Click the Apply button in the main window to save your changes and restart the printer daemon. you must review your driver options and select Prerender Postscript. the remote print server might not have a print driver configured. Confirming Printer Configuration The last step is to confirm your printer configuration. Click Back to modify the printer configuration. Since a local printer is attached directly to your computer. To make sure the data is not filtered more than once. and then applying the changes.5 Modifying Existing Printers for details. If the test fails. If you select an additional print driver on your local computer. clicking the Driver tab. print a test page to try out this new configuration. 8. and printing a test page.4 Printing a Test Page for details. Try selecting a print driver according to the manufacturer and model of the remote printer. . you need a print driver to process the data that is sent to the printer. selecting a different print driver. applying the changes.1. After applying the changes. Click Apply to add the print queue if the settings are correct. print a test page to ensure the configuration is correct. the data is filtered multiple times and is converted to a format that the printer can not understand. Refer to Section 8. the remote print server usually has its own print driver. SMB. The print driver processes the data that you want to print into a format the printer can understand. selecting the printer from the list. or NCP). Refer to Section 8. If you need to print characters beyond the basic ASCII set (including those used for languages such as Japanese). Printer Configuration 55 Figure 8-4. LPD.3. If you are configuring a remote printer (IPP. first try selecting Generic as the manufacturer and Raw Print Queue or Postscript Printer as the printer model.Chapter 8.

The window contains the current values for the selected printer. The printer is removed from the printer list. Make any necessary changes.5.56 Chapter 8. . Click Apply in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. The default printer icon appears in the Default column of the default printer in the list. Printing a Test Page After you have configured your printer. select the printer from the printer list and click the Default button on the toolbar. the settings can be edited by selecting the printer from the printer list and clicking the Edit button. Figure 8-5.4. and click OK. select the printer that you want to try out from the printer list. Modifying Existing Printers To delete an existing printer. you should print a test page to test the different configuration. Printer Configuration 8. you should print a test page to make sure the printer is functioning properly. To set the default printer. After adding the printer(s). If you change the print driver or modify the driver options. Test Page Options 8. select the printer and click the Delete button on the toolbar. The tabbed window shown in Figure 8-6 is displayed. To print a test page. then select the appropriate test page from the Test pulldown menu. Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon.

the form feed light flashes). This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. Editing a Printer 8. Refer to the appropriate section on adding a printer for a description of the options.3.5. The name of the printer should change in the printer list. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. click OK to return to the main window. After making modifications.4. different options are displayed. Printer Configuration 57 Figure 8-6.5. Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. If it is changed. 8. 8. Some printers require both Send Form-Feed (FF) and Send Endof-Transmission (EOT) to eject the last page. Options vary for each print driver. Depending on which queue type is chosen. Send End-of-Transmission (EOT) should be selected if sending a form-feed does not work.1.Chapter 8. If this does not work. click OK to return to the main window. Queue Name To rename a printer or change its short description. • . Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. change the value in the Queue name tab. Printer Driver The Printer driver tab shows which print driver is currently being used. try selecting Send End-ofTransmission (EOT) instead. 8.2. Driver Options The Driver Options tab displays advanced printer options.5. The queue type of the printer can be changed or just the settings. Common options include: • Send Form-Feed (FF) should be selected if the last page of the print job is not ejected from the printer (for example. Queue Type The Queue type tab shows the queue type that was selected when adding the printer and its settings. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system.5. Click OK to return to the main window. Refer to Send Form-Feed (FF) above.

This option converts it to PostScript level 1. If you are running a graphical desktop environment. the username of the person who sent the request. Page Size allows the paper size to be selected. For example. the hostname of the system that sent the request. If the printer can print plain text. Change this option to use paper from a different tray. Also select this option if the printer can not handle PostScript level 3. and A4. • • • GhostScript pre-filtering — allows you to select No pre-filtering. If this option is selected along with the Convert Text to Postscript option. the job number. Effective Filter Locale defaults to C. the print driver assumes the unknown data is text and then converts it to PostScript. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. If the printer does not support the fonts you are trying to print. A3. Printer Configuration Assume Unknown Data is Text should be selected if the print driver does not recognize some of the data sent to it.58 Chapter 8. accept the default of C. The print spool queue is a list of print jobs that have been sent to the printer and information about each print request. Otherwise. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. the print job is added to the print spool queue. the print driver assumes that any data that it can not recognize is text and attempts to print it as text. select this option to print Japanese fonts to a non-Japanese printer. try selecting this option. and more.6. If this option is selected. This option is only available if the PostScript driver is used with the CUPS printing system. US Legal. This option prerenders non-standard PostScript fonts so that they are printed correctly. Extra time is required to perform this action. Managing Print Jobs When you send a print job to the printer daemon. this is not an option because text is always converted to PostScript. • • • • To modify the driver options. Media Source defaults to Printer default. Only select this option if there are problems printing. try unselecting this when printing plain text documents to decrease the time it takes to print. Do not choose it unless problems printing the correct fonts exist. such as printing text file from Emacs or printing an image from The GIMP. such as the status of the request. click OK to return to the main window. The options include US Letter. . Convert Text to Postscript is selected by default. click the Printer Manager icon on the panel to start the GNOME Print Manager as shown in Figure 8-7. or Convert to PS level 2 in case the printer can not handle certain PostScript levels. 8. If the CUPS printing system is used. Prerender Postscript should be selected if characters beyond the basic ASCII set are being sent to the printer but they are not printing correctly (such as Japanese characters). select ja_JP. If Japanese characters are being printed. Convert to PS level 1.

If there are active print jobs in the print spool. Printer Configuration 59 Figure 8-7. Figure 8-9. Printer Notification Icon Clicking on the printer notification icon starts the GNOME Print Manager to display a list of current print jobs. right-click on the icon for the printer and select Properties. Click OK to start printing the file. To print a file from Nautilus. Figure 8-8. Because it probes for active print jobs every five seconds. the icon might not be displayed for short print jobs. GNOME Print Manager It can also be started by selecting Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => System Tools => Print Manager. Double-click on a configured printer to view the print spool queue as shown in Figure 8-8. browse to the location of the file and drag and drop it on to the Print Manager icon on the Panel.Chapter 8. To change the printer settings. . Also located on the Panel is a Print Manager icon. The window shown in Figure 8-10 is displayed. List of Print Jobs To cancel a specific print job listed in the GNOME Print Manager. select it from the list and select Edit => Cancel Documents from the pulldown menu. The Printer Configuration Tool is then started. a printer notification icon might appears in the Panel Notification Area of the desktop panel as shown in Figure 8-9.

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Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

Figure 8-10. Print Verification Window To view the list of print jobs in the print spool from a shell prompt, type the command lpq. The last few lines will look similar to the following:
Rank Owner/ID active user@localhost+902 Class A Job Files 902 sample.txt Size Time 2050 01:20:46

Example 8-1. Example of lpq output If you want to cancel a print job, find the job number of the request with the command lpq and then use the command lprm job number . For example, lprm 902 would cancel the print job in Example 8-1. You must have proper permissions to cancel a print job. You can not cancel print jobs that were started by other users unless you are logged in as root on the machine to which the printer is attached. You can also print a file directly from a shell prompt. For example, the command lpr sample.txt will print the text file sample.txt. The print filter determines what type of file it is and converts it a format the printer can understand.

8.7. Additional Resources
To learn more about printing on Red Hat Linux, refer to the following resources.

8.7.1. Installed Documentation
• man printcap —

The manual page for the /etc/printcap printer configuration file.

• map lpr — The manual page for the lpr command that allows you to print files from the command

line.

• man lpd

— The manual page for the LPRng printer daemon.

Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

61

• man lprm

— The manual page for the command line utility to remove print jobs from the LPRng spool queue. — The manual page for the command line utility to print multiple pages on one sheet — The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon. The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon configuration file. The manual page for the class configuration file for CUPS.

• man mpage

of paper.

• man cupsd

• man cupsd.conf —

• man classes.conf —

8.7.2. Useful Websites
• •

http://www.linuxprinting.org — GNU/Linux Printing contains a large amount of information about printing in Linux. http://www.cups.org/ — Documentation, FAQs, and newsgroups about CUPS.

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htm/.html .sxw.org Calc OpenOffice.sdc.org Suite Productivity suites are collections of applications designed to save time and assist users at work. .rtf.1. This real-time. .ppt. charts.sxi. Red Hat Linux includes a powerful business productivity suite called OpenOffice.gif. forms.dbf. The OpenOffice.org suite has many file compatibility features.sxc.html . reports Spreadsheets. Red Hat Linux has a tool that suits your needs. export files to several Illustrations. Table 9-1 shows the many different types of files you can use and tasks you can accomplish with the OpenOffice. tables. writing a formal letter. 9. slide shows . business presentations. and wizards for creating basic professional documents and presentations quickly.org suite is able to read. address books. . . newsletters.sdw. edit. resumes. . .xls files. or printed collateral. write a document with an embedded chart created by the spreadsheet application as well as a slide from a graphical presentation application.csv. OpenOffice. Working with Documents Red Hat Linux includes several tools for managing all of your documents. . If you have ever worked with or received . and at home. and create files in several formats.org Draw File Compatibility .txt.htm/.sdd Document Types Formal letters.jpg. image formats. It allows you complete control over the layout and content of your documents and lets you see the results as you edit it.org Writer OpenOffice. The applications that comprise a productivity suite are integrated — which means that you can. . OpenOffice. including . simple databases Business and academic presentations. spreadsheets. . including files which are commonly associated with Microsoft Office. . and artwork. personnel directories. Using OpenOffice. and presentation utilities.org. Application OpenOffice.org suite.1.bmp. you know they are commonly associated with the Microsoft Office suite. the OpenOffice. productivity suites are graphical and include such applications as word processors.org Impress OpenOffice.Chapter 9.sxd. organizational charts . or opening a document from an email attachment.sda. . and allows you to . . at school. visual form of document formatting is called what you see is what you get (or WYSIWYG) editing. which incorporates several complementary applications into one integrated package. The OpenOffice. for example.1.sxd.org Features The OpenOffice. lectures. budgets. school papers. Web presentations. Whether you are preparing for a business or school presentation. line drawings. .doc.png Table 9-1. It includes templates. Usually.xls. lectures.org suite contains several applications for creating and editing documents.org Features As you can see.doc or . . spreadsheets. . graphs.slk. Integration of the software that make up a productivity suite helps you to give impact to your presentations. . clip art. business forms. 9.org is much faster and easier than learning complex tags and code to format your documents and presentations. and .

justification (aligning the text of your document to the left.org Writer window is exactly what you get if you printed the document or if you gave the document file to someone else for them to view.org suite. 9.org is similar to other word processing applications you may have used before. There are also buttons for opening.org Writer from your desktop panel. or if you are . If you hover the mouse cursor over a toolbar button. At the top of the window are various functions collected into toolbars that let you choose your fonts. or home use.org Writer in action: Figure 9-1. You can settings.org Writer To start OpenOffice. To save your text. letter sizes. OpenOffice.org Writer is a powerful word processor that features WYSIWYG formatting — what you see in the OpenOffice. The default file type is appropriate for files that you are working on exclusively with OpenOffice. which opens the pop-up file browser. business. or right margins). Figure 9-1 shows OpenOffice. You can immediately begin typing text into the document editing area at any time using the default . a pop-up Tip is displayed with a brief explanation of the button’s functionality. design.org Writer. saving. Along the left side of the window. OpenOffice. However. You can display more detailed Tips by clicking the Help menu and choosing Extended Tips. for files that you need to distribute to Microsoft Office users. keyword and phrase searching. and print your documents without the need to memorize complex formatting tags or codes. and more.org Writer Writing documents using OpenOffice. click the Save button choose the file format from the File type drop down menu at the bottom of the browser window. center. as well as buttons for creating new documents (which will open up a new window with a blank document for you to add content). OpenOffice. and other convenient editing functions. A word processor is like a text editor but has several additional features that allow you to format. there is a toolbar with buttons for checking your spelling.2. and printing documents. type oowriter. Working with Documents accomplish several tasks for academic. toggling the automatic highlighting of misspelled words.64 Chapter 9. The following sections shows you how to use the OpenOffice. There is also a text box that enables you to specify the exact location of a document on your machine and load the document into the editing area. to start it from a shell prompt.1. choose Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice.org applications. The main interface is the document editing area (the white space in the middle of the window) where you can add and edit text.

.org Calc from the desktop panel. formats which can be read by almost every computer with a Web browser (such as Mozilla) or PDF viewer application (such as xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader). you can save it in any format that you wish. illustrations.Chapter 9. 9. Figure 9-2 shows an image added to a document. Note that you can also export your document to HTML or PDF format. The image will appear where you placed your cursor and can be made larger or smaller by clicking on the resizing borders around the image. Consult Table 9-1 for available file formats. You can perform calculations on groups of cells (such as adding or subtracting a column of cells) or create charts based on the quantities contained in a group of cells. To start OpenOffice. Figure 9-2. OpenOffice. To start OpenOffice. you can save the file as a Microsoft Word file type that others will be able to open it in Microsoft Word.1. select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice.org Writer is useful for general document editing.org Calc. label. and tables to your document to complement your text or give impact to your documents.doc extension. type oocalc. OpenOffice.org Calc is a software spreadsheet application that allows you to enter and manipulate data cells organized in columns and rows. select Insert => Graphics => From File. Working with Documents 65 editing a file that was sent as an email attachment with the .org Calc From large enterprises to home offices. You can even incorporate spreadsheet data into your documents for a professional touch. Figure 9-3 shows OpenOffice. Adding an Image to Your Document Once you have created your document. and choose the image from the pop-up file browser.org Calc in action. and manipulating data. you can also add objects such as images. charts. A cell is a container for individual pieces of data. such as a quantity. professionals in every industry use spreadsheets for keeping records. creating business charts.3.org Calc from a shell prompt. To add an image to the document. or mathematical formula. While OpenOffice.

You can move it anywhere on the screen for printing. If you need to create charts or graphs for class or business presentations.org Calc OpenOffice. groceries. then click Insert => Chart.org Calc has several preset functions and calculations (such as =SUM() for addition/multiplication.. and =subtotal()for preparing receipts). Highlight the areas you would like to chart. refer to the documentation by selecting Help => Contents. or you can save the graph as an object that you can then embed in OpenOffice.org Calc. you can create a personal budget by entering data descriptions (such as rent.org Writer documents or OpenOffice. OpenOffice. For example.66 Chapter 9.org Calc allows you to enter the data either in the cell itself by double clicking the cell and typing your information or by using the Input Line (the text box on the toolbar).org Impress presentations. Working with Documents Figure 9-3. OpenOffice. and utilities) into column A and the quantities of those data descriptions in column B.org has several chart and graph templates available. Choose the style you want. OpenOffice. For detailed information about creating functions for calculating your numerical data in OpenOffice. Then you can run a formula on column B to come up with a total. The graph will be displayed anchored within the spreadsheet window.. Click Next to display the many different charts and graphs you can create using your data. the data ranges you chose will be shown in the text box for you to customize further if desired. . OpenOffice. =quotient() for division. and click Create. In the Chart window..org Calc allows you to enter and manipulate personal or business data.

For more information about using OpenOffice.org Impress. You can make slides with itemized lists. To start OpenOffice. 9.xls formats.org Impress from a shell prompt. Creating Charts with OpenOffice.Chapter 9.org Impress features a step-by-step automated presentation wizard called AutoPilot that allows you to create presentations from a collection of default style templates.sxc as well as Microsoft Office compatible . OpenOffice.org Impress in action. and presentations. select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice.1. Working with Documents 67 Figure 9-4. . To start OpenOffice. OpenOffice. you can export rendered charts and graphs to several image file formats and integrate them with document files. or images. You can even import charts and graphs created by OpenOffice. Figure 9-5 shows OpenOffice. webpages.org Calc into a slide.org Calc You can save spreadsheets created with OpenOffice. type ooimpress. OpenOffice.org Impress from the graphical desktop. refer to the help page located in Help => Contents from the file menus.4. outlines. Additionally.org Impress Visual aids can give your presentations an added impact that catches your audience’s attention and keeps them interested.org Impress is a graphical tool that can help you make a more convincing presentation.org Calc in several file formats. including the native .org Calc.

You can save in the native OpenOffice.. The presentation will be presented in full screen. mypresentation. OpenOffice.68 Chapter 9. and any animated visual effects you want to apply to the slides if you run presentations from your computer. You can choose the style of your slides. click Insert Slide. slides. the medium with which you will present your slides (plain paper..sdd). To add new slides to your presentation. You can also print your presentation to plain or transparent paper formats by clicking File => Print from the file menu.org Impress format (for example. Figure 9-6. You can select a pre-formatted slide from the list or start with a blank slide and customize the layout yourself. . you will be presented with the AutoPilot. Working with Documents Figure 9-5.sxi). You can have as many slides in your presentation as you need. or a display monitor). Your presentation can be saved in several file formats. or StarImpress format (mypresentation.org Impress. you can choose the type of slide you want to create. OpenOffice. in the floating toolbar.ppt). and a pop-up window will appear allowing you to choose the layout of the new slide.org Impress When you first start OpenOffice. which you can exit by cycling through every slide until you reach the end or by pressing the [Esc] key at any point in the slide show. You can also preview your presentation at any point by selecting Slide Show => Slide Show from the file menus. transparent paper for overhead projectors. the Microsoft PowerPoint format (mypresentation.org Impress AutoPilot Wizard Once you have chosen your preferences with AutoPilot tool.

OpenOffice. refer to the documentation located at Help => Contents from the file menus. Figure 9-7. type oodraw. or attach to emails.org Draw also allows you to open and import images and modify them with the tools provided. 3D objects such as cones and cubes.org Draw from the desktop panel. OpenOffice.org Draw has some of the same basic functions. To start OpenOffice. For more information on using OpenOffice. you will find that OpenOffice.org Draw in action. you can use OpenOffice.org Draw.jpg or . click Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice.org Draw. You can additionally insert text into your illustrations.org Draw from a shell prompt. Figure 9-7 Shows OpenOffice. Working with Documents To learn more about OpenOffice. You can create images and fill them with the color of your choice using the Area Style/Filling drop-down menu on the main toolbar. you can save the file in one of several native file formats or export your work to several popular formats such as .5. Using your mouse as a you would a pen or a paintbrush. When you complete your illustration or image modifications. 69 9.org Impress.Chapter 9. click Help => Contents from the file menus. and more. .org Draw If you are familiar with illustration and graphics applications such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information). OpenOffice.org Draw If you want to create graphics for your documents and presentations.org Draw allows you to make illustrations and save them in several formats that you can add to printed documents. basic shapes such as squares and circles. Refer to Table 9-1 for the complete list of compatible image file formats. To start OpenOffice.1. place on websites. OpenOffice. There are toolbars for creating straight and curved lines.png.org Draw.

edit. Figure 9-8. gedit Once gedit is running. You can begin using gedit immediately or click the Open button to locate the plain text file you want to edit. It can open. If you have a file already open and want to copy text from another file. applications that allow you to view and modify plain text files. use the arrow keys to navigate through the text file line-by-line. Tip gedit allows you to open multiple text files in one window using separate tabs for each file. gedit is a graphical text editor. create new text files. Note gedit can only be used in a graphical desktop environment. choose the file you want . click Open. and save plain text files. Editing Text Files Red Hat Linux includes several text editors. and print files. You can also cut and paste text to and from other graphical desktop applications.70 Chapter 9. Working with Documents 9. You can also start gedit by typing gedit at a shell prompt. gedit has a clear and understandable interface that uses tabs so that you can open more than one file at the same time without opening more than one gedit window. such as system logs and configuration files. You can navigate the text file by clicking and holding the scroll bar on the right edge of the window and moving your mouse cursor up and down. Press the [Page Up] and [Page Down] keys to advance the document a page at a time. Plain text files are files that contain text without any font or style formatting applied to it. click Main Menu => Accessories => Text Editor. The file will load into the main editing area as shown in Figure 9-8. or. To start gedit. you are presented with a blank editing area.2.

type [:] and then type [q] followed by [!]. If you are editing an existing file. Shell Prompt Text Editors If you are not using a graphical desktop and want to read and modify a text or configuration file. You can navigate between each file by clicking on the the tab associated with the particular filename. then any changes you make will automatically appear in the file the next time you open it. press [i] (for Insert mode).. you are editing a configuration file and you want to test your changes without losing your original configuration. to save an existing file under a new name or in a different location. and vi reverts to Normal mode. If you accidentally made changes to a file and you want to exit vi without saving the changes. meaning that you can view and run built-in commands on the file but you cannot add text to it. To exit insert mode. search. and modify text files. For more information about gedit.2. Once you have modified or written your text file. for example. a pop-up window will prompt you to name the file and save it in the directory of your choice. 9. or by choosing File => Save from the file menus. vi is a simple application that opens within the shell prompt and allows you to view. which will allow you to make any modifications you need to. vi opens a file in Normal mode. which exits without saving changes. you can save it by pressing the Save button in the toolbar. To start vi. Red Hat Linux includes the vi (pronounced vee-eye) text editor. press [:] and type [w] then [q] to write your changes to the file and exit the application. which is convenient if. © ¨ . press [:] (which is the vi command mode) and press [q] then [Enter].Chapter 9. If you have made changes to the text file that you want to save. More information about using vi can be found by typing man vi at a shell prompt. To exit vi. Figure 9-9. and the file will open in a new tab within the gedit window. type vi at a shell prompt. Working with Documents 71 to access. If you are writing a new text file.. choose Help => Contents from the file menus to access the gedit manual. To open a file with vi type vi filename at a shell prompt. To add text.1. vi By default. press [Esc]. You can also choose File => Save As.

4. The xpdf man page provides useful information on the xpdf options. xpdf To view a PDF with xpdf: 1. Figure 9-10. Another popular PDF viewer is Adobe Acrobat Reader.adobe. as well as standard zoom. making it possible to send formatted documents and have them appear on the recipient’s monitor or printer as they were intended. Select the PDF file you want to view and click Open. Right-click in the xpdf screen to display a list of options. An open source application called xpdf is included with Red Hat Linux. 2.com/. 3. Working with Documents 9. To view the xpdf man page. To view a PDF you must have a PDF reader.3. you can download it free of charge at http://www. print. and find tools. at a shell prompt type man xpdf. PDF captures formatting information from a variety of desktop publishing applications.72 Chapter 9. You can also launch xpdf by typing xpdf at a shell prompt. go to Main Menu => Graphics => PDF Viewer. While it is not included with Red Hat Linux. In your desktop environment. . Viewing PDFs A PDF (Portable Document Format) file is an electronic image of a document. The xpdf toolbar at the bottom has navigational tools that let you move backward and forward through the PDF document. Select Open to display the file browser.

The CD Player application should appear automatically and begin playing the first audio track. 10. you can also use the Track List drop down menu to select a track from the available listing. There is even a sliding bar that allows you to adjust the volume. click Main Menu => Sound & Video => CD Player to launch the CD Player application. Here you can set themes for the player as well as set the behavior of the CD-ROM drive when you open or quit the CD Player application. a cross-platform multimedia player which allows you to play several digital audio file formats. . Red Hat Linux provides many packages to assist you in having some fun with your computer. If the interface does not appear. Users enjoy the technology because the sound quality is excellent compared to analog tape or records. pause.Chapter 10. You can edit the track listings for your CDs by clicking the Open track editor button. place the CD in your CD-ROM drive. and the files are compact (audio files can easily be transferred across the Internet). Figure 10-2. Playing Digital Audio Files Digital audio has become very popular in recent years. Red Hat Linux includes the powerful X Multimedia System (XMMS). CD Player Preferences 10. CD Player Interface The CD Player interface acts similar to a standard CD player. and General Amusement This chapter presents you with the lighter side of Red Hat Linux. with play. Audio.2. and stop functions. Video. To take advantage of this technology. Figure 10-1. Press the Next track and Previous Track buttons to skip forward or backward one track. Playing Audio CDs To play an audio CD. From games and toys to multimedia applications.1. You can also change the way the application functions by clicking on the Open Preferences button.

and skip (backward and forward) your audio files. 10. You can use XMMS to add audio files into a list and then save it as a playlist. Video. This can be convenient if you have several audio files and you want to categorize them (for example. and most module formats. 10. and General Amusement Figure 10-3.3. click the Open button window.pls file is an audio playlist file.2. type the command xmms. RIFF wave.ogg are Ogg Vorbis files. XMMS Interface XMMS can be used for more than just playing digital audio files. the . XMMS can be extended via plugins to play a number of other digital multimedia formats. go to Main Menu => Sound & Video => XMMS. Highlight the file you wish to play (if you have multiple files. By default XMMS can play Ogg Vorbis. you do not hear sound and know that you do have a sound card installed. The files that end in . you see that there are several files to choose from. Notice that XMMS begins to play your audio files immediately.74 Chapter 10. you can run the Sound Card Configuration Tool utility. for some reason. Additionally. and choose a file from the Load File(s) Figure 10-4. To launch XMMS. refer to the man page by typing man xmms at a shell prompt. . pause. To learn more about using XMMS and its many options. Troubleshooting Your Sound Card If. Using XMMS To play an audio file with XMMS. There are also buttons to stop. To launch XMMS from a shell prompt. Audio. click and hold the mouse button and drag it over all of the files you want to open) and click OK. To adjust the volume click the volume slider (the long slider above the Open button) to the left to lower the volume or to the right to increase it like a CD player.1. a popular new audio file format. The Load File(s) Window In Figure 10-4. by genre or artist).

Sound Card Configuration Tool 10. but there are some sound cards that are not completely compatible or may not work at all.1. select OK and your sound card configuration is complete. although they are not quite as simple as running the Sound Card Configuration Tool. refer to the Linux Sound HOWTO at the Linux Documentation Project webpage: http://www.tldp.1. You can then click the Play test sound button to play a sound sample.com/ to see if your card is supported. A small text box pops up prompting you for your root password. For example: alias sound sb alias midi opl3 options opl3 io=0x388 options sb io=0x220 irq=7 dma=0. you can manually edit your /etc/modules.1 mpu_io=0x300 For information on configuring sound manually.1.3.Chapter 10.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/ . check the Hardware Compatibility List at http://hardware. Video. choose Main Menu => System Settings => Soundcard Detection.redhat. 10. Note Most sound cards are supported by Red Hat Linux. The Sound Card Configuration Tool utility probes your system for sound cards. If you can hear the sample. You can edit your modules.conf file as discussed below (this strategy is not recommended for most new users) or refer to the documentation that came with your sound card for more information. If the utility detects a plug and play sound card. If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work If the Sound Card Configuration Tool does not work (if the sample does not play and you still do not have audio sounds). Audio. and General Amusement 75 To use the Sound Card Configuration Tool.3. If you are having trouble configuring your sound card. Figure 10-5. it will automatically try to configure the correct settings for your card. Manual Sound Card Configuration If your sound card is not a plug and play card.conf file to include the sound card module that it should use. there are alternatives.

Video. Audio. you can use the X Configuration Tool utility. Follow the instructions that appear on the screen. redhat-config-xfree86 attempts to start a minimal X session to allow you to continue your configuration. if you did not choose to configure a video card at that time. Choose your model and click OK. The games included in Red Hat Linux appeal to quite a large number of video game enthusiasts. Figure 10-6 shows the Advanced tab for configuring your video device manually. click Main Menu => System Settings => Display. button next to the Video Card entry. for example. button next to the Monitor Type entry. Choose your model and click OK. and General Amusement 10. or if you need to reconfigure your settings. Figure 10-6. A pop-up window prompts you for your root password.. A pop-up window will display a list of video card models. If you are working from a shell prompt and X is not working. if you install a new video card. Troubleshooting Your Video Card Video card configuration is handled during the Red Hat Linux installation (refer to the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide for more information).76 Chapter 10. Note The X Configuration Tool backs up your system’s original video configuration file to /etc/X11/XF86Config. You should do this. To run the X Configuration Tool. X Configuration Tool attempts to automatically configure your video card and monitor settings for you.. click the Advanced tab. then click the Configure. A pop-up window will display a list of monitor models.backup in case you need it to switch back to a previous configuration. When you have finished reconfiguring your video card and monitor. click the Advanced tab. then click the Configure. Whether you enjoy card games like . you should be able to start an X session and enjoy your graphical desktop environment.5. X Configuration Tool To configure your monitor manually. You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your video card for the correct model and settings by clicking the Probe Videocard button. You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your monitor for the correct model and vertical/horizontal frequency settings.. 10. You can also start from a shell prompt by typing the command redhat-config-xfree86..4. To configure your video card manually. which then prompt you to input your root password. However. Games Playing games under Red Hat Linux is a fun way to pass the time.

com/.tuxgames. board games like Chess.com — A store where you can buy games just for Linux. you can find it in Red Hat Linux. You can also browse the Internet for linux games using a search engine. . you can click them to make them disappear. http://www. click Main Menu => Games and select the game of your choice. The object of the game is to make all the marbles disappear.linuxgames. Audio. http://www. For more information. arcade games like Tux Racer. here are a few suggestions: • • • • http://www.google. then. In this game you point your mouse at matching marbles until they start to spin. To start a game.6. Figure 10-7 shows a fun game for kids of all ages called Same GNOME.org/ — the Linux gaming repository. Video.linuxgaming. Figure 10-7. Finding Games Online There are many more games available within Red Hat Linux and online. Same GNOME — Match the Marbles Game 10.Chapter 10.com/ — a Linux gaming news site. http://happypenguin. and General Amusement 77 Aisle Riot (a solitaire card game). or space shooting games like Chromium and Maelstrom. such as http://www.net — A website that covers Linux-compatible games in depth.

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Chapter 10. Audio, Video, and General Amusement

Chapter 11. Working with Images
Digital images have grown in popularity with the development of the graphical Internet and the increasing quality of digital cameras. There are several types of image files, some of which are created using sophisticated illustration software packages, while others are made from digital sources such as a scanner or camera. You may have downloaded some of these image files from the Web or received them in an email. You may also want to create your own images to send to others. You can view and modify the most common types of image files using the many applications included in Red Hat Linux.

11.1. Viewing Images
This section discusses some of the common tools for viewing image files. Certain tools included in Red Hat Linux are specialized applications with several functions that enhance your image viewing experience; while others are general-purpose file managers that have integrated image viewing functionality.

11.1.1. Using Nautilus to View Images
Nautilus is a general-purpose file manager and browser for your graphical desktop environment. Nautilus has many functions beyond simple image viewing; however, for this section, we will use it for basic image browsing. For more information about Nautilus, see Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop. Nautilus is known for its ease-of-use and it handles images with the same ease as it does for other file types. To begin browsing your image collection with Nautilus, double-click your home desktop icon: You will be presented with a view of all files and folders within your home directory. Double-click the image (or the folder containing the image) and Nautilus will open the file or folder within its browser window. Figure 11-1 shows that Nautilus automatically creates thumbnails of any images in your folders:

Figure 11-1. Contents of a Folder in Nautilus

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Chapter 11. Working with Images

Double-click on any thumbnail icon to view the image in its native size. The image will load within the browser window. To increase or decrease the size of the viewed image in Nautilus, click on the zoom buttons next to the Location: field as shown in Figure 11-2:

Figure 11-2. The Zoom Function in Nautilus Click the + button to increase the size of the image or - to decrease it.

11.1.2. Using gThumb
gThumb is a powerful image viewer for graphical desktop users that supports several image file formats, including:
• • • • • • • • •

JPG/JPEG GIF PGM XPM PNG PCX TIF/TIFF PPM BMP

gThumb is useful for viewing individual image files as well as browsing collections of files in folders. It supports zoom in and zoom out functions, as well as thumbnail sized preview icons of all image files within a directory. It also supports several advanced options not found in Nautilus. gThumb can be started from your desktop panel. Choose Main Menu => Graphics => gThumb Image Viewer or type gthumb at a shell prompt to start the application. gThumb will browse your user home directory by default. If you have any images in this directory, the gallery panel will automatically generate thumbnails for you to highlight and view in the main display area.

Click the Slide Show button on the toolbar and you will start a full-screen slide show where gThumb displays images in full screen. Configuring gThumb gThumb allows you to customize several settings by choosing Edit => Preferences. and be printed on your configured printer. In the text field below the toolbar. To restore your desktop wallpaper to its default. gThumb Displaying a Folder of Images The interface of gThumb is straightforward. By default.1. You can combine functions within gThumb and create a dynamic presentation effect for groups of images within a directory. collect multiple files into a catalog for easier access if they are located in different directories. which resizes the image from its native resolution to fit your screen size. and then choose the orientation of the image. copying. You can also scale and stretch the image.2. Changing your Desktop Wallpaper with gThumb To change your desktop wallpaper with gThumb. set to full screen (which covers your entire screen with the image). 11. You can center the image on the page. moving. right-click on an image. The toolbar allows you to fit the image to the display window.2. .2.1. Working with Images 81 Figure 11-3. You can also tile the image. each image in the slide show is presented for 4 seconds. 11. which fills your desktop with multiple instances of the image. The gThumb interface also has a text field for you to enter a particular path to your image directories. Double-click an image preview thumbnail to view it within the main gallery area. type the path to the the directory where your images are located and highlight the first image in the main gallery panel. choose Set Image as Wallpaper. You can stop the slide show at any time by pressing [Esc] or by moving your mouse cursor and clicking the Restore Normal View pop-up button that appears on the top left corner of the screen.Chapter 11. which sets the image at its native resolution on the desktop and fills the rest of the space with the default desktop color if the image is smaller than your desktop resolution. right-click anywhere in the main gallery area and choose Set Image as Wallpaper => Restore. You can also set an image as your desktop wallpaper within the pop-up menu. and write descriptions about the images. Right-clicking on an image in the display area opens a pop-up menu of file management options such as renaming. and converting an image from one file format to another. The image can be zoomed in and out.1.

choose Help => Contents from the main menu. From a shell prompt. This section offers a quick overview of the GIMP and refers you to comprehensive references for learning more about it. Manipulating Images with the GIMP The GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) is a powerful tool that can be used to create. 11. you will need to know some of the basics. The GThumb Preferences Dialog Box To find out more about using and configuring gThumb.82 Chapter 11. change thumbnail preview sizes. customize a default image directory on startup. and change the interval between cycled images during a slide show. and enhance digital image files — photographs. Figure 11-5 shows a typical GIMP session in action. computer-generated images.2. scanned images. Working with Images The preferences pop-up menu lets advanced users change several of the default gThumb behaviors. 11. and more.1.2. . manipulate. Figure 11-4. or you can start the GIMP from the desktop by choosing Main Menu => Graphics => The GIMP. You can choose the layout of the application window. alter. you start the GIMP using the command gimp. GIMP Basics To use the GIMP.

as shown in Figure 11-6. The GIMP in Action 11. The Load Image Dialog .2. You will see the Load Image dialog. Working with Images 83 Figure 11-5. Loading a File To load an existing file. Figure 11-6.Chapter 11. select File => Open.2.

which displays a set of menus containing most of the GIMP’s many capabilities. a Generate Preview button is displayed. File name completion is supported by the GIMP. When you are saving an image.gif. Figure 11-7 shows an example of an image after the Newsprint filter has been applied: Figure 11-7. including image sizing. Using the Toolbox.84 Chapter 11. A thumbnail preview is displayed in the dialog. If you type the first letter (or more) of a file name into the Selection field and press the [Tab] key. and .png.2. If you want to see a thumbnail of the image.. the view will change to only those subdirectories and/or files beginning with that letter or letters. click on the OK button to open it. Working with Images The Load Image dialog displays your working directory — the directory you were in when the GIMP was launched.2. alternatively. An Image modified with a GIMP Filter The Toolbox also has several easily accessible functions. The GIMP then renders the image with the new effect applied.3.4. you must choose an image format..jpg. . 11. rotation. click on the Generate Preview button. . . right click on the image and choose File => Save (or Save as). erase regions of an image. GIMP Options Like many applications. The GIMP supports a wide variety of image formats. including . You can navigate up and down the file system tree by double-clicking on the Directories list on the left. 11. The easiest way to work with images is to right-click the image. imagine you have a picture that you would like to modify to make it look as if it were clipped from a newspaper. For example. Saving a File To save an image file. then selecting a file to open from the Files list on the right.bmp. or even fill selected regions with the color of your choice. When you reach a desired quantity and are ready to render the image. The file you select appears in the Selection field near the bottom of the dialog. click OK. and filter application. Once you have selected a file.. right-click on the image and select Filters => Distorts => Newsprint. The Save Image dialog looks almost exactly like the Load Image dialog and navigation of the file system tree and choosing files works in the same way. You can also double-click on a file name to open it. To do this. you can add text to images. Select the quantity of lines per inch using the sliders. the GIMP provides more than one method to accomplish tasks. You will see the Save Image dialog if you choose Save as or if you choose Save and the file has not been saved before.

Working with Images 85 button and click on your image. the GIMP is a powerful image editing tool. from the GIMP toolbar menu.sourceforge. Using the Text Tool on an Image As you can see. • • For more information about using gThumb.3. Useful Websites The Web has several sites of interest if you are looking for more detailed information about an application covered in this chapter: • http://gthumb. Click OK and your text is displayed as a floating section on the image. refer to the documentation in Help => Contents in the gThumb main menu. Installed Documentation Some applications discussed have online documentation included with the package. 11. accessible right from your PC. You can always undo your mistakes by right-clicking on the image and choosing Edit => Undo. where you can choose a font and type some text in the provided text box.. Figure 11-8 shows our photo with exciting new text: Figure 11-8.Chapter 11.2.. 11. If you make a mistake.3. do not worry.net — The official GThumb home page. This For example. You can read the manual page by typing man gimp at a shell or terminal prompt. You can then move the text to the position you wish using the Move Layers tool. and it takes some time to master all of its functions. The GIMP also has a help browser accessible by choosing Help => Help. select the loads the Text Tool dialog box.3. there is so much more you can do with them. Refer to the following resources if you are interested in learning more about the applications in this chapter. The GIMP manual page contains some of the more advanced command line options and environment variables associated with it. 11. Try exploring some of the options yourself. Additional Resources While this chapter covers several applications briefly. if you wish to add text to a file. .1.

Working with Images • • • • • http://www. et al. Related Books If you need in-depth information about the many capabilities of the GIMP. Coriolis Group Grokking the GIMP by Carey Bunks.org/gimp/ — The GIMP website of tigert (Tuomas Kuosmanen).com/~meo/gimp/faq-user. by Carey Bunks. GIMP: The Official Handbook by Karin Kylander and Olof S. Chapter 11. http://manual.86 http://www.rru. Hungry Minds. The following books were available at the time of this writing: • • • • • • The Artists’ Guide to the GIMP by Michael J. 11.gimp. The entire book is also available on the site for download http://tigert.gimp. Kylander.3. GIMP Essential Reference by Alex Harford.html — A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) list for questions commonly asked about the GIMP by GIMP users (as opposed to developers).org/manual/ — The online GIMP User Manual.gimp. try your favorite bookstore.com/ — The companion website to the book Grokking the GIMP. Hammel.org/ — The official GIMP website. http://gimp-savvy. New Riders Publishing GIMP for Linux Bible by Stephanie Cottrell Bryant. Frank Kasper and Associates.3. Sams . New Riders Publishing Sams Teach Yourself GIMP in 24 Hours by Joshua and Ramona Pruitt. Inc. Inc.

You only have to configure gtKam for your camera once. Using gtKam Red Hat Linux supports over 100 digital camera models. allowing you to open.. Figure 12-1. choose Main Menu => Graphics => Digital Camera Tool.1. If you want to save all of the stored images. gtKam works directly with your digital camera. gtKam is a graphical application that allows you to interface with your digital camera. whether your camera uses USB or serial ports to communicate with your computer. 12.Chapter 12. you need to configure it to work with your digital camera. Directories shown below the icon may differ depending on your brand of camera. and modify your digital photographs. view. So. it is likely that Red Hat Linux will support it. the settings will be saved with each additional use. From the pop-up dialog. save. view. then save the images to disk. . From this panel. You can also download the images to your computer and modify it with image manipulation programs such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information about image manipulation tools). Red Hat Linux supports several brands of digital cameras and has applications that help you access. and delete images directly. You can also start gtKam by typing gtkam at a shell prompt. Adding a Camera in gtKam Once you have added your camera. To start gtKam. Working with Digital Cameras Digital cameras have recently grown in popularity because of their increasing image quality and easy interaction with desktop PCs. choose Select => All. Before you begin using gtKam. Select the directory that commonly stores your images and the stored images will immediately load as thumbnail images in the main panel. Digital cameras create high-quality images that allow you to send to others over the Internet or print on a color printer. From the menu. you can choose your camera from the drop-down list or let gtKam automatically find your camera by clicking Detect. Click Apply to accept the changes and OK to close the dialog box. it will be shown as an icon on the left panel of the main gtKam window. which you can then save to disk by choosing File => Save Selected Photos. click on the images you want... choose Camera => Add Camera.

88 Chapter 12.sourceforge. Working with Digital Cameras Figure 12-2.net/proj/gtkam/ . refer to the gtKam page at the gPhoto website: http://gphoto. Viewing Images with gtKam For more information about using gtKam.

perform simple administration tasks. and then create. many Red Hat Linux functions can be completed faster from the shell prompt than from a graphical user interface (GUI). Experienced users can write shell scripts to expand their capabilities even further.2. Shell Prompt Basics 13. and other shell prompt basics. Bourne. Operating systems at that time came with command interpreters. But Ritchie and Thompson wanted something more. and then the shell tells the OS what to do. a task can be finished with just a few commands at a shell prompt. This lead to the development of the Bourne shell (known as sh). which could take commands from the user and interpret them so that computers could use them.R.1. other shells have been developed. or modify files from a GUI. However. In less time than it might take to open a file manager. Users type commands at a shell prompt.Chapter 13. the shell interprets these commands. such as the C shell (csh) and the Korn shell (ksh). something that offered better features than the command interpreters available at that time. manipulate files. You can be perfectly productive in the X Window System and only have to open a shell prompt to complete a few tasks. delete. they wanted to create a way for people to interact with their new system. The History of the Shell When AT&T software engineers Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson were designing UNIX™. A shell prompt looks similar to other command-line interfaces with which you might be familiar. . created by S. Why Use a Shell Prompt Graphical environments for Linux have come a long way in the past few years. A Shell Prompt This section explains how to navigate the file system. locate a directory. 13. Since the creation of the Bourne shell. Figure 13-1.

Typing this command by itself will always return you to your home directory. Your system responded by printing the full path of the current directory in the shell prompt window. You will see something such as: /home/sam This example shows that you are in the user sam’s directory. The result was the Bourne Again Shell. When the system responds to requests for information. To change directories. The Command pwd Shows You Where You Are To determine the exact location of the current directory at a shell prompt and type the command pwd.90 Chapter 13. not the entire path. and can be printed to the shell prompt or can be redirected to other programs or to other output devices such as printers. you asked your Linux system to display your current location. the Bash prompt in Red Hat Linux shows just your current directory. 13. bash is the default shell for interactive users. which is in the /home directory. it is easy to get lost or forget the name of your current directory. .3. Although your Red Hat Linux system includes several different shells. Changing Directories with cd Changing directories is easy as long as you know where you are (your current directory) and how that relates to where you want to go. use the cd command. the response is called standard output. or bash. You will find that using pwd is very helpful as you learn to navigate your Red Hat Linux system. Figure 13-2. moving to any other directory requires a pathname. 13. developers began to work on the language behind the Bourne shell as well as some of the popular features from other shells available at the time. You can learn more about bash by reading the bash man page (type man bash at a shell prompt).4. When you typed pwd. By default. The command pwd stands for print working directory. Determining Your Current Directory with pwd Once you start looking through directories. Shell Prompt Basics When the Free Software Foundation sought a royalty-free shell.

directory) 3. Then go down to the etc directory 4. using an absolute path would get you to the /etc/X11 directory more quickly. Go up one level to your login directory’s parent directory (probably /home) 2. command.. / /directory1 /directory1/directory2 /directory1/directory2/directory3 If you are currently in directory3 and you want to switch to directory1. or /. Executing the command cd directory1 while you are in directory3./etc/X11 After using the full command in the example. Using relative paths allows you to change to a directory relative to the directory you are currently in. relative paths look down from your current directory. which requires you to know and type the complete path. The command cd . Shell Prompt Basics 91 You can use absolute or relative pathnames. use the cd . Using absolute paths allows you to change to a directory from the / directory./. This is because there is no directory1 below directory3. which can be convenient if you are changing to a subdirectory within your current directory.Chapter 13. tells your system to go up to the directory immediately above the one in which you are currently working. Finally. go to the X11 directory Conversely. Take a look at your last cd command.. will present you with an error message explaining that there is no such directory. it is a relative path. You told your system to: 1. Absolute paths start at the top of the file system with / (referred to as root) and then look down for the requested directory. you should be in the directory X11.. Then go up to that directory’s parent (which is the root.. Otherwise. you need to move up in the directory tree. To move up to directory1. For example: cd /etc/X11 Absolute paths start from the root directory (/) and move down to the directory you specify./. . type the relative path: cd . A path is absolute if the first character is a /. To go up two directories. The following directory tree illustrates how cd operates. which is where you will find configuration files and directories related to the X Window System. It tells Linux to start at the top of the directory tree (/) and change to directory1. type: cd /directory1 This is an example of an absolute path.. Use the following exercise to test what you have learned so far regarding absolute and relative paths. From your home directory. wherever that may be.

. you become root (also called the superuser) while still inside your login shell (your user’s home directory).makes you become root with root’s login shell. use the su command.14 Ownership and Permissions./dir3/dir2 this relative path would take you up two directories. You do not have to worry about your position in the file system. or superuser.92 Chapter 13. when you state the absolute path to another directory or file. Shell Prompt Basics Note Always make sure you know which working directory you are in before you state the relative path to the directory or file you want to get to. Typing su . cd Options Now that you are starting to understand how to change directories. see what happens when you change to root’s login directory (the superuser account).. su Tip The command su means substitute users and it allows you to log in as another user temporarily. If you are not sure. this absolute path would take you straight to subdirfoo. Table 13-1. it is as if you had logged in as root originally. account created at installation. then to the dir2 directory. Command cd cd ~ cd / cd /root Function returns you to your login directory also returns you to your login directory takes you to the entire system’s root directory takes you to the home directory of the root. See Section 13. where user login directories are usually stored moves you up one directory takes you to otheruser’s login directory. To change to the root login and root directory. if otheruser has granted you permission regardless of which directory you are in. though. When you type su by itself and press [Enter]../. type pwd and your current working directory will be displayed. you are denied permission to access that directory. you must be the root user to access this directory takes you to the home directory. then to dir3. Denying access to the root and other users’ accounts (or login directories) is one way your Linux system prevents accidental or malicious tampering. . Type: cd /root If you are not logged in as root. a subdirectory of dir1 cd /home cd . cd ~otheruser cd /dir1/subdirfoo cd . which can be your guide for moving up and down directories using relative pathnames.

This command shows the file creation date. by adding more than one option. so keep them hidden to help avoid some screen clutter when viewing directories at the shell prompt. shells. the root account designation at the front of the prompt and "#" at the end. and more.Chapter 13. Now you will see files that begin with dots. at the prompt type man ls | col -b | lpr. Many options are available with the ls command. The ls command. by itself. ls with the -a Option Hidden files are mostly configuration files which set preferences in programs. Tip To see all the options of the ls command. . permissions.5. superuser status. just add the long option (-l) to the ls -a command. does not show all the files in the directory. When you are searching for something in a directory. you will see the changes in your command prompt to show your new. If you want to see the size of a file or directory. View Directory Contents with ls Now that you know how to change directories. it is time to learn how to view the contents of these directories. type exit at the prompt. Figure 13-3. Using the ls command. 13. but you can view still more information. Some files are hidden files (also called dot files) and can only be seen with an additional option specified to the ls command. and you will return to your user account. ownership. Type the command ls -a. Shell Prompt Basics 93 As soon as you give the root password. when it was created and more. its size. and more. Viewing all the files using the ls -a command can give you plenty of detail. The reason they are hidden is to help prevent any accidental tampering by the user. When you are done working as root. you can read the man page by typing man ls at a shell prompt. you can display the contents of your current directory. If you want to print the man page. window managers. you are not usually looking for these configuration files.

including the hidden files (. respectively. size. Locating Files and Directories There will be times when you know a file or directory exists but you will not know where to find it. creation date.filename). The . — recursive. whether the file is a link to somewhere else on the system and where its link points. to see what is in the /etc/ directory from your home directory. This option lists the contents of all directories below the current directory recursively. if you want to search for all files with the word finger in the name. and so on..6. — reverse. read the locate man page (type man locate at a shell prompt).txt. • -a — all. — file type. Lists details about contents. permissions (modes). type: locate finger The locate command uses a database to locate files and directories that have the word finger in the file or directory name. you will see every file or directory whose name contains the search criterion. To learn more about locate. a directory named fingerthumbnails. type: ls -al /etc Figure 13-4. Search for a file or directory with the locate command. • -l — long. a file called pointerfinger. These symbols include / to indicate a directory. group. Remember. For example. at the top of your list refer to the parent directory and the current directory. Adds a symbol to the end of each listing. With locate. you can view the full list by reading the ls man page (man ls).txt. Shell Prompt Basics You do not have to be in the directory whose contents you want to view to use the ls command. Sorts files by their sizes. Lists all the files in the directory. The search results could include a file called finger. including • -F • -r • -R • -S 13. and * to indicate an executable file. Lists the contents of the directory from back to front. @ to indicate a symbolic link to another file. For example. owner. and . Sample ls Output for the /etc Directory The following is a short list of some options commonly used with ls.94 Chapter 13. — size. .

txt In this example. Unlike cron. Refer to the man page on anacron (type man anacron at the command line) and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information. Shell Prompt Basics 95 The locate command works very quickly. To view the jobs waiting in the print queue. Printing From The Command Line Printing is not an involved process whether you click on a button in a GUI or type commands from the command line. Hence. That database is automatically updated on a nightly basis through a cron job. Note You can run anacron to have your system execute commands periodically. type man cron at the shell prompt. 13. Switching between operating systems and shutting down your machine at the end of the day can interfere with the automatic database update run by cron. and monthly jobs that are usually controlled by cron. The cron task periodically updates the slocate database. For example. This section explains how to print. sends that specified file to the print queue. To update the database manually. cancel. weekly. log in as root (type su at a shell prompt and then your root password) and type the command updatedb. performing various tasks (such as updating the locate database) at regularly scheduled intervals. type lprm 389 and press [Enter]. After a few minutes.txt prints the foo.Chapter 13. Tip Cron is a daemon that executes tasks at regularly scheduled intervals. You can cancel jobs in the queue by typing lprm followed by the print job number displayed when you use the lpq command. cron is a small program that runs in the background. and you will see information similar to this: active root 389 foo.txt print job. To cancel the foo. with a frequency specified in days. . as long as the database is up to date. Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information about setting up your printer. type lpq at the command line.7. lpr foo. To read the cron man page. The lpr command. Type lpq. to control daily. and view print jobs from the command line. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information on cron. it does not assume that the machine is running continuously. followed by a filename. which is used to catalog file locations.txt file. 389 is the job number. the slocate database that is used by the locate command will be current. it can be used on machines that are not running 24 hours a day. assuming you have a properly configured printer connected to your system.

13.9. The utility is called cat. type the following at a shell prompt (pressing the [Enter] key takes you to the next blank line):   . which means to combine files. The following example shows cat repeating every line that is entered: Figure 13-5. Manipulating Files with cat Red Hat Linux has a utility which can help you keep short lists. but there is a quicker and easier way to clear the contents displayed in the terminal. you could find that the text you are typing does not match the output on the monitor. Try typing the command clear at the shell prompt. To redirect standard output. short for concatenate. you may accidentally open a program file or some other non-text file in a terminal window. The cat Command To redirect the output of cat to a file. using cat by itself outputs whatever you input to the screen as if it were repeating the line you just typed.9.txt | less command. 13.8. Using Redirection Redirection means causing the shell to change what it considers to be standard input or where the standard output should be going. it will quickly scroll past you on the screen. Using the pipe (|) and the less command together displays the file one page at a time. gather lists together. For more on using pipes to combine two separate functions. use the symbol. Sometimes. The command cat will also display the contents of an entire file on the screen (for example.1. use the cat filename. and even show you information about your system. Once you close the file. Placing after the cat command (or after any utility or application that writes to standard output) directs its output to the filename following the symbol. see Section 13. type reset to return the terminal window to its default values. Clearing and Resetting the Terminal After even one ls command in a shell prompt. You can always exit from the terminal window and open a new one. Shell Prompt Basics 13. If the file is fairly long. For example. the terminal window you are working in can begin to look crowded. To prevent this. You can then use the up and down arrow keys to move backward and forward through the pages. type cat filename. In such cases. The clear command does just what it implies: it clears the terminal window.96 Chapter 13.10 Pipes and Pagers.txt).

txt Caution Be careful when you redirect the output to a file. followed by: bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! Now. That is because the standard output from cat was redirected. type the command cat > home. As you learned earlier. unless you want to replace it.Chapter 13. you can then use cat to read the file.txt .txt. use the [Ctrl]-[D] key combination again to quit cat. then [Enter]. use cat to join home. on an empty line. type: cat sneakers. Do you notice anything different in Figure 13-6? There are no repeated entries.txt (you will find an example in Figure 13-7). You can find the file in the directory you were in when you started cat (type ls if you want to see it listed). That redirection was to a brand new file you made called sneakers.txt home. Next.txt  cat sneakers. Type the following:  cat sneakers. At the prompt.txt and redirect the output of both files to a brand new file called saturday. Shell Prompt Basics 97 Figure 13-6. because you can easily overwrite an existing file! Make sure the name of the file you are creating does not match the name of a pre-existing file.txt with sneakers.txt.txt. Redirecting Output to a File Press [Enter] to go to an empty line and use the [Ctrl]-[D] keys to quit cat.txt saturday. For this example. Use output redirection again for another file and call it home.

txt at the end of the file: Now check the file using the command cat sneakers.txt to the file sneakers. so type: home. cat saturday. Joining Files and Redirecting Output You can see that cat has added home.txt (as shown in Figure 13-8).txt sneakers. The best explanation is a demonstration.  .txt.txt. Shell Prompt Basics Figure 13-7.txt now. rather than replacing the contents .txt and saturday. you save yourself time (and a bit of disk clutter) by using existing files.9. By appending the output. Similar to when you used the symbol.txt and home. then saturday.txt The contents of both files will be displayed — first sneakers. you tell your shell to send the information somewhere other than standard output. 13.2.txt.txt.txt   However.   cat home. you are adding information to a file.txt to the information already in sneakers.98 Chapter 13.txt ended. rather than creating a new file. Appending Standard Output You can use output redirection to add new information to the end of an existing file. The final output shows the contents of buy some sneakers then go to the coffee shop then buy some coffee bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! The command you typed appended the output from the file home.txt) and join them by using the append output symbol.txt where sneakers. You want to add the information in home. and you will see that they are identical. To make your comparison. Compare the results of the files sneakers. when you use of a file entirely.txt. type: cat sneakers. Take two files which have already been created (sneakers.

9. Type: sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics 99 Figure 13-8. .txt was read by cat. Redirecting Standard Input Not only can you redirect standard output. Redirecting Standard Input   cat sneakers. Use a file you have already created to demonstrate this idea. you are telling the shell that you want a file to be . Stringing Commands and Comparing Files 13.Chapter 13.3. Because you used the less-than symbol ( ) to separate the cat command from the file. you can perform the same type of redirection with standard input.txt  When you use the redirect standard input symbol read as input for a command. the output of Figure 13-9.

Pipes can also be used to print only certain lines from a file. pipes connect the standard output of one command to the standard input of another command. to move back a screen. Use the vertical bar (|) to pipe the commands. Pipes and Pagers In Linux.txt file that mentions the word "coffee" (read more about grep in Section 13. press [/] and type the search term. a pager utility that allows you to view information one page (or screen) at a time. Use the arrow keys to navigate the file. For example: /Linux Tip To read startup messages more closely.txt | lpr This command prints every line in the sneakers. to quit. press [Space].10. press [B]. you can use the arrow keys to navigate with less. ls -al /etc | less Now you can view the contents of /etc one screen at a time. press [Q]. Alternatively. There are plenty of options available with ls.3 The grep Command). ls -al /etc | more . type dmesg | less. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file.11.100 Chapter 13. To move forward a screen. To search the output of a text file using less. to search for output. Consider the ls command that was discussed earlier.1. Shell Prompt Basics 13. 13. at a shell prompt. The more Command The main difference between more and less is that less allows backward and forward movement using the arrow keys.10. but what if the contents of a directory scroll by too quickly for you to view them? View the contents of the /etc/ directory with the command: ls -al /etc How do you get a closer look at the output before it moves off the screen? One way is to pipe the output to a utility called less. List the contents of the /etc directory using ls and more. while more uses the [Spacebar] and the [B] key for forward and backward navigation. Type: grep coffee sneakers. You will be able to read the file one screen at a time.

to actively watch /var/log/messages. tail automatically print new messages from an open file to the screen in real-time. More Commands for Reading Text Files You have already been introduced to several basic shell prompt commands for reading files in text editors.1. Using tail.11. The head Command You can use the head command to look at the beginning of a file. 13. The tail Command The reverse of head is tail. By default. Piping Output of ls to more To search the output of a text file using more. 13. you will not see how long the file actually is. type the following at a shell prompt as the root user: tail -f /var/log/messages  head -20  head filename filename . For example: /foo Use the [Spacebar] to move forward through the pages. but because it is limited to the first several lines. you can only read the first ten lines of a file.11. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file.11. Shell Prompt Basics 101 Figure 13-10. Using the -f option. The command is: head can be a useful command. you can view the last ten lines of a file. You can change the number of lines displayed by specifying a number option as shown in the following command: 13.Chapter 13. For example.2. You can also use tail to watch log files as they are updated. Press [q] to exit. Here are a few more. This can be useful for viewing the last 10 lines of a log file for important system messages.

3.txt and there is the name of the file: sneakers. if you want to find every reference made to "coffee" in the file sneakers.4. Then. then substitute the remainder with a wildcard." so type: ls sneak*. To print the information about references to "coffee" in sneakers. Tip Unless otherwise specified. If you want to print the file. Read the grep man page for more about this command. 13. take a look at the bash man page (man bash). for example. you can perform actions on a file or files without knowing the complete filename.11. We know the file is called "sneak____.5. Just fill out what you know.txt.txt | lpr 13. numbers. which allows for a case-insensitive search through a file. you can open and read the file with less or vi (vi bash.102 Chapter 13.txt.txt.txt ! . Among grep’s options is -i. Tip To read more about wildcards and regular expressions. That means that searching for Coffee is different than searching for coffee.txt You would see every line in that file where the word "coffee" is found. I/O Redirection and Pipes You can use pipes and output redirection when you want to store and/or print information to read at a later time. and symbols that make finding particular directories and files easier than examining long directory listings to find what you are searching for. just type: grep coffee sneakers. be aware that it is quite long.txt.11. Wildcards and Regular Expressions What if you forget the name of the file you are looking for? Using wildcards or regular expressions. grep searches are case sensitive. Wildcards are special symbols that you can substitute for letters. The grep Command The grep command is useful for finding specific character strings in a file.txt). Remember that you can save the file to a text file by typing man bash | col -b bash. use grep to search for particular contents of a file. for example. Shell Prompt Basics 13. For example. you would type: grep coffee sneakers. then have those results either saved as a file or sent to a printer.11. You can.

as might be the case if the file Using the backslash (\). Command History and Tab Completion It does not take long before the thought of typing the same command over and over becomes unappealing. . type: sneak\*.txt Nothing happens. Regular expressions are more complex than the straightforward asterisk or question mark. In this case. you can specify that you do not want to search out everything by using the asterisk.txt.txt (created in Section 13. When an asterisk.txt. One minor typing error can ruin lines of a series of commands. at the shell prompt. ? is useful for matching a single character. that is when regular expressions can be useful. So even by typing: ls *.1 Using Redirection. One way to narrow a search is to use the question mark symbol (?).txt. One solution is to use the command line history. you can find plenty of your previously typed commands. type: cat sneakrs. No problem. If the file is called sneak*. The first time. sneakers. Try it by taking a look again at sneakers." Insert the letter and press [Enter] again. We now see the contents of sneakers. if there were such a filename. By scrolling with the [Up Arrow] and [Down Arrow] keys. though. using ? can help locate a file matching a search pattern. Use the up-arrow key to bring back the command. Like the asterisk.txt Here is a brief list of wildcards and regular expressions: • * • ? — Matches all characters — Matches one character in a string — Matches the * character — Matches the ? character — Matches the ) character • \* • \? • \) 13.9.txt. of course. because there is no sneakrs. just happens to be part of a filename.txt or: ls sn* You would find sneakers.txt as a result. but you are instead looking for a file with an asterisk in the name.12. then use the left-arrow key to get to the point where we missed the "e.txt and any other files whose name ends with . you would get sneakers. so if you were searching for sneaker?.txt or begin with sn. It helps to narrow your search as much as possible. and/or sneakerz. for example.txt.txt was called sneak*. The asterisk will search out everything that matches the pattern you are looking for. however. Shell Prompt Basics 103 You will probably use the asterisk (*) most frequently when you are searching.txt file.Chapter 13.

and you want to put it in a new subdirectory within your home directory called rpms/. If you get a beep.13. Suppose you have downloaded a new file called foobar-1.3-2. type: history | grep sneak Another time-saving tool is known as command completion. including updatedb and uptime. Shell Prompt Basics By default.i386. or pathname and then press the [Tab] key. You have used the command. HISTFILESIZE=500 shows the number of commands that bash will store. and others.11. a powerful search utility (see Section 13.bash_history To move forward a screen. The command line history is actually kept in a file. Using Multiple Commands Linux allows you to enter multiple commands at one time. and you think it might be in your history file. called . up to 500 commands can be stored in the bash command line history file. press [b]. We can read it in a number of ways: by using vi. you can su to root. cat.3-2. from your home directory type: more . press [q]. but remember a portion of the command. The only requirement is that you separate the commands with a semicolon. to quit. then at the shell prompt. If you type part of a file.i386. press the [Tab] key twice and you will see a list of possible completions. more.rpm. to move back a screen. At the shell prompt. The line which reads. You can combine both the creation of the rpms/ directory and the moving of your downloaded file into the directory by typing the following at a shell prompt: mkdir rpms/. .3 The grep Command . For example. your command is completed for you.rpm rpms/ Running the combination of commands creates the directory and moves the file in one line. or a beep (if sound is enabled on your system).bash_history in your login directory. Here is how you can quickly find a previously used command: say you are searching for a command that is similar to cat sneak-something. command. Be aware that the file can be long. if you forget the command updatedb. we can see the environment variable that controls the size of the command line history. To read it with the more command. use grep. just press [Tab] again to obtain a list of the files/paths that match what has been typed so far. By typing the partial command upd and pressing [Tab] again. less. mv foobar-1. but the subdirectory has not been created. Tip By typing the env command at a shell prompt. press [Space]. bash will present you with either the remaining portion of the file/path. 13.104 Chapter 13. Tip To find a command in your history file without having to keep hitting the arrow keys or page through the history file. type up.

and to which group the owner belongs (sam). is a multi-user system. The remaining nine slots are actually three sets of permissions for three different categories of users. since it is easy to make mistakes and alter important configuration files as the superuser. The first slot represents the type of file. That means you can specify who is allowed to read the file. The first column shows current permissions. writing. One way to gain entry when you are denied permission is to su to root. You can see who can read (r) and write to (w) the file. so sneakers.Chapter 13. date and time of file creation. you received the following message: cd /root bash: /root: Permission denied That was one demonstration of Linux’s security features. For example: -rw-rw-r-- . Take a closer look at sneakers.txt Other information to the right of the group includes file size. the name of your group is the same as your login name. you can also specify whether certain groups can read. But switching to the superuser is not always convenient or recommended. when you tried to change to root’s login directory. by default.1 Using Redirection) in your login directory. write to. Remember that. or (if it is an application instead of a text file) who can execute the file. and executing are the three main settings in permissions.txt (see Section 13. as well as who created the file (sam). and file permissions are one way the system protects against malicious tampering. There is a lot of detail provided here. This is because whoever knows the root password has complete access. sneakers.txt All files and directories are "owned" by the person who created them.txt with the ls command using the -l option (see Figure 13-11). Since users are placed into a group when their accounts are created.14. Ownership and Permissions Earlier in this chapter. or execute a file. Figure 13-11. Linux. write to the file. Permissions for sneakers. it has ten slots. and file name. Shell Prompt Basics 105 13. Reading. You created the file belongs to you. like UNIX.9. as you learned earlier.

write notes in it. The original file looks like this. Shell Prompt Basics Those three sets are the owner of the file. so neither the owner or the group has permission to execute it. . the owner and group can read and write to the file. and others. It is not a program. sam) has permission to read and write to the file. sam. In the following example. Right now. the group in which the file belongs. and save it. Whenever you allow anyone else to read. Look again at the first column of sneakers.14. you want to allow everyone to write to the file. you should only grant read and write permissions to those who truly need them. as well. you will see one of the following: • r • w • x — file can be read — file can be written to — file can be executed (if it is a program) When you see a dash in owner. That means you will have to change the "others" section of the file permissions. can show one of the following: • d — a directory — a regular file (rather than directory or link) — a symbolic link to another program or file elsewhere on the system • -(dash) • l Beyond the first item. or deleted. group. The chmod Command Use the chmod command to change permissions. it means that particular permission has not been granted. This example shows how to change the permissions on sneakers. 13. As a rule. and "others.106 Chapter 13. (rw-) | | type owner (rw-) | group (r--) 1 sam sam | others The first item. you are increasing the risk of files being tampered with. so they can read it. in each of the following three sets.1.txt The file’s owner (in this case. write to.txt. which specifies the file type. group.txt with the chmod command. Caution Remember that file permissions are a security feature. altered.txt -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. or others. with its initial permissions settings: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers." meaning other users on the system.txt If you are the owner of the file or are logged into the root account you can change any permissions for the owner. and execute files. ls -l sneakers. The group. has permission to read and write to sneakers. Anyone outside of the group can only read the file (r--).txt and identify its permissions.

type the following: chmod o+w sneakers. At the shell prompt. Now. Here is a list of what the shorthand represents: Identities u — the user who owns the file (that is.txt — for everyone.txt The o+w command tells the system you want to give others write permission to the file sneakers.txt Now. . you are telling the system to remove read and write permissions for the group and for others from the file sneakers. list the file’s details again.txt Think of these settings as a kind of shorthand when you want to change permissions with chmod.Chapter 13.txt By typing go-rw.txt 107 The previous command displays this file information: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. The result will look like this: -rw------1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.txt. g. To check the results. To remove read and write permissions from sneakers.— removes the permission = — makes it the only permission Want to test your permissions skills? Remove all permissions from sneakers. and o) Permissions r — read access w — write access x — execute access Actions + — adds the permission .txt use the chmod command to take away both the read and write permissions. everyone can read and write to the file. chmod go-rw sneakers. the owner) g — the group to which the user belongs o — others (not the owner or the owner’s group) a — everyone or all (u. because all you really have to do is remember a few symbols and letters with the chmod command. the file looks like this: -rw-rw-rw1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.txt Now. Shell Prompt Basics Take a look at the file first.txt. type: ls -l sneakers.

If you do not allow others to have execute permission to tigger. you can always change its permissions back with the following command: chmod u+rw sneakers. see if you can read the file with the command cat sneakers.txt: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.14. But since the file belongs to you. although it may seem a little complex at first. you are really allowing (or denying) permission to search through that directory.txt .108 Chapter 13. successfully locked the file.2. restore your own and your group’s access: chmod ug+x tigger tigger directory. Go back to the original permissions for sneakers.txt. it will not matter who has read or write access. No one will be able to get into the directory unless they know the exact file name. the file owner. For example. Because you can not really "execute" a directory as you would an application.txt Use the command cat sneakers. can read the file again. when you add or remove execute permission for a directory. you can change permissions for entire directory trees.txt to verify that you. Here is what happens now when you try to cd to into tigger: bash: tigger: Permission denied Next.txt Now.txt: Permission denied Removing all permissions. type: chmod a-x tigger to remove everyone’s execute permissions. Shell Prompt Basics chmod a-rwx sneakers. Changing Permissions With Numbers Remember the reference to the shorthand method of chmod? Here is another way to change permissions. including your own. if you check your work with ls -l you will see that only others will be denied access to the 13. Now. which should return the following: cat: sneakers. Here are some common examples of settings that can be used with chmod: • g+w — adds write access for the group — removes all permissions for others — allows the file owner to execute the file — allows everyone to read and write to the file — allows the owner and group to read the file — allows only the group to read and execute (not write) • o-rwx • u+x • a+rw • ug+r • g=rx By adding the -R option.

If you want to change sneakers. These permissions could allow tampering with sensitive files. four. numerical values and their meanings: • -rw------• -rw-r--r-- (600) — Only the owner has read and write permissions. and execute permission. Here is a list of some common settings. add the value of w (2) to the second set of permissions.txt so those in your group will not have write access. read only. would become six. and four (644). Shell Prompt Basics Each permission setting can be represented by a numerical value: • • • • 109 r=4 w=2 x=1 -=0 When these values are added together. here are the numerical permissions settings: (rw-) | 4+2+0 (rw-) | 4+2+0 (r--) | 4+0+0 The total for the user is six. type: chmod 644 sneakers. but can still read the file.txt. neither the group nor others have write permission to sneakers. Type: ls -l sneakers. chmod 664 sneakers. then. the total for the group is six. (644) — Only the owner has read and write permissions.txt. it is not a good idea to use these settings. and execute permissions. if you want read and write permissions.txt Warning Setting permissions to 666 will allow everyone to read and write to a file or directory. Setting permissions to 777 allows everyone read. the group and others have (700) — Only the owner has read. and the total for others is four. you would have a value of 6. remove the access by subtracting two (2) from that set of numbers. To return the group’s write access for the file. • -rwx------ .txt The output should be: -rw-r--r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. The numerical values. The permissions setting is read as 664. write. so in general. 4 (read) + 2 (write) = 6. To implement these new settings.Chapter 13.txt Now. For example.txt Now verify the changes by listing the file. the total is used to set specific permissions. write. For sneakers.

and execute permissions.(666) • -rwxrwxrwx Here are some common settings for directories: • drwx-----• drwxr-xr-x (700) — Only the user can read. and execute. Shell Prompt Basics • -rwxr-xr-x • -rwx--x--x (755) — The owner has read. (711) — The owner has read. the group and others have only read and execute. (Again. the group and others have only execute.110 Chapter 13. . write. this permissions setting can be hazardous. write. users and groups have read and execute permissions.) • -rw-rw-rw. (755) — Everyone can read the directory. write. (Be careful with these permissions. write in this directory.) (777) — Everyone can read. and execute permissions. — Everyone can read and write to the file.

These directories may contain. If you do not have the permission to open. This chapter also discusses compression tools to create archives of your files for backup or to conveniently send to others. which is represented as a single forward slash (/). In Linux. be sure to know which root is being discussed. unless you are root. you will not be able to gain access to all system-level files and directories. everything is connected to the root directory. Users that do not have superuser access might find the following directories useful for finding their home directories. reading documentation. This chapter discusses various shell prompt commands that can be used to manage files and directories on your Red Hat Linux system. Managing Files and Directories Your desktop file manager is a powerful and important tool for managing files and directories using the graphical desktop. modifications. /home is the default location for users’ home directories. and the same is true for the Linux file system. these subdirectories can also contain files and other subdirectories. or storing temporary files. or be the "parent" of. for the redhat-config-date software package is located in /usr/share/doc/redhat-config-date. a user with the username foo has the home directory /home/foo. directories within it (called subdirectories) which hold files and may contain subdirectories of their own. the # " . documentation • /usr/share/doc — Location of documentation for installed packages. and other changes. When you are speaking to someone and using the term root.Chapter 14. Note Due to system security. For example. You might think of the file system as a tree-like structure and directories as branches. No matter how far away the directories branch. A Larger Picture of the File System Every operating system has a method of storing data in files and directories so that it can keep track of additions. delete. Directories can also contain directories. This is normal behavior and is used to prevent non-privileged users from modifying or deleting important system files. the root account’s home directory (/root) and the root directory for the entire file system (/).1. you will receive an error message saying your access is denied. There would not be a tree without a root. which might be confusing to new users. or execute a file. Tip Red Hat Linux uses the term root in several different ways. every file is stored in a directory. For example. There is the root account (the superuser. Certain directories are reserved for specific purposes. For example. who has permission to do anything). • /home — Default location for users’ home directories.version-number . Unless you are a system administrator or have root (superuser) access. 14. you probably do not have permission to write to the files and directories outside of your home directory.

Identifying and Working with File Types If you are new to Linux.com/fhs.pathname.112 Chapter 14.tgz • . To learn more about the FHS. The FHS guidelines help to standardize the way system programs and files are stored on all Linux systems. A file’s extension is the last part of a file’s name after the final dot (in the file sneakers. 14.2.txt • . you may see certain file types that you do not recognize because of their unfamiliar extension.tar • .au — an audio file — a GIF image file — an HTML file — a JPEG image file — an electronic image of a document.ps — a PostScript file. Managing Files and Directories • /tmp — The reserved directory for all users to store temporary files. Here is a brief listing of file extensions and their meanings: 14.tbz • . For information on working with bzip2. Files stored here are not permanent.wav • .xpm .gz — a file compressed with bzip2 — a file archived with tar (short for tape archive). — a file compressed with gzip • .gif • .2. File Formats • . also known as a tar file — a tarred and bzipped file — a tarred and gzipped file. Your Red Hat Linux system is compatible with many other Linux distributions because of the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS). A system process removes old files from this directory on a periodic basis.png • . Most compressed files for Linux use the gzip compression. You can also visit the FHS website at http://www. commonly found in MS-DOS applications. refer to Section 14. refer to the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. 14.3 File Compression and Archiving.zip — a file compressed with ZIP compression.2. "txt" is that file’s extension). Do not write any files or directories that you want to keep here.jpg • . PDF stands for Portable Document Format — a PNG image file (short for Portable Network Graphic) — a plain ASCII text file — an audio file — an image file • .bz2 • . gzip. so finding a .htm • . formatted for printing • . Compressed and Archived Files • . and tar files.pdf • .2.html/.1.txt.zip archive for Linux files is rare.

more. Programming and Scripting Files • . the command file saturday will display ASCII text. see Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics. The archive file is not compressed — it uses the same amount of disk space as all the individual files and directories combined.h • . — a lock file.2.cpp • . you can tell what type of file it is by typing: file saturday In the example. read the man page by typing man file. 14. Any file that is designated as a text file should be readable by using the cat.cfg extension. For more information on helpful commands for reading files. An archive file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file.rpm — a configuration file.o • . telling you it is a text file.c — a C program language source code file — a C++ program language source code file — a C or C++ program language header file — a program object file — a Perl script — a Python script — a library file — a shell script — a TCL script • . It is important to understand the distinction between an archive file and a compressed file.so • . It is also sometimes useful to compress files into one file so that they use less disk space and download faster via the Internet.lock • . Configuration files sometimes use the . Using the file command.4.sh • . or the file does not seem to be what the extension says it is supposed to be? That is when the file command can be helpful.2.py • .conf • . or by using a text editor such as gedit or vi. A . as well.tcl But file extensions are not always used. determines whether a program or device is in use — a Red Hat Package Manager file used to install software 14. Managing Files and Directories 113 14.Chapter 14. File Compression and Archiving Sometimes it is useful to store a group of files in one file so that they can be backed up. or less commands. you find a file called saturday without an extension. or used consistently.pl • . easily transferred to another directory. For example. So what happens when a file does not have an extension. or even transferred to a different computer.3. Tip To learn more about file.3. System Files • .

which you can navigate by double-clicking the folder icon. Decompressing and Unarchiving with File Roller To unarchive and/or decompress a file click the Open toolbar button.3.114 Chapter 14. you can compress files that you do not use very often or files that you want to save but do not use anymore. allowing you to choose the archive you wish to work with. You can also start File Roller from a shell prompt by typing file-roller. Managing Files and Directories compressed file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file and stored in a way that uses less disk space than all the individual files and directories combined. if you have a file called foo.3. For example. File Roller supports common UNIX and Linux file compression and archiving formats and has a simple interface and extensive help documentation if you need it. The File Roller browser window will appear with the decompressed/unarchived file in a folder for you to extract or browse. You can even create an archive file and then compress it to save disk space. decompress. Figure 14-1. The file will appear in the main File Roller browser window as a folder. you can double-click the file you wish to unarchive or decompress to start File Roller. Figure 14-1 shows File Roller in action. and archive files and directories. To start File Roller click Main Menu => Accessories => File Roller.1. Note An archive file is not compressed.tar. File . If you do not have enough disk space on your computer. It is also integrated into the desktop environment and graphical file manager to make working with archived files easier. but a compressed file can be an archive file. 14. Using File Roller Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility called File Roller that can compress.gz located in your home directory. File Roller in Action 14. highlight the file and click OK.1. A file menu will pop up.1. Tip If you are using a file manager (such as Nautilus).

Click OK when you are finished. Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt Compressed files use less disk space and download faster than large. uncompressed files. choosing the directory you would like to save the unarchived files. and clicking OK. For example.2. The gzip compression tool can also be found on most UNIXlike operating systems. bzip2. or send multiple files or a directory of files to another user.gz) format from the drop-down menu and type the name of the archive file you want to create. To add files to your new archive. click Add.3. click New on the toolbar. File Roller allows you to create archives of your files and directories. 14. allowing you to specify an archive name and the compression technique. and click Close to close the archive. In Red Hat Linux you can compress files with the compression tools gzip. which is convenient if you are looking for a particular file in the archive. Creating Archives with File Roller If you need to free some hard drive space.1. Creating an Archive with File Roller Tip There is much more you can do with File Roller than is explained here. To create a new archive. Click OK and your new archive is now ready to be filled with files and directories.Chapter 14. you may choose a Tar Compressed wity gzip (tar. A file browser will pop up. If you need to transfer files between Linux and other operating system such . which will pop up a browser window (Figure 14-2) that you can navigate to find the file or directory you want to be in the archive. 14. Refer to the File Roller manual (available by clicking Help => Manual) for more information. The bzip2 compression tool is recommended because it provides the most compression and is found on most UNIX-like operating systems.2. or zip.3. Managing Files and Directories 115 Roller preserves all directory and subdirectory structures. Figure 14-2. You can extract individual files or entire archives by clicking the Extract button.

zip.bz2 The filename. Compression Tool gzip bzip2 zip File Extension .bz2 is deleted and replaced with filename.bz2.bz2. Compression Tools By convention. 14. Files compressed with gzip are uncompressed with gunzip. . 14.zip Uncompression Tool gunzip bunzip2 unzip Table 14-1.gz . Managing Files and Directories as MS Windows.2. Bzip2 and Bunzip2 To use bzip2 to compress a file. file2.116 Chapter 14. type man bzip2 and man bunzip2 at a shell prompt to read the man pages for bzip2 and bunzip2. files compressed with bzip2 are uncompressed with bunzip2. and files compressed with zip are given the extension .gz. Gzip and Gunzip To use gzip to compress a file.bz2 file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. files compressed with bzip2 are given the extension . type the following command: bunzip2 filename. and files compressed with zip are uncompressed with unzip.3.gz.bz2 . you should use zip because it is more compatible with the compression utilities on Windows. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename.2. files compressed with gzip are given the extension . Tip For more information. To expand the compressed file. type the following command at a shell prompt: gzip filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename. file3.3. type the following command at a shell prompt: bzip2 filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename.bz2. You can use bzip2 to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: bzip2 filename.1.2.

type the following command: zip -r filename. type the following command: gunzip filename.gz file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. 14. type the following command: unzip filename. file2. Zip and Unzip To compress a file with zip. type man zip and man unzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for zip and unzip.3. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename.gz. file3.zip.gz 117 The filename. filename.zip file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename.Chapter 14.zip represents the file you are creating and filesdir represents the directory you want to put in the new zip file. To extract the contents of a zip file.zip filesdir In this example. . type man gzip and man gunzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for gzip and gunzip.gz is deleted and replaced with filename. file2. Tip For more information. file3. Managing Files and Directories To expand the compressed file.2. You can use gzip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: gzip -r filename. Tip For more information.3.zip You can use zip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: zip -r filename. The -r option specifies that you want to include all files contained in the filesdir directory recursively.

tar directory/file In this example. but it places copies of its unarchived contents in the current working directory. — extract files from an archive. then extracting the archive file will result in the creation of the directory foo/ in your current working directory with the file bar. type: tar -cvf filename. when used with the -x option.tbz.tbz.3. To list the contents of a tar file. use the -j option: tar -cjvf filename. Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt A tar file is a collection of several files and/or directories in one file. To create a tarred and bzipped compressed file. unarchive the specified file. Some of the options used with the tar are: • -c • -f — create a new archive.tar.tar in the current directory. This is a good way to create backups and archives.bz2 extension.tar represents the file you are creating and directory/file represents the directory and file you want to put in the archived file.tbz file tar files compressed with bzip2 are conventionally given the extension . You can tar multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: tar -cvf filename.118 Chapter 14.txt within a directory called foo/. — compress the tar file with bzip2. — show the progress of the files being archived. preserving any directory structure that the archive file used. the tar command does not compress the files by default. filename.3. use the filename specified for the creation of the tar file. however. For example. sometimes users archive their files using the tar. • -t • -v • -x • -z • -j To create a tar file.tbz file is removed and replaced with filename. type: tar -tvf filename. — show the list of files in the tar file. if the tarfile contains a file called bar.tar This command does not remove the tar file. the filename. The above command creates an archive file and then compresses it as the file filename. You can also expand and unarchive a bzip tar file in one command: . type: tar -xvf filename. If you uncompress the filename. Remember. — when used with the -c option.tbz file with the bunzip2 command. Managing Files and Directories 14.tar To extract the contents of a tar file.tar /home/mine/work /home/mine/school The above command places all the files in the work and the school subdirectories of /home/mine in a new file called filename. — compress the tar file with gzip.txt inside of it.

type the following at a shell prompt.Chapter 14. type the following command.tar and then compresses it as the file filename. This section explains how to manipulate files at the shell prompt.5 Wildcards and Regular Expressions. you can see that the file contains zero (0) bytes of information because it is an empty file. Replace filename with the name of your choice.4. which will create an empty file that you can use to add text or data. They can also be manipulated using a shell prompt. use the -z option: tar -czvf filename.tgz Tip Type the command man tar for more information about the tar command. Managing Files and Directories 119 tar -xjvf filename.tgz file is removed and replaced with filename.tgz file with the gunzip command.tar. ) ( 0) ( cp source destination ' % & $ touch filename sam 0 Apr 10 17:09 newfile . as explained in Section 13.11.tgz file tar files compressed with gzip are conventionally given the extension . (The file filename. 14. the filename.tgz. Creating Files You can create new files either with applications (such as text editors) or by using the command touch. there is a variety of ways to manipulate files and directories. To copy a file. For example.4. to make the process of copying. typing the command ls -l newfile at the shell prompt returns the following output: -rw-rw-r-1 sam 14. To create a file with touch. 14. Copying Files Like so many other Linux features.tar is not saved.) If you uncompress the filename. If you run a directory listing.1. which is often faster.tgz.4. You can expand a gzip tar file in one command: tar -xzvf filename. Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt Files can be manipulated using one of the graphical file managers. or deleting multiple files and directories faster. This command creates the archive file filename. such as Nautilus or Konqueror. moving.2. You can also use wildcards.tbz To create a tarred and gzipped compressed file.

Rather than just copying all the specified files and directories. use the mv command. Shows the progress of the files as they are being moved. this option is dangerous. — recursive. This is a good option. this will copy the whole directory tree. and name of the directory where you want the file to go.4. Managing Files and Directories destination with the So. see the mv man page (type man mv). 2 1 . because like the -i option for cp. you will be given the chance to make sure you want to replace an existing file. press [N] and [Enter]. Unless you know what you are doing.txt tigger 2 1 Replace source with the name of the file you want to copy. For more about mv. tigger is one directory down from our home directory. Our home directory is the parent of the directory tigger. • -f — force.txt in the tigger directory. Shows the progress of the files as they are being copied. move to your home directory and type: cp sneakers. Prompts you to confirm if the file is going to overwrite a file in your destination. Common options for mv include the following: • -i — interactive.txt to the directory tigger/ in your home directory.txt’? To overwrite the file that is already there.txt tigger/ You can use both relative and absolute pathnames with cp. cp -i sneakers.3. — verbose. use cp -i to copy the file again to the same location. This is a handy option because it can help prevent you from making mistakes. Read the cp man page (type man cp at the shell prompt) for a full list of the options available with cp. If you do not want to overwrite the file. Moving Files To move files. Tip To learn more about relative and absolute pathnames. 14. This will prompt you if the file you have selected will overwrite an existing file in the destination directory. refer to Section 13. • -v Now that you have the file sneakers. be very careful about using it until you become more comfortable with your system.4 Changing Directories with cd . type the following (you will need to be in your home directory): mv sneakers.120 Chapter 14. to copy the file sneakers. Overrides the interactive mode and moves without prompting.txt tigger cp: overwrite ’tigger/sneakers. Among the options you can use with cp are the following: • -i • -r — interactive. subdirectories and all. press [Y] and then [Enter]. — verbose. • -v If you want to move a file out of your home directory and into another existing directory.

you would type: rm pig* The above command will remove all files in the directory which start with the letters pig. — verbose. To remove directories with rm.4. • -v • -r To delete the file piglet. Deleting files and directories with the rm command is a straightforward process. You can also remove multiple files using the rm command. and you created the directory tigger using mkdir. Overrides interactive mode and removes the file(s) without prompting. — force.txt /home/newuser/sneakers. Prompts you to confirm the deletion.txt /home/newuser/tigger 121 14. See the rm man page for more information.txt You can use rmdir to remove a directory (rmdir foo. Will delete a directory and all files and subdirectories it contains.txt sneakers. Deleting Files and Directories You learned about creating files with the touch command. it is gone permanently and cannot be retrieved. type: rm piglet. if you want to recursively remove the directory tigger you would type: .txt’? You can also delete files using the wildcard *. the same command using absolute pathnames looks like mv sneakers.Chapter 14. To remove a file using a wildcard. Shows the progress of the files as they are being removed. This might not be a good idea. Options for removing files and directories include: • -i • -f — interactive.4. rm -i piglet.txt Warning Once a file or directory is removed with the rm command. for example). Use the -i (interactive) option to give you a second chance to think about whether or not you really want to delete the file. because you can easily delete files you did not intend to throw away.txt rm: remove ’piglet. Managing Files and Directories Alternatively. you must specify the -r option. — recursive. but be careful. For example. This option can stop you from deleting a file by mistake.txt with the rm command. Now you need to learn how to delete files and directories. For example: rm piglet. but only if the directory is empty. unless you know exactly what you are doing.

Managing Files and Directories rm -r tigger If you want to combine options. With this command. such as forcing a recursive deletion. you are in trouble. you will not be allowed to use recursive deletions. . Read the rmdir man page (man rmdir) to find out more about this command. this command will recursively remove everything on your system. you can type: rm -rf tigger A safer alternative to using rm for removing directories is the rmdir command. so a directory which has files in it will not be deleted.122 Chapter 14. Warning The rm command can delete your entire file system! If you are logged in as root and you type the simple command rm -rf /.

using the online Errata List. By default.com/. and Enhancement Alerts (collectively known as Errata Alerts) can be downloaded directly from Red Hat using the Red Hat Update Agent standalone application or through the RHN website available at http://rhn. Red Hat Network Red Hat Network is an Internet solution for managing one or more Red Hat Linux systems.Chapter 15. Users do not have to search the Web for updated packages or security alerts. Bug Fix Alerts. Your RHN Red Hat Network saves users time because they receive email when updated packages are released. and using the Red Hat Linux Installation CD-ROMs. Each Red Hat Network account comes with: • Errata Alerts — learn when Security Alerts. 15. This chapter explains three ways to update your system: using Red Hat Network. All Security Alerts. Red Hat Network installs the packages as well. Figure 15-1. and Enhancement Alerts are issued for all the systems in your network through the Basic interface . Users do not have to learn how to use RPM or worry about resolving software package dependencies. Bug Fix Alerts.1. A package is just a file that contains a software program. known as RPM packages.redhat. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Red Hat Linux consists of various software applications and utilities. RHN does it all.

2. Execute the command up2date from a shell prompt. and schedule actions such as Errata Updates through a secure Web browser connection from any computer • • • • • To start using Red Hat Network. Select Main Menu Button => System Tools => Red Hat Network on your desktop. follow these three basic steps: 1. Create a System Profile using one of the following methods: • • • Registering the system with RHN during the Setup Agent the first time your system boots after installation. .redhat. Relevant Errata Automatic email notifications — receive an email notification when an Errata Alert is issued for your system Scheduled Errata Updates — schedule delivery of Errata Updates Package installation — Schedule package installation on one or more systems with the click of a button Red Hat Update Agent — use the Red Hat Update Agent to download the latest software packages for your system (with optional package installation) Red Hat Network website — manage multiple systems. Everyone receives a free Red Hat Network account for one system. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Figure 15-2.com/ and entitle the system to a service offering.124 Chapter 15. 3. Start scheduling updates through the RHN website or download and install Errata Updates with the Red Hat Update Agent. Additional accounts can be purchased. downloaded individual packages. Log in to RHN at http://rhn.

html 15. Inc. Bug Fix Alerts.3. It also requires users to resolve software dependencies manually. a convenient panel icon that displays visible alerts when there is an update for your Red Hat Linux system. read the Red Hat Network User Reference Guide available at http://www. Tip Red Hat Linux includes the Red Hat Network Notification Tool.redhat. Installing Software with the Package Management Tool . Red Hat. Refer to the following URL for more information about the applet: http://rhn. Click on the name of the Errata Alert that you want to apply to your system. Errata List It is recommended that new users use Red Hat Network to download and install/upgrade packages. 15. For more information about installing packages downloaded from our errata sites. It then prompts you for the root password so that you can install packages. All Security Alerts.com/apps/support/errata/. Installation CD-ROMs Place the first Red Hat Linux CD-ROM in your CD-ROM drive. and Enhancement Alerts (collective known as Errata Alerts) can also be downloaded from the Red Hat website at http://www. Select Yes when asked if you want to run the autorun program from the CD. refer to Section 15. tests and approves the RPMs posted on this site. Instructions for updating the packages are on the individual Errata pages. If you enter the correct root password. Figure 15-3.2. the Package Management Tool interface appears and allows you to select packages groups to install as well as individual packages within the groups. RPMs downloaded from other sites are not supported. Updating Errata packages from the Red Hat Linux Errata website is recommended for more experienced Red Hat Linux users. A software dependency is when a package is dependent on other package being installed. Click on the Red Hat Linux version you are using to view a list of all available errata for Red Hat Linux.redhat.Chapter 15.redhat.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/.4 Downloaded Packages.com/help/basic/applet. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages 125 For more detailed instructions.

Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information about the Package Management Tool. such as package or library files needed. Downloaded Packages If you have downloaded packages from an errata on the Red Hat website.3 Installation CD-ROMs. Figure 15-4. . RPM Package Dependencies The packages necessary to fulfill the dependency issues can be installed by following the steps in Section 15. the Package Management Tool will alert you with suggested files and packages you need to install. However.4. The Package Management Tool should open up and check the package for any dependencies you need to fulfill before installation. the package will be installed and you can immediately begin using the software from the installed package. To uninstall a package. You can add packages by clicking the checkbox next to each package. Figure 15-5. if there are dependencies. If all goes well. 15. remove the checkmark (see Figure 15-4). you can install them by opening your file manager and double-clicking the package you want to install. Individual Package Selection After selecting packages. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages The Package Management Tool marks what packages are already installed on your system with a checkmark. click the Update button to install or uninstall the selected packages.126 Chapter 15.

but I still get "command not found" when I type its name. you will not have permission to make such changes by default. If you are getting an error message similar to failed to open /var/lib/rpm/packages.localdomain by default.Chapter 16.3. For more information. If you did not create a user account. For more information about using RPM and Package Management Tool. From recovering forgotten passwords to troubleshooting package installation problems. At a shell prompt. 16. I get a message telling me it needs a localhost login and password. and everything seemed to go fine.redhat. you are often required to make system-wide changes which only root can make. so why will it not start? . it is asking you to log in to your system. or received that information from a network. You need to be the root user in order to install RPM files. Starting Applications I installed an application I downloaded from the Internet. you can log in using that user name and password. refer to Section 1. When you install software. If you created a user account with the Setup Agent. I think I have the right name. Frequently Asked Questions This chapter answers some of the most common questions about using Red Hat Linux that you may ask as you become more familiar with it.6 Creating a User Account. It is highly recommended that you create at least one user account for regular use of your Red Hat Linux system. If you are using your normal user account. When you get to that initial prompt. you should then be able to install the RPM file without further errors. 16. Error Messages During Installation of RPMs How do I install an RPM from a CD or the Internet? I keep getting an error message when I use rpm. What are these? Unless you specified a host name for your computer. then you can log in as the super user. your Red Hat Linux installation will call your machine localhost. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD or online at http://www. it is because you do not have proper permission to install RPM files. also known as root.2. After rebooting. The root password is the system password you assigned during installation. such as creating new directories outside of your user home directory or making changes to your system configuration. switch to the root user by running the following command: su After entering the root password when prompted.1.com/docs/. 16. You can create a new user after logging in as root with the User Manager graphical tool or the useradd shell prompt utility.rpm. Localhost Login and Password I have installed Red Hat Linux. this chapter will ease you step-by-step through some common tasks and get you on your way.

For example. . You follow the directions for installing the software. add $HOME/seti as shown below: PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin/:$HOME/seti: Save the file and exit the text editor./ in front of the command. such as gedit or vi. To do this.bash_profile.bash_profile take effect immediately by typing the following command: source . because of the potential security risks.bash_profile By adding paths to your . you will have to edit your user shell configuration file to add the directory containing the executable you wish to run. You can then make the changes to . 16. Start a text editor. Now. start the application using the full path to the executable file as shown below: /home/joe/seti/setiathome The reason you may need to type the full pathnames in order to start an application is because the executable was not placed in a directory where your user shell environment knew it could be found (such as /usr/local/bin). similar to the one shown below. you will have to edit your PATH environment variable. you can place utilities and programs in your path and be able to execute them without having to type . You can open the file called . Caution These instructions are intended only for user accounts.bash_profile by typing the following: gedit .128 Chapter 16. at a shell prompt. imagine that you have downloaded the setiathome client application and want to try it out. Avoid modifying files such as the root user’s . You can do this by adding the directory to your PATH environment variable. Frequently Asked Questions If you are trying to start an application from the shell prompt and it is not working. You can customize your settings so that you are not required to use the type the full path to the application each time. which creates a subdirectory in your home directory called seti/.bash_profile.bash_profile You will see a PATH statement. try typing out the full directory path before the name of the application’s executable (such as /usr/local/bin/my-executable).3.1. Editing Your PATH If you frequently start programs that are not located in a directory that your user shell has been configured to search. PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin: To the end of this statement.

log in as root (type su and then enter the root password) at a shell prompt. Figure 16-1 shows Hardware Browser in action. This file system type can be mounted and read within Linux. as this is the device that you mount to access your Windows data. For example: mkdir /mnt/windows . a Windows partition). Is there a way to access my Windows partition while I am running Linux? You can access another partition on your system (for example. Accessing a Windows Partition I have a dual-boot system with Red Hat Linux and Windows 98. You should first determine where your Windows partition is located by determining what physical hard disk your Windows partition is located in (such as the primary master IDE drive or the the first SCSI drive). To find this information. then you cannot mount and read from it as Red Hat Linux does not support NTFS file systems.Chapter 16. Once you have determined where your Windows partition is located on your hard drive.4. Create a directory in which the Windows partition will be mounted by typing the following command. Note the Device information for your Windows partition. which lists detailed information about the hardware in your Red Hat Linux system. you can use the Hardware Browser. Frequently Asked Questions 129 Tip For more information about using and configuring your shell prompt refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics. To start the Hardware Browser. in two different ways. Hardware Browser hard disk device listing Select Hard Drives from the panel and find your Windows partition from the Disk Information displayed. if your Windows partition uses NTFS. 16. Windows partitions normally use the FAT or FAT32 file system type. choose Main Menu => System Tools => Hardware Browser. Figure 16-1. however.

a powerful search utility. Alternatively.bash_history at the shell prompt and the results will display one page at a time.bash_history to find a command can be tedious. press the [Space] bar. . open the /etc/fstab in a text editor by typing (for example): gedit /etc/fstab Add the following on a new line (replacing /dev/hda1 with the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows vfat auto. you can search through the file for keywords using grep. Type less . type: history | grep man You will see a list of all the commands you typed which have the word man in them. By default. surround the name of the directory or file with quotation marks. Finding Commands Quickly I was looking at a man page yesterday. The next time the system is rebooted. 16. How do I get the man page back? The command you used will most likely be stored in a file called . as in ls "Program Files".5. type the following command at a shell prompt (where /dev/hda1 is the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows You may then logout of root user mode and access your Windows data by changing into the mounted Windows partition: cd /mnt/windows To automatically mount a Windows partition every time you boot your Red Hat Linux system. press [q]. see Section 16. To access the partition at a shell prompt. and to quit. Another way to view .6 Tips on Using Command History. this file records the last 500 commands you typed at the shell prompt. At a shell prompt. Say you were reading the man page the day before. To navigate through directories or files with spaces. and the Windows partition is automatically mounted in the directory /mnt/windows. Next. which configures all file systems and disk device mounting options. Frequently Asked Questions Before you can access the partition.130 Chapter 16. following the above example. You can glimpse the history of your commands by typing history at the shell prompt. the /etc/fstab file is read. As root. but the results will speed by too quickly for your to read ever line. to move back a screen.umask=0 0 0 Save the file and exit your text editor. but I cannot remember the name of the command I was reading about. you will need to mount it in the directory you just created. you must modify the /etc/fstab file. but cannot recall its name. For other tips and tricks. There are plenty of ways to your command history. su to root. To move forward a screen. and I did not write it down. Paging through .bash_history is with a utility such as less. type the command cd /mnt/windows. press the [b] key.bash_history. To search for the command.

so the command history 20 might be useful. press the [b] key. How can I actually read the output? To prevent the output of ls from scrolling by too quickly. 16. Printing ls Output You can also print directory listings by piping the output to a printer in the same way that you piped the output to your screen.7.7. you can press the up arrow to move back through previous commands in your history list (the down arrow will move you forward through the commands) until you find the command you want. You will then be able to see the output one screen. If you have configured a printer. type the following command at the shell prompt: ls -al /etc | less To move forward a screen. Other Shortcuts Here are other command history shortcuts which may be useful to you: • • • • "Bang. Frequently Asked Questions 131 16. "Bang number": Typing !number (as in !302) will execute the command which is numbered 302 in the history file. Tips on Using Command History What are some other ways I can use command history? If you type history. you will see a numbered list scroll by very quickly.Chapter 16. another paging utility. only the previous 20 commands you typed will display (you can use any quantity as an argument of the history command). to quit. [Up arrow] and [down arrow]: At the shell or GUI terminal prompt. to move back a screen. Press [Enter] to execute the command. pipe the output to a utility such as less or more. 16. "Bang string": Typing !string (as in !rpm) will execute a command with the most recent matching string from the history file.1.1. type the following to pipe the output of a command to the printer: ls -al /etc | lpr . Keep ls Output from Scrolling Whenever I type ls I can barely see the output of the directory because it scrolls by too quickly. just as if you had typed it on the command line. showing you the previous 500 commands you have used. press [Space] bar. or "page" at at time. press [q]. You can achieve the same results with more. 16.6. bang": Typing !! (called "bang bang") executes the last command in the history. To read the contents of /etc with less. This way. You probably do not need to see all of the last 500 commands.6.

8. type [e] to enter into editing mode. You can now change the root password by typing bash# passwd root You will be asked to re-type the password for verification.132 Chapter 16. you can enter single user mode by performing the following: 1. Password Maintenance I forgot or want to change my user account password. 3. You will be brought back to the edit mode screen. From here.05# 5. which you will need to enter twice. Frequently Asked Questions 16. by changing just one number in the runlevel section. The next time you log in. reboot the computer. 16. Look for the line that looks similar to the following: kernel /vmlinuz-2.4 ro root=/dev/hda2 Press the arrow key until this line is highlighted and press [e]. To enter single-user mode. If you’re in your user account. When you are finished. Press [Enter] to make the editing change take effect. You must edit one file. You will be presented with a boot entry listing. you will have a graphical login prompt.4. you will be presented with a shell prompt similar to the following: sh-2. If you use the default boot loader. At the boot loader menu. You can now use the new password to log in to your user account. 4. Once you are finished. Press the Spacebar once to add a blank space. The passwd command will then ask for the new password.18-0.10. reboot your computer. Forgotten Password Help! I forgot my root password. 2.9. After it finishes loading. Open a shell prompt and type the following: passwd username Replace username with your normal user name. How do I log in now? You can log in using single-user mode and create a new root password. You can then reboot by typing reboot at the prompt. you can configure your system so that you can log in directly to X. /etc/inittab. the password will be changed. press [b] and GRUB will boot single-user Linux mode. Open a shell prompt. then you can log in to root as you normally would. 16. su to root by typing su . then add the word single to tell GRUB to boot into single-user Linux mode. GRUB. Changing Login from Console to X at Startup How do I change my login from the console to the graphical screen? Instead of logging in to your system at the console and typing the startx command to start the X Window System.

. if you do not have networking) # 3 .Chapter 16.Single user mode # 2 . The file /etc/inittab will open. Frequently Asked Questions 133 Now.halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # 1 .reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:3:initdefault: id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5. You will see a message telling you that the file has been modified.Multiuser. type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. without NFS (The same as 3. Within the first screen. you will see a section of the file which looks like this: # Default runlevel. save and exit the file using the [Ctrl]-[x] keys. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 .Full multiuser mode # 4 . you should change the number in the line Warning Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.X11 # 6 . To change from a console to a graphical login. Type [Y] for yes.unused # 5 . your next login after reboot will be from the graphical screen. Your changed line should look like the following: id:5:initdefault: When you are satisfied with your change. Now. and asking you to confirm your change.

Frequently Asked Questions .134 Chapter 16.

right-click on the desktop and select the Help => K Desktop Handbook. and customizing the desktop to suit your needs. working with the many applications included with KDE. menus. working with files and applications. you can view help documentation on topics such as using and configuring the desktop. Finding Help You can access a comprehensive set of documentation about KDE through the HelpCenter. From this main page. Using The Desktop Once you start KDE.Appendix A. If you would like to learn more about KDE.org.1. it allows you to access your Red Hat Linux system and applications using your mouse and keyboard. The opening screen of the HelpCenter browser appears like Figure A-1.3. visit the official website at http://www. Figure A-1. A. windows. . and panels. A.2. Introducing KDE The K Desktop Environment (KDE) is a graphical desktop that uses common graphical objects such as icons. To access HelpCenter from the desktop. KDE: The K Desktop Environment A.kde. and working with the Konquerer file manager. The HelpCenter You can access the HelpCenter from the Main Menu by selecting Help. your default desktop will look similar to Figure A-2. This appendix covers the basics of using KDE: system navigation.

You can change the appearance of buttons. . file folders. Using The Panel The panel stretches across the bottom of the desktop. You can also access the main menu and configure the desktop to suit your needs. You can drag and drop files and application icons to any location on the desktop.136 Appendix A. folders. such as Delete. document windows. The KDE desktop works similarly to other graphical desktop environments. Right-click on the trash can and select Empty Trash Bin to delete the items from your system permanently. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-2. it contains the main menu icon and quick-launch icons for starting a Web browser. email client. or file manager.and double-clicking mouse buttons and chording keystrokes to create time-saving shortcuts. By default. and backgrounds. You can also add new icons for all types of applications and resources to the desktop. device links. Icons located on the desktop can be files. Move to Trash. status indicators. and the desktop manager. your home directory. word processor. You can have up to 16 desktops running at the same time in KDE. or application launchers. The panel taskbar shows your currently running applications. You can access any one of these resources by double-clicking on the associated icon. A. panel. A Typical KDE Desktop The KDE desktop displays application launchers. Configuration tools are also available which allow you to customize the way the desktop behaves at events such as single. The panel contains application launchers. you see several options for working with these resources.4. You can drag and drop unwanted items such as files you no longer need to the Trash icon. The desktop itself is also highly customizable. window and frame decorations. and so on. The default KDE desktop displays icons for the trash can. and a diskette icon. The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel. and other commonly used applications. When you right-click on these icons. Click on an icon to open the associated resource. Rename. and Copy. the Start Here icon for applications and configuration tools.

. and configure your desktop. Internet. You can also run applications from a command line as well as logout of your KDE session. time and date display.Appendix A. set a panel hiding configuration (where the panel remains hidden until you hover over the panel area). The Panel The panel is highly configurable. A. Right-click on the panel and select Configure Panel to open the panel Settings. You can configure panel orientation and size. There are some applets that run on the panel by default. Click on Help for more information on these options. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 137 Figure A-3. and launching applications by typing commands in a text box. Then select Application Button and make your choice from the menus. which will display a password-protected screensaver. The main menu also contains several submenus that organize applications and tools into several categories. and customize your main menu. including Graphics. Office. Click Help at any time to learn more about configuring your panel. From the Main Menu. Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel. and more. Clicking on the Main Menu icon on the panel displays a large master menu from which you can perform tasks such as launch applications. Figure A-4.4. This section covers them in detail. A. You can add and remove buttons that launch applications easily. right-click on the panel and choose Add. find files. Using The Main Menu The Main Menu is the central point for using KDE.2. Applications and utilities can be added easily to the panel.1. Panel Settings Other tabs in Settings contain options to further customize your panel and taskbar. To add an application launcher to the panel. you can lock your screen.4. Games. There are several types of applets performing functions such as system monitoring.

You can change the number and names of desktops available in KDE by making these adjustments: 1. and so on. You can also change the number of desktops available to you by adjusting the slider in the Number of Desktops. KDE: The K Desktop Environment By default. open applications. Figure A-5. . Behavior. to customize each virtual desktop to have different backgrounds. Working with Multiple Desktops Appendix A. you can have Mozilla browsing the Web on desktop two. 3. drag the bar to the right. Right-click on the desktop.138 A. Select Configure Desktop. The Appearance. For example. drag the bar to the left. KDE provides four desktops that you can use to display multiple applications without having to crowd all of them onto one desktop. For more desktops. you will see a brief menu of actions you can choose.) by deleting the default names and typing a new name in each desktop’s corresponding text box. Click the Multiple Desktops icon (see Figure A-5). click the Background icon. etc. 2. For example. the OpenOffice. uncheck the Common Background checkbox.4. Desktop 2. for fewer desktops.1. and Paths. click the virtual desktop you want to change. and Background icons are where you can make various desktop configuration changes. and be individually customized.2. while you are writing a message in Evolution on desktop one. and choose the color or image you want to make your background using the associated tabs. Each desktop can hold icons.org Writer word processor open on desktop three. the KDE desktop configuration tool will open. Virtual Desktop Configuration You can change the names of your desktops (from Desktop 1.

Tip Another way to bring minimized or background windows to the front is to use the [Alt] and [Tab] keys. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 139 Figure A-6. Click on a tile to move to a different desktop. Tip You can use the keyboard combination of the [Ctrl] and Function keys to switch desktops. Viewing The Taskbar The taskbar displays all running applications. A. [Ctrl]-[F3] takes you to desktop three. Applications on the Taskbar You can maximize running applications or bring them to the front of your working windows by clicking on the associated item on the taskbar. When you have found the task you want to maximize and bring to the front. [Ctrl]-[F2] switches to desktop two. For example. while tapping the [Tab] key. and so on. To pick an item from the taskbar. To scroll through the tasks. both minimized and displayed. Figure A-7. . release both keys and the application appears on the desktop. Desktop Background Configuration After you make any adjustments to your desktop configuration. Click OK to close the desktop configuration tool. hold down the [Alt] key. Buttons for your desktops appear on the panel in the Desktop Pager.4. click Apply to save the changes. hold down both the [Alt]-[Tab] key. on all desktops.2.Appendix A.2.

5. Managing Files Konqueror is the file manager and a Web browser for the KDE desktop. and more from one interface. Menus.4. A. browse digital images. allowing you to navigate through your home directory and throughout your Red Hat Linux file system. Konqueror allows you to configure your KDE desktop. or any one of the specific properties (Arrangement. The Settings window will appear. place it on any edge of your desktop. surf the Web. and so on). You can move the icon anywhere you want on the panel by right-clicking the icon and choosing Move Application Button. The panel will remain hidden until you hover over the panel area to make it reappear. After exploring. Hiding. change its size and color. To start Konqueror for file management. This section explains some of the ways Konqueror can help you work with and enjoy your Red Hat Linux system. A. allowing you to adjust all panel settings. where Application is the name of the application associated with the icon. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To further customize the panel for your particular needs. and adjust the number of seconds to elapse before the panel is hidden. Konqueror will open up in a window on your desktop. you can include additional launcher icons to start applications without using the main menu or Start Here. play multimedia files. The Konqueror File Manager . right-click the panel and choose Add => Application Button and choose the application or resource you wish to add to the panel. KDE: The K Desktop Environment A.4. Figure A-8. right-click the panel and choose Configure Panel. Configuring the KDE Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually.3. To add a new launcher to the panel. click on your home directory icon . Choose the Hiding tab. This automatically adds an icon on the panel.4. configure your Red Hat Linux system. To alter the default panel settings.140 Appendix A. and change the way it behaves. you can return to your home directory by clicking the Home button on the toolbar. click Hide automatically. Click Apply then OK to close the Settings dialog.

.1. To launch Konqueror choose Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => Konqueror Web Browser. but with component technology used throughout KDE. Konqueror is also a full featured Web browser. You can also delete files and folders by right-clicking on the item and choosing Delete. Figure A-9 shows the navigation panel. Browsing the Web with Konqueror Konqueror not only allows you to browse your local and network file system. file system.6. Working with the Navigation Panel The navigation panel lets you access your Web bookmarks. A. which you can use to explore the World Wide Web.5.Appendix A. The Navigation Panel Another useful feature of Konqueror is the navigation panel. The navigation panel makes Konqueror an efficient solution for users who want fast and easy access to all of their files and information. images. This panel appears on the left side of the Konqueror file browser window by default. It can also preview sounds from digital audio files. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 141 You can navigate through the file system by clicking on folders within the main window frame or through the hierarchical file system viewer on the navigation panel as shown in Figure A-8. and has a built-in media player for playing multimedia files without having to open a separate application. and Web files. A. Files and folders in the main window frame can be moved or copied to another folder or sent to the trash. network resources. browsing history. Konqueror also displays thumbnail icons for text. PostScript/PDF files. Figure A-9. The navigation panel makes many of your sytem resources available to you in convenient tabbed icons.

plug-ins. This screen displays information on supported standards (such as Cascading Stylesheets.142 Appendix A. enter a URL in the Location field. you will be presented with the Tips page. Welcome to Konqueror When you first launch Konqueror. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-10. you will see the Specifications screen. and OpenSSL). This screen offers basic instructions for browsing webpages. By clicking Continue from the Tips screen. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Konqueror Handbook. you will be presented with an Introduction screen. . This page shows you basic tips for using Konqueror so that you can begin to take advantage of the many features. For additional information on using Konqueror. and more. featured protocols. If you click Continue at the end of the webpage. To begin your Web session.

If you chose KDE as your default desktop environment. Viewing an Image in Konqueror . Using Konqueror to View Images You can also use the Konqueror file manager to view images. When you double-click on a thumbnail icon. as shown in Figure A-12. the browser displays the image in its native size. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 143 Figure A-11. Image files automatically generate thumbnail image icons for you to preview within the file browser window. Using Konqueror as an image browser works similarly to Nautilus (see Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information). The Konqueror Handbook A.7. click on your home directory desktop icon to access the Konqueror file manager: . Figure A-12.Appendix A.

Image viewing configuration on the Konqueror Toolbar You can also open the image with more advanced image viewers. Have your email information from your service provider or administrator handy so that you can fill in the required information to begin using KMail.8. then Other. To open KMail. you must configure it so it can send and receive mail. KMail KMail is an email tool for KDE. To begin sending and receiving messages you will have to change the settings in the Identities and Network tabs. Figure A-14. This will re-display the image and allow you to rotate and zoom in on the image using the two magnifying glass icons or the magnification percentage drop-down menu on the toolbar. select Settings from the KMail toolbar. choose Graphics and scroll down the list of applications.. .kde. For additional information.144 Appendix A. and Folders. Before you can really use KMail. refer to the KMail user manual (Help => KMail Handbook) or visit KMail’s homepage at http://kmail.. The Open With. choose View => View Mode => Image Viewer Part. as seen in Figure A-14. Security. To run the configuration tool. Dialog Box A. as shown in Figure A-13.. choose Open With. The Configure Mail Client window consists of the following sections: Identities. To launch the GIMP.. Appearance... Click on the GIMP icon and click OK. Composer.org. as well as with The GIMP. A pop-up menu will appear allowing you to open the application you wish to use. you first need to change the way Konqueror renders the image.. Network. Figure A-13. click on the Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => KMail. and click on Configure KMail.. From the window menu. KDE: The K Desktop Environment To zoom in and out of an image. Rightclick on the image. It has an intuitive graphical interface similar to Evolution that allows you to send and receive email using a graphical interface.

Appendix A. The folders on the left side of the KMail screen allow you to view emails you have received. KMail Main Screen Once you have your email settings configured. KMail New Email Message Screen . click on the new message icon in the tool bar: Figure A-16. and more. To compose a mail. emails ready to be sent. emails you have sent. you can begin sending and receiving email. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 145 Figure A-15.

KDE Components This section lets you configure the Konqueror file manager and customize certain file operations. You will need your root password to configure most of these options. The KDE Control Center. You can customize background images and configure fonts. This section allows you to configure system boot settings. click Send in the toolbar: . KDE Logout Screen . From the Main Menu. you can also configure accessibility features such as audible and visual cues and keyboard/mouse customization. A. website cookies. To log out from the desktop. Web Browsing This section allows you to configure the Konqueror Web browser. and more. login management. System Administration This section is an advanced system configuration interface. proxy settings (if available). Regional & Accessibility This section allows you to set country and language options to your particular locale. available by selecting Main Menu => Control Center.9. The following list explains some of the configuration options in detail. A.146 Appendix A. where User is your account username. Figure A-17. Customizing KDE KDE allows you to configure the desktop and your system to suit your needs. You can also customize mouse and keyboard events which makes working with the desktop as efficient for your needs as possible. assigning all digital music files to open in XMMS instead of the default player). KDE: The K Desktop Environment Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to. For users with sight or hearing impairments. icons. panel elements. You can configure options such as cache sizes. screensavers. It is strongly recommended that you leave these settings at their default values unless you understand the consequences of changing them. select Logout User where User is your account username. lets you customize the look and behavior of the desktop. themes. In either case click Logout and your session will end. and window border appearance. right-click on the desktop and. plugins. from the menu. and enhanced browsing using keyword shortcuts. Appearance & Themes This sections allows you to customize the visual aspect of your desktop environment.10. You can also associate files to applications that you prefer (for example. Linux kernel configuration. select Logout User. Logging Out of KDE There are two ways to log out of your KDE session.

Scanning (XSane) Jpilot CD Creator. mutt Galeon.Volume Monitor (VUMeter) Extras KWord Gnumeric. Mozilla Mail. KDE Sound Mixer. Category Word Processors Spreadsheets Presentations Charts and Diagrams Graphics Image Viewers Digital Cameras/Scanners PDAs CD Recording Text Editors Email Clients Web Browsers Chat/Instant Messaging PDF/PostScript Viewers Personal Finance Fax Sound Recommended Application OpenOffice. Emacs. Kivio. XFig Icon Editor (K Icon Editor) Image Viewer (Kuickshow). The GIMP KPilot. Kate Kmail.org Calc OpenOffice. Konquerer. X-CD-Roast Text Editor (gedit) Evolution Mozilla Instant Messenger (GAIM) xpdf Gnucash Fax Viewer (KFax) Audio Player (XMMS). KMid Sound Recorder (GNOME Sound).Appendix B. Applications The following table shows some of the Red Hat Linux applications that are available to perform many common tasks. KDE CD Player. links. cdrecord. CD Player (GNOME CD). KSpread KPresenter. Applications in between (parentheses) denotes the formal name of the application. This is not a complete list of all applications available.org Impress Dia The GIMP. aumix. The GIMP Scan and OCR Program (Kooka). lynx X-Chat. Evolution KOnCD vi. Paint Program (KPaint) GThumb Digital Camera Tool (gtKam). Applications . Chatzilla Ghostview Table B-1.org Write OpenOffice. MagicPoint Kchart.

Applications .148 Appendix B.

txt diff file1 file2 grep this word or phrase thisfile. To learn more about each command. Basic examples of how the command are used at the Linux shell prompt are also provided. In fact.txt mv thisfile. This appendix provides common commands used at the DOS prompt in Windows and their counterparts in Linux. Note that these commands usually have a number of options. Command’s Purpose Copies files Moves files Lists files Clears screen Closes shell prompt Displays or sets date Deletes files "Echoes" output to the screen Edits files with simple text editor Compares the contents of files Finds a string of text in a file Formats a diskette MS-DOS copy move dir cls exit date del echo edit fc find format a: Linux cp mv ls clear exit date rm echo gedit(a) diff grep mke2fs or mformat(b) man(c) mkdir less(d) mv(e) Basic Linux Example cp thisfile.txt Displays command help Creates a directory Views a file Renames a file command /? mkdir more ren . some commands are identical.Appendix C.txt /home/thisdirectory mv thisfile. type man ls at the shell prompt to read about the ls command).txt (if diskette is in A:) /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 (/dev/fd0 is the Linux equivalent of A:) man command mkdir directory less thisfile.txt /home/thisdirectory ls clear exit date rm thisfile.txt thatfile.txt echo this message gedit thisfile. read its associated man page (for example. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands Many Linux commands typed at a shell prompt are similar to the commands you would type in DOS.

with a relative path Displays the time Shows amount of RAM in use time mem cd pathname cd /directory/directory cd .. other editors you can use in place of Gedit include Emacs and vi. b. d. This formats a disk for the DOS file system. c. The mv command can both move a file and. You can also use info for some commands.150 Command’s Purpose Displays your location in the file system Appendix C. as seen in this example. e. Similar Commands . date free date free Notes: a. "move" that file to the same directory with a new name. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands MS-DOS chdir Linux pwd Basic Linux Example pwd Changes directories cd with a specified pathname path (absolute path) Changes directories cd . The more pager can also be used to page through a file one screen at a time. if you want to rename a file in the same directory. cd ... Table C-1. Gedit is a graphical text editor.

such as programs and supporting library files. System Directories This is a list of the primary Red Hat Linux system directories.Appendix D. — The home directory of root. — Directory where optional files and programs are stored. The directory /usr/bin/ also stores user commands. — This directory typically contains the mount points for file systems mounted after the system is booted. This directory is used mainly by third-party developers for easy installation and uninstallation of their software packages. such as log files and the printer spool. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide and the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. For example. — Stores device files. — Contains configuration files and directories. The directory /usr/sbin/ also contains many system commands. the default CD-ROM mount point is /mnt/cdrom/. • /sbin/ — Location of many system commands. • /root/ • /mnt/ • /boot/ • /lost+found/ — • /lib/ — Contains many library files used by programs in /bin/ and /sbin/. /tmp/ allows all users on a system read • /home/ • /opt/ — Default location of user home directories.img image file and load needed device • /proc/ • /initrd/ — A directory modules during bootup. — A virtual file system (not actually stored on the disk) that contains system information used by certain programs. the superuser. • /dev/ • /etc/ • /var/ • /usr/ — Contains files and directories directly relating to users of the system. For additional directory information. directory for users and programs. You will be unable to boot your computer if you delete the directory and then reboot your Red Hat Linux system. • /bin/ — Used to store user commands. Used by fsck to place orphaned files (files without names). — For variable (or constantly changing) files. — Contains the kernel and other files used during system startup. The directory /usr/lib/ contains more library files for user applications. . • /tmp/ — The temporary and write access. Warning Do not delete the /initrd/ directory. such as shutdown. that is used to mount the initrd. Each directory is described briefly.

System Directories .152 Appendix D.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • . This shortcut does the same thing as typing clear at a command line. Shuts down your current session and reboots the OS. [Ctrl] + [a] = moves cursor to the beginning of a line. Point the cursor to the spot where you want it pasted. Use only when the normal shutdown procedure does not work. visit: http://sunsite. Type this at a shell prompt to logout of the current user or root account. In a two mouse system. you can use [Alt] + [Tab] to switch among open tasks and applications. Click the middle mouse button to paste it. [Ctrl] + [u] = clears the current line. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Fn] = switches screens. Type this command to clear all visible data from the shell prompt screen. exit = logout. [Ctrl] + [d] = logout of (and close) shell prompt.html#shortcuts • • • [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Backspace] = kills your current X session. If you have more than one application open at a time. Kills your graphical desktop session and returns you to the login screen. Use this quick shortcut instead of typing exit or logout. Type this at a shell prompt to refresh the screen if characters are unclear or appear corrupt. [Ctrl] + [l] = clears the terminal. By default. clear = clears the shell prompt screen. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Delete] = shutdown and reboots your Red Hat Linux system. [Ctrl]+[Alt] + one of the function keys displays an available screen. [Ctrl] + [e] = moves cursor to end of a line. To display a shorter list of previously used commands. [Alt] + [Tab] = switches tasks in a graphical desktop environment. [F1] through [F6] are shell prompt screens and [F7] is the graphical desktop screen. Use the left mouse button to highlight the text. Type this at a shell prompt to see a numbered list of the previous 1000 commands you typed. For more command line and keyboard shortcuts. history 20. For example. When using a shell prompt. reset = refreshes the shell prompt screen. type history followed by a space and a number. history = shows history of commands. Keyboard Shortcuts Here are a few keyboard shortcuts you can use to perform common tasks quickly.dk/linux-newbie/lnag_commands. Use this command when using a shell prompt. [Middle Mouse Button] = pastes highlighted text. Many more are available in addition to what is listed here. press [Enter]. When you see the command you want to use. [Up] and [Down] Arrow = shows command history. Use this if the normal exit procedure does not work. If you are working in a terminal. It will automatically complete the command or show all commands that match the characters you typed. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. you can click both the left and right mouse buttons simultaneously to perform a paste. if you configured your mouse to emulate a third mouse button. use this shortcut to clear the current line from the cursor all the way to the beginning of the line.Appendix E. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. press the [up] or [down] arrow to scroll through a history of commands you have typed from the current directory. Type the first few characters of a command or filename and then press the [Tab] key. [Tab] = command autocomplete.

Keyboard Shortcuts .154 Appendix E.

96 rm (See files. 140 adding to the panel. 115 C cat. 108 clear. 90 pwd. 98 applets adding to KDE panel. v creating graphics with OpenOffice. 32 with CD Creator. 14 panel in KDE. 16 on the desktop panel. 32 and CD Creator. 130 locate. 149 finding. 26 additional resources.Index A accounts creating. 90 reset. 101 history. 127 archiving files. 127 compressing files. 108 clear. 96 cd. 27 with cdrecord. 28 cdrecord. 30 with mkisofs. 101 head. 101 cat. 113 conventions document. 96 cd. 90 change directories. 30 with X-CD-Roast. 96 command history. 104 su. 101 common user questions. 93 ls -al. 93 ls. 28 bzip2. 30 and mkisofs. 115 burning CDs. 131 command line options printing from. 30 and X-CD-Roast. 28 CD-writable (CD-R). 73 chmod. 26 additional resources. ii copying and pasting text when using X. 7 B bunzip2. 27 and cdrecord. 30 and X-CD-Roast. 147 starting from shell prompt. 96 cron.org Draw. deleting) stringing together. 32 and CD Creator. 95 DOS. 69 creating user accounts. 92 tail. 94 multiple. 26 additional resources. using. 131 ls -a. 27 and cdrecord. 104 print working directory (pwd). 90 CD-rewritable (CD-RW). 93 keeping output from scrolling. 105 numerical settings. 90 chmod. 113 commands (See shell prompt) cat. 105 numerical settings. deleting) rm -r (See directories. 103 tips. 31 CDs. 94 ls. playing. 30 and mkisofs. 60 . common options with. 137 applications and Red Hat Linux. 130 grep. 7 appending standard output.

112 compressing. 93 managing from shell prompt. 120 moving at a shell prompt. 25 mounting. 114 file system understanding. 130 history tips and tricks. 23 formatting. 114 compressed. 128 errata updating with. 90 copying.org Draw. 131 login problems. 72 text files. 129 finding previous used commands. 16 file managers. 23 DNS definition. 89 moving. 45 Evolution. 49 mutt. 64 PDF. 23 using. 24 F FAQ. 112 archiving. 50 plain text. 81 KDE. 114 copying. 113 with File Roller. 14 background changing. 119 formats. 140 Nautilus. 111 file types. 120 diskettes. 35 documents. v FHS (See Filesystem Hierarchy Standard) file. 125 Evolution (See email clients) ext2 file system and floppy disks. 127 feedback contact information for this manual. 121 descriptions. 89 moving. 24 mke2fs. 132 permissions for installing RPMs. 63 OpenOffice. 127 accessing a Windows partition. 69 environment variables PATH. 87 directories changing. 119 deleting. 50 . 21 dateconfig (See Time and Date Properties Tool) desktop (See graphical desktop) applets. 119 renaming at a shell prompt. v drawing OpenOffice. 18. 48 Newsgroups. 113 file manager for KDE. 119 creating touch.156 D date configuration. 50 mutt. 112 floppy disks (See diskettes) E email clients. 113 with File Roller. 138 devices digital cameras. 144 Mozilla Mail. 112 Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. 135 desktops multiple KDE. 111 File Roller. 121 deleting at a shell prompt. 112 managing from shell prompt. 35 digital cameras. 70 dot files (See hidden files) drag and drop. 127 starting applications. 151 listing contents. 112 files archived. 119 deleting. 23 unmounting. 131 keeping ls output from scrolling. 46 KMail. 119 copying at a shell prompt.org. 87 DHCP. 119 types of. 63 OpenOffice.org Writer.

157
formatting diskettes, 24

I
images additional resources, 85 manipulation, 79 GIMP, 82 viewing, 79, 79 gThumb, 80 Konqueror, 143 Nautilus, 79 Internet configuring, 35 Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 introduction, i IP address, 35

G
games and amusements, 76 finding more online, 77 getting started logging in, 5 Setup Agent, 1 GIMP, 82 opening a file, 83 saving a file, 84 GNOME desktop (See graphical desktop) GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 graphical desktop, 13 applets, 16 background changing, 18, 81 customizing, 18 logging out of, 20 main menu, 14 Nautilus, 16 panel, 14 Start Here , 17 using, 13 workspace, 13 graphical login changing to, 132 graphics GIMP, 82 gThumb, 80 changing wallpaper with, 81 gunzip, 115 gzip, 115

K
KDE, 135 applets adding, 140 multiple desktops, 138 customizing, 146 desktop, 135 desktop icons, 136 desktops multiple, 138 switching, 139 documentation, 135 Konqueror navigation panel, 141 main menu, 137 panel, 136 applets, 137 switching tasks, 139 Taskbar, 139 website, 135 keyboard shortcuts, 153 KMail (See email clients) Konqueror (See Web browsers) KDE file manager, 140 navigation panel, 141 viewing images with, 143

H
Hardware Browser, 129 help with KDE finding, 135 hidden files, 93 history finding commands using, 130

158

L
less, 100 linux commands (See shell prompt) listing directories (See commands, ls) log in, 5 logging in, 5 graphical, 132 graphical login, 6 virtual console login, 6 logging out, 11 from the desktop, 20 KDE, 146 login problems using single-user mode, 132 ls, 93 printing output, 131 viewing output, 131

configuring, 21 ntpd, 21 ntpd, 21

O
online connecting with Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 OpenOffice.org, 63 Draw, 69 features, 63 Impress, 67 Writer, 64, 65 ownership and permissions, 105

P
pagers, 100 less, 100 panel configuring, 16 configuring the, 140 KDE, 136 adding applications, 137 customizing, 137 hiding, 137 on the graphical desktop, 14 partitions accessing Windows, 129 password forgotten, 132 passwords secure, 8 PATH, 128 editing, 127 pathnames relative and absolute, 90 PDF viewing, 72 xpdf, 72 peripherals digital cameras, 87 permissions numerical settings, 108 setting for new RPMs, 127 permissions and ownership, 105 pipes, 100 plain text (See text files) Point-to-Point Protocol, 35 PPP, 35 presentations OpenOffice.org Impress, 67 printer configuration adding

M
main menu in KDE, 137 on the desktop, 14 mke2fs, 25 mkisofs, 31 mouse how to use, v Mozilla (See Web browsers) Mozilla Mail (See email clients) music Ogg Vorbis, 73 Wave, 73 XMMS, 73 using, 74 mutt (See email clients)

N
Nautilus, 16 disabling text icons, 17 disabling thumbnails, 17 viewing images with, 79 Network Time Protocol (See NTP) new users creating accounts, 7 Newsgroups (See email clients) NTP

159
local printer, 53 cancel print job, 60 default printer, 56 delete existing printer, 56 driver options, 57 Assume Unknown Data is Text, 57 Convert Text to Postscript, 58 Effective Filter Locale, 58 GhostScript pre-filtering, 58 Media Source, 58 Page Size, 58 Prerender Postscript, 58 Send End-of-Transmission (EOT), 57 Send Form-Feed (FF), 57 edit driver, 57 edit existing printer, 56 GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 local printer, 53 managing print jobs, 58 modifying existing printers, 56 notification icon, 59 printing from the command line, 60 rename existing printer, 57 test page, 56 viewing print spool, 59 viewing print spool, command line, 60 printing from command line, 95 pwd, 90

S
Setup Agent, 1 shell, 89 history of, 89 shell prompt, 7 basic commands, 89 chmod, 106 single-user mode, 132 software installing, 123 upgrading, 123 sound card configuring, 74 Sound Card Configuration Tool, 74 spreadsheets OpenOffice.org Calc, 65 standard input redirecting, 99 standard output appending, 98 redirecting, 96 Start Here, 17 changing desktop background with, 18 startup messages dmesg | more, 100 startx, 6 su, 92 superuser (See commands, su) switching desktops KDE, 139 switching tasks KDE, 139 system directories descriptions, 151

R
Red Hat Network, 123 Red Hat Update Agent, 123 redhat-config-date (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redhat-config-time (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redirecting standard input, 99 redirection, 96 reset, 96 RHN (See Red Hat Network) root, 111 and root login, 111 logging in as, 5 RPM, 125 installing packages, 123 upgrading packages, 123 RPMs error message while installing, 127 installing with Gnome-RPM, 127

T
tab completion, 103 Taskbar KDE, 139 terminal (See shell prompt) terms introductory, 3 text files, 70 editing, 70 from a shell prompt, 71 The Graphical Desktop, 6 time configuration, 21 synchronize with NTP server, 21 time zone configuration, 22 timetool (See Time and Date Properties Tool) Trash icon

7 importance of. 129 World Wide Web browsers. 18 Web browsers. 115 user account creating. 100 V vi . 76 U unzip. 39 X X Configuration Tool.160 KDE. 39 Konqueror. 39 Mozilla. 76 xpdf. 96 less. 74 video card. 72 . 141 Mozilla. 136 troubleshooting sound card. 71 W wallpaper changing. 5 utilities cat. 39 Windows accessing on a separate partition add line to /etc/fstab. 39 using.

tip. Writer/Maintainer of custom DocBook stylesheets and scripts Edward C. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. The Red Hat Linux Product Documentation Team consists of the following people: Sandra A. and warning). Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Tammy Fox — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer . caution.1 format. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide Johnray Fuller — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. The DocBook SGML files are written in Emacs with the help of PSGML mode. important. Bailey — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer.Colophon The Red Hat Linux manuals are written in DocBook SGML v4. The HTML and PDF formats are produced using custom DSSSL stylesheets and custom jade wrapper scripts. Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer John Ha — Primary Writer/Maintainer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. Garrett LeSage created the admonition graphics (note. Moore — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide. They may be freely redistributed with the Red Hat documentation.

162 .

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