Red Hat Linux 9

Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide

Red Hat Linux 9: Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc.
Red Hat, Inc. 1801 Varsity Drive Raleigh NC 27606-2072 USA Phone: +1 919 754 3700 Phone: 888 733 4281 Fax: +1 919 754 3701 PO Box 13588 Research Triangle Park NC 27709 USA

rhl-gsg(EN)-9-Print-RHI (2003-02-20T01:05) Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc. This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, V1.0 or later (the latest version is presently available at http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/). Distribution of substantively modified versions of this document is prohibited without the explicit permission of the copyright holder. Distribution of the work or derivative of the work in any standard (paper) book form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder. Red Hat, Red Hat Network, the Red Hat "Shadow Man" logo, RPM, Maximum RPM, the RPM logo, Linux Library, PowerTools, Linux Undercover, RHmember, RHmember More, Rough Cuts, Rawhide and all Red Hat-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in the United States and other countries. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. Motif and UNIX are registered trademarks of The Open Group. Intel and Pentium are a registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. Itanium and Celeron are trademarks of Intel Corporation. AMD, AMD Athlon, AMD Duron, and AMD K6 are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Netscape is a registered trademark of Netscape Communications Corporation in the United States and other countries. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. SSH and Secure Shell are trademarks of SSH Communications Security, Inc. FireWire is a trademark of Apple Computer Corporation. All other trademarks and copyrights referred to are the property of their respective owners. The GPG fingerprint of the security@redhat.com key is: CA 20 86 86 2B D6 9D FC 65 F6 EC C4 21 91 80 CD DB 42 A6 0E

Table of Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... i 1. Changes to This Manual ........................................................................................................ i 2. Document Conventions......................................................................................................... ii 3. Copying and Pasting Text With X........................................................................................ iv 4. Using the Mouse ................................................................................................................... v 5. We Need Feedback! .............................................................................................................. v 6. Sign Up for Support .............................................................................................................. v 1. Getting Started ................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1. Setup Agent....................................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Introductory Terms............................................................................................................. 3 1.3. Logging In.......................................................................................................................... 5 1.3.1. Graphical Login .................................................................................................. 5 1.3.2. Virtual Console Login......................................................................................... 6 1.4. Graphical Interface............................................................................................................. 6 1.5. Opening a Shell Prompt ..................................................................................................... 7 1.6. Creating a User Account.................................................................................................... 7 1.7. Documentation and Help ................................................................................................... 8 1.7.1. Manual Pages ...................................................................................................... 9 1.7.2. Red Hat Linux Documentation ......................................................................... 10 1.8. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 11 1.8.1. Graphical Logout .............................................................................................. 11 1.8.2. Virtual Console Logout..................................................................................... 11 1.9. Shutting Down your Computer ........................................................................................ 11 1.9.1. Graphical Shutdown.......................................................................................... 11 1.9.2. Virtual Console Shutdown ................................................................................ 12 2. Using the Graphical Desktop ....................................................................................................... 13 2.1. Using the Desktop............................................................................................................ 13 2.2. Using the Panel ................................................................................................................ 14 2.2.1. Using the Main Menu ...................................................................................... 14 2.2.2. Using Applets.................................................................................................... 14 2.2.3. Using the Notification Area .............................................................................. 15 2.2.4. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel............................................................. 16 2.2.5. Configuring the Desktop Panel ......................................................................... 16 2.3. Using Nautilus ................................................................................................................ 16 2.4. Start Here ......................................................................................................................... 17 2.4.1. Customizing the Desktop.................................................................................. 18 2.4.2. Customizing your System ................................................................................. 19 2.5. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 20 3. Configuring the Date and Time ................................................................................................... 21 3.1. Time and Date Properties................................................................................................. 21 3.2. Time Zone Configuration................................................................................................. 21 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs .............................................................................................................. 23 4.1. Using Diskettes ................................................................................................................ 23 4.1.1. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette.............................................................. 23 4.1.2. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette ................................................... 24 4.1.3. Formatting a Diskette........................................................................................ 24 4.2. CD-ROMs ........................................................................................................................ 25 4.2.1. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager ....................................................... 26 4.2.2. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt ............................................................ 26 4.3. CD-Rs and CD-RWs ........................................................................................................ 26 4.3.1. Using CD Creator............................................................................................ 27 4.3.2. Using X-CD-Roast........................................................................................... 28

....................................3................. 74 10....3............................... 75 10...................................... Printer Configuration ............................................................................3.... 39 6.......2........................ 69 9........... 45 7........4.............. 50 8.. 53 8........................................... Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing....1...... Shell Prompt Text Editors .................................3.......................................................... 61 9................ 43 7......... Playing Audio CDs ........................................................................ Troubleshooting Your Video Card .4.. Installed Documentation ...................................... Mozilla Mail....3...................................... 75 10....................... Getting Online ............................................1..........................5..... Additional Resources . OpenOffice...2...................3................. 71 9..............................................................2.............................................................................. If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work..............................org Draw..1....................... 45 7................................................................... 65 9............. Plain Text Email Clients ...... 67 9.... Using Mozilla........................................................................ Using Mutt .......1........................................................5.................2............................................ Galeon .............................. OpenOffice.............................................................................................. 49 7............................... 47 7....2.. OpenOffice.........................1.........5............... Web Browsing.1.............................. Editing Text Files .......................5............................... 57 8......................... 30 4.................... 71 10.......1..........................3.........................4.................................................... Printer Driver.....................................5.................................................................5...........................2. Working with Documents....1............................................................................ Mozilla................................org Impress...........1................ 69 9.................................. Confirming Printer Configuration ....... OpenOffice.................7........................... Evolution..1................................................................... The OpenOffice......1.............6..................................................................... 76 10...... 57 8............ 41 6.............2................. 60 8.................................................. 73 10.................................... 60 8........................................ OpenOffice................................... Driver Options..........1....................... 35 6... Mozilla and Newsgroups .2.................org Writer .........................................................1... Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools ............................................ Email Applications.......... 63 9.... Useful Websites ........1.......................................................... 57 8..................................................... Video.................... Using XMMS ........................ 74 10.................................................................................................................................org Calc ...........3.......1........................ 50 7..................................................................................................... 55 8.................................. 58 8..................... 39 6..................................................................... Mozilla Composer.............................. Useful Websites ...................................4................ 57 8.........................................................2............................... Queue Type ...........1.......................1.................................................7....4.................................... Queue Name ................................................................................................................................................................................. 56 8....................................3..................................................................... 39 6..............org Features.......... Installed Documentation ............................ Viewing PDFs ..................... and General Amusement.6....................... Additional Resources ............ 32 4..................................... Games ....4................................................................................................... 63 9.............3........3.................... 53 8....................... 53 8..... Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts ........................................................................................ 54 8........................................ 32 4........ The Printer Configuration Tool .................. 73 10..................................................................................... Printing a Test Page. 41 6.....................2....................3...2......................... Modifying Existing Printers...........2.................................................. Playing Digital Audio Files ..... Troubleshooting Your Sound Card ............ 73 10.. Managing Print Jobs ......................................................................... 64 9................1....................1...............................................................................................1.......................................................1....1............................................................................ 63 9............................. Adding a Local Printer........4.......................................7.... 55 8..........................4............................ Finding Games Online .........2..... 33 5........................5....... Audio....................................................................org Suite... 77 ......................1.....

.11............................................................ 79 11...................... 93 13.. Using gThumb ............................................ Why Use a Shell Prompt....................2...................... 113 14............................................ The History of the Shell.......2.......................................2.. 111 14....... Determining Your Current Directory with pwd ..1..........................4...................... 85 11...................3.......................................................................................... 111 14................................................................................3....2..........4...............2.................4...........................1.1.................. Command History and Tab Completion .......................................... Creating Files ...3........ 90 13...............................................................3............. 117 14.................. Compressed and Archived Files .. 101 13..............2.2............................ The tail Command.................................. 100 13............................................................................................... Changing Permissions With Numbers ........................................................ File Compression and Archiving ..........3.. Using File Roller. 102 13..............1............................................ Manipulating Images with the GIMP............................................................................... Working with Images............................3.... Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt........................................................................ More Commands for Reading Text Files...........1.................................................................................................. 115 14........................................ 114 14............................................ Shell Prompt Basics ........................... Wildcards and Regular Expressions............................ 112 14....1...............................................2........ The grep Command.... 82 11......3.........................................................1...10................... Related Books ....... 104 13.....8.. 95 13..... Using Redirection ......................3......... Using Nautilus to View Images..................................2.................................... GIMP Options .................................... Useful Websites ....... The head Command ................................................. 98 13......13.................................... Identifying and Working with File Types .......................................................14................................................ 96 13.............3............. 104 13......3.......3................2..............................................................14......................................................................... Programming and Scripting Files ...... 87 13............................. Clearing and Resetting the Terminal.............. 89 13.................................... 101 13... 112 14.........2......... 80 11... 106 13......................... 112 14....4........ 95 13................... 108 14.................................................................................... Viewing Images................................................................ Managing Files and Directories ............................................ Changing Directories with cd ................................. 119 ............ Printing From The Command Line.....1..................................10.......1............. System Files .........................................14................. Using gtKam .....................................................................................................................................................6........................... 94 13............................ 103 13.... 101 13. 99 13...... 102 13................ 113 14..............................2........1.......................................................................12.......... 86 12................................. A Larger Picture of the File System ................................................................................9.............................................1.............. 83 11.....11................................ 89 13......................5......... View Directory Contents with ls....... 119 14............................................ 99 13.............................1.......................3............9.............................3......... Working with Digital Cameras ..2..... Locating Files and Directories ................................................2....................... 96 13............................................................................................ 84 11.......................................................2.................4..........1.... 79 11.............................. Installed Documentation .......11..........11............................. 90 13......................... Appending Standard Output ...........7.......................................................................................................................... 101 13...................9........ Saving a File ..................... The more Command ................... GIMP Basics .... Ownership and Permissions....................4.. Manipulating Files with cat..... Pipes and Pagers ................2... Using Multiple Commands ................................... 85 11............................ The chmod Command....... Loading a File .................... Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt .............1.................................................11.......................................5. 87 12.............2.... 79 11........................................ Redirecting Standard Input ............11........................................................ 112 14.2........................3.... 89 13............................................................2........................... 85 11...............................11.1........... 84 11...................................................................................................... I/O Redirection and Pipes ..................... Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt.....................1....................... 82 11..3. Additional Resources ............9................................... File Formats ........

...........................................10...................................................... Accessing a Windows Partition ...................................................... 131 16........1.......................................... 137 A................ 149 D..................................................... 123 15.... Finding Help .........4................................................................................................. 127 16............................. Changing Login from Console to X at Startup .... Finding Commands Quickly ...... 132 16.........................................................................7.............. Frequently Asked Questions ............................................................................................................................................ KMail ........ Applications .......... 139 A...................4......................... 126 16................ 155 Colophon........................................................................................................................................... 129 16................ Browsing the Web with Konqueror . Red Hat Network ........................................................................... 128 16...... A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands ......2.........9...............................1..... System Directories............4.................................... 123 15...... Downloaded Packages .............. Forgotten Password.............................................. 135 A.....................3....................2..........7............................. 153 Index................3.............................. Introducing KDE.............................................................................4. Configuring the KDE Panel ......4........................................................................ 140 A... 127 16........... 125 15...... Keep ls Output from Scrolling ......... Errata List.................................................. Deleting Files and Directories ......................... Moving Files ...............................................................................................................3...................... 132 A.......................................................4.14.......... Error Messages During Installation of RPMs................................................... 141 A.............5..............................5............................................................................4.................................................................................................. 144 A....................................................................................................................... Using Applets.......................... 135 A............... 130 16............................... 140 A... 136 A......... 120 14............. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages...................1...... Printing ls Output................................6........................................................................................... 127 16......... Logging Out of KDE........... 146 B................1.................................................................................................................................................... 147 C.............................................. Tips on Using Command History .... 141 A... Customizing KDE ............................................3...........1.................................... 143 A..4................ Using The Desktop.......3....................................... 151 E....................................................................................................4..........................3.................................................................................................. 131 16.......................................................... Managing Files........................................................................................... 146 A...................4...... 131 16..................... Copying Files ............... Localhost Login and Password ...8....... Using The Panel .........................9...........................................10.....................1..........6...... 135 A................ Using The Main Menu...........................................4.............................................. 121 15..................................................5..2................................................ 135 A....................................................................................... 130 16.... 161 .................. 125 15........... 131 16.7..........................2............................1.... Starting Applications ............................. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel ............................... KDE: The K Desktop Environment ..........................6................................. 119 14............................................................... Editing Your PATH ........4................................................................2................................. The Navigation Panel.......................... Using Konqueror to View Images ........ 127 16........................................................................................8.................... Password Maintenance..........................1....................................................................................... Other Shortcuts ................... 137 A.. Installation CD-ROMs ........ Keyboard Shortcuts ...........

com/docs/. and getting online. Once the basics are covered. and the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. approach Red Hat Linux as a new. Note Although this manual reflects the most current information possible. the tasks covered in this manual become progressively more advanced.redhat. you should have read the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide and successfully installed Red Hat Linux. This manual is designed to help new and intermediate Linux users navigate and perform common tasks. the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. and performs differently from other operating systems you may have used. warnings.redhat. Changes to this manual include: Working with Digital Cameras This new chapter discusses using a digital camera with gtKam. They can be found on the Red Hat Linux CD #1 and online at: http://www. Forget about the conventions of other operating systems and. configuring a printer. feels. This manual is task-oriented. The Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide focuses primarily on how to perform tasks in these two environments. and screen shots interspersed throughout. you should read the Red Hat Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to our documentation being finalized. Changes to This Manual This manual has been expanded to include new features in Red Hat Linux 9 as well as topics requested by our readers. hints. such as customizing a desktop. interesting. You can find this information in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.com/docs/ 1. Topics discussed include: • • • • • Using the graphical desktop environment Managing files and directories Working with documents Using the Web and email Working with a digital camera After conquering the basics of your Red Hat Linux system. with an open mind. you will learn the basics of using Red Hat Linux. First. You will find useful tips. you may need information on more advanced topics. . Keep in mind that Linux looks.Introduction Welcome to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide! By now. HTML and PDF versions of the Red Hat Linux manuals are available on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD and online at http://www. the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer. Most users choose to work within either the GNOME or KDE graphical desktop environments (other desktop environments are also available). and versatile alternative.

including how to change your desktop background. Using the Graphical Desktop This chapter has been modified to reflect the new desktop environment and the various ways you can use and configure it. manage your printer. and weights. Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program. filename Filenames.ii Configuring Date and Time Introduction A chapter on configuring your system time. sizes. application This style indicates that the program is an end-user application (as opposed to system software). Document Conventions When you read this manual. . For example: Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file.bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases for your own use. In these cases. Examples: The . 2. Sometimes a command contains words that would be displayed in a different style on their own (such as filenames). This highlighting is systematic. different words are represented in the same style to indicate their inclusion in a specific category. The types of words that are represented this way include the following: command Linux commands (and other operating system commands. your time zone. This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on the command line and press [Enter] to invoke a command. directory names. For example: Use Mozilla to browse the Web. paths. The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and filesystems. and more. they are considered to be part of the command. named testfile. and RPM package names are represented this way. Working with Documents This chapter includes information on editing text files in a graphical environment (with gEdit) and at a shell prompt (with vi). you will see that certain words are represented in different fonts. This style should indicate that a particular file or directory exists by that name on your Red Hat Linux system. Diskettes and CD-ROMs This chapter now includes information about backing up files to CD-R and CD-RW media using CD Creator in Nautilus. so the entire phrase will be displayed as a command. and how to connect to a network time server to get accurate time and date information for your Red Hat Linux system has been moved from the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide to this manual. when used) are represented this way. typefaces. in the current working directory.

For example: The [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[Backspace] key combination will exit your graphical session and return you to the graphical login screen or the console. For example: Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed. or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window will be shown in this style. word. the rest of the menu should appear. top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window When you see a word in this style. type in a character and then press the [Tab] key.html backupfiles logs mail paulwesterberg. the contents of the directory) is shown in this style. If you click on the word on the GUI screen. You will see responses to commands you typed in. When you see text shown in this style. For example: iii To use [Tab] completion. Example: Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require a password before stopping. For example: Under File on a GNOME terminal. button on a GUI screen or window This style indicates that the text will be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen. computer output When you see text in this style.png reports The output returned in response to the command (in this case. text found on a GUI interface A title. error messages. it indicates text displayed by the computer on the command line. [key]-[combination] A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. you will see the New Tab option that allows you to open multiple shell prompts in the same window. Your terminal will display the list of files in the directory that start with that letter. For example: Use the ls command to display the contents of a directory: $ ls Desktop Mail about. it is being used to identify a particular GUI screen or an element on a GUI screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or field). it indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu.Introduction [key] A key on the keyboard is shown in this style. prompt A prompt. Examples: $ # [stephen@maturin stephen]$ . and interactive prompts for your input during scripts or programs shown this way. which is a computer’s way of signifying that it is ready for you to input something. they will be shown like the following example: Go to Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => Programming => Emacs to start the Emacs text editor. will be shown in this style. If you need to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu.

In other words. Important If you modify the DHCP configuration file. In the following example. caution. . tip. either on the command line. a rose is not a ROSE is not a rOsE. important.iv Introduction leopard login: user input Text that the user has to type. we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of information. text is displayed in this style: To boot your system into the text based installation program. In order of how critical the information is to your system. Caution Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you need to use the root account for system administration tasks. a server installation will remove all existing partitions on all installed hard drives. or a warning. Do not choose this installation class unless you are sure you have no data you need to save. For example: Note Remember that Linux is case sensitive. you will need to type in the text command at the boot: prompt. these items will be marked as note. the changes will not take effect until you restart the DHCP daemon. Warning If you choose not to partition manually. Additionally. or into a text box on a GUI screen. is displayed in this style. Tip The directory /usr/share/doc contains additional documentation for packages installed on your system.

In this document. We Need Feedback! If you spot a typographical error in the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. To copy text. depending upon the Red Hat Linux product you purchased: • • • Red Hat support — Get help with your installation questions from Red Hat. release the mouse button to drop the item. Under the Brim: The Red Hat E-Newsletter — Every month. get the latest news and product information directly from Red Hat. try to be as specific as possible when describing it. Inc. If you need to use the middle or right mouse button. Sign Up for Support If you have an edition of Red Hat Linux 9. When submitting a bug report.redhat. 6.redhat. simply click and drag your mouse over the text to highlight it. click on something and hold the mouse button down.com for more details. and white card in your Red Hat Linux box. If you have a two-button mouse. please remember to sign up for the benefits you are entitled to as a Red Hat customer. be sure to mention the manual’s identifier: rhl-gsg(EN)-9-Print-RHI (2003-02-20T01:05) If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation. Using the Mouse Red Hat Linux is designed to use a three-button mouse. If you’re using three-button emulation. Red Hat Network — Easily update your packages and receive security notices that are customized for your system.redhat. drag the item by moving the mouse to a new location. If you’re instructed to drag and drop an item on your GUI desktop. You will be entitled to any or all of the following benefits. that will be explicitly stated. please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily. that means click the left mouse button. go to http://www. pressing both mouse buttons at the same time equates to pressing the missing third (middle) button. (This will be reversed if you’ve configured your mouse to be used by a left handed person. 5. if you are instructed to click with the mouse on something. you should have selected three-button emulation during the installation process. Go to http://rhn. Copying and Pasting Text With X Copying and pasting text is easy using your mouse and the X Window System.’s support team.Introduction v 3. If you have found an error. To sign up.) The phrase "drag and drop" may be familiar to you. When you’ve reached the desired location. . or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better. click the middle mouse button in the spot where the text should be placed. To paste the text somewhere. we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla (http://bugzilla. 4. red.com/apps/activate/. While continuing to hold down the mouse button.com/bugzilla/) against the component rhl-gsg. You will find your Product ID on a black.

refer to the Getting Technical Support Appendix in the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide.vi Introduction To read more about technical support for Red Hat Linux. Good luck. and thank you for choosing Red Hat Linux! The Red Hat Documentation Team .

It is not recommended to log in to your root account for common computing tasks. as you may damage your system or unintentionally delete a file. 1. Figure 1-1.1. Setup Agent The first time you start your Red Hat Linux system. add users to your system. and a password (which you must enter twice). the Setup Agent is presented. install software. you can set your system time and date. an optional full name for the account. so that you can get started using your Red Hat Linux system quickly. register your machine with the Red Hat Network. Getting Started From booting up to shutting down. This chapter guides you through some basic tasks that you can perform on your Red Hat Linux system. Red Hat Linux provides tools and applications to help you get the most out of your computing environment. . The Setup Agent lets you enter a username. and more. whether you are working or playing. The Setup Agent guides you through the configuration of your Red Hat Linux system. Setup Agent The Setup Agent first prompts you to create a user account that you should use on a routine basis. Setup Agent allows you to configure your environment at the beginning.Chapter 1. This creates a user account that you can use to log into your Red Hat Linux system and which has its own home directory on the system to store files. Using this tool.

. I do not want to register my system skips the registration. click Forward to continue. For more information about Red Hat Network and registering your machine. minutes. Check the box labeled Enable Network Time Protocol and use the drop-down menu to select the time server you want to use. choose Yes. User Account The Setup Agent allows you to manually set your machine’s date and time. refer to the Red Hat Network documentation at http://www. To set the day.2 Chapter 1. Getting Started Figure 1-2. To set your time in hours. use the calendar interface.redhat. Once you have set your time and date. Date and Time Configuration To register your system with Red Hat Network and receive automatic updates of your Red Hat Linux system. I would like to register my system with Red Hat Network. use the provided text boxes. Figure 1-3. Selecting No.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/. This will start the Red Hat Update Agent — a utility that guides you step-by-step through the registration of your machine with Red Hat Network. and seconds. which adjusts the clock on your computer’s BIOS (Basic Input Output System). month. You may also synchronize your date and time automatically with a network time server — a computer that sends accurate date and time settings to your system through a network connection. and year on your system.

Getting Started 3 Figure 1-4. if prompted . click the Install. Figure 1-5. or documentation from the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD. you can do so at the Additional CDs screen. you should also learn new terminology. you must insert CD 1. change the CD.Chapter 1. click the Install. You will see these terms often throughout all Red Hat Linux documentation including the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide: . you are ready to log in and start using Red Hat Linux. software from third-party providers. choose the package(s) or component you want to install.. button. Press Forward to exit the Setup Agent.. Red Hat Network Registration Client To install Red Hat Linux RPM packages that you did not install during installation. Introductory Terms When you learn about a new operating system. button.. Installing Additional Software Now that your system is configured. and follow the instructions. and. Note If you are installing a package from the Red Hat Linux Installation CDs. Insert the CD containing the software or documentation you want to install. 1.. This section defines a few basic terms you should learn.2.

An RPM is a software package file you can install on your Red Hat Linux computer. The shell interprets commands entered by the user and passes them on to the operating system. The desktop is where your user Home and Start Here icons are located. such as changing administrative passwords and running system configuration tools. User accounts are created so that typical user tasks can be done without using the root account. shortcut or system resource (such as a diskette drive). Panel: A desktop toolbar. which can reduce the chance of damaging your Red Hat Linux installation or applications permanently. • • • • • • • Figure 1-6. usually located across the bottom of your desktop (such as Figure 1-6). RPM: RPM stands for RPM Package manager and is how Red Hat builds and delivers its software files. Getting Started Command: An instruction given to the computer.4 Chapter 1. type man su at a shell prompt (or type info su for the info page). You can customize your desktop to have special backgrounds. press [q]. to read the man page for the su command. and pictures to add a personal touch. Command line: The space at the shell prompt where commands are typed. Graphical Desktop: The most visible area of a GUI. most often with the keyboard or mouse. Shell prompt: A command line interface between the user and the operating system (Figure 1-7). Launcher icons usually refer to application shortcuts. menus. icons. Man page and Info page: Man (short for manual) and Info pages give detailed information about a command or file (man pages tend to be brief and provide less explanation than Info pages). Icons are small images representing an application. For example. A Shell Prompt . The panel contains the Main Menu button and shortcut icons to start commonly used programs. • • • Figure 1-7. colors. You must be logged in as root to accomplish certain system administration tasks. The Desktop Panel Root: Root is an administrative user account created during installation and has complete access to the system. folder. Graphical User Interface (GUI): A general term for interactive windows. and panels which allow a user to initiate actions such as starting applications and opening files using a mouse and keyboard. Panels can also be customized to suit your needs. To close man or Info pages.

you are working in a GUI rather than a console environment. X or X Window System: These terms refer to the graphical user interface environments.6 Creating a User Account to learn how to set up a user account. Getting Started 5 • su and su -: The command su gives you access to the root account or other accounts on your system. you have access to important system files that you can change (or damage if you are not careful). When you type su to switch to your root account while still inside your user account shell.3. Logging In The next step to using your Red Hat Linux system is to log in.command makes you root within the root account shell. Again. When you log in. Caution Because your Red Hat Linux system creates the root account during installation. refer to Section 1.1. This is a dangerous idea. • Although the emphasis throughout this book is on navigation and productivity using the graphical desktop environment. you must log in as root. If you are "in X" or "running X". . you are introducing yourself to the system (also called authentication). 1. Note Red Hat Linux applications and files are case sensitive. Unlike some other operating systems. you will not be allowed access to your system. If you type the wrong user name or password. Use caution when you are logged in as root. a graphical login screen is displayed as shown in Figure 1-8. You may be tempted to forego creating and using a user account during or after installation. If you have already created and logged in to a user account. and more. Graphical Login When your system has booted. unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname. If you did not create a user account using the Setup Agent. maintain security. or system administrator. root refers to the root user (also known as the superuser). 1. which is primarily used in a network setting. Not all accounts are created equal: some accounts have fewer rights to access files or services than others. Logging in with the su .Chapter 1. your machine will probably be called localhost. you can skip ahead to Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop. but it is not recommended. both the graphical and shell prompt methods of logging in and using your Red Hat Linux system are discussed for your reference. You can easily damage your system by accidentally deleting or modifying sensitive system files. it is highly recommended that you log in as that user instead of root to prevent accidental damage to your Red Hat Linux installation. If you created only the root account. By default. some new users are tempted to use only this account for all of their activities. After you create a user account.3. because the root account is allowed to do anything on the system. your Red Hat Linux system uses accounts to manage privileges. which means that typing root refers to a different account than Root.

Logging in from the graphical login screen automatically starts the graphical desktop for you. press [Enter]. you will find a graphical interface known as a desktop similar to Figure 1-9. and press [Enter].localdomain. . Virtual Console Login During installation.3. 1. type your username at the login prompt. if you selected an installation type other than Workstation or Personal Desktop and chose text as your login type. To log in as a normal user. your machine will probably be called localhost.18-14 on an i686 localhost login: Unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname. press [Enter]. and press [Enter]. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt. type your username at the login prompt. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt. To log in as root from the console. which is primarily used in a network setting.2. type root at the login prompt.6 Chapter 1. you will see a login prompt similar to the following after booting your system: Red Hat Linux release 9 Kernel 2. press [Enter]. and press [Enter]. Once you start the X Window System. To log in as a normal user.4. you can type the command startx to start the graphical desktop. press [Enter]. Getting Started Figure 1-8. then type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt and press [Enter]. After logging in. type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt. type root at the login prompt. The Graphical Login Screen To log in as root from the graphical login screen. 1. Graphical Interface When you installed Red Hat Linux you had the opportunity to install a graphical environment.4.

and then click the Users & Groups icon. 2. If you did not create at least one account (not including the root account) you should do so now. Refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics for further details.Chapter 1. it is sometimes useful and faster to perform tasks from a shell prompt. you will be prompted for your root password. Creating a User Account When you first started your Red Hat Linux system after installation. If you are not logged in as root. Opening a Shell Prompt The desktop offers access to a shell prompt. Click Add User. or press [Ctrl]-[D] at the prompt.6. Getting Started 7 Figure 1-9.5. You can open a shell prompt by selecting Main Menu => System Tools => Terminal. click the X button on the upper right corner of the shell prompt window. 3. You should avoid working in the root account for daily tasks. The window shown in Figure 1-10 will appear. click the System Settings icon. 1. You can also start the User Manager by typing redhat-config-users at a shell prompt. The Graphical Desktop 1. Click the Start Here icon on the desktop. an application that allows you to type commands instead of using a graphical interface for all computing activities. You can also start a shell prompt by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing New Terminal from the menu. type exit at the prompt. There are two ways to create new and/or additional user accounts: using the graphical User Manager application or from a shell prompt. . To exit a shell prompt. In the new window that opens. To create a user account graphically using the User Manager: 1. While the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide primarily focuses on performing tasks using the graphical interface and graphical tools. You can also select Main Menu => System Settings => Users & Groups from the panel. you were given the opportunity to create one or more user accounts using the Setup Agent.

usernames are variations on the user’s name. INFO pages which break information about an . you can accept the defaults for the other configuration options. initials. The new user will appear in the user list. signaling that the user account creation is complete. If you want to pick an easy-to-remember but somewhat unique password. consider a variation of a word. To create a user account from a shell prompt: 1. type the command su . Type passwd followed by a space and the username again (for example. The name of this user’s home directory and the name of the login shell should appear by default. 4. 5. In the Create New User dialog box. Often. enter the same password to confirm your selection.and enter the root password. Documentation and Help There are several resources available to get the information you need to use and configure your Red Hat Linux system. passwd jsmith). and a password (which you will enter a second time for verification).7. enter a username (this can be an abbreviation or nickname). Click OK. 1. so it should be both unique and easy for you to remember. The Red Hat User Manager 4. Press [Enter]. the full name of the user for whom this account is being created. as well as numbers and characters. Along with the Red Hat Linux documentation there are manual pages. such as a1rPl4nE for airplane. 6. such as qwerty or password. Getting Started Figure 1-10. Open a shell prompt. useradd jsmith). User account names can be anything from the user’s name. At the Retype new password: prompt. Type useradd followed by a space and the username for the new account you are creating at the command line (for example. 2. At the New password: prompt enter a password for the new user and press [Enter].8 Chapter 1. For most users. 5. Avoid easy selections. 3. such as jsmith for John Smith. or birthplace to something more creative. The password is the key to your account. Important You should take precautions when you choose a password. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details about additional options. documents that detail usage of important applications and files. You can use both uppercase and lowercase letters. Your password should be at least six characters. If you are not logged in as root.

To exit the man page.Chapter 1. allowing you to quickly read the keyword in context. Man Pages are structured in such a way that users can quickly scan the page for pertinent information. Manual Pages Applications. Getting Started 9 application down by context-sensitive menus. files. The SYNOPSIS field shows the common usage of the executable. .7.1. The DESCRIPTION field shows available options and values associated with a file or executable. 1. To search a man page for keywords type [/] and then a keyword or phrase and press [Enter]. Using man Man Pages can be accessed via shell prompt by typing the command man and the name of the executable. Figure 1-11. For example. 1. type [Q]. which is important when dealing with commands that they have never previously encountered. and programs. See Also shows related terms. and help files that are included in the main menubar of graphical applications. as all of these resources are either already installed on your Red Hat Linux system or can be easily installed. such as what options are declared and what types of input (such as files or values) the executable supports. All instances of the keyword will be highlighted throughout the man page. You can choose any method of accessing documentation that best suits your needs. to access the man page for the ls command. type the following: man ls The NAME field shows the executable’s name and a brief explanation of what function the executable performs. and shell prompt commands usually have corresponding manual pages (also called man pages) that show the reader available options and values of file or executable. utilities.1.1.7. Reading a Man Page with the Shell Prompt To navigate the man page you can use the [Page Down] and [Page Up] keys or use the [Spacebar] to move down one page and [B] to move up.

com/docs/.com/docs/ you can install these manuals from a shell prompt. Getting Started Printing man pages is a useful way to archive commonly used commands.7. RPM. If you have a printer available and configured for use with Red Hat Linux (refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information). The man Man Page Just like other commands. and type the following at the command line: su .3.2. inserting the Documentation CD in your CD-ROM drive should automatically start the Package Management Tool and allow you to install any of the Red Hat Linux documentation. Type man man at the shell prompt for more information.7. Follow the instructions and choose the documentation you would like to install. man has its own man page.gz) are also available at http://www. which formats the contents to fit within a printed page. you can print a man page by typing the following command at a shell prompt: man command| col -b | lpr The example above combines separates commands into one unique function. 1.redhat. Individual downloads of our documentation in HTML. and compressed tarball format (.tar. PDF. Package Management Tool Displaying Documentation Available for Installation After you have installed the documentation packages you want. If you have downloaded individual documentation RPM packages from the Red Hat website at http://www.7.10 1. 1. Figure 1-12. Once you have logged in to your user account.redhat. Printing a Man Page Chapter 1. The lpr command sends the formatted content to the printer.1. Red Hat Linux Documentation If you have the Red Hat Linux boxed set.1. you can access them at any time by clicking Main Menu => Documentation. remember to take a look at the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD. man command will output the contents of the command man page to col. Open a shell prompt. perhaps in bound form for quick reference. All of the Red Hat Linux manuals are on this CD.2.

To install only certain manuals.Chapter 1. it is important to properly shut down Red Hat Linux. This logs you out of the root account and back to your user account. select the Logout option and click the Yes button.noarch.rpm.8.9.rpm with the full file name of the manual that you want to install. select Main Menu => Log Out. type exit or [Ctrl]-[D] to log out of the console session.noarch. For example. Logout Confirmation 1. 1. as you may lose unsaved data or damage your system. To install all of the Red Hat Linux manuals. To save the configuration of your desktop. change to the directory that contains the RPM files and type the following: rpm -ivh rhl-*.2.8. as well as any programs which are running. Never turn your computer off without shutting down first. You will be asked for your root password. Enter the password at the prompt and press [Enter].rpm Press [Enter]. check the Save current setup option. and you logged in at the console. Figure 1-13. Virtual Console Logout If you are not using the X Window System. so you would type the following to install it on your system: rpm -ivh /mnt/cdrom/rhl-gsg-en-9. Logging Out 1. When the confirmation dialog appears as shown in Figure 1-13. You are now logged in as root. Shutting Down your Computer Before turning off your computer. the file name for the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide will look something like rhl-gsg-en-9.1. replace rhl-*. Type exit at the command line and press [Enter].rpm Press [Enter]. 1. Getting Started 11 Press [Enter]. .8. Graphical Logout To log out your graphical desktop session. Now go to Main Menu => Documentation and select the manual you want to read.

you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: System halted.1. Virtual Console Shutdown To shutdown your computer at a shell prompt. Getting Started 1. If your computer does not. type the following command: halt Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux. select Shutdown and click OK to confirm. Graphical Shutdown If you are in the graphical desktop. From the graphical desktop logout screen shown in Figure 1-13. 1.9. log out of your session as described in Section 1. Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux. you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: Power down.8 Logging Out. If your computer does not.2.12 Chapter 1. .9.

1. and small applications called applets that let you control sound volume. and shortcuts to removable devices such as CD-ROM and diskettes when they have been mounted. The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel. The Graphical Desktop The graphical desktop gives you access to the applications and system settings on your computer. You will notice that it offers three main tools to make use of the applications on your system: panel icons. switch workspaces. . a notification area for notification icons. and system resources.Chapter 2. The panel contains application launcher icons. and displays the status of your system. To open a folder or launch an application. You can add new . This chapter covers the fundamentals of the desktop and how you can configure it for your needs. You can drag and drop files and application icons to areas that are easily accessible. desktop icons. The menu systems can be found by clicking on the Main Menu button by double-clicking on the Start Here icon icon. files. They can also be found on the desktop and then clicking the Applications The desktop works in the manner you might expect it to when working with other operating systems. and menus. double-click on its icon. 2. Figure 2-1. Both new and experienced users will be able to take full advantage of their Red Hat Linux systems using the graphical desktop. The icons elsewhere on the desktop can be shortcuts to file folders. Using the Graphical Desktop Red Hat Linux includes a powerful graphical desktop environment where you can easily access your applications. Using the Desktop Your first view of the graphical desktop will look something like Figure 2-1. application launchers.

Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[down-arrow]. you can also access additional applications within each sub-menu. or [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[left-arrow] to switch between desktops. to expand it into a large set of menus that allow you to From here. These sub-menus give you access to a full range of applications on your system.2. Applets let you monitor various aspects of your system. Notice that. you can start most applications included in Red Hat Linux. Workspace Switcher .2. 2.1. run applications from a command line. in addition to the recommended applications. The Panel 2.2. Using the Main Menu You can click on the Main Menu button access the applications on your system. Figure 2-2. which contains shortcuts for all of your applications. 2. Workspace Switcher The graphical desktop gives you the ability to use multiple workspaces so you do not have to have all of your running applications crowding one viewable desktop area. Click on one of the squares with your mouse to move to that desktop. Using the Panel The desktop panel is the bar that stretches across the bottom of the screen and holds icons and small applications which makes using your system easier. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[right-arrow].14 Chapter 2. Figure 2-3. The panel also holds the Main Menu. Some applets perform useful tasks while others are designed to be entertaining. These applets are fairly important and are covered in the following list. Applets embedded on the panel allow you to run specific tasks or monitor your system or services while remaining out of your way. panel. find files. There are a few applets that run on your panel by default. You can change the appearance of most of the tools and applications and change system settings with provided configuration tools. The notification area holds alert icons such as the one for Red Hat Network so that you can be quickly alerted to critical messages. You can also use the keyboard shortcut [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[up-arrow]. and lock your screen (which runs a password protected screen saver). Using the Graphical Desktop icons for files and applications to the desktop. you can also log out. From the Main Menu. The Workspace Switcher represents each workspace (or desktop) in small squares and show the applications running on them. and file manager.2.

Red Hat Network Notification Tool The Authentication Icon The key icon that is sometimes displayed in the Notification Area is a security notification that displays whenever you have gained root authentication for your system (such as running a graphical system configuration tool). Using the Notification Area Red Hat Network Notification Tool Part of the Notification Area. it will launch the registration component.3. you can bring it back by clicking on its title in the Taskbar.Chapter 2. Figure 2-7. To update your system. Figure 2-6. The Taskbar is an applet which shows you the titles of running applications on any one virtual desktop. This is very helpful if you decide to minimize an application as it will seem to disappear from the desktop. Click on the icon to view running print jobs. If you click on the icon. Figure 2-5. The applet shows you different images that indicate whether your system is up to date or needs upgrades. Once it disappears. a list of available updates will be displayed.2. It disappears when the authentication times out. Right-click on the applet icon for a list of options from which to choose. the Red Hat Network Notification Tool provides you with an easy way to make sure your system is up-to-date with current errata and bug fixes from Red Hat. If you are not registered with Red Hat Network. and cancel jobs by right-clicking on the job and selecting Cancel. Figure 2-4. The Printer Notification Icon . Using the Graphical Desktop Taskbar 15 Next to the Workspace Switcher is the Taskbar. The Taskbar 2. click the button to launch the Red Hat Update Agent. Authentication Icon Printer Notification Icon The Printer Notification Icon allows you to manage your print jobs.

The Weather Report Applet on the Panel To add a launcher icon to the panel. then the notification area was removed from the desktop panel.2. In Figure 2-8. right-click in an unused area of the panel and select Properties. This will launch a dialog box that allows you to enter the name of the application. and more all from one integrated interface. and change the way it behaves. This will automatically add a launcher icon based on the properties of the item in the Main Menu.2. 2. it will appear on your panel. . browse your photo collection. To alter the default panel settings. and choose from the various types of applets. Using the Graphical Desktop Warning If you cannot see any of the notification icons. When you select an applet. Click OK and the new launcher icon will appear on the panel. you may want to add more applets and launcher icons. it will not appear on the desktop until you move your mouse pointer over the panel area (called hovering). right-click on the panel and choose Add to Panel => Utility => Notification Area.3. right-click in an unused area on the panel and select Add to Panel => Launcher. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To make the panel fit your needs. right-click in an unused area on the panel. Tip Another quick and easy way to add a launcher to the panel is to right-click on an unused area of the panel and choose Add to Panel => Launcher from menu.. the location and name of the command that starts the application (such as /usr/bin/foo). and even choose an icon for the application. Using Nautilus The graphical desktop includes a file manager called Nautilus that gives you a graphical display of your system and personal files..5. change its size and color. however. To add an applet to the panel. Nautilus becomes a shell for your entire desktop experience. its position on the desktop. configure your Red Hat Linux system.16 Chapter 2. Figure 2-8. access your network resources. and whether you want the panel to be automatically hidden (Autohide) when not in use. 2. Configuring the Desktop Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually. Nautilus is designed to be much more than a visual listing of files. 2. In essence.. To add the it back to your panel. place it on any edge of your desktop. You can set the size of the panel. the Weather Report applet has been added to show the current local weather and temperature.4. If you choose to autohide the panel. It allows you to configure your desktop. select Add to Panel. Then select an application that appears in the menu.

desktop preferences. dragging a file from one directory to another moves the file. double-click on your home directory icon: Once Nautilus appears. Main Menu items. this means you see a portion of the actual text in the icon. The Start Here screen includes icons that allow you to access your favorite applications. Using the Graphical Desktop 17 Working in Nautilus is efficient and provides an alternative to searching through the various submenus connected to the Main Menu or using a shell prompt to navigate the file system. To turn off this feature. server configuration tools. Start Here Figure 2-9. The browser window contains folders and files which you can drag with your mouse to move and copy into new locations. From your favorite applications to system and configuration tools.4. For images. then select Never in the drop down for Show Thumbnails. you can navigate through your home directory or the rest of the file system. By default. . You can access the Start Here screen at any time by double-clicking on the desktop icon labeled Start Here. To copy the file to another directory. You can open another Nautilus window by selecting File => New Window. To return to your home directory. To start Nautilus as a file manager. 2. click the Home button. image files in your home directory will be seen as thumbnails. The Start Here Window Start Here was designed to hold all of the tools and applications you need to access when using your system. you see a scaled-down (or thumbnail) version of the image. Disabling this (and other) previewing feature increases the speed of Nautilus. you can drag and drop files to different directories. press the [Ctrl] key while dragging and dropping the file. The following sections explain how to use the Nautilus to enhance your desktop experience. the Start Here window provides a central location for using and customizing your system.Chapter 2. and system settings. Select the Preview tab. select Edit => Preferences. For text files. By default. Once you have another Nautilus window.

Figure 2-10. to play a sound when you log in to your desktop. or you can use your own image. You can also double-click the Start Here icon. The following lists some of the options and tools in each area. Background You can configure your background with new colors or a new image. 2.1.18 Chapter 2. For example. Using the Graphical Desktop Tip You can add your favorite locations to the Bookmarks.4. you can configure a shortcut to move from your current Workspace to Workspace 2 by pressing [Ctrl]-[F2]. you can select the Preferences icon to configure your desktop. To learn more about configuring your desktop background.1. 2. right-click on the desktop and choose Change Desktop Background from the menu. The Background Preferences Tool .4. Sound In this section you can configure the system sounds associated with various functions. Customizing the Desktop From the Start Here screen. and finally select Background.1. You can choose from several background images included with Red Hat Linux in the /usr/share/backgrounds/ directory.4.1. Changing your Desktop Background One way to dramatically alter the appearance of your graphical desktop is to change the background using the Background Preferences tool.1 Changing your Desktop Background. refer to Section 2. which presents you with a wide selection of configuration options. For example. Navigate to the location you want to bookmark. Keyboard Shortcuts You can configure shortcuts — pressing a combination of keystrokes on the keyboard — to perform actions within an application or on your desktop. To start the Background Preferences tool. and then select Bookmarks => Add Bookmark. select Preferences. you can configure it.

The Centered option places your image in the center of the desktop. The System Settings icon includes tools that help you set up your system for personal everyday use. leaving the default background colors to fill in any remaining desktop space. Refer to Chapter 3 Configuring the Date and Time for details on using this tool. Customizing your System The Start Here screen in Nautilus contains additional configuration tools that help you with your new Red Hat Linux system and the server applications included. which is useful if you use a small image or if you use a tile (or pattern) image from /usr/share/backgrounds/tiles/ or from your own image collection. Click Close to save and exit the Background Preferences tool. Choose your own Top Color and Bottom Color and the color gradient (or the blending of colors). The following lists some of the tools included in System Settings and what you can do with them.Chapter 2. choose the No Picture option and adjust your colors using the Background Style options. You will be able to set your time zone information as well. . Using the Graphical Desktop 19 The Background Preferences tool allows you to load a new background from a directory of provided images (/usr/share/backgrounds/images/). Date & Time This tool allows you to set the date and time of your machine. There are several additional options for displaying your background image. 2. Figure 2-11 shows a background image of flowers and plants that is stretched to fill the entire desktop. You can also drag an image into the window from your own image directory. The Desktop with a New Background If you want to create a background with your own custom colors and no images.2. To fill the desktop with an image without tiling it.4. use the Scaled or Stretched options. The Wallpaper option displays multiple instances of your image across the desktop. Figure 2-11.

or halting the system completely. A few examples of the tools found in this area are the HTTP Configuration Tool and the Bind Configuration Tool. . Using the Graphical Desktop The Sound Card Configuration Tool tool probes your machine for available sound devices. select the Log Out menu item from the Main Menu. These tools help you configure services and applications you are using on the local machine to serve other machines. Refer to Section 10. Users & Groups The User Manager tool allows you to add and remove users from your system. The server configuration tools are found by clicking on the System Settings icon and then the Server Settings icon. restarting the machine. The printer may be connected to your machine or available on a network.3 Troubleshooting Your Sound Card for more details on configuring your sound hardware.20 Soundcard Detection Chapter 2. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details.6 Creating a User Account for details. Logging Out When you have finished working and want to quit GNOME. The Desktop Log Out Confirmation To quit the graphical desktop. You may also find server configuration tools in the Start Here area. depending on which install type you specified during installation. 2. This will bring up a dialog which presents you with the options listed above.5. You must have those server applications installed before these tools appear in this section. Refer to Section 1. Printing The Printer Configuration Tool allows you to add a new printer to your system. Figure 2-12. you are presented with the choice of logging out of GNOME (leaving the system running). Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details.

You can choose one of the predefined servers or type a server name in the pulldown menu. Figure 3-1. Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. This will enable the Server pulldown menu. and the time zone settings and then exit the program. Use the arrows to the left and right of the year to change the year. use the arrows to the left and right of the month to change the month. To change the time. The Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon synchronizes the system clock with a remote time server or time source (such as a satellite). to configure the time zone used by the system. Configuring the Date and Time The Time and Date Properties Tool allows the user to change the system date and time. The application allows you to configure a NTP daemon to synchronize your system clock with a remote server. 3. click the Enable Network Time Protocol button. and to setup the Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon to synchronize the system clock with a time server.1. the NTP daemon settings. the first tabbed window that appears is for configuring the system date and time and the NTP daemon (ntpd). Clicking the OK button will apply any changes that you have made to the date and time. and click on the day of the week to change the day of the week. . Minute. To enable this feature. use the up and down arrow buttons beside the Hour. Time and Date Properties As shown in Figure 3-1.Chapter 3. You must be running the X Window System and have root privileges. in an XTerm or a GNOME terminal). After you click OK. Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. Your system will not start synchronizing with the NTP server until you click OK. To start the application from the desktop go to the Main Menu Button => System Settings => Date & Time or type the command redhat-config-date at a shell prompt (for example. Time and Date Properties To change the date. the configuration will be saved and the NTP daemon will be started (or restarted if it is already running). and Second in the Time section.

Time Zone Configuration To configure the system time zone.22 Chapter 3. Click OK to apply the changes and exit the program.2. click on the city that represents the desired time zone. click the Time Zone tab. . UTC stands for the universal time zone. To use the map. Other time zones are determined by adding or subtracting from the UTC time. select the System clock uses UTC option. Timezone Properties If your system clock is set to use UTC. The time zone can be changed by either using the interactive map or by choosing the desired time zone from the list below the map. Configuring the Date and Time 3. A red X will appear and the time zone selection will change in the list below the map. Figure 3-2. also known as Greenwich mean time (GMT).

insert it into the diskette drive and type mount /mnt/floppy/ at a shell prompt. diskettes are a great solution to transfer files from one computer to the other. you can also mount a diskette by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing Disks => Floppy. Alternatively.1. You can even explore the diskette’s contents in Nautilus (as shown in Figure 4-1) or Konqueror. Now that the diskette has been mounted it is available to be copied from or written to.Chapter 4. and at a shell prompt type the following command : umount /mnt/floppy/ . This chapter also covers using CD-writable and CD-rewritable drives. Figure 4-1. This chapter discusses how to read and write files to and from diskettes. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Using diskettes and CD-ROMs with Red Hat Linux requires some understanding about removable media. Using Diskettes Diskettes are one of the oldest removable media solutions available for the personal computer (PC). you should unmount it before ejecting it from the drive. To do this. This mounts the diskette and adds a desktop icon which you can double-click to explore the diskette contents. To mount a diskette. You can access the contents of the diskette by changing into that directory with the cd /mnt/floppy/ command. The diskette drive activity light should blink as the diskette’s file system is mounted to the /mnt/floppy directory. if two PCs are not on the same network. and how to read and copy data from a CD-ROM. Viewing files on a Diskette with Nautilus When you are done using the diskette.1. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette A diskette must first be mounted before it can be used. and copy files to/from it as you would normally do to your hard drive. close any applications that may be using files on the diskette or exploring the diskette’s contents (such as Nautilus or Konqueror). 4. For example. Diskettes are ideal as a portable storage solution for small files that need to be physically moved around. how to format diskettes. You can open. save. 4.1.

You can also elect to quick format the diskette if it was previously formatted as ext2. Be sure to backup any files that you need before performing any of the following operations on your diskettes. Using gfloppy To start gfloppy. 4. As shown in Figure 4-2. type /usr/bin/gfloppy.1 Using gfloppy).1. You can now safely eject the diskette from the drive.44MB diskette). 4. the gfloppy interface is small and has few options. Warning Formatting a diskette will erase all of its contents. From a shell prompt.2.24 Chapter 4. you can format your diskette with an MS-DOS file system type if necessary.3. and is the default method used for formatting diskettes.1. you need to format the diskette using the ext2 file system. however.3. you can manipulate its contents in the same ways that you manipulate directories and files on your hard drive.3. Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette. 4. ext2 is one of the file systems supported by Red Hat Linux. Then mount it in Linux as described in Section 4. This can be done with the Windows OS or with gfloppy (see Section 4.1.1. You can also choose the density of your diskette (if you are not using the usual high density 3. . Formatting a Diskette To use a diskette specifically with Red Hat Linux.1.1. you can unmount the diskette by right-clicking on the Unmount Volume from the menu.1 Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette. The default settings are sufficient for most users and needs. Copy files using the following command (substituting filename with the name of the file you wish to copy): cp filename /mnt/floppy You can then unmount the diskette and eject it from the drive. choose Main Menu => System Tools => Floppy Formatter. Diskettes and CD-ROMs icon and choosing If you are using GNOME. The new file on the diskette should now be accessible from your Windows machine.5" 1. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette To copy files from a Linux machine to an MS-DOS formatted diskette so that a Windows machine can read it you should format your diskette with an MS-DOS (FAT) file system.

Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette. The status box will appear on top of the main window.Chapter 4. .2. Figure 4-3. Linux-compatible device which can then be used for storing files and data. showing you the status of formatting and verification (see Figure 4-3). mke2fs essentially formats the device and creates an empty. Once complete.1.3. your second /dev/fd1. gfloppy Insert a diskette and change the settings in gfloppy to suit your needs. Insert your diskette into the drive and issue the following command at a shell prompt: /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 On Linux systems. The other options are covered in the mke2fs man page. and so on. gfloppy Status Box 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 25 Figure 4-2. then click Format. Using mke2fs The mke2fs command is used to create a Linux ext2 file system on a device such as a hard drive partition or (in this case) a diskette. If your computer has more than one diskette drive. The mke2fs utility has a number of options. you can eject the diskette and close gfloppy. The -c option makes the mke2fs command check the device for bad blocks before creating the file system. your primary diskette drive is /dev/fd0. it is ready to be used with your Red Hat Linux system. /dev/fd0 refers to the first diskette drive.

This section shows you how to use CD-ROMs on your Red Hat Linux system.2. Close any applications or file managers that are using the CD-ROM and type the following command at a shell prompt: umount /mnt/cdrom You can now safely press the eject button on your CD-ROM drive to retrieve your CD.2. to unmount and eject the CD-ROM. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager By default. Right-click on the icon to view all of the available choices. Figure 4-4 shows the contents of a CD-ROM within the Nautilus file manager.2. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 4. personal files. and even multimedia (audio/video and . For example. open a shell prompt. Most of the software that can be purchased from retail outlets come in the form of CD-ROMs.2.26 Chapter 4. After working with your CD. Figure 4-4. 4. Insert a CD into your CD-ROM drive. and type the following command: mount /mnt/cdrom The CD-ROM should now be mounted and available for use with your file manager. CD-Rs and CD-RWs CD-writable (CD-R) drives have grown in popularity as an inexpensive way to backup and archive several megabytes of data. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt You can also manually mount and unmount your CD-ROMs from a shell prompt.3. including applications. CDs are automatically mounted and the file manager is displayed allowing you to explore the contents of the CD. 4. 4. Contents of a CD-ROM in Nautilus A CD desktop icon also appears. which you can use to unmount and eject your CD-ROM after use. you must unmount it before you can eject it from your CD-ROM drive. CD-ROMs The CD-ROM format is a popular medium to deliver typically large software applications as well as multimedia games and presentations. choose Eject from the menu. You can access your CD-ROM by clicking the home icon on the desktop and typing /mnt/cdrom in the location bar.1.

CD Creator allows you to drag and drop files from a Nautilus window to the CD Creator interface. Red Hat Linux includes several tools for using CD-Rs and CD-rewritable (CD-RW) drives. You can also double click your home directory icon from the desktop and choose Go => CD Creator from the window menus.3. press and hold the [Ctrl] key. Then release the [Ctrl] key. click the Write to CD button in the CD Creator window.1. Figure 4-5. To select multiple files. 4. The CD Creator Interface in Nautilus Open a new Nautilus window and select the files or directories you want to write to CD-R(W). Diskettes and CD-ROMs 27 still image) presentations. To access the CD Creator feature in Nautilus. name the CD. insert a blank CD-R(W) into your drive and the CD Creator window will automatically display. Figure 4-6. and click on the files and folders. When you are ready to write the files to your CD-R(W). there is a tool included in the Nautilus file manager called CD Creator. and drag the files and folders to the CD Creator window. and choose other options. press and hold the left mouse button. You can also type burn: in the Location bar to start CD Creator. The CD Creator Write Dialog Box . which displays a dialog box where you can select the writing speed.Chapter 4. Using CD Creator If you want to perform a quick file or directory backup to a CD-R or CD-RW.

Since it is generally recommended to periodically backup personal files. Figure 4-8. X-CD-Roast Setup Screen Check your CD-R(W) manufacturer documentation to set some of the CD Settings options. Figure 4-7.3. X-CD-Roast first scans your device busses and find your CDR(W) drive. The CD Creator Write Status Window By default.2. To start it at a shell prompt. type /usr/bin/xcdroast. You must specify a path on your hard drive’s file system that has at least 700 Megabytes (MB) of free space available. the CD Creator can help you do so quickly. It then allows you to configure settings for CD-writer. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Click the Write files to CD button to start burning. Figure 4-8 illustrates the Setup screen and its configuration options. A status window displays the writing progress. such as CD Writer Speed and CD Writer FIFO-Buffer Size. 4. X-CD-Roast automates the process of burning CD-Rs and CD-RWs and is highly configurable to many CD mastering or duplicating needs. . as shown in Figure 4-7. the CD-R(W) should automatically eject from your drive when it is finished. All CD image (. CD-ROM drive.iso or . Note that your CD-R(W) drive brand may be different from the drive shown. Using X-CD-Roast X-CD-Roast is a graphical application for duplicating and creating (also known as mastering) CDROMs. To start X-CD-Roast choose Main Menu => System Tools => CD Writer.img) files need to be stored in a central location accessible to X-CD-Roast. You can configure the path where you wish to store CD images in the HD Settings tab under Path. and more.28 Chapter 4.

you can delete unwanted tracks with Delete Tracks. the defaults are set correctly to create data CD-ROMs.2.3.Chapter 4. as several of the options have long. You can set the speed at which you read a CD-ROM as well as find out some information about the CD-ROM track such as its type and size. to burn your tracks onto CD-R(W) media. including data and audio. Click the Write CD button to start the burning process. however. You can access these tooltips by leaving your mouse pointer on a button or drop-down menu for at least two seconds. Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CDs 4. you can preview each track with Play Audio-Tracks. Finally. Figure 4-10 shows a session that is preparing the entire /home directory for backup. Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CD-ROMs To duplicate an existing CD-ROM for backup purposes. . Figure 4-9 shows the Write CD dialog box.1. Since X-CD-Roast reads all tracks of a CD-ROM by default. click the Duplicate CD button in the main panel. Using X-CD-Roast to Create a CD It is always recommended to backup personal data and information often in case of hardware failure or file system corruption. You can read all of the tracks on a CD — all CD-ROM information. Figure 4-9. X-CD-Roast allows you to backup files on your hard drive partition using Create CD.3. This facility allows you to add files and directories into a CD session using Master Tracks.2. 4. so no further configuration is necessary. descriptive pop-up tips that informs you of the associated function in detail. where you can configure the speed at which you read and write the tracks to CD-R(W). If you are copying tracks from an audio CD. There are other options within the Master Tracks dialog that allows you to configure advanced settings.2. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 29 X-CD-Roast is well-documented within the interface itself. choose Write CD. is stored on tracks — by clicking Read CD. as well as whether you wish to copy the CD-ROM on-the-fly or create an image file first before burning (which is recommended to prevent write or read errors from occurring during the duplication process).

3.3. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Figure 4-10. click the Create session/image tab to create the . 4. such as . There are other file types that can be burned as images. These utilities have several advanced options that are beyond the scope of . then click Master to image file to create the image.3. After you have added all files and directories you want to write to the CD-R(W). click Write Tracks from the panel on the left.img file.2. Click Write tracks to write the image to the CDR(W). highlight the image file you created in the box on the right. Click Accept track layout. and click the Write Tracks tab to return to the main writing dialog. and click Add.raw. There are also other ISO image files available on FTP and websites. To write an ISO image file to a CD-R(W) with X-CD-Roast. It is recommended that you use the multi-step method instead of the on-the-fly methods. 4. then click Create CD. where you can click Write Tracks to burn the image to the CD-R(W). The image displays in the Tracks to write box on the left side. Using X-CD-Roast to Back-up Hard Drive Files Highlight the files and directories that you wish to add to the session and click Add. To write your tracks to the CD-R(W). Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast Large files that end in . Tip You can also create and write the image to the CD-R(W) in one step by clicking Master and write onthe-fly in the Create session image tab. then Accept track layout. You must first click Calculate size.30 Chapter 4. move the ISO file to the path specified during setup. In the Layout Tracks tab. This saves a few steps but can sometimes cause read-write errors. This automatically loads the Write Tracks tab. there are two utilities available: mkisofs and cdrecord. but ISO images are the most common CD image format. highlight the ISO image file you wish to burn and click Add.iso are known as ISO9660 (or ISO) image files. For example. In the Layout tracks tab.img and . Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools If you want to use a shell prompt to write images to CD-R or CD-RWs.3. Red Hat Linux is freely available as ISO images that you can download and write to the CD-R(W).

especially for UNIX/Linux environments..3. -V -v -x Table 4-1. the command line based CD recording utility. including speed. and the disc is mounted in Solaris and Windows environments. for basic image creation and writing. Suppose you wish to backup a directory called /home/joeuser/. To use cdrecord. You want to create an ISO image called backup. mkisofs Options 4. video. Sets verbose execution. For more information on using mkisofs. device. It is most useful for archival and file backup purposes. Sets an Application ID — a text string that will be written into the volume header of the image which can be useful to determine what applications are on the CD. Using mkisofs The mkisofs utility creates ISO9660 image files that can be written to a CD-R(W). and data settings. Table 4-1 explains each command line option. data. however. this option can be repeated (for example.1. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 31 this guide.2 Using cdrecord . You can now use the ISO image file with either X-CD-Roast as described in Section 4.Chapter 4.2.. The images created by mkisofs can include all types of files. Sets a Volume ID — a name that is assigned to it if the image is burned. This can be done with mkisofs by running the following command: mkisofs -o backup..2.iso -x /home/joeuser/junk/ -J -R -A -V -v /home/joeuser/ The image is created in the same directory that you ran the command. -x /home/joe/trash -x /home/joe/delete . and/or data) CD-ROMs using options to configure several aspects of the write process. useful if the CD is used in Windows environments. 4.3 Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast. refer to Section 4. Generates Rock Ridge (RR) naming records to preserve filename length and casing. Option -o -J -R -A Function Specifies an output file name of the ISO image.4 Additional Resources.3.. Excludes any directory immediately following this option. which is useful for viewing the status of the image as it is being made. and mixed-mode (a combination of audio. For more information about using cdrecord. but exclude the subdirectory /home/joeuser/junk/ because it contains unnecessary files.3.3. or using cdrecord. Generates Joliet naming records. refer to the additional resources in Section 4.3. Using cdrecord The cdrecord utility writes audio. .iso and write it to CD-R(W) so that you can use it on your Red Hat Linux PC at work and your Windows laptop for trips.3. you must first establish the device address of your CD-R(W) device by running the following command as root at a shell prompt: . these tools save some time over the graphical alternatives such as X-CD-Roast.).3.

Refer to the following resources for more information about the applications in this chapter 4. The following is an example output from running cdrecord -scanbus.1.version (where version is the version of cdrecord installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information. The -eject argument ejects the CDROM after the write process is complete.0 --blank=fast 4. which is useful for tracking the status of the write process. You can use cdrecord to blank CD-RW discs for reuse by typing the following: cdrecord --dev=0. Additional Resources This chapter briefly covers several applications. such as Red Hat Linux ISO images. and sets write output (verbose [-v]).0 backup.1.4. including some example commands for common CD-R(W) burning tasks.     . audio and mixed-mode CD-ROMs.1’ scsibus0: 0.3. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/mkisofs. switch to the root user and type the following at a shell prompt: cdrecord -v -eject speed=4 dev=0.2.0 7) * To write the backup file image created with mkisofs in the previous section.0 0) * 0.iso The command sets the write speed (4).0c’ Removable CD-ROM 0.0 1) * 0.3. The same command can also be used for burning ISO image files downloaded from the Internet.0.0 4) * 0. Offers all options and commands in detail.4.0 2) * 0. the device address (0. including some example commands for creating common ISO image files.6.version (where version is the version of mkisofs installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information. including some warnings about creating certain types of ISO images. Installed Documentation • cdrecord man page — Discusses how to burn data.5.0 6) * 0.7. Diskettes and CD-ROMs cdrecord -scanbus This command shows all CD-R(W) devices on your computer. Offers all options and commands in detail.8 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Jorg Schilling Using libscg version ’schily-0.32 Chapter 4.0). It is important to remember the device address of the device used to write your CD.0 5) * 0. • mkisofs man page — Comprehensive detail of the utility. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/cdrecord.4. Cdrecord 1.0 3) ’HP ’ ’CD-Writer+ 9200 ’ ’1.3.3.

freesoftware. 4. Useful Websites • • • http://www.xcdroast.Chapter 4.org/dvdrtools/ — The official website of the dvdrtools project.4.2. this set of documentation helps you get started mastering DVD-ROMs for data backup and multimedia presentation. ¤ ¤ is the version of . Diskettes and CD-ROMs 33 dvdrecord installed on your system) — For users who have DVD-R(+W) devices.org/ — The Official website of the X-CD-Roast project.version (where version is the version of X-CD-Roast installed on your system) — Contains useful command-line options and usage information for this graphical CD-R(W) mastering application. § ¦ • /usr/share/doc/dvdrecord.net/projects/cdrecord/ — The cdrecord project page on Freshmeat is regularly updated with the newest releases. http://freshmeat.version / (where version § ¦ ¥ ¥ • /usr/share/doc/xcdroast. and user commentary. which includes the dvdrecord utility for writing DVD-R(+W) discs. http://www.fsf. news.

34 Chapter 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs .

To use Internet Configuration Wizard. including the following information: • • • • The phone number that your modem must dial to connect to your ISP if you are using a modem. each computer connected to the Internet must have an IP address.2x. Before connecting. When you use the Internet. which can be used to create an Internet connection. the DNS tells your machine where to send its traffic. type the command internet-druid In both cases you will have to enter your root password to continue.2xx. check with your ISP for any specific instructions that they provide. People use the Internet for everything from information to finances to getting medical prescriptions on the Web. DNS entries: DNS means Domain Name System. in order to use the Internet. . DNS servers act as a road map for the Internet. go to the Main Menu => System Tools => Internet Configuration Wizard. Getting Online Exploring the Internet has become a popular activity. You may receive one or more DNS entries from your Internet provider when you sign up. Your login name and password for your account if you are using an xDSL or modem connection. which is a unique set of numbers like 2xx. You can then configure the connection that you created at any time using the Network Administration Tool. Your own ISP may have specific connection requirements for their service which differ from the instructions in this chapter. To start the application. including: • • • • • ISDN Connection Modem Connection Wireless Connection xDSL Connection Ethernet Connections Red Hat Linux includes the Internet Configuration Wizard. At a shell prompt. DNS tracks IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. More information about the Network Administration Tool can be found in the chapter entitled Network Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. Some ISPs may require you to configure a master address (called the gateway) that authenticates your computer and allows it to connect to the Internet.Chapter 5. A gateway address.2. There are many types of Internet connections. you must have a connection to it. you must be running the X Window System and have root privileges. However. use one of the following methods: • • In the graphical desktop environment.

select xDSL Connection. start Internet Configuration Wizard. and SDSL. and follow the steps in the wizard. Getting Online Figure 5-1. IDSL. Ask your DSL provider which method you should use. Some DSL providers require you to configure your system to obtain an IP address through DHCP with an Ethernet card. There are different types of DSL such as ADSL. . Internet Configuration Wizard uses the term xDSL to mean all types of DSL connections. select Modem Connection. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. start Internet Configuration Wizard. you are probably using PPPoE. select Ethernet Connection. Internet Configuration Wizard ISDN Connection An ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) connection uses high-speed. To configure this type of connection. the cable modem connects to the coaxial cable. xDSL Connection An xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) connection uses high-speed transmissions through telephone lines. To configure this type of connection. To configure this type of connection. Modem Connection A modem connection uses a modem to establish a connection to the Internet. Digital data is modulated into analog signals and sent over phone lines. start Internet Configuration Wizard. Cable Modem Connection A cable modem connection uses the same coaxial cable that your TV cable travels on to transmit data. start the Internet Configuration Wizard.36 Chapter 5. high-quality digital telecommunication lines as opposed to an analog modem connection. Some DSL providers require you to configure a PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) connection with an Ethernet card. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. This special phone line must be installed by a phone company. Then. If you must supply a username and password to connect. To configure this type of connection. To configure this type of connection. Most cable Internet providers require you to install an Ethernet card in your computer that connects to the cable modem. and follow the steps in the wizard. and follow the steps in the wizard. select ISDN Connection. select Ethernet Connection. The Ethernet card is usually required to be configured for DHCP. start Internet Configuration Wizard.

Chapter 5. Getting Online Wireless Connection

37

If you are connecting your Red Hat Linux computer to a wireless access point (WAP) or peerto-peer (also called ad-hoc) network with a wireless (802.11x) network card, then you will need to configure your wireless device. Choose the Wireless Connection, then select the device from the list provided. You can then configure the device for DHCP or fixed IP addresses In the pop-up device configuration window. The Internet Configuration Wizard is a utility that guides you step-by-step through the process of establishing your Internet connection. Once your connection is up and running, you can then configure it to suit your needs or particular connection. For more detailed instructions, refer to the Network Configuration chapter in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.

38

Chapter 5. Getting Online

Chapter 6. Web Browsing
Once you have configured your Internet connection (see Chapter 5 Getting Online), you are ready to get online. Red Hat Linux comes with several Web browsers, graphical applications that use your Internet connection to access the World Wide Web: news, research, shopping, banking, and more. This chapter briefly explains how to surf the Web using Mozilla and Galeon. For information about using the Konqueror Web browser, refer to Section A.6 Browsing the Web with Konqueror.

6.1. Mozilla
Part of the mozilla.org organization’s wide range of Open Source Internet application developments, Mozilla is a powerful, integrated, and standards-compliant Web browser, email client, news reader, and more. The Web browsing component displays Web content such as webpages and images. Mozilla also uses plug-ins for interactive multimedia such as streaming video and Web animation. This section shows you how to use the Mozilla Web browser to explore the Internet. To start Mozilla click the Mozilla Web Browser launcher on the panel or choose Main Menu => Internet => Mozilla Web Browser.

Figure 6-1. Mozilla Main Browser Window

6.1.1. Using Mozilla
Mozilla functions like any Web browser that you may have used before. It has the standard navigational toolbars, buttons, and menus.

These are separate applications integrated into the Mozilla suite and are useful for experiencing email. chat. The search results appears in the main browsing area. Figure 6-3. The Mozilla Navigational Bar There is also a sidebar on the left that contains additional options. Type in a keyword or phrase into the address field and click the Search button. there are the following small icons: Navigator. news. Composer. You can access Personal Toolbar folders by clicking the icon and choosing the website from the drop-down menu. The Mozilla SideBar At the bottom left corner of the browser window. Finally. and IRC Chat. which you can customize with your own bookmarks or quickly go back to your homepage. Address Book. bookmarks. Figure 6-2. For information on using the Mozilla Mail email client. such as integrated search functionality. Mozilla supports keyword searching via the address field as well. and other aspects of the Internet besides the Web. refer to Chapter 7 Email Applications. . The Personal Toolbar is useful for keeping and categorizing webpages so that you do not have to type the address every time you want to access the page. and a What’s Related option that displays webpages similar in topic to the page currently displayed in the main browsing area. To add a site to your Personal Toolbar. click and hold the left mouse button on the small icon next to the URL in the address field and drag it directly to the Personal Toolbar or into a folder icon. there is the Personal Toolbar. Mail. Web Browsing The navigation bar has an address field with which you can type a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) — the name or address of a website — into the address field at the top of the browser window.40 Chapter 6.

Mozilla Composer You can use Mozilla Composer to create webpages. Galeon uses Mozilla’s HTML and image renderer and plug-in system to display Web and multimedia content. You do not need to know HTML to use this tool. When the help screen opens.2. This can be useful if you want to browse the Web without the need to email or chat with others.1. Galeon Galeon is a Web browser that is based on Mozilla. This will open the new tab and allow you to switch between tabs by clicking on them. Go to Help on the main menu and select Help Contents. a working installation of Mozilla is required. It is only a Web browser and does not feature email. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Help Contents.Chapter 6. right-click on the tab and choose Close Tab from the menu or click the X at the right of the tab bar to close the tab currently displayed. Mozilla Composer 6. 6. newsgroups. To open Composer. you can open a tab by clicking File => New => Navigation Tab or by pressing [Ctrl] and [T] at the same time.2. or click on the Composer icon in the lower left part of the screen: . Instead of using two or more separate windows to read multiple webpages. The Mozilla help files provide information on creating webpages with Composer. To use Galeon. Galeon also has some extra features that are not included in Mozilla. click on the Contents tab and expand the Creating Webpages menu by clicking on the arrow next to it. Figure 6-4. . or anything other than Web browsing and searching. A list of topics will appear and clicking on any of these will provide you with information for creating and editing webpages using Mozilla Composer. go to Window => Composer on the Mozilla main menu. For additional information on using Mozilla. To close a tab. Web Browsing 41 Mozilla also allows you to browse multiple websites within one browser window using navigational tabs.

The first time you launch Galeon. the main browser will appear. Figure 6-5. Configuring Galeon During the initial configuration. integrated search features. Figure 6-6. go to Main Menu => Internet => More Internet => Galeon. Online with Galeon Using Galeon is much like using Mozilla. There are navigational buttons for moving from one visited webpage to another using the Forward.42 Chapter 6. it will take you through the configuration process. you have the option of importing bookmarks and preferences from Mozilla or other Web applications you may have installed on your system. and Home buttons. respectively. You can also configure Galeon’ personal toolbar with bookmarks. and even browser navigation shortcuts. . as well as Reload and Stop buttons to refresh a webpage and stop it from loading. Back. Web Browsing To launch Galeon. Once you have finished your configuration of Galeon.

3. Galeon also has a navigational tab feature that can help you avoid having your desktop cluttered with browser windows. click the X button within the tab. 6. Keyboard shortcuts can help you efficiently browse the Web. To launch a new Tab. The tabbed browsing mode can be configured in the Tabs page of the Preferences Window. For additional information or help with Galeon.Chapter 6. Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts Table 6-1 shows some common keyboard shortcuts available in both Mozilla and Galeon. Web Browsing 43 Like Mozilla. Shortcut [Ctrl]-[T] [Ctrl]-[N] [Ctrl]-[Q] [Ctrl]-[L] [Ctrl]-[P] [Ctrl]-[right arrow] [Ctrl]-[left arrow] [Ctrl]-[R] [Ctrl]-[H] [Ctrl]-[F] Table 6-1. From there. Multiple pages can be stored in a single Galeon window. which is accessible by choosing Settings => Preferences from the browser’s main menu. To close a tab. Keyboard Shortcuts Description Open a new tab for browsing multiple websites within one browser window Open a new browser window Close all browser windows and exits the application Move the cursor to the browser’s address field Print the current displayed webpage or document Move forward by one link or page Move backward by one link or page Reload the current page Open the browsing history Find a keyword or string within a page . use the [Ctrl]-[T] key combination or select New Tab from the File menu. and you can switch between them by clicking on the each tab. or right-click the tab and choose Close Tab from the drop-down menu. you can choose to view the Galeon FAQ and Galeon manual. click Help on the top menu bar.

44 Chapter 6. Web Browsing .

someisp. The following lists a few important things you may need to know: Your email address The email address you will use to send and receive mail. IMAP differs from POP in that email from IMAP servers are stored on the server and stays there even as you download and read your mail. short for Post Office Protocol. short for Internet Message Access Protocol. is usually in the form of mail. This chapter will briefly discuss the following email clients: • • • Evolution Mozilla Mail Text-based email clients Before you launch an email client. If you have any questions regarding what information you need. Server type for sending email (SMTP) The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol for sending email messages between servers. Server type for receiving email (POP or IMAP) In order to receive mail. POP. Unless properly configured. Most email systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another. the place where incoming email is stored. an application that understands the various email transmission standards and allows you to send. SMTP is also used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. IMAP. Most ISP email servers use the POP protocol. the messages can then be retrieved with an email client using either POP or IMAP.Chapter 7. Since all email clients perform the same basic tasks (send and receive email). you should have some information from your Internet Service Provider (ISP) handy so that you can configure the client properly. is a protocol for retrieving email messages from your ISP’s email server. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate how to use some of the popular email applications included in Red Hat Linux. whereas POP mail is downloaded to your email client directly and does not stay on the server. is used to send email from a mail server to your email client’s inbox. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your email application. choose the one that is most convenient and easy to use.net. contact your ISP or network administrator. You can use email with an email client. you can choose one with the features that best suits your particular needs. including graphical email clients like Evolution and Mozilla Mail. . Red Hat Linux includes several email applications. This is usually in the form of yourname@yourisp. you must know what type of server your network administrator or ISP is using. This POP or IMAP address. and read email. receive. Email Applications Email is a very popular way of communicating with others over the Internet.net. so. All of the email client applications are designed to suit certain types of users. although some can use the newer IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol). and text-based clients like mutt. you will not be able to make full use of the email clients discussed in this chapter.

click on the Inbox icon. Follow the on-screen instructions and fill in the information you collected from your ISP or administrator in the text boxes provided. Figure 7-1. Evolution Evolution is more than just an email client. Email Applications 7. Evolution Welcome Screen The first time you start Evolution you will be presented with the Welcome Screen (Figure 7-1). go to Main Menu => Internet => Email. When you are done. and quick searches. user-defined filters.1. and you will be presented with the Main Screen as shown in Figure 7-2. which allows you to configure your email connection. It provides all of the standard email client features. . Figure 7-2. Evolution Main Screen To see what is in your inbox or to send an email. To launch Evolution from the desktop panel. and is the default email client for Red Hat Linux. including powerful mailbox management. click Finish.46 Chapter 7. Evolution is a full-featured personal and workgroup information management tool for Linux and UNIX-based systems. It additionally features a flexible calendar/scheduler which allows users to create and confirm group meetings and special events online.

Evolution Inbox Screen To compose a mail. . like calendering/scheduling and group messaging. Evolution New Email Message Screen Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to. click Help from the main toolbar and choose the component you want to learn more about. While Evolution does so much more than read and send email. click Send on the toolbar. If you would like to learn more about using some of the other features of Evolution. this chapter focusses exclusively on its email capabilities. Figure 7-4.Chapter 7. select New Message from the toolbar. Email Applications 47 Figure 7-3.

If you need further information about using Mozilla Mail. Mozilla Mail New Email Message Screen . the Mozilla Help contents are located under Help on the main menu. Mozilla Mail This section briefly covers the basic steps for sending and receiving email with Mozilla. click on the mail icon near the lower left corner of the Mozilla screen. Email Applications 7. Figure 7-5. Mozilla Mail and News Figure 7-6. To start Mozilla Mail.48 Chapter 7.2. To open Mozilla Mail while in Mozilla. select Main Menu => Extras Internet => Mozilla Mail.

When you are done. 7. To join a newsgroup. The discussions are in threaded format (which means all topics and responses to the topic are sorted and organized for convenient reading) and subscribing to a group is very easy. Mozilla and Newsgroups Newsgroups are Internet discussion groups with specific topics. save it to a separate folder. Right-click on this account name and select Subscribe. click on OK.Chapter 7. click on the Send button or go to File => Send Now or Send Later. you can determine the name that this account will be referred to and review your settings. Posting to a newsgroup is just like writing . Figure 7-7. The New Account Setup screen will appear. You do not have to post messages if you do not want to. you can go back to the main mail screen and go to File => Send unsent messages. contact your Internet service provider or network administrator for this information). Then. and more. click on the message you want to read. On the last few screens. click on the mail folder you created for yourself to see a list of messages waiting for you. If you choose to send later. Click on your mail account name in the sidebar and select Create a new account from the options that appear on the right of the screen. Newsgroup Account Setup Enter your name and email address on the next screen and click Next. Once you read a message. you can delete it. A dialog box appears. enter the name of your news server (if you do not know the name of your news server. Select Newsgroup account and then click Next. The newsgroup account you created will appear in the sidebar of the Mozilla mail screen. you first need to set up a newsgroup account. which is a Newsgroup term for reading without posting messages.1. listing all the newsgroups available.2. Select the newsgroup you want to access and a dialog box appears with information about downloading and reading existing messages. There are a great many newsgroups on the Web with topics ranging from politics to computer games to random strange thoughts. To read email. click on the arrow next to the newsgroup account name and the list of groups you are subscribed to will appear beneath. Select the groups you are interested in reading and click Subscribe. You can even post and download pictures and files to Newsgroups (although your ISP may restrict Newsgroups to text-based postings only). you can just lurk. Email Applications 49 To send an email. Now. On the following screen.

mutt/muttrc. mutt allows the user to control nearly all of the functions that mutt uses to send. 7.muttrc or ~/.g. Plain text (also called clear text) is the most portable format because it is supported by nearly every email application on various types of machines. gives mutt its flexibility and configurability. Using Mutt Mutt is a small but very powerful text-based mail client for UNIX operating systems. and there are no special fonts. For example :unset help turns off the handy keyboard command hints at the top of the screen. plain text email is just that — plain text. right-click on the group name and select Unsubscribe. Email Applications an email. Plain Text Email Clients Most modern email clients allow the user to select whether they want to send their emails in plain text or in HTML. it takes time to understand the features and what they can do for you. The advantage of HTML formatted email is that they can contain graphics and interactive links to Web sites. This initial menu is called the index. all this makes for a visually appealing message when it gets to the recipient. .3. e. the layout is very controllable. ~/. Most of the options are invoked using the set or unset commands. The number of options that mutt has available to it are truly astounding. This chapter will discuss the mutt plain text email client. When you launch mutt. It is also this file that might give new users problems. 7. If you cannot remember the command you want to use. The particular font can be specified. receive. They is nothing fancy. except that the newsgroup name appears in the To field rather than an email address.muttrc. there is always tab-completion to help you. The term plain text refers to textual data in ASCII format. it has to be named either ~/. textures. On the other hand. set folder = ~/Mail.50 Chapter 7. Plain text emails are simple. and read your mail. with either boolean or string values. there are no pictures embedded in the email. and pictures or backgrounds can be added.3. All configuration options can be changed at any time by typing a [:] followed by the relevant command. As is true with all powerful software. the first thing you see is a screen with a list of email messages. type :set help. To turn those hints back on.1. you can save them in a file which is loaded every time the program starts up. You do not have to type all your preferred configuration commands each time you run mutt. Mutt’s configuration file. To unsubscribe from a newsgroup. This configuration file must exist in your home directory.

change the encoding. A text editor (defined by your $EDITOR environmental variable in the configuration file) will then launch allowing you to compose your message. where you can customize your message headers.2. In the index or pager views. Type your message.x . To learn more about mutt. use the [R] key to reply to a message or the [M] key to create a new one. Email Applications 51 Figure 7-8. save your file and exit the editor. mutt Main Screen These messages are in a default mail folder. After editing your email. Mutt displays the compose menu. add file attachments or simply press the [Y] key to send your email on its way. where x is the version number of mutt installed on your system. Use the [K] and [J] keys on your keyboard to move the highlighted cursor up and down the list of messages. You may also find the mutt manual to be very helpful. refer to the man pages for muttrc and mutt (type man muttrc or man mutt at the shell prompt). The mutt manual is installed in /usr/share/doc/mutt-1. that you can think of as your inbox. Mutt will prompt for the To: address and the Subject: line. often called the mailspool.Chapter 7. .

Email Applications .52 Chapter 7.

Printer hardware manufacturers distribute CD-ROMs or diskettes with their printers. The printer name cannot contain spaces and must begin with a letter. Adding a Printer In the window shown in Figure 8-2. such as one attached through a parallel port or USB port on your computer. The printer name may contain letters. numbers. The Printer Configuration Tool uses a step-by-step process that can help you configure a printer faster than editing configuration files manually. The Printer Configuration Tool Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility for configuring local and remote printers without the need to install additional drivers and applications. enter a short description for the printer. dashes (-). Click Forward to proceed. as most operating systems require these CD-ROMs because they contain printer drivers — software that communicates with both the printer and the operating system. Red Hat Linux provides drivers for most printer models. . 8. and configure it with the useful tools provided by Red Hat Linux. Figure 8-1. click the New button in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to display the window in Figure 8-1. For remote printer setup and more advanced printer configuration issues. thus the drivers and software on the printer manufacturer’s CD-ROM and diskettes are not needed.Chapter 8. With few exceptions. 8. which can contain spaces. refer to the chapter called Printer Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. Printer Configuration Most computer users either own a printer at home or use one at work. Optionally.1.2. turn on the printer. This chapter shows you how to set up and test a printer directly connected to your Red Hat Linux system. all you need to do is attach the printer to your Red Hat Linux system. Adding a Local Printer To add a local printer. Printers have become a very popular PC peripheral due to their increasing quality and decreasing prices. and underscores (_). enter a unique name for the printer in the Name text field.

3.54 Chapter 8. Select Locally-connected from the Select a queue type menu. Figure 8-3. Click Forward to continue. You will see a window similar to Figure 8-4. Printer Configuration Figure 8-2. Select the printer model from the list. Go to Section 8. Adding a Local Printer The next step is to select the type of printer. If no devices appear in the list. The device is usually /dev/lp0 for a parallel printer or /dev/usb/lp0 for a USB printer. select the model from the list. the next step is to select the printer model.3 Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing to continue. Select the name of the printer manufacturer from the pulldown menu. The printers are divided by manufacturers. and select the device. Selecting a Queue Name After clicking Forward. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing After selecting the queue type of the printer. 8. . The printer models are updated each time a different manufacturer is selected. click Rescan devices to rescan the computer or click Custom device to specify it manually. If it was not auto-detected. Figure 8-3 appears.

you need a print driver to process the data that is sent to the printer. the remote print server usually has its own print driver. clicking Edit. If the test fails. Selecting a Printer Model The recommended print driver is selected based on the printer model selected. Refer to Section 8. the remote print server might not have a print driver configured.3. clicking the Driver tab. To make sure the data is not filtered more than once. Printer Configuration 55 Figure 8-4. and printing a test page. selecting a different print driver. If you select an additional print driver on your local computer. or NCP). the data is filtered multiple times and is converted to a format that the printer can not understand. applying the changes. If you are configuring a remote printer (IPP. selecting the printer from the list. Try selecting a print driver according to the manufacturer and model of the remote printer. Click the Apply button in the main window to save your changes and restart the printer daemon. LPD. The print driver processes the data that you want to print into a format the printer can understand. After applying the changes.Chapter 8. Confirming Printer Configuration The last step is to confirm your printer configuration. Since a local printer is attached directly to your computer. After applying the changes. Click Back to modify the printer configuration. SMB.5 Modifying Existing Printers for details. You can also configure options such as paper size if you edit the print queue after adding it. If you need to print characters beyond the basic ASCII set (including those used for languages such as Japanese). Tip You can select a different print driver after adding a printer by starting the Printer Configuration Tool. print a test page to ensure the configuration is correct. print a test page to try out this new configuration. Refer to Section 8.4 Printing a Test Page for details. and then applying the changes. Click Apply to add the print queue if the settings are correct. first try selecting Generic as the manufacturer and Raw Print Queue or Postscript Printer as the printer model.1. you must review your driver options and select Prerender Postscript. . 8.

4. and click OK. select the printer that you want to try out from the printer list. The tabbed window shown in Figure 8-6 is displayed. If you change the print driver or modify the driver options. After adding the printer(s). Make any necessary changes. Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. To set the default printer. Modifying Existing Printers To delete an existing printer. select the printer from the printer list and click the Default button on the toolbar. you should print a test page to make sure the printer is functioning properly. The default printer icon appears in the Default column of the default printer in the list. The printer is removed from the printer list. you should print a test page to test the different configuration. Printer Configuration 8. Figure 8-5. select the printer and click the Delete button on the toolbar.56 Chapter 8. The window contains the current values for the selected printer.5. then select the appropriate test page from the Test pulldown menu. To print a test page. . Test Page Options 8. the settings can be edited by selecting the printer from the printer list and clicking the Edit button. Printing a Test Page After you have configured your printer. Click Apply in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to save the changes and restart the printer daemon.

Chapter 8. Click OK to return to the main window. Options vary for each print driver. Refer to Send Form-Feed (FF) above. After making modifications. • . Printer Driver The Printer driver tab shows which print driver is currently being used. If this does not work. Driver Options The Driver Options tab displays advanced printer options. Queue Type The Queue type tab shows the queue type that was selected when adding the printer and its settings. If it is changed. Printer Configuration 57 Figure 8-6. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. The queue type of the printer can be changed or just the settings. Send End-of-Transmission (EOT) should be selected if sending a form-feed does not work.2. Editing a Printer 8. 8. Common options include: • Send Form-Feed (FF) should be selected if the last page of the print job is not ejected from the printer (for example. Queue Name To rename a printer or change its short description. click OK to return to the main window. click OK to return to the main window.3. Some printers require both Send Form-Feed (FF) and Send Endof-Transmission (EOT) to eject the last page. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. 8. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. 8. try selecting Send End-ofTransmission (EOT) instead. Refer to the appropriate section on adding a printer for a description of the options. The name of the printer should change in the printer list.1. Depending on which queue type is chosen. change the value in the Queue name tab.4.5. different options are displayed.5.5. Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon.5. the form feed light flashes). Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon.

This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. If this option is selected. This option is only available if the PostScript driver is used with the CUPS printing system. The options include US Letter. try unselecting this when printing plain text documents to decrease the time it takes to print. the print driver assumes the unknown data is text and then converts it to PostScript. select this option to print Japanese fonts to a non-Japanese printer. the job number. Extra time is required to perform this action. such as printing text file from Emacs or printing an image from The GIMP. select ja_JP. Otherwise. For example. If the CUPS printing system is used. This option converts it to PostScript level 1. click the Printer Manager icon on the panel to start the GNOME Print Manager as shown in Figure 8-7. If this option is selected along with the Convert Text to Postscript option.6. Only select this option if there are problems printing. Also select this option if the printer can not handle PostScript level 3. click OK to return to the main window. the print job is added to the print spool queue. this is not an option because text is always converted to PostScript. If you are running a graphical desktop environment. Prerender Postscript should be selected if characters beyond the basic ASCII set are being sent to the printer but they are not printing correctly (such as Japanese characters). Change this option to use paper from a different tray. If Japanese characters are being printed. such as the status of the request. 8. the username of the person who sent the request. Page Size allows the paper size to be selected. try selecting this option. the hostname of the system that sent the request. The print spool queue is a list of print jobs that have been sent to the printer and information about each print request. accept the default of C. and A4. This option prerenders non-standard PostScript fonts so that they are printed correctly. Convert to PS level 1. and more. If the printer does not support the fonts you are trying to print. . • • • GhostScript pre-filtering — allows you to select No pre-filtering. the print driver assumes that any data that it can not recognize is text and attempts to print it as text. or Convert to PS level 2 in case the printer can not handle certain PostScript levels. US Legal. Do not choose it unless problems printing the correct fonts exist. Printer Configuration Assume Unknown Data is Text should be selected if the print driver does not recognize some of the data sent to it.58 Chapter 8. Managing Print Jobs When you send a print job to the printer daemon. Media Source defaults to Printer default. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. Convert Text to Postscript is selected by default. A3. If the printer can print plain text. Effective Filter Locale defaults to C. • • • • To modify the driver options.

The Printer Configuration Tool is then started.Chapter 8. Click OK to start printing the file. List of Print Jobs To cancel a specific print job listed in the GNOME Print Manager. browse to the location of the file and drag and drop it on to the Print Manager icon on the Panel. Figure 8-8. the icon might not be displayed for short print jobs. . select it from the list and select Edit => Cancel Documents from the pulldown menu. If there are active print jobs in the print spool. Double-click on a configured printer to view the print spool queue as shown in Figure 8-8. Figure 8-9. a printer notification icon might appears in the Panel Notification Area of the desktop panel as shown in Figure 8-9. Printer Configuration 59 Figure 8-7. Also located on the Panel is a Print Manager icon. Because it probes for active print jobs every five seconds. To print a file from Nautilus. To change the printer settings. Printer Notification Icon Clicking on the printer notification icon starts the GNOME Print Manager to display a list of current print jobs. The window shown in Figure 8-10 is displayed. right-click on the icon for the printer and select Properties. GNOME Print Manager It can also be started by selecting Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => System Tools => Print Manager.

60

Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

Figure 8-10. Print Verification Window To view the list of print jobs in the print spool from a shell prompt, type the command lpq. The last few lines will look similar to the following:
Rank Owner/ID active user@localhost+902 Class A Job Files 902 sample.txt Size Time 2050 01:20:46

Example 8-1. Example of lpq output If you want to cancel a print job, find the job number of the request with the command lpq and then use the command lprm job number . For example, lprm 902 would cancel the print job in Example 8-1. You must have proper permissions to cancel a print job. You can not cancel print jobs that were started by other users unless you are logged in as root on the machine to which the printer is attached. You can also print a file directly from a shell prompt. For example, the command lpr sample.txt will print the text file sample.txt. The print filter determines what type of file it is and converts it a format the printer can understand.

8.7. Additional Resources
To learn more about printing on Red Hat Linux, refer to the following resources.

8.7.1. Installed Documentation
• man printcap —

The manual page for the /etc/printcap printer configuration file.

• map lpr — The manual page for the lpr command that allows you to print files from the command

line.

• man lpd

— The manual page for the LPRng printer daemon.

Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

61

• man lprm

— The manual page for the command line utility to remove print jobs from the LPRng spool queue. — The manual page for the command line utility to print multiple pages on one sheet — The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon. The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon configuration file. The manual page for the class configuration file for CUPS.

• man mpage

of paper.

• man cupsd

• man cupsd.conf —

• man classes.conf —

8.7.2. Useful Websites
• •

http://www.linuxprinting.org — GNU/Linux Printing contains a large amount of information about printing in Linux. http://www.cups.org/ — Documentation, FAQs, and newsgroups about CUPS.

62

Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

the OpenOffice. . Integration of the software that make up a productivity suite helps you to give impact to your presentations. writing a formal letter.html .org suite has many file compatibility features. and allows you to .htm/.ppt. resumes. . or printed collateral. at school. The OpenOffice.org Suite Productivity suites are collections of applications designed to save time and assist users at work.org Impress OpenOffice.jpg.htm/.png Table 9-1. The applications that comprise a productivity suite are integrated — which means that you can. spreadsheets.sxd. Red Hat Linux includes a powerful business productivity suite called OpenOffice. image formats. OpenOffice. . visual form of document formatting is called what you see is what you get (or WYSIWYG) editing. lectures.txt. and . It includes templates. edit. which incorporates several complementary applications into one integrated package. and at home. . or opening a document from an email attachment. productivity suites are graphical and include such applications as word processors. Usually.dbf.org Calc OpenOffice. .sxc. personnel directories.org suite is able to read. for example. Application OpenOffice. Table 9-1 shows the many different types of files you can use and tasks you can accomplish with the OpenOffice. .Chapter 9.org Writer OpenOffice. clip art.doc or . . . slide shows . 9. budgets. line drawings.org suite. . simple databases Business and academic presentations. business forms.org Features The OpenOffice.1.sdd Document Types Formal letters.bmp. If you have ever worked with or received .slk. school papers.org suite contains several applications for creating and editing documents.org Features As you can see. . newsletters. Whether you are preparing for a business or school presentation.sda. lectures.csv. Working with Documents Red Hat Linux includes several tools for managing all of your documents.gif. write a document with an embedded chart created by the spreadsheet application as well as a slide from a graphical presentation application. and artwork. forms.sxd.sxi.org Draw File Compatibility .doc. including files which are commonly associated with Microsoft Office. export files to several Illustrations.sdc. . and create files in several formats.org. .html . Web presentations. tables. OpenOffice.xls files.org is much faster and easier than learning complex tags and code to format your documents and presentations.sxw. spreadsheets. . business presentations.xls. . Using OpenOffice. It allows you complete control over the layout and content of your documents and lets you see the results as you edit it. including . reports Spreadsheets. address books.rtf. . you know they are commonly associated with the Microsoft Office suite. This real-time.1. The OpenOffice. and wizards for creating basic professional documents and presentations quickly. charts.1. graphs. organizational charts .sdw. and presentation utilities. . Red Hat Linux has a tool that suits your needs. 9.

for files that you need to distribute to Microsoft Office users. and printing documents.1. The main interface is the document editing area (the white space in the middle of the window) where you can add and edit text. To save your text.org Writer window is exactly what you get if you printed the document or if you gave the document file to someone else for them to view. design.org suite. 9. choose Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. toggling the automatic highlighting of misspelled words.org Writer Writing documents using OpenOffice. and more. OpenOffice.org Writer is a powerful word processor that features WYSIWYG formatting — what you see in the OpenOffice.org Writer.org is similar to other word processing applications you may have used before.64 Chapter 9. justification (aligning the text of your document to the left.org Writer in action: Figure 9-1. Working with Documents accomplish several tasks for academic. You can immediately begin typing text into the document editing area at any time using the default . as well as buttons for creating new documents (which will open up a new window with a blank document for you to add content). and other convenient editing functions. or right margins). a pop-up Tip is displayed with a brief explanation of the button’s functionality. to start it from a shell prompt. The default file type is appropriate for files that you are working on exclusively with OpenOffice. or home use. If you hover the mouse cursor over a toolbar button. keyword and phrase searching. saving.org applications. OpenOffice. You can display more detailed Tips by clicking the Help menu and choosing Extended Tips.2. Figure 9-1 shows OpenOffice. and print your documents without the need to memorize complex formatting tags or codes. The following sections shows you how to use the OpenOffice. click the Save button choose the file format from the File type drop down menu at the bottom of the browser window. there is a toolbar with buttons for checking your spelling. There is also a text box that enables you to specify the exact location of a document on your machine and load the document into the editing area. A word processor is like a text editor but has several additional features that allow you to format. center. At the top of the window are various functions collected into toolbars that let you choose your fonts. However. which opens the pop-up file browser. OpenOffice. There are also buttons for opening.org Writer from your desktop panel. business. type oowriter. You can settings. Along the left side of the window. or if you are . letter sizes.org Writer To start OpenOffice.

illustrations. OpenOffice. Figure 9-3 shows OpenOffice. creating business charts.org Calc in action. While OpenOffice. Figure 9-2.org Calc From large enterprises to home offices. Note that you can also export your document to HTML or PDF format. You can perform calculations on groups of cells (such as adding or subtracting a column of cells) or create charts based on the quantities contained in a group of cells. and manipulating data. To start OpenOffice. Working with Documents 65 editing a file that was sent as an email attachment with the . charts. you can also add objects such as images. The image will appear where you placed your cursor and can be made larger or smaller by clicking on the resizing borders around the image. A cell is a container for individual pieces of data.doc extension.org Calc. you can save it in any format that you wish.org Calc from a shell prompt. and tables to your document to complement your text or give impact to your documents. type oocalc. select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. Consult Table 9-1 for available file formats. To start OpenOffice. such as a quantity. label. select Insert => Graphics => From File.Chapter 9. . you can save the file as a Microsoft Word file type that others will be able to open it in Microsoft Word.org Calc is a software spreadsheet application that allows you to enter and manipulate data cells organized in columns and rows.org Calc from the desktop panel. formats which can be read by almost every computer with a Web browser (such as Mozilla) or PDF viewer application (such as xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader). OpenOffice. and choose the image from the pop-up file browser. 9. To add an image to the document. professionals in every industry use spreadsheets for keeping records. Adding an Image to Your Document Once you have created your document.1.3. You can even incorporate spreadsheet data into your documents for a professional touch. Figure 9-2 shows an image added to a document. or mathematical formula.org Writer is useful for general document editing.

=quotient() for division. Working with Documents Figure 9-3. OpenOffice. For example. Then you can run a formula on column B to come up with a total. OpenOffice.org Impress presentations. OpenOffice.org Calc. You can move it anywhere on the screen for printing.org Calc OpenOffice.org Calc has several preset functions and calculations (such as =SUM() for addition/multiplication. groceries. The graph will be displayed anchored within the spreadsheet window. or you can save the graph as an object that you can then embed in OpenOffice. If you need to create charts or graphs for class or business presentations. the data ranges you chose will be shown in the text box for you to customize further if desired. refer to the documentation by selecting Help => Contents.66 Chapter 9.org Calc allows you to enter and manipulate personal or business data. and =subtotal()for preparing receipts). and click Create.org has several chart and graph templates available. . you can create a personal budget by entering data descriptions (such as rent.org Calc allows you to enter the data either in the cell itself by double clicking the cell and typing your information or by using the Input Line (the text box on the toolbar).. For detailed information about creating functions for calculating your numerical data in OpenOffice.org Writer documents or OpenOffice. Click Next to display the many different charts and graphs you can create using your data. and utilities) into column A and the quantities of those data descriptions in column B. Highlight the areas you would like to chart.. OpenOffice. Choose the style you want. then click Insert => Chart.. In the Chart window.

You can even import charts and graphs created by OpenOffice.xls formats. and presentations.org Calc You can save spreadsheets created with OpenOffice. OpenOffice. including the native . For more information about using OpenOffice. OpenOffice.org Impress Visual aids can give your presentations an added impact that catches your audience’s attention and keeps them interested.org Impress is a graphical tool that can help you make a more convincing presentation.1.org Impress.org Impress from a shell prompt. Figure 9-5 shows OpenOffice.org Impress from the graphical desktop. webpages. Additionally. Creating Charts with OpenOffice. To start OpenOffice. 9. type ooimpress.Chapter 9.org Impress in action.org Calc. or images.org Calc into a slide. refer to the help page located in Help => Contents from the file menus.sxc as well as Microsoft Office compatible .org Calc in several file formats. OpenOffice.4. Working with Documents 67 Figure 9-4. select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. You can make slides with itemized lists.org Impress features a step-by-step automated presentation wizard called AutoPilot that allows you to create presentations from a collection of default style templates. To start OpenOffice. outlines. . you can export rendered charts and graphs to several image file formats and integrate them with document files.

in the floating toolbar. and any animated visual effects you want to apply to the slides if you run presentations from your computer. OpenOffice.org Impress. which you can exit by cycling through every slide until you reach the end or by pressing the [Esc] key at any point in the slide show. the Microsoft PowerPoint format (mypresentation. the medium with which you will present your slides (plain paper.68 Chapter 9. You can select a pre-formatted slide from the list or start with a blank slide and customize the layout yourself. To add new slides to your presentation. You can choose the style of your slides. or a display monitor). Working with Documents Figure 9-5. You can also preview your presentation at any point by selecting Slide Show => Slide Show from the file menus. Your presentation can be saved in several file formats.sdd). you can choose the type of slide you want to create. and a pop-up window will appear allowing you to choose the layout of the new slide.sxi)..org Impress format (for example. you will be presented with the AutoPilot.org Impress AutoPilot Wizard Once you have chosen your preferences with AutoPilot tool. Figure 9-6. slides. mypresentation.. click Insert Slide. . You can have as many slides in your presentation as you need. You can also print your presentation to plain or transparent paper formats by clicking File => Print from the file menu.ppt).org Impress When you first start OpenOffice. You can save in the native OpenOffice. transparent paper for overhead projectors. The presentation will be presented in full screen. or StarImpress format (mypresentation. OpenOffice.

To start OpenOffice. Figure 9-7 Shows OpenOffice. place on websites. you will find that OpenOffice. There are toolbars for creating straight and curved lines.1.org Draw.org Draw. OpenOffice. refer to the documentation located at Help => Contents from the file menus.org Draw also allows you to open and import images and modify them with the tools provided. You can create images and fill them with the color of your choice using the Area Style/Filling drop-down menu on the main toolbar.org Draw has some of the same basic functions. click Help => Contents from the file menus. To start OpenOffice.5. For more information on using OpenOffice.Chapter 9.png. you can use OpenOffice. When you complete your illustration or image modifications. OpenOffice.org Draw If you want to create graphics for your documents and presentations. click Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. . Figure 9-7.org Impress. 69 9. 3D objects such as cones and cubes. you can save the file in one of several native file formats or export your work to several popular formats such as . or attach to emails.jpg or .org Draw allows you to make illustrations and save them in several formats that you can add to printed documents. and more. OpenOffice. Refer to Table 9-1 for the complete list of compatible image file formats. Using your mouse as a you would a pen or a paintbrush. Working with Documents To learn more about OpenOffice.org Draw from a shell prompt. You can additionally insert text into your illustrations.org Draw. type oodraw.org Draw from the desktop panel. basic shapes such as squares and circles.org Draw If you are familiar with illustration and graphics applications such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information).org Draw in action. OpenOffice.

Tip gedit allows you to open multiple text files in one window using separate tabs for each file. Press the [Page Up] and [Page Down] keys to advance the document a page at a time. create new text files. use the arrow keys to navigate through the text file line-by-line. and print files. gedit Once gedit is running. You can also cut and paste text to and from other graphical desktop applications. choose the file you want .2. Plain text files are files that contain text without any font or style formatting applied to it.70 Chapter 9. Note gedit can only be used in a graphical desktop environment. Editing Text Files Red Hat Linux includes several text editors. You can also start gedit by typing gedit at a shell prompt. You can navigate the text file by clicking and holding the scroll bar on the right edge of the window and moving your mouse cursor up and down. such as system logs and configuration files. applications that allow you to view and modify plain text files. To start gedit. Working with Documents 9. click Open. You can begin using gedit immediately or click the Open button to locate the plain text file you want to edit. and save plain text files. you are presented with a blank editing area. edit. The file will load into the main editing area as shown in Figure 9-8. If you have a file already open and want to copy text from another file. gedit is a graphical text editor. click Main Menu => Accessories => Text Editor. Figure 9-8. gedit has a clear and understandable interface that uses tabs so that you can open more than one file at the same time without opening more than one gedit window. or. It can open.

search. © ¨ . and the file will open in a new tab within the gedit window.1. press [i] (for Insert mode). then any changes you make will automatically appear in the file the next time you open it. You can also choose File => Save As... If you are editing an existing file.Chapter 9. choose Help => Contents from the file menus to access the gedit manual. or by choosing File => Save from the file menus. vi By default. Shell Prompt Text Editors If you are not using a graphical desktop and want to read and modify a text or configuration file. which exits without saving changes. you are editing a configuration file and you want to test your changes without losing your original configuration. and vi reverts to Normal mode. vi is a simple application that opens within the shell prompt and allows you to view. To add text. 9. Working with Documents 71 to access. press [:] (which is the vi command mode) and press [q] then [Enter]. Red Hat Linux includes the vi (pronounced vee-eye) text editor. To exit insert mode. If you have made changes to the text file that you want to save. To open a file with vi type vi filename at a shell prompt. a pop-up window will prompt you to name the file and save it in the directory of your choice. meaning that you can view and run built-in commands on the file but you cannot add text to it. for example.2. For more information about gedit. You can navigate between each file by clicking on the the tab associated with the particular filename. press [:] and type [w] then [q] to write your changes to the file and exit the application. type vi at a shell prompt. To start vi. press [Esc]. Figure 9-9. which is convenient if. and modify text files. Once you have modified or written your text file. To exit vi. vi opens a file in Normal mode. type [:] and then type [q] followed by [!]. More information about using vi can be found by typing man vi at a shell prompt. which will allow you to make any modifications you need to. If you are writing a new text file. you can save it by pressing the Save button in the toolbar. If you accidentally made changes to a file and you want to exit vi without saving the changes. to save an existing file under a new name or in a different location.

PDF captures formatting information from a variety of desktop publishing applications. . Select the PDF file you want to view and click Open. Working with Documents 9. 2. you can download it free of charge at http://www. To view the xpdf man page. 4.72 Chapter 9.3.com/. making it possible to send formatted documents and have them appear on the recipient’s monitor or printer as they were intended. Select Open to display the file browser. In your desktop environment. at a shell prompt type man xpdf. as well as standard zoom. go to Main Menu => Graphics => PDF Viewer. xpdf To view a PDF with xpdf: 1. While it is not included with Red Hat Linux. The xpdf toolbar at the bottom has navigational tools that let you move backward and forward through the PDF document. To view a PDF you must have a PDF reader. Viewing PDFs A PDF (Portable Document Format) file is an electronic image of a document. You can also launch xpdf by typing xpdf at a shell prompt. An open source application called xpdf is included with Red Hat Linux. Right-click in the xpdf screen to display a list of options. Figure 9-10. 3. print. Another popular PDF viewer is Adobe Acrobat Reader. The xpdf man page provides useful information on the xpdf options.adobe. and find tools.

Playing Audio CDs To play an audio CD. Figure 10-1. There is even a sliding bar that allows you to adjust the volume. CD Player Preferences 10. with play. If the interface does not appear. You can edit the track listings for your CDs by clicking the Open track editor button. Users enjoy the technology because the sound quality is excellent compared to analog tape or records. Here you can set themes for the player as well as set the behavior of the CD-ROM drive when you open or quit the CD Player application. and stop functions. To take advantage of this technology. Press the Next track and Previous Track buttons to skip forward or backward one track. click Main Menu => Sound & Video => CD Player to launch the CD Player application. Figure 10-2. a cross-platform multimedia player which allows you to play several digital audio file formats. From games and toys to multimedia applications. You can also change the way the application functions by clicking on the Open Preferences button. Audio.2.Chapter 10. pause. place the CD in your CD-ROM drive. CD Player Interface The CD Player interface acts similar to a standard CD player. 10. and the files are compact (audio files can easily be transferred across the Internet).1. The CD Player application should appear automatically and begin playing the first audio track. . Red Hat Linux provides many packages to assist you in having some fun with your computer. Video. Red Hat Linux includes the powerful X Multimedia System (XMMS). you can also use the Track List drop down menu to select a track from the available listing. and General Amusement This chapter presents you with the lighter side of Red Hat Linux. Playing Digital Audio Files Digital audio has become very popular in recent years.

Highlight the file you wish to play (if you have multiple files. and skip (backward and forward) your audio files. There are also buttons to stop. type the command xmms. Audio. by genre or artist). 10. you see that there are several files to choose from. XMMS Interface XMMS can be used for more than just playing digital audio files. . a popular new audio file format. The Load File(s) Window In Figure 10-4. Additionally. Notice that XMMS begins to play your audio files immediately. Video. click the Open button window. By default XMMS can play Ogg Vorbis. for some reason. you do not hear sound and know that you do have a sound card installed. Troubleshooting Your Sound Card If. XMMS can be extended via plugins to play a number of other digital multimedia formats. To launch XMMS.pls file is an audio playlist file. you can run the Sound Card Configuration Tool utility. go to Main Menu => Sound & Video => XMMS.3. To adjust the volume click the volume slider (the long slider above the Open button) to the left to lower the volume or to the right to increase it like a CD player. and General Amusement Figure 10-3. The files that end in . and most module formats. To learn more about using XMMS and its many options.ogg are Ogg Vorbis files.2. To launch XMMS from a shell prompt. click and hold the mouse button and drag it over all of the files you want to open) and click OK.1. You can use XMMS to add audio files into a list and then save it as a playlist. 10. the . RIFF wave.74 Chapter 10. pause. Using XMMS To play an audio file with XMMS. This can be convenient if you have several audio files and you want to categorize them (for example. refer to the man page by typing man xmms at a shell prompt. and choose a file from the Load File(s) Figure 10-4.

The Sound Card Configuration Tool utility probes your system for sound cards. Sound Card Configuration Tool 10. check the Hardware Compatibility List at http://hardware. If you can hear the sample. it will automatically try to configure the correct settings for your card. you can manually edit your /etc/modules.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/ . You can edit your modules. Manual Sound Card Configuration If your sound card is not a plug and play card. You can then click the Play test sound button to play a sound sample. choose Main Menu => System Settings => Soundcard Detection. If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work If the Sound Card Configuration Tool does not work (if the sample does not play and you still do not have audio sounds).tldp. Video.Chapter 10.redhat. 10. For example: alias sound sb alias midi opl3 options opl3 io=0x388 options sb io=0x220 irq=7 dma=0.1.3.conf file as discussed below (this strategy is not recommended for most new users) or refer to the documentation that came with your sound card for more information. there are alternatives. Figure 10-5.1. refer to the Linux Sound HOWTO at the Linux Documentation Project webpage: http://www.3.1 mpu_io=0x300 For information on configuring sound manually. and General Amusement 75 To use the Sound Card Configuration Tool. If the utility detects a plug and play sound card. but there are some sound cards that are not completely compatible or may not work at all.com/ to see if your card is supported. Audio. Note Most sound cards are supported by Red Hat Linux. select OK and your sound card configuration is complete. although they are not quite as simple as running the Sound Card Configuration Tool. If you are having trouble configuring your sound card.1.conf file to include the sound card module that it should use. A small text box pops up prompting you for your root password.

Audio. then click the Configure. for example.. if you did not choose to configure a video card at that time. When you have finished reconfiguring your video card and monitor.4.. Whether you enjoy card games like . you can use the X Configuration Tool utility. However.. Note The X Configuration Tool backs up your system’s original video configuration file to /etc/X11/XF86Config. You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your video card for the correct model and settings by clicking the Probe Videocard button. click the Advanced tab.. X Configuration Tool To configure your monitor manually. The games included in Red Hat Linux appeal to quite a large number of video game enthusiasts. or if you need to reconfigure your settings. and General Amusement 10.backup in case you need it to switch back to a previous configuration. You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your monitor for the correct model and vertical/horizontal frequency settings. click the Advanced tab. redhat-config-xfree86 attempts to start a minimal X session to allow you to continue your configuration. 10. Follow the instructions that appear on the screen. A pop-up window will display a list of video card models.76 Chapter 10. You should do this. button next to the Monitor Type entry. Games Playing games under Red Hat Linux is a fun way to pass the time.5. You can also start from a shell prompt by typing the command redhat-config-xfree86. then click the Configure. button next to the Video Card entry. Figure 10-6 shows the Advanced tab for configuring your video device manually. Video. Choose your model and click OK. To run the X Configuration Tool. A pop-up window prompts you for your root password. Figure 10-6. Choose your model and click OK. click Main Menu => System Settings => Display. To configure your video card manually. If you are working from a shell prompt and X is not working. if you install a new video card. Troubleshooting Your Video Card Video card configuration is handled during the Red Hat Linux installation (refer to the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide for more information). A pop-up window will display a list of monitor models. X Configuration Tool attempts to automatically configure your video card and monitor settings for you. which then prompt you to input your root password. you should be able to start an X session and enjoy your graphical desktop environment.

http://www.linuxgaming. click Main Menu => Games and select the game of your choice. then. . http://happypenguin. Video.org/ — the Linux gaming repository.com — A store where you can buy games just for Linux. and General Amusement 77 Aisle Riot (a solitaire card game).com/ — a Linux gaming news site. For more information.com/. You can also browse the Internet for linux games using a search engine. Finding Games Online There are many more games available within Red Hat Linux and online. In this game you point your mouse at matching marbles until they start to spin. here are a few suggestions: • • • • http://www. or space shooting games like Chromium and Maelstrom. http://www. The object of the game is to make all the marbles disappear. Same GNOME — Match the Marbles Game 10.google. arcade games like Tux Racer.linuxgames. board games like Chess.net — A website that covers Linux-compatible games in depth. such as http://www. Figure 10-7 shows a fun game for kids of all ages called Same GNOME. Audio. To start a game.6.Chapter 10.tuxgames. you can click them to make them disappear. Figure 10-7. you can find it in Red Hat Linux.

78

Chapter 10. Audio, Video, and General Amusement

Chapter 11. Working with Images
Digital images have grown in popularity with the development of the graphical Internet and the increasing quality of digital cameras. There are several types of image files, some of which are created using sophisticated illustration software packages, while others are made from digital sources such as a scanner or camera. You may have downloaded some of these image files from the Web or received them in an email. You may also want to create your own images to send to others. You can view and modify the most common types of image files using the many applications included in Red Hat Linux.

11.1. Viewing Images
This section discusses some of the common tools for viewing image files. Certain tools included in Red Hat Linux are specialized applications with several functions that enhance your image viewing experience; while others are general-purpose file managers that have integrated image viewing functionality.

11.1.1. Using Nautilus to View Images
Nautilus is a general-purpose file manager and browser for your graphical desktop environment. Nautilus has many functions beyond simple image viewing; however, for this section, we will use it for basic image browsing. For more information about Nautilus, see Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop. Nautilus is known for its ease-of-use and it handles images with the same ease as it does for other file types. To begin browsing your image collection with Nautilus, double-click your home desktop icon: You will be presented with a view of all files and folders within your home directory. Double-click the image (or the folder containing the image) and Nautilus will open the file or folder within its browser window. Figure 11-1 shows that Nautilus automatically creates thumbnails of any images in your folders:

Figure 11-1. Contents of a Folder in Nautilus

80

Chapter 11. Working with Images

Double-click on any thumbnail icon to view the image in its native size. The image will load within the browser window. To increase or decrease the size of the viewed image in Nautilus, click on the zoom buttons next to the Location: field as shown in Figure 11-2:

Figure 11-2. The Zoom Function in Nautilus Click the + button to increase the size of the image or - to decrease it.

11.1.2. Using gThumb
gThumb is a powerful image viewer for graphical desktop users that supports several image file formats, including:
• • • • • • • • •

JPG/JPEG GIF PGM XPM PNG PCX TIF/TIFF PPM BMP

gThumb is useful for viewing individual image files as well as browsing collections of files in folders. It supports zoom in and zoom out functions, as well as thumbnail sized preview icons of all image files within a directory. It also supports several advanced options not found in Nautilus. gThumb can be started from your desktop panel. Choose Main Menu => Graphics => gThumb Image Viewer or type gthumb at a shell prompt to start the application. gThumb will browse your user home directory by default. If you have any images in this directory, the gallery panel will automatically generate thumbnails for you to highlight and view in the main display area.

and be printed on your configured printer. Configuring gThumb gThumb allows you to customize several settings by choosing Edit => Preferences. choose Set Image as Wallpaper.1. You can center the image on the page. Double-click an image preview thumbnail to view it within the main gallery area. You can combine functions within gThumb and create a dynamic presentation effect for groups of images within a directory. which resizes the image from its native resolution to fit your screen size. type the path to the the directory where your images are located and highlight the first image in the main gallery panel. right-click anywhere in the main gallery area and choose Set Image as Wallpaper => Restore.1. Changing your Desktop Wallpaper with gThumb To change your desktop wallpaper with gThumb. and write descriptions about the images. . which fills your desktop with multiple instances of the image. collect multiple files into a catalog for easier access if they are located in different directories. The toolbar allows you to fit the image to the display window. 11. each image in the slide show is presented for 4 seconds. which sets the image at its native resolution on the desktop and fills the rest of the space with the default desktop color if the image is smaller than your desktop resolution.1. gThumb Displaying a Folder of Images The interface of gThumb is straightforward. set to full screen (which covers your entire screen with the image).Chapter 11. You can also scale and stretch the image. You can also tile the image. and converting an image from one file format to another. You can also set an image as your desktop wallpaper within the pop-up menu. right-click on an image. Click the Slide Show button on the toolbar and you will start a full-screen slide show where gThumb displays images in full screen. To restore your desktop wallpaper to its default. copying.2. In the text field below the toolbar.2. You can stop the slide show at any time by pressing [Esc] or by moving your mouse cursor and clicking the Restore Normal View pop-up button that appears on the top left corner of the screen. Right-clicking on an image in the display area opens a pop-up menu of file management options such as renaming. 11. moving. and then choose the orientation of the image. The gThumb interface also has a text field for you to enter a particular path to your image directories.2. By default. Working with Images 81 Figure 11-3. The image can be zoomed in and out.

customize a default image directory on startup.1. and change the interval between cycled images during a slide show.2. From a shell prompt. scanned images. Figure 11-4. choose Help => Contents from the main menu. You can choose the layout of the application window. 11. Manipulating Images with the GIMP The GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) is a powerful tool that can be used to create. manipulate. or you can start the GIMP from the desktop by choosing Main Menu => Graphics => The GIMP.82 Chapter 11. and enhance digital image files — photographs. alter. This section offers a quick overview of the GIMP and refers you to comprehensive references for learning more about it. you will need to know some of the basics. and more. 11.2. . Working with Images The preferences pop-up menu lets advanced users change several of the default gThumb behaviors. you start the GIMP using the command gimp. computer-generated images. Figure 11-5 shows a typical GIMP session in action. GIMP Basics To use the GIMP. The GThumb Preferences Dialog Box To find out more about using and configuring gThumb. change thumbnail preview sizes.

Figure 11-6. The GIMP in Action 11. select File => Open. The Load Image Dialog .2.2. Loading a File To load an existing file.Chapter 11. Working with Images 83 Figure 11-5. as shown in Figure 11-6. You will see the Load Image dialog.

and . The easiest way to work with images is to right-click the image. you can add text to images. 11. The GIMP then renders the image with the new effect applied. An Image modified with a GIMP Filter The Toolbox also has several easily accessible functions. The file you select appears in the Selection field near the bottom of the dialog. rotation.jpg. . A thumbnail preview is displayed in the dialog. Using the Toolbox. 11. click OK.. Working with Images The Load Image dialog displays your working directory — the directory you were in when the GIMP was launched. You can also double-click on a file name to open it.png. right click on the image and choose File => Save (or Save as). click on the Generate Preview button. The GIMP supports a wide variety of image formats. When you reach a desired quantity and are ready to render the image. Once you have selected a file. If you want to see a thumbnail of the image. GIMP Options Like many applications. Saving a File To save an image file. You can navigate up and down the file system tree by double-clicking on the Directories list on the left. the view will change to only those subdirectories and/or files beginning with that letter or letters. click on the OK button to open it. To do this. If you type the first letter (or more) of a file name into the Selection field and press the [Tab] key.bmp. and filter application.3.2. the GIMP provides more than one method to accomplish tasks. . erase regions of an image. including . alternatively.gif. right-click on the image and select Filters => Distorts => Newsprint. you must choose an image format. which displays a set of menus containing most of the GIMP’s many capabilities. Select the quantity of lines per inch using the sliders.. then selecting a file to open from the Files list on the right. including image sizing.. When you are saving an image. You will see the Save Image dialog if you choose Save as or if you choose Save and the file has not been saved before. a Generate Preview button is displayed. File name completion is supported by the GIMP. imagine you have a picture that you would like to modify to make it look as if it were clipped from a newspaper. or even fill selected regions with the color of your choice.4. The Save Image dialog looks almost exactly like the Load Image dialog and navigation of the file system tree and choosing files works in the same way. For example.2. Figure 11-7 shows an example of an image after the Newsprint filter has been applied: Figure 11-7. .84 Chapter 11.

. Using the Text Tool on an Image As you can see. 11...sourceforge. from the GIMP toolbar menu. select the loads the Text Tool dialog box. refer to the documentation in Help => Contents in the gThumb main menu. • • For more information about using gThumb. Click OK and your text is displayed as a floating section on the image. Try exploring some of the options yourself. This For example. You can always undo your mistakes by right-clicking on the image and choosing Edit => Undo.net — The official GThumb home page. if you wish to add text to a file. The GIMP manual page contains some of the more advanced command line options and environment variables associated with it. there is so much more you can do with them. where you can choose a font and type some text in the provided text box.3. Useful Websites The Web has several sites of interest if you are looking for more detailed information about an application covered in this chapter: • http://gthumb.3. You can then move the text to the position you wish using the Move Layers tool. Additional Resources While this chapter covers several applications briefly.3. 11. If you make a mistake. You can read the manual page by typing man gimp at a shell or terminal prompt.1. Figure 11-8 shows our photo with exciting new text: Figure 11-8. Installed Documentation Some applications discussed have online documentation included with the package. do not worry. and it takes some time to master all of its functions.Chapter 11. accessible right from your PC. The GIMP also has a help browser accessible by choosing Help => Help. Working with Images 85 button and click on your image. Refer to the following resources if you are interested in learning more about the applications in this chapter. 11.2. the GIMP is a powerful image editing tool.

New Riders Publishing Sams Teach Yourself GIMP in 24 Hours by Joshua and Ramona Pruitt. Working with Images • • • • • http://www.3. GIMP Essential Reference by Alex Harford. Inc. 11. Coriolis Group Grokking the GIMP by Carey Bunks. Related Books If you need in-depth information about the many capabilities of the GIMP.org/ — The official GIMP website.com/ — The companion website to the book Grokking the GIMP.gimp.rru. Hungry Minds. http://manual. by Carey Bunks. Sams . The entire book is also available on the site for download http://tigert. http://gimp-savvy. New Riders Publishing GIMP for Linux Bible by Stephanie Cottrell Bryant. GIMP: The Official Handbook by Karin Kylander and Olof S.3. Frank Kasper and Associates. et al.gimp. The following books were available at the time of this writing: • • • • • • The Artists’ Guide to the GIMP by Michael J. Inc. Kylander.html — A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) list for questions commonly asked about the GIMP by GIMP users (as opposed to developers).org/manual/ — The online GIMP User Manual. Hammel.org/gimp/ — The GIMP website of tigert (Tuomas Kuosmanen). Chapter 11. try your favorite bookstore.com/~meo/gimp/faq-user.gimp.86 http://www.

choose Select => All. whether your camera uses USB or serial ports to communicate with your computer. Before you begin using gtKam. it is likely that Red Hat Linux will support it.. You only have to configure gtKam for your camera once. the settings will be saved with each additional use. . So. click on the images you want.Chapter 12. choose Main Menu => Graphics => Digital Camera Tool. You can also download the images to your computer and modify it with image manipulation programs such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information about image manipulation tools). save. view. Click Apply to accept the changes and OK to close the dialog box. you can choose your camera from the drop-down list or let gtKam automatically find your camera by clicking Detect. From the menu. Working with Digital Cameras Digital cameras have recently grown in popularity because of their increasing image quality and easy interaction with desktop PCs. which you can then save to disk by choosing File => Save Selected Photos. you need to configure it to work with your digital camera. Select the directory that commonly stores your images and the stored images will immediately load as thumbnail images in the main panel. Directories shown below the icon may differ depending on your brand of camera. then save the images to disk. Using gtKam Red Hat Linux supports over 100 digital camera models. Digital cameras create high-quality images that allow you to send to others over the Internet or print on a color printer. From this panel. allowing you to open.. To start gtKam. gtKam is a graphical application that allows you to interface with your digital camera. choose Camera => Add Camera. and delete images directly. 12. and modify your digital photographs. view. Adding a Camera in gtKam Once you have added your camera. Red Hat Linux supports several brands of digital cameras and has applications that help you access. If you want to save all of the stored images.. Figure 12-1. You can also start gtKam by typing gtkam at a shell prompt. it will be shown as an icon on the left panel of the main gtKam window.1. From the pop-up dialog. gtKam works directly with your digital camera.

Working with Digital Cameras Figure 12-2.net/proj/gtkam/ .sourceforge.88 Chapter 12. Viewing Images with gtKam For more information about using gtKam. refer to the gtKam page at the gPhoto website: http://gphoto.

a task can be finished with just a few commands at a shell prompt. or modify files from a GUI. many Red Hat Linux functions can be completed faster from the shell prompt than from a graphical user interface (GUI). such as the C shell (csh) and the Korn shell (ksh). Figure 13-1.1. This lead to the development of the Bourne shell (known as sh). the shell interprets these commands. delete. something that offered better features than the command interpreters available at that time. they wanted to create a way for people to interact with their new system. perform simple administration tasks. created by S. . locate a directory. other shells have been developed. You can be perfectly productive in the X Window System and only have to open a shell prompt to complete a few tasks. Shell Prompt Basics 13. Operating systems at that time came with command interpreters. The History of the Shell When AT&T software engineers Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson were designing UNIX™. In less time than it might take to open a file manager.R. Experienced users can write shell scripts to expand their capabilities even further. Users type commands at a shell prompt. 13. manipulate files. Bourne. which could take commands from the user and interpret them so that computers could use them. A shell prompt looks similar to other command-line interfaces with which you might be familiar. Since the creation of the Bourne shell. However. A Shell Prompt This section explains how to navigate the file system. and then create. and then the shell tells the OS what to do. But Ritchie and Thompson wanted something more. and other shell prompt basics.Chapter 13. Why Use a Shell Prompt Graphical environments for Linux have come a long way in the past few years.2.

use the cd command. Shell Prompt Basics When the Free Software Foundation sought a royalty-free shell. bash is the default shell for interactive users. You will find that using pwd is very helpful as you learn to navigate your Red Hat Linux system. You will see something such as: /home/sam This example shows that you are in the user sam’s directory. it is easy to get lost or forget the name of your current directory. which is in the /home directory.4. Determining Your Current Directory with pwd Once you start looking through directories. When the system responds to requests for information. moving to any other directory requires a pathname. The result was the Bourne Again Shell. Figure 13-2. You can learn more about bash by reading the bash man page (type man bash at a shell prompt). and can be printed to the shell prompt or can be redirected to other programs or to other output devices such as printers. When you typed pwd. The Command pwd Shows You Where You Are To determine the exact location of the current directory at a shell prompt and type the command pwd. Changing Directories with cd Changing directories is easy as long as you know where you are (your current directory) and how that relates to where you want to go. . the response is called standard output. or bash. Your system responded by printing the full path of the current directory in the shell prompt window.3. Typing this command by itself will always return you to your home directory. By default.90 Chapter 13. 13. you asked your Linux system to display your current location. The command pwd stands for print working directory. Although your Red Hat Linux system includes several different shells. developers began to work on the language behind the Bourne shell as well as some of the popular features from other shells available at the time. To change directories. 13. not the entire path. the Bash prompt in Red Hat Linux shows just your current directory.

Then go down to the etc directory 4. type the relative path: cd . Using absolute paths allows you to change to a directory from the / directory. A path is absolute if the first character is a /. use the cd ./etc/X11 After using the full command in the example. wherever that may be. Go up one level to your login directory’s parent directory (probably /home) 2. tells your system to go up to the directory immediately above the one in which you are currently working. directory) 3. It tells Linux to start at the top of the directory tree (/) and change to directory1. The following directory tree illustrates how cd operates. To move up to directory1. you need to move up in the directory tree. Absolute paths start at the top of the file system with / (referred to as root) and then look down for the requested directory. will present you with an error message explaining that there is no such directory. go to the X11 directory Conversely. Executing the command cd directory1 while you are in directory3.. type: cd /directory1 This is an example of an absolute path. You told your system to: 1.. The command cd . ./. From your home directory. it is a relative path. which requires you to know and type the complete path. Take a look at your last cd command. Otherwise./.. Use the following exercise to test what you have learned so far regarding absolute and relative paths.Chapter 13. relative paths look down from your current directory. which is where you will find configuration files and directories related to the X Window System. For example: cd /etc/X11 Absolute paths start from the root directory (/) and move down to the directory you specify. command. which can be convenient if you are changing to a subdirectory within your current directory.. Finally. or /. Then go up to that directory’s parent (which is the root. using an absolute path would get you to the /etc/X11 directory more quickly. you should be in the directory X11. Using relative paths allows you to change to a directory relative to the directory you are currently in. / /directory1 /directory1/directory2 /directory1/directory2/directory3 If you are currently in directory3 and you want to switch to directory1. Shell Prompt Basics 91 You can use absolute or relative pathnames.. This is because there is no directory1 below directory3. To go up two directories.

account created at installation.92 Chapter 13. cd Options Now that you are starting to understand how to change directories. . cd ~otheruser cd /dir1/subdirfoo cd . Denying access to the root and other users’ accounts (or login directories) is one way your Linux system prevents accidental or malicious tampering. which can be your guide for moving up and down directories using relative pathnames.14 Ownership and Permissions.. this absolute path would take you straight to subdirfoo. where user login directories are usually stored moves you up one directory takes you to otheruser’s login directory. it is as if you had logged in as root originally. Type: cd /root If you are not logged in as root. you become root (also called the superuser) while still inside your login shell (your user’s home directory). Table 13-1. then to dir3./.. see what happens when you change to root’s login directory (the superuser account). Shell Prompt Basics Note Always make sure you know which working directory you are in before you state the relative path to the directory or file you want to get to. You do not have to worry about your position in the file system. or superuser. use the su command. you must be the root user to access this directory takes you to the home directory. To change to the root login and root directory./dir3/dir2 this relative path would take you up two directories. Typing su .makes you become root with root’s login shell. though. a subdirectory of dir1 cd /home cd . If you are not sure. When you type su by itself and press [Enter]. if otheruser has granted you permission regardless of which directory you are in. type pwd and your current working directory will be displayed. when you state the absolute path to another directory or file. su Tip The command su means substitute users and it allows you to log in as another user temporarily. you are denied permission to access that directory.. See Section 13. then to the dir2 directory. Command cd cd ~ cd / cd /root Function returns you to your login directory also returns you to your login directory takes you to the entire system’s root directory takes you to the home directory of the root.

the root account designation at the front of the prompt and "#" at the end. View Directory Contents with ls Now that you know how to change directories. it is time to learn how to view the contents of these directories. Many options are available with the ls command. Viewing all the files using the ls -a command can give you plenty of detail. Using the ls command. you can read the man page by typing man ls at a shell prompt. When you are searching for something in a directory. The ls command. Some files are hidden files (also called dot files) and can only be seen with an additional option specified to the ls command. and more. ownership. you can display the contents of your current directory. and more. does not show all the files in the directory. so keep them hidden to help avoid some screen clutter when viewing directories at the shell prompt. just add the long option (-l) to the ls -a command. you are not usually looking for these configuration files. This command shows the file creation date. superuser status. by itself. Now you will see files that begin with dots. When you are done working as root. The reason they are hidden is to help prevent any accidental tampering by the user.5. its size. Tip To see all the options of the ls command. when it was created and more. and you will return to your user account. Type the command ls -a. ls with the -a Option Hidden files are mostly configuration files which set preferences in programs. you will see the changes in your command prompt to show your new. permissions.Chapter 13. 13. by adding more than one option. but you can view still more information. If you want to see the size of a file or directory. Figure 13-3. shells. type exit at the prompt. window managers. Shell Prompt Basics 93 As soon as you give the root password. If you want to print the man page. . at the prompt type man ls | col -b | lpr.

txt. type: locate finger The locate command uses a database to locate files and directories that have the word finger in the file or directory name. Adds a symbol to the end of each listing. — file type. and so on. owner. . @ to indicate a symbolic link to another file. you can view the full list by reading the ls man page (man ls). to see what is in the /etc/ directory from your home directory. Locating Files and Directories There will be times when you know a file or directory exists but you will not know where to find it. — reverse. a file called pointerfinger. read the locate man page (type man locate at a shell prompt). Remember.txt. size. • -l — long. if you want to search for all files with the word finger in the name. at the top of your list refer to the parent directory and the current directory. Lists details about contents. you will see every file or directory whose name contains the search criterion. Lists all the files in the directory. The search results could include a file called finger. and * to indicate an executable file. type: ls -al /etc Figure 13-4. Sorts files by their sizes.. including • -F • -r • -R • -S 13. including the hidden files (. For example. Shell Prompt Basics You do not have to be in the directory whose contents you want to view to use the ls command. creation date. The .6. These symbols include / to indicate a directory. a directory named fingerthumbnails. whether the file is a link to somewhere else on the system and where its link points. group. • -a — all. To learn more about locate. — size.filename). permissions (modes). respectively. Sample ls Output for the /etc Directory The following is a short list of some options commonly used with ls.94 Chapter 13. and . Search for a file or directory with the locate command. With locate. Lists the contents of the directory from back to front. This option lists the contents of all directories below the current directory recursively. For example. — recursive.

log in as root (type su at a shell prompt and then your root password) and type the command updatedb. performing various tasks (such as updating the locate database) at regularly scheduled intervals. Hence. followed by a filename. You can cancel jobs in the queue by typing lprm followed by the print job number displayed when you use the lpq command. it does not assume that the machine is running continuously. and monthly jobs that are usually controlled by cron. type lprm 389 and press [Enter]. Unlike cron. Shell Prompt Basics 95 The locate command works very quickly. as long as the database is up to date. cron is a small program that runs in the background.7. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information on cron. This section explains how to print. weekly. 389 is the job number. Switching between operating systems and shutting down your machine at the end of the day can interfere with the automatic database update run by cron.txt file. To view the jobs waiting in the print queue.txt In this example. Type lpq. and view print jobs from the command line. Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information about setting up your printer. The lpr command. 13.txt print job. Refer to the man page on anacron (type man anacron at the command line) and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information. the slocate database that is used by the locate command will be current. To cancel the foo.txt prints the foo. To read the cron man page.Chapter 13. Note You can run anacron to have your system execute commands periodically. To update the database manually. type man cron at the shell prompt. and you will see information similar to this: active root 389 foo. That database is automatically updated on a nightly basis through a cron job. to control daily. cancel. which is used to catalog file locations. assuming you have a properly configured printer connected to your system. For example. Tip Cron is a daemon that executes tasks at regularly scheduled intervals. sends that specified file to the print queue. with a frequency specified in days. type lpq at the command line. The cron task periodically updates the slocate database. lpr foo. . After a few minutes. it can be used on machines that are not running 24 hours a day. Printing From The Command Line Printing is not an involved process whether you click on a button in a GUI or type commands from the command line.

Sometimes. For example. it will quickly scroll past you on the screen. Using the pipe (|) and the less command together displays the file one page at a time. If the file is fairly long.1. 13. the terminal window you are working in can begin to look crowded. short for concatenate. Clearing and Resetting the Terminal After even one ls command in a shell prompt. Manipulating Files with cat Red Hat Linux has a utility which can help you keep short lists. Try typing the command clear at the shell prompt.10 Pipes and Pagers. Once you close the file. and even show you information about your system. gather lists together.8.9. You can then use the up and down arrow keys to move backward and forward through the pages. 13.txt | less command. use the symbol. To redirect standard output. You can always exit from the terminal window and open a new one. The cat Command To redirect the output of cat to a file.96 Chapter 13.9. you may accidentally open a program file or some other non-text file in a terminal window. For more on using pipes to combine two separate functions. Placing after the cat command (or after any utility or application that writes to standard output) directs its output to the filename following the symbol. The utility is called cat. Shell Prompt Basics 13. but there is a quicker and easier way to clear the contents displayed in the terminal. Using Redirection Redirection means causing the shell to change what it considers to be standard input or where the standard output should be going. type reset to return the terminal window to its default values. In such cases. type the following at a shell prompt (pressing the [Enter] key takes you to the next blank line):   . The clear command does just what it implies: it clears the terminal window.txt). using cat by itself outputs whatever you input to the screen as if it were repeating the line you just typed. To prevent this. type cat filename. see Section 13. The command cat will also display the contents of an entire file on the screen (for example. use the cat filename. The following example shows cat repeating every line that is entered: Figure 13-5. you could find that the text you are typing does not match the output on the monitor. which means to combine files.

followed by: bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! Now. use the [Ctrl]-[D] key combination again to quit cat.txt.txt.txt . Type the following:  cat sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics 97 Figure 13-6. use cat to join home.txt with sneakers. type the command cat > home. unless you want to replace it. Next. At the prompt.txt home. type: cat sneakers.txt and redirect the output of both files to a brand new file called saturday.txt. Use output redirection again for another file and call it home.Chapter 13. Redirecting Output to a File Press [Enter] to go to an empty line and use the [Ctrl]-[D] keys to quit cat. on an empty line.txt (you will find an example in Figure 13-7). because you can easily overwrite an existing file! Make sure the name of the file you are creating does not match the name of a pre-existing file. you can then use cat to read the file. As you learned earlier. That is because the standard output from cat was redirected.txt Caution Be careful when you redirect the output to a file. You can find the file in the directory you were in when you started cat (type ls if you want to see it listed).txt  cat sneakers. Do you notice anything different in Figure 13-6? There are no repeated entries.txt saturday. For this example. then [Enter]. That redirection was to a brand new file you made called sneakers.

you are adding information to a file. Compare the results of the files sneakers. you save yourself time (and a bit of disk clutter) by using existing files.   cat home. Joining Files and Redirecting Output You can see that cat has added home. Take two files which have already been created (sneakers. To make your comparison. 13. Similar to when you used the symbol.txt   However. so type: home.txt sneakers. Appending Standard Output You can use output redirection to add new information to the end of an existing file. you tell your shell to send the information somewhere other than standard output. then saturday.2.txt at the end of the file: Now check the file using the command cat sneakers.txt) and join them by using the append output symbol.txt and home.txt. Shell Prompt Basics Figure 13-7.txt. and you will see that they are identical. type: cat sneakers.txt (as shown in Figure 13-8). The final output shows the contents of buy some sneakers then go to the coffee shop then buy some coffee bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! The command you typed appended the output from the file home.txt.txt.txt to the file sneakers.txt and saturday.  . rather than replacing the contents .txt ended.txt where sneakers.txt.txt to the information already in sneakers. when you use of a file entirely. You want to add the information in home. cat saturday. The best explanation is a demonstration.98 Chapter 13.9.txt now. rather than creating a new file. By appending the output.txt The contents of both files will be displayed — first sneakers.

Shell Prompt Basics 99 Figure 13-8. you are telling the shell that you want a file to be . Type: sneakers. Stringing Commands and Comparing Files 13.3. Because you used the less-than symbol ( ) to separate the cat command from the file.txt  When you use the redirect standard input symbol read as input for a command.txt was read by cat.Chapter 13. you can perform the same type of redirection with standard input. Use a file you have already created to demonstrate this idea. Redirecting Standard Input Not only can you redirect standard output. Redirecting Standard Input   cat sneakers.9. the output of Figure 13-9. .

10. For example: /Linux Tip To read startup messages more closely. you can use the arrow keys to navigate with less.10. while more uses the [Spacebar] and the [B] key for forward and backward navigation. Shell Prompt Basics 13. Type: grep coffee sneakers. press [Space].3 The grep Command). ls -al /etc | less Now you can view the contents of /etc one screen at a time. Pipes and Pagers In Linux. a pager utility that allows you to view information one page (or screen) at a time. You will be able to read the file one screen at a time. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file. pipes connect the standard output of one command to the standard input of another command. 13. Pipes can also be used to print only certain lines from a file. There are plenty of options available with ls. List the contents of the /etc directory using ls and more. Use the vertical bar (|) to pipe the commands. press [Q]. type dmesg | less.100 Chapter 13. at a shell prompt.1.txt file that mentions the word "coffee" (read more about grep in Section 13. press [/] and type the search term. press [B].11. To search the output of a text file using less. to search for output. Alternatively. ls -al /etc | more .txt | lpr This command prints every line in the sneakers. To move forward a screen. to move back a screen. Use the arrow keys to navigate the file. to quit. Consider the ls command that was discussed earlier. The more Command The main difference between more and less is that less allows backward and forward movement using the arrow keys. but what if the contents of a directory scroll by too quickly for you to view them? View the contents of the /etc/ directory with the command: ls -al /etc How do you get a closer look at the output before it moves off the screen? One way is to pipe the output to a utility called less.

2. you can only read the first ten lines of a file. to actively watch /var/log/messages. The head Command You can use the head command to look at the beginning of a file.11. 13. Shell Prompt Basics 101 Figure 13-10. For example: /foo Use the [Spacebar] to move forward through the pages. You can change the number of lines displayed by specifying a number option as shown in the following command: 13. You can also use tail to watch log files as they are updated. Here are a few more. Using the -f option. Piping Output of ls to more To search the output of a text file using more.Chapter 13. but because it is limited to the first several lines. For example.11. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file. Using tail.1. 13.11. By default. you can view the last ten lines of a file. tail automatically print new messages from an open file to the screen in real-time. Press [q] to exit. The command is: head can be a useful command. The tail Command The reverse of head is tail. More Commands for Reading Text Files You have already been introduced to several basic shell prompt commands for reading files in text editors. This can be useful for viewing the last 10 lines of a log file for important system messages. you will not see how long the file actually is. type the following at a shell prompt as the root user: tail -f /var/log/messages  head -20  head filename filename .

take a look at the bash man page (man bash).txt. you can perform actions on a file or files without knowing the complete filename. Tip Unless otherwise specified. 13. Among grep’s options is -i. for example. Then. you can open and read the file with less or vi (vi bash.txt and there is the name of the file: sneakers. and symbols that make finding particular directories and files easier than examining long directory listings to find what you are searching for. That means that searching for Coffee is different than searching for coffee. Just fill out what you know.3.txt You would see every line in that file where the word "coffee" is found. For example. Wildcards and Regular Expressions What if you forget the name of the file you are looking for? Using wildcards or regular expressions. Remember that you can save the file to a text file by typing man bash | col -b bash. We know the file is called "sneak____.11. then have those results either saved as a file or sent to a printer. for example.txt).4. be aware that it is quite long. use grep to search for particular contents of a file.txt. Shell Prompt Basics 13. The grep Command The grep command is useful for finding specific character strings in a file.11. You can. if you want to find every reference made to "coffee" in the file sneakers. you would type: grep coffee sneakers. grep searches are case sensitive. If you want to print the file.txt ! . then substitute the remainder with a wildcard.txt. which allows for a case-insensitive search through a file. Read the grep man page for more about this command.txt. just type: grep coffee sneakers. Wildcards are special symbols that you can substitute for letters. I/O Redirection and Pipes You can use pipes and output redirection when you want to store and/or print information to read at a later time. numbers.11. To print the information about references to "coffee" in sneakers." so type: ls sneak*.txt | lpr 13.5.102 Chapter 13. Tip To read more about wildcards and regular expressions.

you can find plenty of your previously typed commands.txt.9. In this case. you would get sneakers. just happens to be part of a filename.txt Here is a brief list of wildcards and regular expressions: • * • ? — Matches all characters — Matches one character in a string — Matches the * character — Matches the ? character — Matches the ) character • \* • \? • \) 13. for example. Use the up-arrow key to bring back the command.txt (created in Section 13.txt or begin with sn. and/or sneakerz. that is when regular expressions can be useful.txt. If the file is called sneak*.txt was called sneak*. ? is useful for matching a single character. One minor typing error can ruin lines of a series of commands. type: cat sneakrs. By scrolling with the [Up Arrow] and [Down Arrow] keys." Insert the letter and press [Enter] again. Try it by taking a look again at sneakers.txt. It helps to narrow your search as much as possible. . Shell Prompt Basics 103 You will probably use the asterisk (*) most frequently when you are searching.1 Using Redirection. No problem. of course. One way to narrow a search is to use the question mark symbol (?).12. as might be the case if the file Using the backslash (\). Like the asterisk. but you are instead looking for a file with an asterisk in the name. at the shell prompt.txt or: ls sn* You would find sneakers.txt.txt Nothing happens. though. Regular expressions are more complex than the straightforward asterisk or question mark.txt file. So even by typing: ls *. then use the left-arrow key to get to the point where we missed the "e.txt and any other files whose name ends with . type: sneak\*. using ? can help locate a file matching a search pattern. We now see the contents of sneakers. One solution is to use the command line history. When an asterisk. so if you were searching for sneaker?. The asterisk will search out everything that matches the pattern you are looking for. because there is no sneakrs. however. sneakers. The first time. you can specify that you do not want to search out everything by using the asterisk.txt. if there were such a filename.Chapter 13. Command History and Tab Completion It does not take long before the thought of typing the same command over and over becomes unappealing.txt as a result.

The line which reads. By typing the partial command upd and pressing [Tab] again. You have used the command. and you think it might be in your history file. command. For example. or a beep (if sound is enabled on your system). you can su to root. Here is how you can quickly find a previously used command: say you are searching for a command that is similar to cat sneak-something. less. 13. press the [Tab] key twice and you will see a list of possible completions.104 Chapter 13. up to 500 commands can be stored in the bash command line history file. if you forget the command updatedb.bash_history in your login directory. We can read it in a number of ways: by using vi. cat. use grep.rpm rpms/ Running the combination of commands creates the directory and moves the file in one line.3-2. Using Multiple Commands Linux allows you to enter multiple commands at one time. Shell Prompt Basics By default. and you want to put it in a new subdirectory within your home directory called rpms/. Tip To find a command in your history file without having to keep hitting the arrow keys or page through the history file. to quit. To read it with the more command.3-2.3 The grep Command . including updatedb and uptime. more. type: history | grep sneak Another time-saving tool is known as command completion. called .11.13. just press [Tab] again to obtain a list of the files/paths that match what has been typed so far. At the shell prompt. type up. The command line history is actually kept in a file.rpm. HISTFILESIZE=500 shows the number of commands that bash will store. . If you get a beep. and others. press [Space]. but the subdirectory has not been created. your command is completed for you. Tip By typing the env command at a shell prompt. from your home directory type: more . The only requirement is that you separate the commands with a semicolon.i386. Suppose you have downloaded a new file called foobar-1. to move back a screen. If you type part of a file. but remember a portion of the command. mv foobar-1.i386. then at the shell prompt. press [b]. or pathname and then press the [Tab] key. You can combine both the creation of the rpms/ directory and the moving of your downloaded file into the directory by typing the following at a shell prompt: mkdir rpms/. a powerful search utility (see Section 13. we can see the environment variable that controls the size of the command line history. press [q]. bash will present you with either the remaining portion of the file/path.bash_history To move forward a screen. Be aware that the file can be long.

and to which group the owner belongs (sam). sneakers. it has ten slots. One way to gain entry when you are denied permission is to su to root. Permissions for sneakers. or (if it is an application instead of a text file) who can execute the file.Chapter 13. Remember that. and file permissions are one way the system protects against malicious tampering. since it is easy to make mistakes and alter important configuration files as the superuser. You created the file belongs to you. Since users are placed into a group when their accounts are created. write to. The remaining nine slots are actually three sets of permissions for three different categories of users.txt with the ls command using the -l option (see Figure 13-11). or execute a file.txt (see Section 13. as well as who created the file (sam).9. You can see who can read (r) and write to (w) the file. date and time of file creation. There is a lot of detail provided here. and file name. Reading.1 Using Redirection) in your login directory. That means you can specify who is allowed to read the file. The first column shows current permissions.txt All files and directories are "owned" by the person who created them.txt Other information to the right of the group includes file size. Shell Prompt Basics 105 13. like UNIX. so sneakers. when you tried to change to root’s login directory. But switching to the superuser is not always convenient or recommended. Ownership and Permissions Earlier in this chapter. the name of your group is the same as your login name.14. write to the file. For example: -rw-rw-r-- . Take a closer look at sneakers. as you learned earlier. is a multi-user system. The first slot represents the type of file. Figure 13-11. Linux. This is because whoever knows the root password has complete access. you received the following message: cd /root bash: /root: Permission denied That was one demonstration of Linux’s security features. you can also specify whether certain groups can read. by default. writing. and executing are the three main settings in permissions.

has permission to read and write to sneakers. or others.txt and identify its permissions. The chmod Command Use the chmod command to change permissions. Whenever you allow anyone else to read. so they can read it. group. you should only grant read and write permissions to those who truly need them. altered. That means you will have to change the "others" section of the file permissions." meaning other users on the system. with its initial permissions settings: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.14. so neither the owner or the group has permission to execute it. In the following example. you will see one of the following: • r • w • x — file can be read — file can be written to — file can be executed (if it is a program) When you see a dash in owner. and "others. and save it. which specifies the file type. and execute files. sam.txt If you are the owner of the file or are logged into the root account you can change any permissions for the owner. It is not a program. . or deleted. write to. ls -l sneakers. you are increasing the risk of files being tampered with. write notes in it. Caution Remember that file permissions are a security feature. group. can show one of the following: • d — a directory — a regular file (rather than directory or link) — a symbolic link to another program or file elsewhere on the system • -(dash) • l Beyond the first item. Anyone outside of the group can only read the file (r--). it means that particular permission has not been granted. Shell Prompt Basics Those three sets are the owner of the file. in each of the following three sets. as well. (rw-) | | type owner (rw-) | group (r--) 1 sam sam | others The first item.txt The file’s owner (in this case. This example shows how to change the permissions on sneakers. As a rule. Right now.txt. sam) has permission to read and write to the file. Look again at the first column of sneakers.txt -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.1. 13. the owner and group can read and write to the file. you want to allow everyone to write to the file. the group in which the file belongs. The group. The original file looks like this.txt with the chmod command. and others.106 Chapter 13.

Chapter 13.txt The o+w command tells the system you want to give others write permission to the file sneakers. you are telling the system to remove read and write permissions for the group and for others from the file sneakers.txt Now. the file looks like this: -rw-rw-rw1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics Take a look at the file first. chmod go-rw sneakers. type the following: chmod o+w sneakers.txt Think of these settings as a kind of shorthand when you want to change permissions with chmod. because all you really have to do is remember a few symbols and letters with the chmod command. The result will look like this: -rw------1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.— removes the permission = — makes it the only permission Want to test your permissions skills? Remove all permissions from sneakers.txt. everyone can read and write to the file.txt Now.txt — for everyone.txt. type: ls -l sneakers. the owner) g — the group to which the user belongs o — others (not the owner or the owner’s group) a — everyone or all (u. At the shell prompt. g. Now. list the file’s details again. Here is a list of what the shorthand represents: Identities u — the user who owns the file (that is.txt By typing go-rw.txt 107 The previous command displays this file information: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. and o) Permissions r — read access w — write access x — execute access Actions + — adds the permission . . To remove read and write permissions from sneakers.txt use the chmod command to take away both the read and write permissions. To check the results.

But since the file belongs to you. Shell Prompt Basics chmod a-rwx sneakers.txt Now. Here is what happens now when you try to cd to into tigger: bash: tigger: Permission denied Next. you can change permissions for entire directory trees.txt. Changing Permissions With Numbers Remember the reference to the shorthand method of chmod? Here is another way to change permissions. type: chmod a-x tigger to remove everyone’s execute permissions. see if you can read the file with the command cat sneakers. the file owner.14. if you check your work with ls -l you will see that only others will be denied access to the 13. Now. No one will be able to get into the directory unless they know the exact file name. it will not matter who has read or write access.txt Use the command cat sneakers. For example.txt: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.txt: Permission denied Removing all permissions. you are really allowing (or denying) permission to search through that directory. Go back to the original permissions for sneakers. when you add or remove execute permission for a directory.txt . including your own. although it may seem a little complex at first. If you do not allow others to have execute permission to tigger.txt to verify that you. Here are some common examples of settings that can be used with chmod: • g+w — adds write access for the group — removes all permissions for others — allows the file owner to execute the file — allows everyone to read and write to the file — allows the owner and group to read the file — allows only the group to read and execute (not write) • o-rwx • u+x • a+rw • ug+r • g=rx By adding the -R option. successfully locked the file. which should return the following: cat: sneakers. restore your own and your group’s access: chmod ug+x tigger tigger directory. you can always change its permissions back with the following command: chmod u+rw sneakers. Because you can not really "execute" a directory as you would an application. can read the file again.108 Chapter 13.2.

would become six. chmod 664 sneakers. The permissions setting is read as 664. Here is a list of some common settings. Setting permissions to 777 allows everyone read. neither the group nor others have write permission to sneakers. four. if you want read and write permissions. To return the group’s write access for the file. the group and others have (700) — Only the owner has read. 4 (read) + 2 (write) = 6. remove the access by subtracting two (2) from that set of numbers. and execute permission. type: chmod 644 sneakers. here are the numerical permissions settings: (rw-) | 4+2+0 (rw-) | 4+2+0 (r--) | 4+0+0 The total for the user is six. numerical values and their meanings: • -rw------• -rw-r--r-- (600) — Only the owner has read and write permissions. • -rwx------ .txt Warning Setting permissions to 666 will allow everyone to read and write to a file or directory. (644) — Only the owner has read and write permissions. so in general.txt. the total is used to set specific permissions.txt The output should be: -rw-r--r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. If you want to change sneakers. These permissions could allow tampering with sensitive files. Shell Prompt Basics Each permission setting can be represented by a numerical value: • • • • 109 r=4 w=2 x=1 -=0 When these values are added together. then. read only. The numerical values. write. it is not a good idea to use these settings. add the value of w (2) to the second set of permissions. and the total for others is four. For example.txt so those in your group will not have write access. To implement these new settings.txt Now.txt. For sneakers. you would have a value of 6.Chapter 13. and execute permissions. the total for the group is six. Type: ls -l sneakers.txt Now verify the changes by listing the file. but can still read the file. and four (644). write.

(Be careful with these permissions. (711) — The owner has read. . write. (Again. — Everyone can read and write to the file.) • -rw-rw-rw. write in this directory. users and groups have read and execute permissions. and execute permissions. and execute. this permissions setting can be hazardous. Shell Prompt Basics • -rwxr-xr-x • -rwx--x--x (755) — The owner has read. the group and others have only read and execute. (755) — Everyone can read the directory. the group and others have only execute. write.) (777) — Everyone can read. write. and execute permissions.110 Chapter 13.(666) • -rwxrwxrwx Here are some common settings for directories: • drwx-----• drwxr-xr-x (700) — Only the user can read.

modifications. or storing temporary files. directories within it (called subdirectories) which hold files and may contain subdirectories of their own. and other changes. documentation • /usr/share/doc — Location of documentation for installed packages. who has permission to do anything). This chapter discusses various shell prompt commands that can be used to manage files and directories on your Red Hat Linux system. Tip Red Hat Linux uses the term root in several different ways.version-number . These directories may contain. 14. reading documentation. and the same is true for the Linux file system. you will receive an error message saying your access is denied. A Larger Picture of the File System Every operating system has a method of storing data in files and directories so that it can keep track of additions. Directories can also contain directories. delete. For example. the # " . This chapter also discusses compression tools to create archives of your files for backup or to conveniently send to others. There would not be a tree without a root. Certain directories are reserved for specific purposes. the root account’s home directory (/root) and the root directory for the entire file system (/).1.Chapter 14. If you do not have the permission to open. every file is stored in a directory. You might think of the file system as a tree-like structure and directories as branches. Note Due to system security. you probably do not have permission to write to the files and directories outside of your home directory. Unless you are a system administrator or have root (superuser) access. you will not be able to gain access to all system-level files and directories. For example. Users that do not have superuser access might find the following directories useful for finding their home directories. • /home — Default location for users’ home directories. be sure to know which root is being discussed. In Linux. a user with the username foo has the home directory /home/foo. No matter how far away the directories branch. for the redhat-config-date software package is located in /usr/share/doc/redhat-config-date. For example. This is normal behavior and is used to prevent non-privileged users from modifying or deleting important system files. /home is the default location for users’ home directories. or execute a file. everything is connected to the root directory. There is the root account (the superuser. these subdirectories can also contain files and other subdirectories. or be the "parent" of. which might be confusing to new users. unless you are root. Managing Files and Directories Your desktop file manager is a powerful and important tool for managing files and directories using the graphical desktop. When you are speaking to someone and using the term root. which is represented as a single forward slash (/).

also known as a tar file — a tarred and bzipped file — a tarred and gzipped file.bz2 • .pathname. Do not write any files or directories that you want to keep here. File Formats • .png • .zip — a file compressed with ZIP compression.txt • . You can also visit the FHS website at http://www.gz — a file compressed with bzip2 — a file archived with tar (short for tape archive). — a file compressed with gzip • .2. Most compressed files for Linux use the gzip compression.com/fhs. Compressed and Archived Files • .wav • . gzip.xpm .gif • . Identifying and Working with File Types If you are new to Linux.1.tar • . A file’s extension is the last part of a file’s name after the final dot (in the file sneakers.tbz • . and tar files. For information on working with bzip2. refer to Section 14. Files stored here are not permanent. 14.zip archive for Linux files is rare. you may see certain file types that you do not recognize because of their unfamiliar extension. The FHS guidelines help to standardize the way system programs and files are stored on all Linux systems.2. Here is a brief listing of file extensions and their meanings: 14.tgz • . so finding a . Managing Files and Directories • /tmp — The reserved directory for all users to store temporary files. To learn more about the FHS.2.jpg • . A system process removes old files from this directory on a periodic basis. formatted for printing • .au — an audio file — a GIF image file — an HTML file — a JPEG image file — an electronic image of a document. PDF stands for Portable Document Format — a PNG image file (short for Portable Network Graphic) — a plain ASCII text file — an audio file — an image file • .pdf • . Your Red Hat Linux system is compatible with many other Linux distributions because of the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS). commonly found in MS-DOS applications.2.112 Chapter 14.3 File Compression and Archiving.html/. refer to the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. 14.txt. "txt" is that file’s extension).ps — a PostScript file.htm • .

The archive file is not compressed — it uses the same amount of disk space as all the individual files and directories combined. determines whether a program or device is in use — a Red Hat Package Manager file used to install software 14. Programming and Scripting Files • . Tip To learn more about file. the command file saturday will display ASCII text.py • .pl • . as well.rpm — a configuration file. Managing Files and Directories 113 14. File Compression and Archiving Sometimes it is useful to store a group of files in one file so that they can be backed up. Using the file command.3. For more information on helpful commands for reading files. Configuration files sometimes use the . you can tell what type of file it is by typing: file saturday In the example. An archive file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file.sh • . — a lock file. System Files • . or the file does not seem to be what the extension says it is supposed to be? That is when the file command can be helpful.4. For example. So what happens when a file does not have an extension. A . telling you it is a text file.o • .lock • . more. or used consistently.2. read the man page by typing man file.2. It is also sometimes useful to compress files into one file so that they use less disk space and download faster via the Internet. or by using a text editor such as gedit or vi.cfg extension. or even transferred to a different computer. Any file that is designated as a text file should be readable by using the cat.3.cpp • .Chapter 14.so • .tcl But file extensions are not always used.c — a C program language source code file — a C++ program language source code file — a C or C++ program language header file — a program object file — a Perl script — a Python script — a library file — a shell script — a TCL script • . It is important to understand the distinction between an archive file and a compressed file. 14. you find a file called saturday without an extension. easily transferred to another directory.conf • .h • . see Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics. or less commands.

tar.3. Figure 14-1 shows File Roller in action.1. For example.3. highlight the file and click OK.gz located in your home directory. you can compress files that you do not use very often or files that you want to save but do not use anymore. It is also integrated into the desktop environment and graphical file manager to make working with archived files easier. Decompressing and Unarchiving with File Roller To unarchive and/or decompress a file click the Open toolbar button. 14. You can also start File Roller from a shell prompt by typing file-roller. which you can navigate by double-clicking the folder icon. You can even create an archive file and then compress it to save disk space. if you have a file called foo. If you do not have enough disk space on your computer. Figure 14-1. The File Roller browser window will appear with the decompressed/unarchived file in a folder for you to extract or browse. decompress. Note An archive file is not compressed. File Roller in Action 14. To start File Roller click Main Menu => Accessories => File Roller. you can double-click the file you wish to unarchive or decompress to start File Roller. A file menu will pop up.1.1.114 Chapter 14. allowing you to choose the archive you wish to work with. Managing Files and Directories compressed file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file and stored in a way that uses less disk space than all the individual files and directories combined. and archive files and directories. Using File Roller Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility called File Roller that can compress. File . Tip If you are using a file manager (such as Nautilus). File Roller supports common UNIX and Linux file compression and archiving formats and has a simple interface and extensive help documentation if you need it. The file will appear in the main File Roller browser window as a folder. but a compressed file can be an archive file.

1. Creating an Archive with File Roller Tip There is much more you can do with File Roller than is explained here. bzip2. or zip. In Red Hat Linux you can compress files with the compression tools gzip. uncompressed files. Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt Compressed files use less disk space and download faster than large. The bzip2 compression tool is recommended because it provides the most compression and is found on most UNIX-like operating systems. You can extract individual files or entire archives by clicking the Extract button. 14. choosing the directory you would like to save the unarchived files.gz) format from the drop-down menu and type the name of the archive file you want to create. 14. Click OK when you are finished. To add files to your new archive. which is convenient if you are looking for a particular file in the archive. A file browser will pop up. Click OK and your new archive is now ready to be filled with files and directories. If you need to transfer files between Linux and other operating system such . The gzip compression tool can also be found on most UNIXlike operating systems. and clicking OK. For example. or send multiple files or a directory of files to another user. Creating Archives with File Roller If you need to free some hard drive space. Figure 14-2.3. To create a new archive. File Roller allows you to create archives of your files and directories. and click Close to close the archive.2. allowing you to specify an archive name and the compression technique. which will pop up a browser window (Figure 14-2) that you can navigate to find the file or directory you want to be in the archive. click New on the toolbar.Chapter 14. you may choose a Tar Compressed wity gzip (tar. Refer to the File Roller manual (available by clicking Help => Manual) for more information.2. Managing Files and Directories 115 Roller preserves all directory and subdirectory structures.3. click Add.

Compression Tools By convention.2. Tip For more information. 14.bz2 file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1.bz2. files compressed with bzip2 are given the extension . type man bzip2 and man bunzip2 at a shell prompt to read the man pages for bzip2 and bunzip2.bz2. file2. Managing Files and Directories as MS Windows. Bzip2 and Bunzip2 To use bzip2 to compress a file.gz. you should use zip because it is more compatible with the compression utilities on Windows. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename. 14. .gz. Gzip and Gunzip To use gzip to compress a file. Files compressed with gzip are uncompressed with gunzip.bz2 . files compressed with gzip are given the extension . type the following command at a shell prompt: bzip2 filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename.zip Uncompression Tool gunzip bunzip2 unzip Table 14-1. files compressed with bzip2 are uncompressed with bunzip2. Compression Tool gzip bzip2 zip File Extension . and files compressed with zip are given the extension . You can use bzip2 to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: bzip2 filename. To expand the compressed file.bz2 The filename.gz .3. type the following command at a shell prompt: gzip filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename. file3.bz2.2.bz2 is deleted and replaced with filename.3.1.zip. and files compressed with zip are uncompressed with unzip.116 Chapter 14.2. type the following command: bunzip2 filename.

Tip For more information.zip file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1.3.Chapter 14.zip filesdir In this example.3.gz is deleted and replaced with filename.gz file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1.zip. type the following command: gunzip filename. file2. type man gzip and man gunzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for gzip and gunzip. file2.gz 117 The filename. file3. Tip For more information. filename. To extract the contents of a zip file.2. Managing Files and Directories To expand the compressed file. type the following command: zip -r filename. 14. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename. type man zip and man unzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for zip and unzip.gz. Zip and Unzip To compress a file with zip.zip You can use zip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: zip -r filename. type the following command: unzip filename. The -r option specifies that you want to include all files contained in the filesdir directory recursively.zip represents the file you are creating and filesdir represents the directory you want to put in the new zip file. You can use gzip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: gzip -r filename. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename. file3. .

— show the list of files in the tar file. type: tar -xvf filename.txt within a directory called foo/.tar represents the file you are creating and directory/file represents the directory and file you want to put in the archived file. This is a good way to create backups and archives.tar directory/file In this example. To create a tarred and bzipped compressed file. however.tar To extract the contents of a tar file. sometimes users archive their files using the tar. — compress the tar file with bzip2. You can tar multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: tar -cvf filename. if the tarfile contains a file called bar.tbz file with the bunzip2 command. then extracting the archive file will result in the creation of the directory foo/ in your current working directory with the file bar.tar This command does not remove the tar file. the tar command does not compress the files by default. For example. the filename. Managing Files and Directories 14. — compress the tar file with gzip.3. — when used with the -c option. filename.tar in the current directory. — extract files from an archive.tbz file is removed and replaced with filename.tar.3.118 Chapter 14.tbz. type: tar -cvf filename.tbz file tar files compressed with bzip2 are conventionally given the extension . but it places copies of its unarchived contents in the current working directory. when used with the -x option.tbz. unarchive the specified file.tar /home/mine/work /home/mine/school The above command places all the files in the work and the school subdirectories of /home/mine in a new file called filename. • -t • -v • -x • -z • -j To create a tar file. use the filename specified for the creation of the tar file. type: tar -tvf filename. use the -j option: tar -cjvf filename. The above command creates an archive file and then compresses it as the file filename. To list the contents of a tar file. preserving any directory structure that the archive file used. Some of the options used with the tar are: • -c • -f — create a new archive. Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt A tar file is a collection of several files and/or directories in one file. — show the progress of the files being archived.txt inside of it. If you uncompress the filename.bz2 extension. You can also expand and unarchive a bzip tar file in one command: . Remember.

This command creates the archive file filename.tgz. 14. Copying Files Like so many other Linux features. which is often faster.1. to make the process of copying. the filename. For example.Chapter 14.5 Wildcards and Regular Expressions. (The file filename. Replace filename with the name of your choice.tgz.2. If you run a directory listing.) If you uncompress the filename. ) ( 0) ( cp source destination ' % & $ touch filename sam 0 Apr 10 17:09 newfile .4. Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt Files can be manipulated using one of the graphical file managers.tgz file is removed and replaced with filename. You can expand a gzip tar file in one command: tar -xzvf filename. This section explains how to manipulate files at the shell prompt. type the following at a shell prompt.tgz file tar files compressed with gzip are conventionally given the extension . which will create an empty file that you can use to add text or data. type the following command. Managing Files and Directories 119 tar -xjvf filename.tgz file with the gunzip command. there is a variety of ways to manipulate files and directories.tar is not saved. use the -z option: tar -czvf filename. as explained in Section 13.tar and then compresses it as the file filename. or deleting multiple files and directories faster. moving.tbz To create a tarred and gzipped compressed file. such as Nautilus or Konqueror. You can also use wildcards. To create a file with touch. you can see that the file contains zero (0) bytes of information because it is an empty file. 14. Creating Files You can create new files either with applications (such as text editors) or by using the command touch.11.tar.4. They can also be manipulated using a shell prompt.tgz Tip Type the command man tar for more information about the tar command. To copy a file.4. typing the command ls -l newfile at the shell prompt returns the following output: -rw-rw-r-1 sam 14.

to copy the file sneakers. 14. For more about mv. this will copy the whole directory tree. press [Y] and then [Enter]. If you do not want to overwrite the file. you will be given the chance to make sure you want to replace an existing file. — verbose. Rather than just copying all the specified files and directories.3. refer to Section 13. this option is dangerous. use cp -i to copy the file again to the same location.txt tigger 2 1 Replace source with the name of the file you want to copy. — recursive. and name of the directory where you want the file to go. 2 1 . press [N] and [Enter]. Unless you know what you are doing. type the following (you will need to be in your home directory): mv sneakers.txt in the tigger directory. Shows the progress of the files as they are being moved. because like the -i option for cp.txt tigger cp: overwrite ’tigger/sneakers. Tip To learn more about relative and absolute pathnames. cp -i sneakers. — verbose. move to your home directory and type: cp sneakers. be very careful about using it until you become more comfortable with your system.txt tigger/ You can use both relative and absolute pathnames with cp. Moving Files To move files.4 Changing Directories with cd . tigger is one directory down from our home directory. This is a handy option because it can help prevent you from making mistakes. • -f — force. Overrides the interactive mode and moves without prompting. Read the cp man page (type man cp at the shell prompt) for a full list of the options available with cp.4. Common options for mv include the following: • -i — interactive. This will prompt you if the file you have selected will overwrite an existing file in the destination directory. Shows the progress of the files as they are being copied. use the mv command. This is a good option. Managing Files and Directories destination with the So.120 Chapter 14. subdirectories and all.txt’? To overwrite the file that is already there. • -v If you want to move a file out of your home directory and into another existing directory.txt to the directory tigger/ in your home directory. Among the options you can use with cp are the following: • -i • -r — interactive. see the mv man page (type man mv). Prompts you to confirm if the file is going to overwrite a file in your destination. Our home directory is the parent of the directory tigger. • -v Now that you have the file sneakers.

for example). To remove directories with rm. you would type: rm pig* The above command will remove all files in the directory which start with the letters pig. rm -i piglet. you must specify the -r option. — verbose. because you can easily delete files you did not intend to throw away.txt with the rm command.Chapter 14. For example: rm piglet. Deleting Files and Directories You learned about creating files with the touch command. Use the -i (interactive) option to give you a second chance to think about whether or not you really want to delete the file.txt rm: remove ’piglet. You can also remove multiple files using the rm command. • -v • -r To delete the file piglet.4. Will delete a directory and all files and subdirectories it contains. unless you know exactly what you are doing. type: rm piglet.txt’? You can also delete files using the wildcard *. the same command using absolute pathnames looks like mv sneakers. This might not be a good idea.txt /home/newuser/tigger 121 14. Managing Files and Directories Alternatively. — recursive.txt /home/newuser/sneakers. it is gone permanently and cannot be retrieved. but only if the directory is empty. Overrides interactive mode and removes the file(s) without prompting. Shows the progress of the files as they are being removed.txt sneakers. Prompts you to confirm the deletion. Deleting files and directories with the rm command is a straightforward process.txt You can use rmdir to remove a directory (rmdir foo. if you want to recursively remove the directory tigger you would type: . See the rm man page for more information. To remove a file using a wildcard.4.txt Warning Once a file or directory is removed with the rm command. This option can stop you from deleting a file by mistake. but be careful. Now you need to learn how to delete files and directories. For example. Options for removing files and directories include: • -i • -f — interactive. and you created the directory tigger using mkdir. — force.

you will not be allowed to use recursive deletions. so a directory which has files in it will not be deleted. With this command. . you can type: rm -rf tigger A safer alternative to using rm for removing directories is the rmdir command.122 Chapter 14. this command will recursively remove everything on your system. Read the rmdir man page (man rmdir) to find out more about this command. Managing Files and Directories rm -r tigger If you want to combine options. you are in trouble. Warning The rm command can delete your entire file system! If you are logged in as root and you type the simple command rm -rf /. such as forcing a recursive deletion.

Red Hat Network installs the packages as well. RHN does it all. and Enhancement Alerts (collectively known as Errata Alerts) can be downloaded directly from Red Hat using the Red Hat Update Agent standalone application or through the RHN website available at http://rhn. By default. and Enhancement Alerts are issued for all the systems in your network through the Basic interface . 15. Red Hat Network Red Hat Network is an Internet solution for managing one or more Red Hat Linux systems. Users do not have to learn how to use RPM or worry about resolving software package dependencies. This chapter explains three ways to update your system: using Red Hat Network. and using the Red Hat Linux Installation CD-ROMs. using the online Errata List. Bug Fix Alerts. Your RHN Red Hat Network saves users time because they receive email when updated packages are released. Figure 15-1. Users do not have to search the Web for updated packages or security alerts.com/.1.redhat. Bug Fix Alerts. known as RPM packages. All Security Alerts. Each Red Hat Network account comes with: • Errata Alerts — learn when Security Alerts. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Red Hat Linux consists of various software applications and utilities.Chapter 15. A package is just a file that contains a software program.

124 Chapter 15. Everyone receives a free Red Hat Network account for one system. follow these three basic steps: 1. Create a System Profile using one of the following methods: • • • Registering the system with RHN during the Setup Agent the first time your system boots after installation.com/ and entitle the system to a service offering. 2. . Log in to RHN at http://rhn.redhat. Start scheduling updates through the RHN website or download and install Errata Updates with the Red Hat Update Agent. downloaded individual packages. 3. Execute the command up2date from a shell prompt. Additional accounts can be purchased. and schedule actions such as Errata Updates through a secure Web browser connection from any computer • • • • • To start using Red Hat Network. Relevant Errata Automatic email notifications — receive an email notification when an Errata Alert is issued for your system Scheduled Errata Updates — schedule delivery of Errata Updates Package installation — Schedule package installation on one or more systems with the click of a button Red Hat Update Agent — use the Red Hat Update Agent to download the latest software packages for your system (with optional package installation) Red Hat Network website — manage multiple systems. Select Main Menu Button => System Tools => Red Hat Network on your desktop. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Figure 15-2.

Refer to the following URL for more information about the applet: http://rhn.Chapter 15.html 15. It then prompts you for the root password so that you can install packages. Tip Red Hat Linux includes the Red Hat Network Notification Tool. Figure 15-3. refer to Section 15. Errata List It is recommended that new users use Red Hat Network to download and install/upgrade packages. tests and approves the RPMs posted on this site. Installation CD-ROMs Place the first Red Hat Linux CD-ROM in your CD-ROM drive. read the Red Hat Network User Reference Guide available at http://www.3.redhat. Click on the name of the Errata Alert that you want to apply to your system. Instructions for updating the packages are on the individual Errata pages.com/apps/support/errata/. Inc. Red Hat. All Security Alerts. Click on the Red Hat Linux version you are using to view a list of all available errata for Red Hat Linux. a convenient panel icon that displays visible alerts when there is an update for your Red Hat Linux system. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages 125 For more detailed instructions. 15. It also requires users to resolve software dependencies manually. and Enhancement Alerts (collective known as Errata Alerts) can also be downloaded from the Red Hat website at http://www. Installing Software with the Package Management Tool . A software dependency is when a package is dependent on other package being installed. If you enter the correct root password. Select Yes when asked if you want to run the autorun program from the CD. RPMs downloaded from other sites are not supported.com/help/basic/applet.redhat. For more information about installing packages downloaded from our errata sites. Updating Errata packages from the Red Hat Linux Errata website is recommended for more experienced Red Hat Linux users.redhat.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/. the Package Management Tool interface appears and allows you to select packages groups to install as well as individual packages within the groups.4 Downloaded Packages.2. Bug Fix Alerts.

3 Installation CD-ROMs. the Package Management Tool will alert you with suggested files and packages you need to install. To uninstall a package. However. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages The Package Management Tool marks what packages are already installed on your system with a checkmark. If all goes well. Downloaded Packages If you have downloaded packages from an errata on the Red Hat website. You can add packages by clicking the checkbox next to each package. you can install them by opening your file manager and double-clicking the package you want to install. the package will be installed and you can immediately begin using the software from the installed package. click the Update button to install or uninstall the selected packages.4. Individual Package Selection After selecting packages. such as package or library files needed. Figure 15-4. remove the checkmark (see Figure 15-4). . 15. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information about the Package Management Tool. The Package Management Tool should open up and check the package for any dependencies you need to fulfill before installation. if there are dependencies. Figure 15-5.126 Chapter 15. RPM Package Dependencies The packages necessary to fulfill the dependency issues can be installed by following the steps in Section 15.

you are often required to make system-wide changes which only root can make. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD or online at http://www. For more information. 16. When you get to that initial prompt. then you can log in as the super user. you will not have permission to make such changes by default. When you install software. You need to be the root user in order to install RPM files. The root password is the system password you assigned during installation. and everything seemed to go fine.3. I get a message telling me it needs a localhost login and password.rpm. or received that information from a network. but I still get "command not found" when I type its name. also known as root. I think I have the right name. you should then be able to install the RPM file without further errors. it is asking you to log in to your system. Localhost Login and Password I have installed Red Hat Linux. For more information about using RPM and Package Management Tool. you can log in using that user name and password. 16. If you created a user account with the Setup Agent.2. so why will it not start? . this chapter will ease you step-by-step through some common tasks and get you on your way. Frequently Asked Questions This chapter answers some of the most common questions about using Red Hat Linux that you may ask as you become more familiar with it. If you did not create a user account. refer to Section 1.1.redhat. Starting Applications I installed an application I downloaded from the Internet. You can create a new user after logging in as root with the User Manager graphical tool or the useradd shell prompt utility. It is highly recommended that you create at least one user account for regular use of your Red Hat Linux system.com/docs/. If you are using your normal user account. What are these? Unless you specified a host name for your computer. 16.Chapter 16. At a shell prompt. After rebooting. Error Messages During Installation of RPMs How do I install an RPM from a CD or the Internet? I keep getting an error message when I use rpm. If you are getting an error message similar to failed to open /var/lib/rpm/packages. it is because you do not have proper permission to install RPM files.6 Creating a User Account.localdomain by default. your Red Hat Linux installation will call your machine localhost. switch to the root user by running the following command: su After entering the root password when prompted. such as creating new directories outside of your user home directory or making changes to your system configuration. From recovering forgotten passwords to troubleshooting package installation problems.

Now.bash_profile By adding paths to your . For example. you will have to edit your user shell configuration file to add the directory containing the executable you wish to run. similar to the one shown below.1. start the application using the full path to the executable file as shown below: /home/joe/seti/setiathome The reason you may need to type the full pathnames in order to start an application is because the executable was not placed in a directory where your user shell environment knew it could be found (such as /usr/local/bin). imagine that you have downloaded the setiathome client application and want to try it out.128 Chapter 16. You can customize your settings so that you are not required to use the type the full path to the application each time. Editing Your PATH If you frequently start programs that are not located in a directory that your user shell has been configured to search. Caution These instructions are intended only for user accounts. PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin: To the end of this statement.bash_profile. Frequently Asked Questions If you are trying to start an application from the shell prompt and it is not working.bash_profile take effect immediately by typing the following command: source .3. such as gedit or vi. . because of the potential security risks. you can place utilities and programs in your path and be able to execute them without having to type . Start a text editor.bash_profile. try typing out the full directory path before the name of the application’s executable (such as /usr/local/bin/my-executable). You can then make the changes to . which creates a subdirectory in your home directory called seti/. You follow the directions for installing the software. you will have to edit your PATH environment variable./ in front of the command. add $HOME/seti as shown below: PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin/:$HOME/seti: Save the file and exit the text editor. at a shell prompt. To do this. 16. You can do this by adding the directory to your PATH environment variable. Avoid modifying files such as the root user’s .bash_profile You will see a PATH statement.bash_profile by typing the following: gedit . You can open the file called .

log in as root (type su and then enter the root password) at a shell prompt. 16.4. Figure 16-1 shows Hardware Browser in action. To start the Hardware Browser. then you cannot mount and read from it as Red Hat Linux does not support NTFS file systems. a Windows partition). Hardware Browser hard disk device listing Select Hard Drives from the panel and find your Windows partition from the Disk Information displayed. you can use the Hardware Browser. To find this information. For example: mkdir /mnt/windows . Accessing a Windows Partition I have a dual-boot system with Red Hat Linux and Windows 98. Create a directory in which the Windows partition will be mounted by typing the following command. if your Windows partition uses NTFS. Note the Device information for your Windows partition. however. You should first determine where your Windows partition is located by determining what physical hard disk your Windows partition is located in (such as the primary master IDE drive or the the first SCSI drive).Chapter 16. which lists detailed information about the hardware in your Red Hat Linux system. This file system type can be mounted and read within Linux. Is there a way to access my Windows partition while I am running Linux? You can access another partition on your system (for example. in two different ways. as this is the device that you mount to access your Windows data. choose Main Menu => System Tools => Hardware Browser. Once you have determined where your Windows partition is located on your hard drive. Windows partitions normally use the FAT or FAT32 file system type. Figure 16-1. Frequently Asked Questions 129 Tip For more information about using and configuring your shell prompt refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics.

press the [Space] bar. For other tips and tricks.5. Say you were reading the man page the day before. To navigate through directories or files with spaces. As root. press [q]. The next time the system is rebooted. but I cannot remember the name of the command I was reading about.bash_history to find a command can be tedious. and the Windows partition is automatically mounted in the directory /mnt/windows. At a shell prompt. which configures all file systems and disk device mounting options. By default. 16. the /etc/fstab file is read. you can search through the file for keywords using grep.umask=0 0 0 Save the file and exit your text editor. Paging through .6 Tips on Using Command History. type: history | grep man You will see a list of all the commands you typed which have the word man in them. type the command cd /mnt/windows. su to root. you will need to mount it in the directory you just created.130 Chapter 16. To search for the command. this file records the last 500 commands you typed at the shell prompt. How do I get the man page back? The command you used will most likely be stored in a file called . see Section 16. and to quit. type the following command at a shell prompt (where /dev/hda1 is the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows You may then logout of root user mode and access your Windows data by changing into the mounted Windows partition: cd /mnt/windows To automatically mount a Windows partition every time you boot your Red Hat Linux system. Next. . a powerful search utility. Finding Commands Quickly I was looking at a man page yesterday. To move forward a screen. but cannot recall its name. Another way to view .bash_history is with a utility such as less. surround the name of the directory or file with quotation marks. but the results will speed by too quickly for your to read ever line. Frequently Asked Questions Before you can access the partition. to move back a screen. Alternatively. following the above example. You can glimpse the history of your commands by typing history at the shell prompt. There are plenty of ways to your command history. To access the partition at a shell prompt. you must modify the /etc/fstab file.bash_history. Type less . and I did not write it down. open the /etc/fstab in a text editor by typing (for example): gedit /etc/fstab Add the following on a new line (replacing /dev/hda1 with the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows vfat auto.bash_history at the shell prompt and the results will display one page at a time. as in ls "Program Files". press the [b] key.

[Up arrow] and [down arrow]: At the shell or GUI terminal prompt. You can achieve the same results with more. press [Space] bar. showing you the previous 500 commands you have used. only the previous 20 commands you typed will display (you can use any quantity as an argument of the history command). to quit. you will see a numbered list scroll by very quickly. If you have configured a printer.Chapter 16. 16. Frequently Asked Questions 131 16. another paging utility. Keep ls Output from Scrolling Whenever I type ls I can barely see the output of the directory because it scrolls by too quickly. Printing ls Output You can also print directory listings by piping the output to a printer in the same way that you piped the output to your screen. This way. or "page" at at time. How can I actually read the output? To prevent the output of ls from scrolling by too quickly. so the command history 20 might be useful.1.7. You probably do not need to see all of the last 500 commands. You will then be able to see the output one screen.6. type the following command at the shell prompt: ls -al /etc | less To move forward a screen. press [q]. To read the contents of /etc with less. just as if you had typed it on the command line. pipe the output to a utility such as less or more. bang": Typing !! (called "bang bang") executes the last command in the history.7. to move back a screen. "Bang number": Typing !number (as in !302) will execute the command which is numbered 302 in the history file.6. Press [Enter] to execute the command. "Bang string": Typing !string (as in !rpm) will execute a command with the most recent matching string from the history file. press the [b] key.1. 16. Tips on Using Command History What are some other ways I can use command history? If you type history. type the following to pipe the output of a command to the printer: ls -al /etc | lpr . 16. you can press the up arrow to move back through previous commands in your history list (the down arrow will move you forward through the commands) until you find the command you want. Other Shortcuts Here are other command history shortcuts which may be useful to you: • • • • "Bang.

by changing just one number in the runlevel section. you can enter single user mode by performing the following: 1. 3. If you’re in your user account. reboot your computer.18-0. Open a shell prompt. 2.4. You can then reboot by typing reboot at the prompt. you will have a graphical login prompt. GRUB. Changing Login from Console to X at Startup How do I change my login from the console to the graphical screen? Instead of logging in to your system at the console and typing the startx command to start the X Window System. Press [Enter] to make the editing change take effect. You can now use the new password to log in to your user account. Open a shell prompt and type the following: passwd username Replace username with your normal user name. you can configure your system so that you can log in directly to X. reboot the computer. Password Maintenance I forgot or want to change my user account password. then add the word single to tell GRUB to boot into single-user Linux mode. then you can log in to root as you normally would. /etc/inittab. From here. Once you are finished. After it finishes loading. press [b] and GRUB will boot single-user Linux mode. type [e] to enter into editing mode. 16. Look for the line that looks similar to the following: kernel /vmlinuz-2. If you use the default boot loader.9. You can now change the root password by typing bash# passwd root You will be asked to re-type the password for verification. Press the Spacebar once to add a blank space. Frequently Asked Questions 16. 16. To enter single-user mode. which you will need to enter twice. You will be presented with a boot entry listing. The passwd command will then ask for the new password. 4. When you are finished. Forgotten Password Help! I forgot my root password.05# 5.4 ro root=/dev/hda2 Press the arrow key until this line is highlighted and press [e]. How do I log in now? You can log in using single-user mode and create a new root password. You will be brought back to the edit mode screen.10. the password will be changed.8. At the boot loader menu. The next time you log in. su to root by typing su . you will be presented with a shell prompt similar to the following: sh-2.132 Chapter 16. You must edit one file.

if you do not have networking) # 3 . you will see a section of the file which looks like this: # Default runlevel. type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit.X11 # 6 . Your changed line should look like the following: id:5:initdefault: When you are satisfied with your change. your next login after reboot will be from the graphical screen. You will see a message telling you that the file has been modified.Chapter 16. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 .Multiuser. you should change the number in the line Warning Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5. Type [Y] for yes.Single user mode # 2 .halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # 1 . The file /etc/inittab will open.unused # 5 .reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:3:initdefault: id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5. Frequently Asked Questions 133 Now. save and exit the file using the [Ctrl]-[x] keys. Now. without NFS (The same as 3. .Full multiuser mode # 4 . To change from a console to a graphical login. and asking you to confirm your change. Within the first screen.

Frequently Asked Questions .134 Chapter 16.

Finding Help You can access a comprehensive set of documentation about KDE through the HelpCenter. working with the many applications included with KDE. Introducing KDE The K Desktop Environment (KDE) is a graphical desktop that uses common graphical objects such as icons. Using The Desktop Once you start KDE.kde. A. Figure A-1.Appendix A. The opening screen of the HelpCenter browser appears like Figure A-1. To access HelpCenter from the desktop. The HelpCenter You can access the HelpCenter from the Main Menu by selecting Help. . This appendix covers the basics of using KDE: system navigation. From this main page. KDE: The K Desktop Environment A. and working with the Konquerer file manager. you can view help documentation on topics such as using and configuring the desktop.org.3. windows. right-click on the desktop and select the Help => K Desktop Handbook. and panels. and customizing the desktop to suit your needs. your default desktop will look similar to Figure A-2. visit the official website at http://www.2. menus. If you would like to learn more about KDE.1. working with files and applications. A. it allows you to access your Red Hat Linux system and applications using your mouse and keyboard.

A.4. you see several options for working with these resources. You can drag and drop files and application icons to any location on the desktop. The panel contains application launchers. You can drag and drop unwanted items such as files you no longer need to the Trash icon. The default KDE desktop displays icons for the trash can. The panel taskbar shows your currently running applications. Right-click on the trash can and select Empty Trash Bin to delete the items from your system permanently. Configuration tools are also available which allow you to customize the way the desktop behaves at events such as single. By default. folders. email client. file folders. and other commonly used applications. You can have up to 16 desktops running at the same time in KDE. or file manager. You can also access the main menu and configure the desktop to suit your needs. You can also add new icons for all types of applications and resources to the desktop. The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel. window and frame decorations. word processor. Icons located on the desktop can be files. panel. it contains the main menu icon and quick-launch icons for starting a Web browser. status indicators. and Copy. and the desktop manager. The KDE desktop works similarly to other graphical desktop environments. Using The Panel The panel stretches across the bottom of the desktop. device links. . A Typical KDE Desktop The KDE desktop displays application launchers. and so on.136 Appendix A. Click on an icon to open the associated resource.and double-clicking mouse buttons and chording keystrokes to create time-saving shortcuts. Rename. your home directory. and backgrounds. and a diskette icon. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-2. When you right-click on these icons. You can access any one of these resources by double-clicking on the associated icon. document windows. You can change the appearance of buttons. the Start Here icon for applications and configuration tools. The desktop itself is also highly customizable. such as Delete. or application launchers. Move to Trash.

Right-click on the panel and select Configure Panel to open the panel Settings. The main menu also contains several submenus that organize applications and tools into several categories. To add an application launcher to the panel. Clicking on the Main Menu icon on the panel displays a large master menu from which you can perform tasks such as launch applications. A. and more. Internet. set a panel hiding configuration (where the panel remains hidden until you hover over the panel area).4. including Graphics. and customize your main menu. You can configure panel orientation and size.Appendix A. Office. Then select Application Button and make your choice from the menus. and launching applications by typing commands in a text box. You can add and remove buttons that launch applications easily. There are some applets that run on the panel by default. time and date display. The Panel The panel is highly configurable. Panel Settings Other tabs in Settings contain options to further customize your panel and taskbar. You can also run applications from a command line as well as logout of your KDE session. Figure A-4. There are several types of applets performing functions such as system monitoring. Click Help at any time to learn more about configuring your panel. Games.2. Click on Help for more information on these options.4. From the Main Menu. Applications and utilities can be added easily to the panel. which will display a password-protected screensaver. . you can lock your screen. find files.1. This section covers them in detail. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 137 Figure A-3. right-click on the panel and choose Add. and configure your desktop. A. Using The Main Menu The Main Menu is the central point for using KDE. Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel.

drag the bar to the left. KDE: The K Desktop Environment By default. and so on. you can have Mozilla browsing the Web on desktop two. the OpenOffice. click the virtual desktop you want to change. .) by deleting the default names and typing a new name in each desktop’s corresponding text box. 3. KDE provides four desktops that you can use to display multiple applications without having to crowd all of them onto one desktop. Right-click on the desktop. Each desktop can hold icons. and Background icons are where you can make various desktop configuration changes. Working with Multiple Desktops Appendix A. drag the bar to the right. Virtual Desktop Configuration You can change the names of your desktops (from Desktop 1.org Writer word processor open on desktop three. and Paths. For more desktops. uncheck the Common Background checkbox. Click the Multiple Desktops icon (see Figure A-5). 2. Behavior. and be individually customized. the KDE desktop configuration tool will open.4. For example. Desktop 2.138 A. for fewer desktops. Figure A-5. to customize each virtual desktop to have different backgrounds. You can also change the number of desktops available to you by adjusting the slider in the Number of Desktops. click the Background icon. You can change the number and names of desktops available in KDE by making these adjustments: 1. open applications.1. The Appearance. For example. while you are writing a message in Evolution on desktop one. Select Configure Desktop. etc. you will see a brief menu of actions you can choose. and choose the color or image you want to make your background using the associated tabs.2.

To scroll through the tasks. while tapping the [Tab] key. Viewing The Taskbar The taskbar displays all running applications. . hold down both the [Alt]-[Tab] key. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 139 Figure A-6. on all desktops. [Ctrl]-[F2] switches to desktop two.Appendix A. Applications on the Taskbar You can maximize running applications or bring them to the front of your working windows by clicking on the associated item on the taskbar. both minimized and displayed. and so on. Tip You can use the keyboard combination of the [Ctrl] and Function keys to switch desktops. click Apply to save the changes.2. [Ctrl]-[F3] takes you to desktop three. Figure A-7. Click on a tile to move to a different desktop. Buttons for your desktops appear on the panel in the Desktop Pager.4.2. For example. To pick an item from the taskbar. release both keys and the application appears on the desktop. A. Desktop Background Configuration After you make any adjustments to your desktop configuration. When you have found the task you want to maximize and bring to the front. Click OK to close the desktop configuration tool. hold down the [Alt] key. Tip Another way to bring minimized or background windows to the front is to use the [Alt] and [Tab] keys.

You can move the icon anywhere you want on the panel by right-clicking the icon and choosing Move Application Button. and so on). To start Konqueror for file management. and change the way it behaves. allowing you to adjust all panel settings. right-click the panel and choose Add => Application Button and choose the application or resource you wish to add to the panel. KDE: The K Desktop Environment A. you can return to your home directory by clicking the Home button on the toolbar. browse digital images. A. surf the Web.3. The Settings window will appear. configure your Red Hat Linux system. Configuring the KDE Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually.4. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To further customize the panel for your particular needs. change its size and color. Konqueror allows you to configure your KDE desktop.5. Choose the Hiding tab. click on your home directory icon . and adjust the number of seconds to elapse before the panel is hidden. The Konqueror File Manager . Hiding. Click Apply then OK to close the Settings dialog.4. Menus. This section explains some of the ways Konqueror can help you work with and enjoy your Red Hat Linux system. This automatically adds an icon on the panel. play multimedia files. right-click the panel and choose Configure Panel. After exploring. A. To add a new launcher to the panel.4. or any one of the specific properties (Arrangement. Managing Files Konqueror is the file manager and a Web browser for the KDE desktop.140 Appendix A. The panel will remain hidden until you hover over the panel area to make it reappear. where Application is the name of the application associated with the icon. place it on any edge of your desktop. Figure A-8. allowing you to navigate through your home directory and throughout your Red Hat Linux file system. To alter the default panel settings. Konqueror will open up in a window on your desktop. and more from one interface. you can include additional launcher icons to start applications without using the main menu or Start Here. click Hide automatically.

images. network resources. Browsing the Web with Konqueror Konqueror not only allows you to browse your local and network file system. Files and folders in the main window frame can be moved or copied to another folder or sent to the trash.6.Appendix A. Working with the Navigation Panel The navigation panel lets you access your Web bookmarks.1. Figure A-9. file system. and has a built-in media player for playing multimedia files without having to open a separate application. which you can use to explore the World Wide Web. The navigation panel makes many of your sytem resources available to you in convenient tabbed icons. The navigation panel makes Konqueror an efficient solution for users who want fast and easy access to all of their files and information. The Navigation Panel Another useful feature of Konqueror is the navigation panel. but with component technology used throughout KDE. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 141 You can navigate through the file system by clicking on folders within the main window frame or through the hierarchical file system viewer on the navigation panel as shown in Figure A-8. To launch Konqueror choose Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => Konqueror Web Browser. This panel appears on the left side of the Konqueror file browser window by default. PostScript/PDF files. A. A. and Web files. browsing history.5. It can also preview sounds from digital audio files. Konqueror is also a full featured Web browser. Figure A-9 shows the navigation panel. . Konqueror also displays thumbnail icons for text. You can also delete files and folders by right-clicking on the item and choosing Delete.

you will be presented with the Tips page.142 Appendix A. This screen offers basic instructions for browsing webpages. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-10. plug-ins. This page shows you basic tips for using Konqueror so that you can begin to take advantage of the many features. By clicking Continue from the Tips screen. featured protocols. you will be presented with an Introduction screen. For additional information on using Konqueror. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Konqueror Handbook. and OpenSSL). . Welcome to Konqueror When you first launch Konqueror. and more. you will see the Specifications screen. To begin your Web session. enter a URL in the Location field. If you click Continue at the end of the webpage. This screen displays information on supported standards (such as Cascading Stylesheets.

If you chose KDE as your default desktop environment. Using Konqueror to View Images You can also use the Konqueror file manager to view images. The Konqueror Handbook A. the browser displays the image in its native size.7. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 143 Figure A-11.Appendix A. When you double-click on a thumbnail icon. Figure A-12. Image files automatically generate thumbnail image icons for you to preview within the file browser window. click on your home directory desktop icon to access the Konqueror file manager: . Viewing an Image in Konqueror . as shown in Figure A-12. Using Konqueror as an image browser works similarly to Nautilus (see Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information).

select Settings from the KMail toolbar. Figure A-14. and Folders. KDE: The K Desktop Environment To zoom in and out of an image.. Rightclick on the image. A pop-up menu will appear allowing you to open the application you wish to use. choose Open With. Security. you first need to change the way Konqueror renders the image. Image viewing configuration on the Konqueror Toolbar You can also open the image with more advanced image viewers. To begin sending and receiving messages you will have to change the settings in the Identities and Network tabs. It has an intuitive graphical interface similar to Evolution that allows you to send and receive email using a graphical interface. The Configure Mail Client window consists of the following sections: Identities. Click on the GIMP icon and click OK. you must configure it so it can send and receive mail.. Appearance. For additional information.. Have your email information from your service provider or administrator handy so that you can fill in the required information to begin using KMail. and click on Configure KMail. From the window menu. as well as with The GIMP. Network... This will re-display the image and allow you to rotate and zoom in on the image using the two magnifying glass icons or the magnification percentage drop-down menu on the toolbar.8. Composer.144 Appendix A.. To launch the GIMP. choose View => View Mode => Image Viewer Part. choose Graphics and scroll down the list of applications.. refer to the KMail user manual (Help => KMail Handbook) or visit KMail’s homepage at http://kmail. as shown in Figure A-13. Before you can really use KMail. Dialog Box A. Figure A-13. as seen in Figure A-14. The Open With. . KMail KMail is an email tool for KDE.kde.. click on the Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => KMail.org. then Other. To open KMail. To run the configuration tool.

emails ready to be sent. emails you have sent. KMail Main Screen Once you have your email settings configured. The folders on the left side of the KMail screen allow you to view emails you have received. you can begin sending and receiving email. To compose a mail. click on the new message icon in the tool bar: Figure A-16. and more. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 145 Figure A-15. KMail New Email Message Screen .Appendix A.

Figure A-17. you can also configure accessibility features such as audible and visual cues and keyboard/mouse customization. Regional & Accessibility This section allows you to set country and language options to your particular locale. It is strongly recommended that you leave these settings at their default values unless you understand the consequences of changing them. You can configure options such as cache sizes. KDE Logout Screen . Logging Out of KDE There are two ways to log out of your KDE session. website cookies. panel elements. assigning all digital music files to open in XMMS instead of the default player). The following list explains some of the configuration options in detail. available by selecting Main Menu => Control Center. and enhanced browsing using keyword shortcuts. right-click on the desktop and. Linux kernel configuration. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to.146 Appendix A. You can also customize mouse and keyboard events which makes working with the desktop as efficient for your needs as possible. A. and more. themes. select Logout User. You will need your root password to configure most of these options. and window border appearance. proxy settings (if available). The KDE Control Center. click Send in the toolbar: .9. lets you customize the look and behavior of the desktop. You can also associate files to applications that you prefer (for example. In either case click Logout and your session will end. This section allows you to configure system boot settings. From the Main Menu. icons. Appearance & Themes This sections allows you to customize the visual aspect of your desktop environment. plugins. Customizing KDE KDE allows you to configure the desktop and your system to suit your needs. For users with sight or hearing impairments. where User is your account username. System Administration This section is an advanced system configuration interface. To log out from the desktop. from the menu. Web Browsing This section allows you to configure the Konqueror Web browser.10. screensavers. You can customize background images and configure fonts. KDE Components This section lets you configure the Konqueror file manager and customize certain file operations. select Logout User where User is your account username. login management. A.

CD Player (GNOME CD).Volume Monitor (VUMeter) Extras KWord Gnumeric. Applications . Konquerer. Applications The following table shows some of the Red Hat Linux applications that are available to perform many common tasks. cdrecord.org Calc OpenOffice. This is not a complete list of all applications available. Kate Kmail. lynx X-Chat. aumix. Scanning (XSane) Jpilot CD Creator. The GIMP KPilot.Appendix B. Category Word Processors Spreadsheets Presentations Charts and Diagrams Graphics Image Viewers Digital Cameras/Scanners PDAs CD Recording Text Editors Email Clients Web Browsers Chat/Instant Messaging PDF/PostScript Viewers Personal Finance Fax Sound Recommended Application OpenOffice. Emacs. KSpread KPresenter. Chatzilla Ghostview Table B-1. Paint Program (KPaint) GThumb Digital Camera Tool (gtKam). KDE Sound Mixer. X-CD-Roast Text Editor (gedit) Evolution Mozilla Instant Messenger (GAIM) xpdf Gnucash Fax Viewer (KFax) Audio Player (XMMS). Applications in between (parentheses) denotes the formal name of the application. KDE CD Player. MagicPoint Kchart. XFig Icon Editor (K Icon Editor) Image Viewer (Kuickshow). links. Evolution KOnCD vi. Kivio.org Write OpenOffice. The GIMP Scan and OCR Program (Kooka). Mozilla Mail. mutt Galeon.org Impress Dia The GIMP. KMid Sound Recorder (GNOME Sound).

148 Appendix B. Applications .

txt /home/thisdirectory mv thisfile. Command’s Purpose Copies files Moves files Lists files Clears screen Closes shell prompt Displays or sets date Deletes files "Echoes" output to the screen Edits files with simple text editor Compares the contents of files Finds a string of text in a file Formats a diskette MS-DOS copy move dir cls exit date del echo edit fc find format a: Linux cp mv ls clear exit date rm echo gedit(a) diff grep mke2fs or mformat(b) man(c) mkdir less(d) mv(e) Basic Linux Example cp thisfile.txt (if diskette is in A:) /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 (/dev/fd0 is the Linux equivalent of A:) man command mkdir directory less thisfile.txt mv thisfile. In fact. This appendix provides common commands used at the DOS prompt in Windows and their counterparts in Linux.Appendix C. To learn more about each command.txt Displays command help Creates a directory Views a file Renames a file command /? mkdir more ren . A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands Many Linux commands typed at a shell prompt are similar to the commands you would type in DOS. Note that these commands usually have a number of options. Basic examples of how the command are used at the Linux shell prompt are also provided.txt /home/thisdirectory ls clear exit date rm thisfile. some commands are identical.txt echo this message gedit thisfile.txt thatfile. read its associated man page (for example.txt diff file1 file2 grep this word or phrase thisfile. type man ls at the shell prompt to read about the ls command).

A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands MS-DOS chdir Linux pwd Basic Linux Example pwd Changes directories cd with a specified pathname path (absolute path) Changes directories cd .150 Command’s Purpose Displays your location in the file system Appendix C. Similar Commands . Table C-1. if you want to rename a file in the same directory. other editors you can use in place of Gedit include Emacs and vi. with a relative path Displays the time Shows amount of RAM in use time mem cd pathname cd /directory/directory cd ... date free date free Notes: a. The mv command can both move a file and. d. cd . b. as seen in this example. e. Gedit is a graphical text editor. You can also use info for some commands. "move" that file to the same directory with a new name. c. This formats a disk for the DOS file system.. The more pager can also be used to page through a file one screen at a time.

such as shutdown. . Used by fsck to place orphaned files (files without names). You will be unable to boot your computer if you delete the directory and then reboot your Red Hat Linux system. — Directory where optional files and programs are stored. — Contains the kernel and other files used during system startup. such as programs and supporting library files. the default CD-ROM mount point is /mnt/cdrom/. such as log files and the printer spool. — For variable (or constantly changing) files. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide and the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. directory for users and programs. This directory is used mainly by third-party developers for easy installation and uninstallation of their software packages. Warning Do not delete the /initrd/ directory. The directory /usr/bin/ also stores user commands. • /tmp/ — The temporary and write access. The directory /usr/sbin/ also contains many system commands. the superuser. — A virtual file system (not actually stored on the disk) that contains system information used by certain programs. — The home directory of root. Each directory is described briefly.img image file and load needed device • /proc/ • /initrd/ — A directory modules during bootup. For additional directory information. • /root/ • /mnt/ • /boot/ • /lost+found/ — • /lib/ — Contains many library files used by programs in /bin/ and /sbin/. — Contains configuration files and directories. — Stores device files. • /bin/ — Used to store user commands. The directory /usr/lib/ contains more library files for user applications. — This directory typically contains the mount points for file systems mounted after the system is booted. that is used to mount the initrd. System Directories This is a list of the primary Red Hat Linux system directories. /tmp/ allows all users on a system read • /home/ • /opt/ — Default location of user home directories. For example. • /dev/ • /etc/ • /var/ • /usr/ — Contains files and directories directly relating to users of the system.Appendix D. • /sbin/ — Location of many system commands.

System Directories .152 Appendix D.

[Ctrl] + [u] = clears the current line. press [Enter]. For example. Shuts down your current session and reboots the OS. clear = clears the shell prompt screen. Many more are available in addition to what is listed here. if you configured your mouse to emulate a third mouse button. Type this at a shell prompt to logout of the current user or root account. Use this command when using a shell prompt. exit = logout. history = shows history of commands. press the [up] or [down] arrow to scroll through a history of commands you have typed from the current directory.html#shortcuts • • • [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Backspace] = kills your current X session. If you have more than one application open at a time. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Delete] = shutdown and reboots your Red Hat Linux system. [Alt] + [Tab] = switches tasks in a graphical desktop environment. Point the cursor to the spot where you want it pasted.Appendix E. Type this command to clear all visible data from the shell prompt screen. Use the left mouse button to highlight the text. To display a shorter list of previously used commands. you can use [Alt] + [Tab] to switch among open tasks and applications. Click the middle mouse button to paste it. [F1] through [F6] are shell prompt screens and [F7] is the graphical desktop screen. For more command line and keyboard shortcuts. use this shortcut to clear the current line from the cursor all the way to the beginning of the line. Type the first few characters of a command or filename and then press the [Tab] key. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. It will automatically complete the command or show all commands that match the characters you typed. When you see the command you want to use. [Ctrl] + [l] = clears the terminal. Kills your graphical desktop session and returns you to the login screen. In a two mouse system. Type this at a shell prompt to refresh the screen if characters are unclear or appear corrupt. Use only when the normal shutdown procedure does not work. • • • • • • • • • • • • • . [Ctrl]+[Alt] + one of the function keys displays an available screen. you can click both the left and right mouse buttons simultaneously to perform a paste. This shortcut does the same thing as typing clear at a command line. [Ctrl] + [d] = logout of (and close) shell prompt. history 20. If you are working in a terminal. [Tab] = command autocomplete. Type this at a shell prompt to see a numbered list of the previous 1000 commands you typed. Use this quick shortcut instead of typing exit or logout. [Middle Mouse Button] = pastes highlighted text. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Fn] = switches screens. When using a shell prompt. By default. Use this if the normal exit procedure does not work. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. type history followed by a space and a number. [Ctrl] + [e] = moves cursor to end of a line. [Ctrl] + [a] = moves cursor to the beginning of a line. Keyboard Shortcuts Here are a few keyboard shortcuts you can use to perform common tasks quickly. reset = refreshes the shell prompt screen. visit: http://sunsite. [Up] and [Down] Arrow = shows command history.dk/linux-newbie/lnag_commands.

Keyboard Shortcuts .154 Appendix E.

73 chmod. 27 and cdrecord. 26 additional resources. 105 numerical settings. 16 on the desktop panel. 90 change directories. 90 reset. 113 commands (See shell prompt) cat. 26 additional resources. 95 DOS. 28 cdrecord. 14 panel in KDE. 96 cd. 101 head. v creating graphics with OpenOffice. 93 ls -al. 101 cat. 93 ls. 92 tail. 131 ls -a. 105 numerical settings. 7 appending standard output. 137 applications and Red Hat Linux. 103 tips. 149 finding. 28 bzip2. 96 cron. 147 starting from shell prompt. 115 burning CDs. 108 clear. 101 common user questions. deleting) stringing together. playing. 108 clear. 104 su. 30 with X-CD-Roast. common options with. 96 rm (See files. 130 locate. 140 adding to the panel. 96 command history. 127 compressing files. 90 chmod. 115 C cat.Index A accounts creating. 32 with CD Creator. 101 history. 96 cd. ii copying and pasting text when using X. 60 . 30 and mkisofs. 113 conventions document. 94 ls. 28 CD-writable (CD-R). 90 CD-rewritable (CD-RW). 26 additional resources. deleting) rm -r (See directories. 32 and CD Creator. 127 archiving files. using. 104 print working directory (pwd). 30 and X-CD-Roast. 130 grep. 27 and cdrecord. 93 keeping output from scrolling. 30 with mkisofs. 32 and CD Creator. 90 pwd. 69 creating user accounts.org Draw. 98 applets adding to KDE panel. 31 CDs. 7 B bunzip2. 94 multiple. 27 with cdrecord. 30 and mkisofs. 131 command line options printing from. 30 and X-CD-Roast.

125 Evolution (See email clients) ext2 file system and floppy disks. 35 documents. 113 with File Roller. 50 plain text. 69 environment variables PATH. 151 listing contents. 119 creating touch.org. 119 copying at a shell prompt. 89 moving. 111 File Roller. 93 managing from shell prompt. 23 formatting. 144 Mozilla Mail. 21 dateconfig (See Time and Date Properties Tool) desktop (See graphical desktop) applets. 129 finding previous used commands. 120 diskettes. 63 OpenOffice. 18. 16 file managers. 119 renaming at a shell prompt. 119 deleting. 70 dot files (See hidden files) drag and drop. 87 directories changing. 111 file types. 112 managing from shell prompt. 112 archiving.156 D date configuration. 72 text files. 50 mutt. 127 accessing a Windows partition. 23 unmounting. 120 moving at a shell prompt. 87 DHCP. 81 KDE. 119 types of. 114 file system understanding. 48 Newsgroups. 130 history tips and tricks. 14 background changing. 112 compressing. 35 digital cameras. 121 descriptions. 63 OpenOffice. 23 DNS definition. 112 files archived. 127 starting applications. 113 with File Roller. 131 login problems. 50 . 119 formats. 121 deleting at a shell prompt. 49 mutt. v drawing OpenOffice. 24 F FAQ. 119 deleting. 128 errata updating with. 132 permissions for installing RPMs. 114 compressed. 138 devices digital cameras. 89 moving. 114 copying. 24 mke2fs. 140 Nautilus. 90 copying. 25 mounting. 127 feedback contact information for this manual. v FHS (See Filesystem Hierarchy Standard) file. 46 KMail. 45 Evolution. 131 keeping ls output from scrolling. 135 desktops multiple KDE. 112 Filesystem Hierarchy Standard.org Writer. 64 PDF. 113 file manager for KDE. 23 using.org Draw. 112 floppy disks (See diskettes) E email clients.

157
formatting diskettes, 24

I
images additional resources, 85 manipulation, 79 GIMP, 82 viewing, 79, 79 gThumb, 80 Konqueror, 143 Nautilus, 79 Internet configuring, 35 Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 introduction, i IP address, 35

G
games and amusements, 76 finding more online, 77 getting started logging in, 5 Setup Agent, 1 GIMP, 82 opening a file, 83 saving a file, 84 GNOME desktop (See graphical desktop) GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 graphical desktop, 13 applets, 16 background changing, 18, 81 customizing, 18 logging out of, 20 main menu, 14 Nautilus, 16 panel, 14 Start Here , 17 using, 13 workspace, 13 graphical login changing to, 132 graphics GIMP, 82 gThumb, 80 changing wallpaper with, 81 gunzip, 115 gzip, 115

K
KDE, 135 applets adding, 140 multiple desktops, 138 customizing, 146 desktop, 135 desktop icons, 136 desktops multiple, 138 switching, 139 documentation, 135 Konqueror navigation panel, 141 main menu, 137 panel, 136 applets, 137 switching tasks, 139 Taskbar, 139 website, 135 keyboard shortcuts, 153 KMail (See email clients) Konqueror (See Web browsers) KDE file manager, 140 navigation panel, 141 viewing images with, 143

H
Hardware Browser, 129 help with KDE finding, 135 hidden files, 93 history finding commands using, 130

158

L
less, 100 linux commands (See shell prompt) listing directories (See commands, ls) log in, 5 logging in, 5 graphical, 132 graphical login, 6 virtual console login, 6 logging out, 11 from the desktop, 20 KDE, 146 login problems using single-user mode, 132 ls, 93 printing output, 131 viewing output, 131

configuring, 21 ntpd, 21 ntpd, 21

O
online connecting with Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 OpenOffice.org, 63 Draw, 69 features, 63 Impress, 67 Writer, 64, 65 ownership and permissions, 105

P
pagers, 100 less, 100 panel configuring, 16 configuring the, 140 KDE, 136 adding applications, 137 customizing, 137 hiding, 137 on the graphical desktop, 14 partitions accessing Windows, 129 password forgotten, 132 passwords secure, 8 PATH, 128 editing, 127 pathnames relative and absolute, 90 PDF viewing, 72 xpdf, 72 peripherals digital cameras, 87 permissions numerical settings, 108 setting for new RPMs, 127 permissions and ownership, 105 pipes, 100 plain text (See text files) Point-to-Point Protocol, 35 PPP, 35 presentations OpenOffice.org Impress, 67 printer configuration adding

M
main menu in KDE, 137 on the desktop, 14 mke2fs, 25 mkisofs, 31 mouse how to use, v Mozilla (See Web browsers) Mozilla Mail (See email clients) music Ogg Vorbis, 73 Wave, 73 XMMS, 73 using, 74 mutt (See email clients)

N
Nautilus, 16 disabling text icons, 17 disabling thumbnails, 17 viewing images with, 79 Network Time Protocol (See NTP) new users creating accounts, 7 Newsgroups (See email clients) NTP

159
local printer, 53 cancel print job, 60 default printer, 56 delete existing printer, 56 driver options, 57 Assume Unknown Data is Text, 57 Convert Text to Postscript, 58 Effective Filter Locale, 58 GhostScript pre-filtering, 58 Media Source, 58 Page Size, 58 Prerender Postscript, 58 Send End-of-Transmission (EOT), 57 Send Form-Feed (FF), 57 edit driver, 57 edit existing printer, 56 GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 local printer, 53 managing print jobs, 58 modifying existing printers, 56 notification icon, 59 printing from the command line, 60 rename existing printer, 57 test page, 56 viewing print spool, 59 viewing print spool, command line, 60 printing from command line, 95 pwd, 90

S
Setup Agent, 1 shell, 89 history of, 89 shell prompt, 7 basic commands, 89 chmod, 106 single-user mode, 132 software installing, 123 upgrading, 123 sound card configuring, 74 Sound Card Configuration Tool, 74 spreadsheets OpenOffice.org Calc, 65 standard input redirecting, 99 standard output appending, 98 redirecting, 96 Start Here, 17 changing desktop background with, 18 startup messages dmesg | more, 100 startx, 6 su, 92 superuser (See commands, su) switching desktops KDE, 139 switching tasks KDE, 139 system directories descriptions, 151

R
Red Hat Network, 123 Red Hat Update Agent, 123 redhat-config-date (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redhat-config-time (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redirecting standard input, 99 redirection, 96 reset, 96 RHN (See Red Hat Network) root, 111 and root login, 111 logging in as, 5 RPM, 125 installing packages, 123 upgrading packages, 123 RPMs error message while installing, 127 installing with Gnome-RPM, 127

T
tab completion, 103 Taskbar KDE, 139 terminal (See shell prompt) terms introductory, 3 text files, 70 editing, 70 from a shell prompt, 71 The Graphical Desktop, 6 time configuration, 21 synchronize with NTP server, 21 time zone configuration, 22 timetool (See Time and Date Properties Tool) Trash icon

71 W wallpaper changing. 39 X X Configuration Tool. 136 troubleshooting sound card. 5 utilities cat. 76 xpdf. 7 importance of. 39 Konqueror. 39 Mozilla. 76 U unzip. 72 . 39 using. 115 user account creating. 129 World Wide Web browsers. 18 Web browsers. 100 V vi .160 KDE. 141 Mozilla. 39 Windows accessing on a separate partition add line to /etc/fstab. 96 less. 74 video card.

Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Tammy Fox — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. Garrett LeSage created the admonition graphics (note. The DocBook SGML files are written in Emacs with the help of PSGML mode. Bailey — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer. tip. The Red Hat Linux Product Documentation Team consists of the following people: Sandra A. important.Colophon The Red Hat Linux manuals are written in DocBook SGML v4. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer John Ha — Primary Writer/Maintainer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide Johnray Fuller — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. and warning). caution. Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. The HTML and PDF formats are produced using custom DSSSL stylesheets and custom jade wrapper scripts. They may be freely redistributed with the Red Hat documentation. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer . Writer/Maintainer of custom DocBook stylesheets and scripts Edward C. Moore — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide.1 format.

162 .