Red Hat Linux 9

Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide

Red Hat Linux 9: Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc.
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Table of Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... i 1. Changes to This Manual ........................................................................................................ i 2. Document Conventions......................................................................................................... ii 3. Copying and Pasting Text With X........................................................................................ iv 4. Using the Mouse ................................................................................................................... v 5. We Need Feedback! .............................................................................................................. v 6. Sign Up for Support .............................................................................................................. v 1. Getting Started ................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1. Setup Agent....................................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Introductory Terms............................................................................................................. 3 1.3. Logging In.......................................................................................................................... 5 1.3.1. Graphical Login .................................................................................................. 5 1.3.2. Virtual Console Login......................................................................................... 6 1.4. Graphical Interface............................................................................................................. 6 1.5. Opening a Shell Prompt ..................................................................................................... 7 1.6. Creating a User Account.................................................................................................... 7 1.7. Documentation and Help ................................................................................................... 8 1.7.1. Manual Pages ...................................................................................................... 9 1.7.2. Red Hat Linux Documentation ......................................................................... 10 1.8. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 11 1.8.1. Graphical Logout .............................................................................................. 11 1.8.2. Virtual Console Logout..................................................................................... 11 1.9. Shutting Down your Computer ........................................................................................ 11 1.9.1. Graphical Shutdown.......................................................................................... 11 1.9.2. Virtual Console Shutdown ................................................................................ 12 2. Using the Graphical Desktop ....................................................................................................... 13 2.1. Using the Desktop............................................................................................................ 13 2.2. Using the Panel ................................................................................................................ 14 2.2.1. Using the Main Menu ...................................................................................... 14 2.2.2. Using Applets.................................................................................................... 14 2.2.3. Using the Notification Area .............................................................................. 15 2.2.4. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel............................................................. 16 2.2.5. Configuring the Desktop Panel ......................................................................... 16 2.3. Using Nautilus ................................................................................................................ 16 2.4. Start Here ......................................................................................................................... 17 2.4.1. Customizing the Desktop.................................................................................. 18 2.4.2. Customizing your System ................................................................................. 19 2.5. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 20 3. Configuring the Date and Time ................................................................................................... 21 3.1. Time and Date Properties................................................................................................. 21 3.2. Time Zone Configuration................................................................................................. 21 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs .............................................................................................................. 23 4.1. Using Diskettes ................................................................................................................ 23 4.1.1. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette.............................................................. 23 4.1.2. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette ................................................... 24 4.1.3. Formatting a Diskette........................................................................................ 24 4.2. CD-ROMs ........................................................................................................................ 25 4.2.1. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager ....................................................... 26 4.2.2. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt ............................................................ 26 4.3. CD-Rs and CD-RWs ........................................................................................................ 26 4.3.1. Using CD Creator............................................................................................ 27 4.3.2. Using X-CD-Roast........................................................................................... 28

..................1............... Printing a Test Page.................1............................... 41 6.............................................1........ OpenOffice....... Managing Print Jobs ........... 67 9.......................................................3.......................................................................7.. 43 7.. 74 10.................... The Printer Configuration Tool ......... 35 6................................................................................ Modifying Existing Printers.... Printer Configuration .............3... 57 8............................................................................................ Useful Websites ................................................................................................................ Finding Games Online ..................................................................3...............3.......1.......................7.......................................4....................................2............. 65 9....................1................... 45 7...........................4................................................... 55 8............................................................................... OpenOffice.........................................................................4.............. 50 8..........................1...........................2.........4........................... Playing Digital Audio Files ......5.................................... 32 4..................................................................................................................................................................... 57 8.................................2. Queue Name ...................................................... Viewing PDFs .............................................. 60 8..............2......2...................org Draw...................... Evolution............2........ 33 5.............................................2.............................................. Mozilla and Newsgroups .................................................................................... 63 9. 57 8...............org Features....................................... 69 9........ 63 9......................... Troubleshooting Your Video Card ..... 71 9................................. Mozilla Composer.................................2..........5......... 64 9........ OpenOffice................................................................ 47 7... Web Browsing.................. 30 4................1.................... 71 10................. 54 8............................................................. Adding a Local Printer....................................................... Confirming Printer Configuration ...................................................... Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools ................................................... 58 8... 39 6.................................................................................................... Galeon ....5..............................................................................2....................................................................5............................................. If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work.................1..............................4........................2................................................................................................. Installed Documentation ....................1...........3.......org Writer ................................................. 57 8............................. 69 9............... Audio..............3....................6..........................................................................7............................. 61 9.................. Playing Audio CDs ...................3...2.....4........................................................................................ Mozilla Mail........ 39 6.......... Installed Documentation .........1...............................5..............1..................................................................................... Using Mutt ........5......................................... Video......... Printer Driver............. 55 8...................................................................................................................3.......................... 73 10..................................................... 41 6.......1......................... 74 10............................. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing.....................1......................... 49 7............. 75 10................................................................ Games ...1......... Mozilla.....1............................ and General Amusement..................... 73 10. Using XMMS ........ Useful Websites ................................................3................................ Driver Options.1....1................................................................. 56 8.......6............ Additional Resources ........ 39 6............................... 73 10..........5...............4................................... 77 ........ OpenOffice....................org Suite.................................................. 45 7......... Email Applications.................. 32 4..... 50 7..............................3..... Getting Online ..........org Impress... Shell Prompt Text Editors ...................... The OpenOffice........................1.......... Using Mozilla........................................ Queue Type ...................................................2...........................3..2.................... Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts ..............4.............. 60 8........................... 53 8... 75 10..............1... 76 10.............org Calc . Troubleshooting Your Sound Card ................... 53 8... Editing Text Files ..........1................. Working with Documents.1..........................3.................................. Plain Text Email Clients .1..................... Additional Resources ................................................................................................. OpenOffice............................................................................... 63 9............1... 53 8.......................................................................................................

............... Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt ................. 85 11........................................................9.......... File Compression and Archiving ..........................3.............................. 93 13....2... Wildcards and Regular Expressions............. 115 14................. Creating Files .........................................................................9.................................................................. 89 13................................................3.....................................................................................2................... Using File Roller.......................................... 112 14............................ Loading a File ..............................10... 119 14.............. Clearing and Resetting the Terminal...4......................1........... 87 13...............1.............................................3. 79 11............................1............ 117 14................ I/O Redirection and Pipes ......................................... 102 13.................. 87 12............................................ 79 11............... The tail Command............................ Determining Your Current Directory with pwd .... GIMP Basics ....................8............................ 112 14................11................ 100 13..............................................11.......................... 79 11....................... 84 11................................................................2................................... 106 13...................... 112 14...............2........ 90 13........................... The chmod Command....1.........3........ Additional Resources ...............2............ File Formats .......................................... Identifying and Working with File Types .......1............ 108 14...............................1............... Using Redirection ....................................... Saving a File ......... Useful Websites ............................................ 99 13.........................................1..2...................................11................................... The History of the Shell... 104 13....... Using Nautilus to View Images........5.................................... GIMP Options ...................11.................................................. The more Command ................................................... 82 11. 114 14............... Related Books ................................................ Pipes and Pagers ................................................1.. Using gThumb ................... Working with Digital Cameras .....1..........12...................4...................2........ 101 13.......... The grep Command........3....2..........2................................................................................................... Ownership and Permissions............................................................................... A Larger Picture of the File System ..3....... System Files ..........1.................................................3................................ 113 14................................................1.. 111 14....... 90 13.............................. 85 11........... 94 13..........3...............................................2................. 104 13.... 98 13....... 89 13........................ 101 13............... View Directory Contents with ls..................................................13.........................3................................................. Compressed and Archived Files ........... 102 13................................................................. Manipulating Files with cat................................................................................2.......... Using Multiple Commands ....... Why Use a Shell Prompt................................ Shell Prompt Basics .................. Printing From The Command Line..................................................................... Viewing Images.................................. 83 11....... Using gtKam ............................................4........... 80 11............ The head Command .........2........... More Commands for Reading Text Files..................................1......... Changing Directories with cd .................................................................11.....................3.......2.... Manipulating Images with the GIMP......... Locating Files and Directories ...................................3......11..1............................................ Managing Files and Directories . 101 13.............................................................................2......... Programming and Scripting Files ..............................................................................2.......... Appending Standard Output ................................................9...........2...................... 89 13.........1..14................................... 112 14...................................6....................... 95 13.........................1............................................... 85 11........... 96 13................................................................. 101 13..... 95 13.............. Working with Images...........................................................7...............3........3................................................................ Changing Permissions With Numbers ................................14...............14................................................................... 86 12.....................1...2.......... 111 14................................................... 84 11......................... Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt................................... Command History and Tab Completion ....9...10...................2..........4..5.............................. Installed Documentation ............2........................ 103 13....................11..........4................................................ Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt..................................................................................................3.............................. 113 14.......................... 119 ..........4................................... 99 13................................ Redirecting Standard Input ..........................3................... 96 13...................... 82 11.............................................

..... Using Applets..1........2.. 129 16...........8.................................................................................................................. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands .................. Editing Your PATH .....................................4............1.............................. 140 A... Tips on Using Command History ....... 153 Index...... Managing Files.................................. Printing ls Output...........10........... 139 A.......................................................................................3.................. 121 15...................................................................... Red Hat Network .............2.... 161 ........................................... 137 A.....................3..... 135 A................... 132 A..........................................14................................................ Customizing KDE ............................................................................................10....... 128 16................... Frequently Asked Questions ....... Using The Main Menu..........4.....................1.................................................... Copying Files ................................................... 141 A............................................ 147 C..............................................6.................................................................... Changing Login from Console to X at Startup ........4......................................................... 127 16............................. 130 16........................... 125 15................................................................... System Directories...................... 155 Colophon....................... 127 16.......... Deleting Files and Directories ............................... Finding Commands Quickly .................................................................... Finding Help .. Localhost Login and Password ........ Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel ........................................................................5...........................................3................................................................................. 149 D............................................ 146 B..................1..4................................................................4............................................... 131 16. Errata List.2........................................................6........................................................................................................ 123 15.......5..............................1........4......2.......................................................... 131 16............. 146 A....................... Installation CD-ROMs .......................... Error Messages During Installation of RPMs............... Keep ls Output from Scrolling .......... KDE: The K Desktop Environment ....................................... 143 A.......... Browsing the Web with Konqueror ....................................................9.............................2............ 135 A. 151 E........................................... Applications ..................................................................3................................................6................................................... 130 16............................................................................... KMail ....................................................... 126 16.............. 140 A................... Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages.................3............. 136 A....4................................................1.. Other Shortcuts .............4................................. 135 A............................ 131 16...... Moving Files .......................4.. 135 A...........................................................................1... Downloaded Packages .................................. 127 16...................... 144 A..................7............... Starting Applications .................. 137 A..................................................1......................................................... Keyboard Shortcuts ........9.................................. Password Maintenance.......................... 141 A........... Accessing a Windows Partition ............................................................................................... 125 15....................... Introducing KDE................. 131 16.................................. 132 16................................................................... Using Konqueror to View Images .......................7..............................5..................................... Using The Panel .................8....................... 123 15.......................................... 127 16............... 119 14....4.....................................................................................................................4.. Using The Desktop.. Logging Out of KDE..............................................................................................7................................................................................................... Forgotten Password.. The Navigation Panel.......................4....................................................................3..................... 120 14.......................................... Configuring the KDE Panel ................................................................................................

the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. This manual is task-oriented.redhat. and the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. Changes to This Manual This manual has been expanded to include new features in Red Hat Linux 9 as well as topics requested by our readers.com/docs/.com/docs/ 1. feels. hints.redhat. Changes to this manual include: Working with Digital Cameras This new chapter discusses using a digital camera with gtKam. you will learn the basics of using Red Hat Linux. the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer.Introduction Welcome to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide! By now. HTML and PDF versions of the Red Hat Linux manuals are available on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD and online at http://www. First. Forget about the conventions of other operating systems and. Keep in mind that Linux looks. with an open mind. The Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide focuses primarily on how to perform tasks in these two environments. warnings. interesting. Note Although this manual reflects the most current information possible. and versatile alternative. you should read the Red Hat Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to our documentation being finalized. They can be found on the Red Hat Linux CD #1 and online at: http://www. This manual is designed to help new and intermediate Linux users navigate and perform common tasks. you may need information on more advanced topics. and performs differently from other operating systems you may have used. Topics discussed include: • • • • • Using the graphical desktop environment Managing files and directories Working with documents Using the Web and email Working with a digital camera After conquering the basics of your Red Hat Linux system. approach Red Hat Linux as a new. such as customizing a desktop. You will find useful tips. Most users choose to work within either the GNOME or KDE graphical desktop environments (other desktop environments are also available). and screen shots interspersed throughout. You can find this information in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. and getting online. . you should have read the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide and successfully installed Red Hat Linux. the tasks covered in this manual become progressively more advanced. Once the basics are covered. configuring a printer.

including how to change your desktop background. For example: Use Mozilla to browse the Web. and RPM package names are represented this way. Document Conventions When you read this manual. The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and filesystems. typefaces. Examples: The . and more. In these cases. when used) are represented this way. so the entire phrase will be displayed as a command. manage your printer. This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on the command line and press [Enter] to invoke a command. Working with Documents This chapter includes information on editing text files in a graphical environment (with gEdit) and at a shell prompt (with vi). application This style indicates that the program is an end-user application (as opposed to system software). they are considered to be part of the command. This highlighting is systematic. directory names. The types of words that are represented this way include the following: command Linux commands (and other operating system commands.bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases for your own use. . your time zone. sizes.ii Configuring Date and Time Introduction A chapter on configuring your system time. 2. and how to connect to a network time server to get accurate time and date information for your Red Hat Linux system has been moved from the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide to this manual. This style should indicate that a particular file or directory exists by that name on your Red Hat Linux system. you will see that certain words are represented in different fonts. named testfile. Sometimes a command contains words that would be displayed in a different style on their own (such as filenames). Using the Graphical Desktop This chapter has been modified to reflect the new desktop environment and the various ways you can use and configure it. different words are represented in the same style to indicate their inclusion in a specific category. paths. For example: Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file. in the current working directory. Diskettes and CD-ROMs This chapter now includes information about backing up files to CD-R and CD-RW media using CD Creator in Nautilus. and weights. Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program. filename Filenames.

For example: The [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[Backspace] key combination will exit your graphical session and return you to the graphical login screen or the console. [key]-[combination] A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. If you click on the word on the GUI screen. top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window When you see a word in this style. will be shown in this style. You will see responses to commands you typed in.png reports The output returned in response to the command (in this case. For example: Under File on a GNOME terminal. prompt A prompt. it indicates text displayed by the computer on the command line. computer output When you see text in this style. word. If you need to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu. error messages. For example: Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed. When you see text shown in this style. For example: iii To use [Tab] completion. the rest of the menu should appear. For example: Use the ls command to display the contents of a directory: $ ls Desktop Mail about. it indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu. which is a computer’s way of signifying that it is ready for you to input something. you will see the New Tab option that allows you to open multiple shell prompts in the same window. or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window will be shown in this style. it is being used to identify a particular GUI screen or an element on a GUI screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or field). text found on a GUI interface A title. they will be shown like the following example: Go to Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => Programming => Emacs to start the Emacs text editor. button on a GUI screen or window This style indicates that the text will be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen. type in a character and then press the [Tab] key. Examples: $ # [stephen@maturin stephen]$ .html backupfiles logs mail paulwesterberg. Your terminal will display the list of files in the directory that start with that letter. Example: Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require a password before stopping. and interactive prompts for your input during scripts or programs shown this way. the contents of the directory) is shown in this style.Introduction [key] A key on the keyboard is shown in this style.

Important If you modify the DHCP configuration file. the changes will not take effect until you restart the DHCP daemon. Warning If you choose not to partition manually. important. a server installation will remove all existing partitions on all installed hard drives. or into a text box on a GUI screen. is displayed in this style. . these items will be marked as note. or a warning. either on the command line. For example: Note Remember that Linux is case sensitive. Do not choose this installation class unless you are sure you have no data you need to save. In other words. tip. caution. Caution Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you need to use the root account for system administration tasks. In the following example. Tip The directory /usr/share/doc contains additional documentation for packages installed on your system. Additionally. you will need to type in the text command at the boot: prompt. a rose is not a ROSE is not a rOsE.iv Introduction leopard login: user input Text that the user has to type. we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of information. text is displayed in this style: To boot your system into the text based installation program. In order of how critical the information is to your system.

To copy text. To sign up. that means click the left mouse button. 5. When you’ve reached the desired location.redhat. Inc. While continuing to hold down the mouse button. . If you need to use the middle or right mouse button. please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily.redhat. and white card in your Red Hat Linux box. (This will be reversed if you’ve configured your mouse to be used by a left handed person. If you have found an error. We Need Feedback! If you spot a typographical error in the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. Copying and Pasting Text With X Copying and pasting text is easy using your mouse and the X Window System. If you have a two-button mouse. click on something and hold the mouse button down. simply click and drag your mouse over the text to highlight it. try to be as specific as possible when describing it. we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla (http://bugzilla. You will find your Product ID on a black.) The phrase "drag and drop" may be familiar to you. Under the Brim: The Red Hat E-Newsletter — Every month. If you’re instructed to drag and drop an item on your GUI desktop.’s support team. Sign Up for Support If you have an edition of Red Hat Linux 9. or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better. Go to http://rhn. get the latest news and product information directly from Red Hat. click the middle mouse button in the spot where the text should be placed. To paste the text somewhere.com/apps/activate/. Red Hat Network — Easily update your packages and receive security notices that are customized for your system. go to http://www.com for more details. be sure to mention the manual’s identifier: rhl-gsg(EN)-9-Print-RHI (2003-02-20T01:05) If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation. pressing both mouse buttons at the same time equates to pressing the missing third (middle) button.com/bugzilla/) against the component rhl-gsg. You will be entitled to any or all of the following benefits. When submitting a bug report. Using the Mouse Red Hat Linux is designed to use a three-button mouse. release the mouse button to drop the item. red. please remember to sign up for the benefits you are entitled to as a Red Hat customer. 4. you should have selected three-button emulation during the installation process. depending upon the Red Hat Linux product you purchased: • • • Red Hat support — Get help with your installation questions from Red Hat. if you are instructed to click with the mouse on something. drag the item by moving the mouse to a new location. 6.redhat. If you’re using three-button emulation.Introduction v 3. In this document. that will be explicitly stated.

Good luck.vi Introduction To read more about technical support for Red Hat Linux. and thank you for choosing Red Hat Linux! The Red Hat Documentation Team . refer to the Getting Technical Support Appendix in the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide.

register your machine with the Red Hat Network. Setup Agent The first time you start your Red Hat Linux system. The Setup Agent guides you through the configuration of your Red Hat Linux system.Chapter 1. and more. and a password (which you must enter twice). This creates a user account that you can use to log into your Red Hat Linux system and which has its own home directory on the system to store files. Setup Agent allows you to configure your environment at the beginning. Getting Started From booting up to shutting down. so that you can get started using your Red Hat Linux system quickly. 1. whether you are working or playing. The Setup Agent lets you enter a username. Red Hat Linux provides tools and applications to help you get the most out of your computing environment.1. an optional full name for the account. the Setup Agent is presented. as you may damage your system or unintentionally delete a file. install software. It is not recommended to log in to your root account for common computing tasks. Setup Agent The Setup Agent first prompts you to create a user account that you should use on a routine basis. Figure 1-1. you can set your system time and date. Using this tool. This chapter guides you through some basic tasks that you can perform on your Red Hat Linux system. . add users to your system.

use the provided text boxes. Once you have set your time and date. To set your time in hours. I would like to register my system with Red Hat Network. Getting Started Figure 1-2. refer to the Red Hat Network documentation at http://www. choose Yes.2 Chapter 1. This will start the Red Hat Update Agent — a utility that guides you step-by-step through the registration of your machine with Red Hat Network. and year on your system. I do not want to register my system skips the registration. and seconds. use the calendar interface.redhat. Figure 1-3. User Account The Setup Agent allows you to manually set your machine’s date and time. click Forward to continue. You may also synchronize your date and time automatically with a network time server — a computer that sends accurate date and time settings to your system through a network connection. . minutes. Date and Time Configuration To register your system with Red Hat Network and receive automatic updates of your Red Hat Linux system.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/. To set the day. Selecting No. For more information about Red Hat Network and registering your machine. Check the box labeled Enable Network Time Protocol and use the drop-down menu to select the time server you want to use. which adjusts the clock on your computer’s BIOS (Basic Input Output System). month.

you should also learn new terminology. or documentation from the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD. and follow the instructions. This section defines a few basic terms you should learn. you must insert CD 1. button. Press Forward to exit the Setup Agent. and.. button.. you can do so at the Additional CDs screen. Note If you are installing a package from the Red Hat Linux Installation CDs. if prompted . software from third-party providers.Chapter 1. Installing Additional Software Now that your system is configured. you are ready to log in and start using Red Hat Linux. Figure 1-5. choose the package(s) or component you want to install. Red Hat Network Registration Client To install Red Hat Linux RPM packages that you did not install during installation. You will see these terms often throughout all Red Hat Linux documentation including the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide: . Getting Started 3 Figure 1-4. change the CD.2. Insert the CD containing the software or documentation you want to install. click the Install. Introductory Terms When you learn about a new operating system. click the Install... 1.

type man su at a shell prompt (or type info su for the info page). Graphical Desktop: The most visible area of a GUI. most often with the keyboard or mouse. press [q]. To close man or Info pages. Shell prompt: A command line interface between the user and the operating system (Figure 1-7). Launcher icons usually refer to application shortcuts. The panel contains the Main Menu button and shortcut icons to start commonly used programs. User accounts are created so that typical user tasks can be done without using the root account. Panel: A desktop toolbar. The Desktop Panel Root: Root is an administrative user account created during installation and has complete access to the system. For example. menus. The shell interprets commands entered by the user and passes them on to the operating system. The desktop is where your user Home and Start Here icons are located. to read the man page for the su command. Man page and Info page: Man (short for manual) and Info pages give detailed information about a command or file (man pages tend to be brief and provide less explanation than Info pages). A Shell Prompt . shortcut or system resource (such as a diskette drive). • • • • • • • Figure 1-6. colors. Command line: The space at the shell prompt where commands are typed. and panels which allow a user to initiate actions such as starting applications and opening files using a mouse and keyboard. Graphical User Interface (GUI): A general term for interactive windows. You must be logged in as root to accomplish certain system administration tasks. icons. • • • Figure 1-7. Getting Started Command: An instruction given to the computer. such as changing administrative passwords and running system configuration tools. which can reduce the chance of damaging your Red Hat Linux installation or applications permanently. usually located across the bottom of your desktop (such as Figure 1-6). folder. RPM: RPM stands for RPM Package manager and is how Red Hat builds and delivers its software files.4 Chapter 1. Panels can also be customized to suit your needs. You can customize your desktop to have special backgrounds. An RPM is a software package file you can install on your Red Hat Linux computer. and pictures to add a personal touch. Icons are small images representing an application.

3. . and more.command makes you root within the root account shell. If you type the wrong user name or password. 1. Not all accounts are created equal: some accounts have fewer rights to access files or services than others. your Red Hat Linux system uses accounts to manage privileges.6 Creating a User Account to learn how to set up a user account. You can easily damage your system by accidentally deleting or modifying sensitive system files. If you are "in X" or "running X". Again. refer to Section 1. you can skip ahead to Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop. You may be tempted to forego creating and using a user account during or after installation. which means that typing root refers to a different account than Root. your machine will probably be called localhost. By default. you will not be allowed access to your system. but it is not recommended. Graphical Login When your system has booted. it is highly recommended that you log in as that user instead of root to prevent accidental damage to your Red Hat Linux installation. If you did not create a user account using the Setup Agent. After you create a user account. When you type su to switch to your root account while still inside your user account shell. Logging in with the su . both the graphical and shell prompt methods of logging in and using your Red Hat Linux system are discussed for your reference. X or X Window System: These terms refer to the graphical user interface environments. you are introducing yourself to the system (also called authentication).3. Use caution when you are logged in as root. Logging In The next step to using your Red Hat Linux system is to log in. unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname.1. Note Red Hat Linux applications and files are case sensitive. When you log in. This is a dangerous idea. • Although the emphasis throughout this book is on navigation and productivity using the graphical desktop environment. root refers to the root user (also known as the superuser). you are working in a GUI rather than a console environment. Caution Because your Red Hat Linux system creates the root account during installation. If you created only the root account. a graphical login screen is displayed as shown in Figure 1-8. 1. If you have already created and logged in to a user account. Unlike some other operating systems. you must log in as root. or system administrator. which is primarily used in a network setting. you have access to important system files that you can change (or damage if you are not careful). because the root account is allowed to do anything on the system. maintain security.Chapter 1. some new users are tempted to use only this account for all of their activities. Getting Started 5 • su and su -: The command su gives you access to the root account or other accounts on your system.

you will find a graphical interface known as a desktop similar to Figure 1-9. press [Enter]. press [Enter].18-14 on an i686 localhost login: Unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname. The Graphical Login Screen To log in as root from the graphical login screen. Getting Started Figure 1-8. Graphical Interface When you installed Red Hat Linux you had the opportunity to install a graphical environment. 1.3. .localdomain. Virtual Console Login During installation. type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt.6 Chapter 1. and press [Enter]. type your username at the login prompt. To log in as a normal user. type your username at the login prompt. if you selected an installation type other than Workstation or Personal Desktop and chose text as your login type. Logging in from the graphical login screen automatically starts the graphical desktop for you.4.2. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt. you will see a login prompt similar to the following after booting your system: Red Hat Linux release 9 Kernel 2. type root at the login prompt. then type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt and press [Enter]. your machine will probably be called localhost. type root at the login prompt. which is primarily used in a network setting. press [Enter]. 1. Once you start the X Window System. To log in as a normal user. press [Enter]. After logging in. To log in as root from the console. you can type the command startx to start the graphical desktop. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt. and press [Enter]. and press [Enter].4.

2. You should avoid working in the root account for daily tasks. If you are not logged in as root. You can also start a shell prompt by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing New Terminal from the menu. . it is sometimes useful and faster to perform tasks from a shell prompt. The Graphical Desktop 1. There are two ways to create new and/or additional user accounts: using the graphical User Manager application or from a shell prompt. While the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide primarily focuses on performing tasks using the graphical interface and graphical tools. In the new window that opens. Click Add User. Click the Start Here icon on the desktop. Opening a Shell Prompt The desktop offers access to a shell prompt. Refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics for further details.6. The window shown in Figure 1-10 will appear. Creating a User Account When you first started your Red Hat Linux system after installation. and then click the Users & Groups icon. you will be prompted for your root password. 3. type exit at the prompt. click the X button on the upper right corner of the shell prompt window. Getting Started 7 Figure 1-9. an application that allows you to type commands instead of using a graphical interface for all computing activities.Chapter 1. or press [Ctrl]-[D] at the prompt. click the System Settings icon. 1. If you did not create at least one account (not including the root account) you should do so now.5. You can open a shell prompt by selecting Main Menu => System Tools => Terminal. you were given the opportunity to create one or more user accounts using the Setup Agent. To create a user account graphically using the User Manager: 1. To exit a shell prompt. You can also start the User Manager by typing redhat-config-users at a shell prompt. You can also select Main Menu => System Settings => Users & Groups from the panel.

as well as numbers and characters. At the New password: prompt enter a password for the new user and press [Enter]. Along with the Red Hat Linux documentation there are manual pages. 5. consider a variation of a word. initials. such as jsmith for John Smith. If you want to pick an easy-to-remember but somewhat unique password. Documentation and Help There are several resources available to get the information you need to use and configure your Red Hat Linux system.8 Chapter 1. Often. Press [Enter]. or birthplace to something more creative. you can accept the defaults for the other configuration options. 5. If you are not logged in as root. documents that detail usage of important applications and files. The Red Hat User Manager 4. At the Retype new password: prompt. You can use both uppercase and lowercase letters. enter the same password to confirm your selection. 1. such as a1rPl4nE for airplane. Click OK. To create a user account from a shell prompt: 1. User account names can be anything from the user’s name.7. and a password (which you will enter a second time for verification). useradd jsmith). The new user will appear in the user list. usernames are variations on the user’s name. such as qwerty or password. In the Create New User dialog box. Your password should be at least six characters. 4. 3. Type passwd followed by a space and the username again (for example. type the command su . The password is the key to your account. Important You should take precautions when you choose a password. Open a shell prompt. Getting Started Figure 1-10.and enter the root password. 6. so it should be both unique and easy for you to remember. the full name of the user for whom this account is being created. 2. The name of this user’s home directory and the name of the login shell should appear by default. Avoid easy selections. INFO pages which break information about an . enter a username (this can be an abbreviation or nickname). Type useradd followed by a space and the username for the new account you are creating at the command line (for example. passwd jsmith). signaling that the user account creation is complete. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details about additional options. For most users.

To exit the man page. Manual Pages Applications. utilities. The SYNOPSIS field shows the common usage of the executable. See Also shows related terms. type [Q]. All instances of the keyword will be highlighted throughout the man page. Getting Started 9 application down by context-sensitive menus.7. Using man Man Pages can be accessed via shell prompt by typing the command man and the name of the executable. such as what options are declared and what types of input (such as files or values) the executable supports.Chapter 1.1. You can choose any method of accessing documentation that best suits your needs. Figure 1-11. and shell prompt commands usually have corresponding manual pages (also called man pages) that show the reader available options and values of file or executable. which is important when dealing with commands that they have never previously encountered.1. files. Man Pages are structured in such a way that users can quickly scan the page for pertinent information.7. 1. . 1. type the following: man ls The NAME field shows the executable’s name and a brief explanation of what function the executable performs. as all of these resources are either already installed on your Red Hat Linux system or can be easily installed. Reading a Man Page with the Shell Prompt To navigate the man page you can use the [Page Down] and [Page Up] keys or use the [Spacebar] to move down one page and [B] to move up. For example. The DESCRIPTION field shows available options and values associated with a file or executable.1. To search a man page for keywords type [/] and then a keyword or phrase and press [Enter]. and help files that are included in the main menubar of graphical applications. to access the man page for the ls command. and programs. allowing you to quickly read the keyword in context.

remember to take a look at the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD. PDF. If you have a printer available and configured for use with Red Hat Linux (refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information).2. perhaps in bound form for quick reference.tar. Getting Started Printing man pages is a useful way to archive commonly used commands.3.7. Type man man at the shell prompt for more information. The man Man Page Just like other commands. and type the following at the command line: su .7. Figure 1-12. Package Management Tool Displaying Documentation Available for Installation After you have installed the documentation packages you want. Printing a Man Page Chapter 1. and compressed tarball format (. Once you have logged in to your user account. inserting the Documentation CD in your CD-ROM drive should automatically start the Package Management Tool and allow you to install any of the Red Hat Linux documentation.1.com/docs/. If you have downloaded individual documentation RPM packages from the Red Hat website at http://www.1. man command will output the contents of the command man page to col. Individual downloads of our documentation in HTML. man has its own man page.gz) are also available at http://www. 1. Follow the instructions and choose the documentation you would like to install.10 1.redhat. Red Hat Linux Documentation If you have the Red Hat Linux boxed set. you can print a man page by typing the following command at a shell prompt: man command| col -b | lpr The example above combines separates commands into one unique function. 1. Open a shell prompt. you can access them at any time by clicking Main Menu => Documentation. RPM.2. All of the Red Hat Linux manuals are on this CD.com/docs/ you can install these manuals from a shell prompt.redhat. The lpr command sends the formatted content to the printer.7. which formats the contents to fit within a printed page.

8. You are now logged in as root. 1.9. replace rhl-*. Getting Started 11 Press [Enter]. the file name for the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide will look something like rhl-gsg-en-9. as well as any programs which are running. Now go to Main Menu => Documentation and select the manual you want to read. Virtual Console Logout If you are not using the X Window System. For example. Figure 1-13. This logs you out of the root account and back to your user account. Never turn your computer off without shutting down first. Shutting Down your Computer Before turning off your computer. 1. it is important to properly shut down Red Hat Linux. type exit or [Ctrl]-[D] to log out of the console session. To install only certain manuals.rpm with the full file name of the manual that you want to install. select the Logout option and click the Yes button. so you would type the following to install it on your system: rpm -ivh /mnt/cdrom/rhl-gsg-en-9. Graphical Logout To log out your graphical desktop session.rpm. select Main Menu => Log Out.2. Logging Out 1. Enter the password at the prompt and press [Enter]. as you may lose unsaved data or damage your system. Type exit at the command line and press [Enter]. check the Save current setup option. Logout Confirmation 1. . and you logged in at the console.rpm Press [Enter]. change to the directory that contains the RPM files and type the following: rpm -ivh rhl-*. You will be asked for your root password.1.rpm Press [Enter]. To save the configuration of your desktop.Chapter 1.noarch.8. When the confirmation dialog appears as shown in Figure 1-13. To install all of the Red Hat Linux manuals.noarch.8.

Virtual Console Shutdown To shutdown your computer at a shell prompt. If your computer does not.2. Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux.9.1. Graphical Shutdown If you are in the graphical desktop. log out of your session as described in Section 1. you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: System halted.8 Logging Out. From the graphical desktop logout screen shown in Figure 1-13. type the following command: halt Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux. 1. select Shutdown and click OK to confirm. you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: Power down. .12 Chapter 1. Getting Started 1.9. If your computer does not.

Using the Graphical Desktop Red Hat Linux includes a powerful graphical desktop environment where you can easily access your applications. The panel contains application launcher icons. The menu systems can be found by clicking on the Main Menu button by double-clicking on the Start Here icon icon. You will notice that it offers three main tools to make use of the applications on your system: panel icons. a notification area for notification icons. and displays the status of your system. The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel. They can also be found on the desktop and then clicking the Applications The desktop works in the manner you might expect it to when working with other operating systems. and system resources. The Graphical Desktop The graphical desktop gives you access to the applications and system settings on your computer. files. Figure 2-1. 2. To open a folder or launch an application. You can drag and drop files and application icons to areas that are easily accessible. and shortcuts to removable devices such as CD-ROM and diskettes when they have been mounted.Chapter 2. and menus.1. The icons elsewhere on the desktop can be shortcuts to file folders. desktop icons. and small applications called applets that let you control sound volume. You can add new . Using the Desktop Your first view of the graphical desktop will look something like Figure 2-1. This chapter covers the fundamentals of the desktop and how you can configure it for your needs. switch workspaces. . Both new and experienced users will be able to take full advantage of their Red Hat Linux systems using the graphical desktop. application launchers. double-click on its icon.

The Panel 2. Notice that. Figure 2-2. to expand it into a large set of menus that allow you to From here. The Workspace Switcher represents each workspace (or desktop) in small squares and show the applications running on them. Click on one of the squares with your mouse to move to that desktop. Applets let you monitor various aspects of your system. From the Main Menu. Using the Main Menu You can click on the Main Menu button access the applications on your system. These sub-menus give you access to a full range of applications on your system. Applets embedded on the panel allow you to run specific tasks or monitor your system or services while remaining out of your way. Workspace Switcher . Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel. and file manager. You can change the appearance of most of the tools and applications and change system settings with provided configuration tools. you can also log out. The notification area holds alert icons such as the one for Red Hat Network so that you can be quickly alerted to critical messages.14 Chapter 2. 2. Workspace Switcher The graphical desktop gives you the ability to use multiple workspaces so you do not have to have all of your running applications crowding one viewable desktop area. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[down-arrow]. Using the Graphical Desktop icons for files and applications to the desktop. You can also use the keyboard shortcut [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[up-arrow].1. and lock your screen (which runs a password protected screen saver). run applications from a command line. Figure 2-3. There are a few applets that run on your panel by default. in addition to the recommended applications. which contains shortcuts for all of your applications. The panel also holds the Main Menu.2. panel. find files. 2. Some applets perform useful tasks while others are designed to be entertaining. Using the Panel The desktop panel is the bar that stretches across the bottom of the screen and holds icons and small applications which makes using your system easier.2.2. you can start most applications included in Red Hat Linux. you can also access additional applications within each sub-menu. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[right-arrow]. These applets are fairly important and are covered in the following list.2. or [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[left-arrow] to switch between desktops.

Once it disappears. Red Hat Network Notification Tool The Authentication Icon The key icon that is sometimes displayed in the Notification Area is a security notification that displays whenever you have gained root authentication for your system (such as running a graphical system configuration tool). a list of available updates will be displayed. Click on the icon to view running print jobs. Authentication Icon Printer Notification Icon The Printer Notification Icon allows you to manage your print jobs.2. you can bring it back by clicking on its title in the Taskbar.Chapter 2. Figure 2-4. Right-click on the applet icon for a list of options from which to choose. This is very helpful if you decide to minimize an application as it will seem to disappear from the desktop. Figure 2-5. the Red Hat Network Notification Tool provides you with an easy way to make sure your system is up-to-date with current errata and bug fixes from Red Hat. To update your system. It disappears when the authentication times out. If you click on the icon. The applet shows you different images that indicate whether your system is up to date or needs upgrades. Figure 2-7. The Printer Notification Icon . Using the Graphical Desktop Taskbar 15 Next to the Workspace Switcher is the Taskbar. it will launch the registration component. The Taskbar 2. The Taskbar is an applet which shows you the titles of running applications on any one virtual desktop.3. and cancel jobs by right-clicking on the job and selecting Cancel. Using the Notification Area Red Hat Network Notification Tool Part of the Notification Area. click the button to launch the Red Hat Update Agent. Figure 2-6. If you are not registered with Red Hat Network.

and change the way it behaves. This will automatically add a launcher icon based on the properties of the item in the Main Menu. configure your Red Hat Linux system. In Figure 2-8. This will launch a dialog box that allows you to enter the name of the application. To add an applet to the panel. and choose from the various types of applets. right-click on the panel and choose Add to Panel => Utility => Notification Area. . Nautilus is designed to be much more than a visual listing of files. You can set the size of the panel. In essence.. you may want to add more applets and launcher icons.16 Chapter 2. Figure 2-8. the Weather Report applet has been added to show the current local weather and temperature. Then select an application that appears in the menu. Click OK and the new launcher icon will appear on the panel. right-click in an unused area on the panel.2. Configuring the Desktop Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually. When you select an applet. select Add to Panel. its position on the desktop.. it will not appear on the desktop until you move your mouse pointer over the panel area (called hovering). If you choose to autohide the panel.3. Tip Another quick and easy way to add a launcher to the panel is to right-click on an unused area of the panel and choose Add to Panel => Launcher from menu. 2. and even choose an icon for the application. access your network resources. 2. The Weather Report Applet on the Panel To add a launcher icon to the panel. the location and name of the command that starts the application (such as /usr/bin/foo). then the notification area was removed from the desktop panel. place it on any edge of your desktop. however.2. it will appear on your panel. 2. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To make the panel fit your needs. right-click in an unused area on the panel and select Add to Panel => Launcher. It allows you to configure your desktop. browse your photo collection. Using the Graphical Desktop Warning If you cannot see any of the notification icons.. change its size and color. and whether you want the panel to be automatically hidden (Autohide) when not in use. right-click in an unused area of the panel and select Properties. Using Nautilus The graphical desktop includes a file manager called Nautilus that gives you a graphical display of your system and personal files.5.4. Nautilus becomes a shell for your entire desktop experience. To alter the default panel settings. and more all from one integrated interface. To add the it back to your panel.

To turn off this feature. For text files. 2. and system settings.4. you can drag and drop files to different directories. Select the Preview tab. From your favorite applications to system and configuration tools. then select Never in the drop down for Show Thumbnails. Once you have another Nautilus window. You can access the Start Here screen at any time by double-clicking on the desktop icon labeled Start Here. you can navigate through your home directory or the rest of the file system. To start Nautilus as a file manager. this means you see a portion of the actual text in the icon. Disabling this (and other) previewing feature increases the speed of Nautilus. dragging a file from one directory to another moves the file. image files in your home directory will be seen as thumbnails. press the [Ctrl] key while dragging and dropping the file. To copy the file to another directory. The Start Here Window Start Here was designed to hold all of the tools and applications you need to access when using your system. The Start Here screen includes icons that allow you to access your favorite applications. Start Here Figure 2-9. You can open another Nautilus window by selecting File => New Window. The following sections explain how to use the Nautilus to enhance your desktop experience. Main Menu items. desktop preferences. To return to your home directory. double-click on your home directory icon: Once Nautilus appears. Using the Graphical Desktop 17 Working in Nautilus is efficient and provides an alternative to searching through the various submenus connected to the Main Menu or using a shell prompt to navigate the file system. server configuration tools. By default. click the Home button.Chapter 2. By default. the Start Here window provides a central location for using and customizing your system. For images. . select Edit => Preferences. The browser window contains folders and files which you can drag with your mouse to move and copy into new locations. you see a scaled-down (or thumbnail) version of the image.

For example. you can configure it. refer to Section 2. The Background Preferences Tool . Navigate to the location you want to bookmark.1.1. Changing your Desktop Background One way to dramatically alter the appearance of your graphical desktop is to change the background using the Background Preferences tool. The following lists some of the options and tools in each area. select Preferences. right-click on the desktop and choose Change Desktop Background from the menu. You can choose from several background images included with Red Hat Linux in the /usr/share/backgrounds/ directory. Using the Graphical Desktop Tip You can add your favorite locations to the Bookmarks. 2.4.1. Keyboard Shortcuts You can configure shortcuts — pressing a combination of keystrokes on the keyboard — to perform actions within an application or on your desktop. To start the Background Preferences tool. 2.4.1 Changing your Desktop Background.18 Chapter 2. and then select Bookmarks => Add Bookmark. and finally select Background.1. you can select the Preferences icon to configure your desktop. to play a sound when you log in to your desktop. you can configure a shortcut to move from your current Workspace to Workspace 2 by pressing [Ctrl]-[F2]. Figure 2-10. or you can use your own image. You can also double-click the Start Here icon. Customizing the Desktop From the Start Here screen. For example.4. To learn more about configuring your desktop background. Sound In this section you can configure the system sounds associated with various functions. which presents you with a wide selection of configuration options. Background You can configure your background with new colors or a new image.

Customizing your System The Start Here screen in Nautilus contains additional configuration tools that help you with your new Red Hat Linux system and the server applications included. The System Settings icon includes tools that help you set up your system for personal everyday use. The Wallpaper option displays multiple instances of your image across the desktop. . which is useful if you use a small image or if you use a tile (or pattern) image from /usr/share/backgrounds/tiles/ or from your own image collection. Figure 2-11 shows a background image of flowers and plants that is stretched to fill the entire desktop. You will be able to set your time zone information as well.Chapter 2. Click Close to save and exit the Background Preferences tool.4. To fill the desktop with an image without tiling it. leaving the default background colors to fill in any remaining desktop space. Using the Graphical Desktop 19 The Background Preferences tool allows you to load a new background from a directory of provided images (/usr/share/backgrounds/images/). The following lists some of the tools included in System Settings and what you can do with them. use the Scaled or Stretched options. There are several additional options for displaying your background image. The Centered option places your image in the center of the desktop. The Desktop with a New Background If you want to create a background with your own custom colors and no images. 2. You can also drag an image into the window from your own image directory. Figure 2-11. Date & Time This tool allows you to set the date and time of your machine. Refer to Chapter 3 Configuring the Date and Time for details on using this tool.2. Choose your own Top Color and Bottom Color and the color gradient (or the blending of colors). choose the No Picture option and adjust your colors using the Background Style options.

This will bring up a dialog which presents you with the options listed above. You may also find server configuration tools in the Start Here area. or halting the system completely.3 Troubleshooting Your Sound Card for more details on configuring your sound hardware.20 Soundcard Detection Chapter 2. The server configuration tools are found by clicking on the System Settings icon and then the Server Settings icon.5. These tools help you configure services and applications you are using on the local machine to serve other machines. The Desktop Log Out Confirmation To quit the graphical desktop. . select the Log Out menu item from the Main Menu. The printer may be connected to your machine or available on a network. Users & Groups The User Manager tool allows you to add and remove users from your system. Printing The Printer Configuration Tool allows you to add a new printer to your system. A few examples of the tools found in this area are the HTTP Configuration Tool and the Bind Configuration Tool. restarting the machine. Refer to Section 10. Refer to Section 1.6 Creating a User Account for details. Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details. depending on which install type you specified during installation. 2. Using the Graphical Desktop The Sound Card Configuration Tool tool probes your machine for available sound devices. Figure 2-12. You must have those server applications installed before these tools appear in this section. Logging Out When you have finished working and want to quit GNOME. you are presented with the choice of logging out of GNOME (leaving the system running). Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details.

Use the arrows to the left and right of the year to change the year. Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. and the time zone settings and then exit the program. You must be running the X Window System and have root privileges. and click on the day of the week to change the day of the week. use the up and down arrow buttons beside the Hour. Configuring the Date and Time The Time and Date Properties Tool allows the user to change the system date and time. The application allows you to configure a NTP daemon to synchronize your system clock with a remote server. After you click OK. To start the application from the desktop go to the Main Menu Button => System Settings => Date & Time or type the command redhat-config-date at a shell prompt (for example. Time and Date Properties As shown in Figure 3-1. To change the time. Your system will not start synchronizing with the NTP server until you click OK. . This will enable the Server pulldown menu. and Second in the Time section. Time and Date Properties To change the date. Minute. use the arrows to the left and right of the month to change the month. Figure 3-1. The Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon synchronizes the system clock with a remote time server or time source (such as a satellite). Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. the NTP daemon settings.Chapter 3. the configuration will be saved and the NTP daemon will be started (or restarted if it is already running). You can choose one of the predefined servers or type a server name in the pulldown menu. the first tabbed window that appears is for configuring the system date and time and the NTP daemon (ntpd). in an XTerm or a GNOME terminal). To enable this feature. Clicking the OK button will apply any changes that you have made to the date and time. to configure the time zone used by the system. and to setup the Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon to synchronize the system clock with a time server. 3.1. click the Enable Network Time Protocol button.

click the Time Zone tab. Other time zones are determined by adding or subtracting from the UTC time. Figure 3-2. Click OK to apply the changes and exit the program. Timezone Properties If your system clock is set to use UTC. . A red X will appear and the time zone selection will change in the list below the map. Time Zone Configuration To configure the system time zone. click on the city that represents the desired time zone.2. select the System clock uses UTC option. also known as Greenwich mean time (GMT).22 Chapter 3. The time zone can be changed by either using the interactive map or by choosing the desired time zone from the list below the map. To use the map. Configuring the Date and Time 3. UTC stands for the universal time zone.

1. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette A diskette must first be mounted before it can be used. Alternatively. This mounts the diskette and adds a desktop icon which you can double-click to explore the diskette contents. You can open. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Using diskettes and CD-ROMs with Red Hat Linux requires some understanding about removable media. diskettes are a great solution to transfer files from one computer to the other. The diskette drive activity light should blink as the diskette’s file system is mounted to the /mnt/floppy directory. This chapter discusses how to read and write files to and from diskettes. To do this. Figure 4-1. You can access the contents of the diskette by changing into that directory with the cd /mnt/floppy/ command.1. For example.1. Using Diskettes Diskettes are one of the oldest removable media solutions available for the personal computer (PC). close any applications that may be using files on the diskette or exploring the diskette’s contents (such as Nautilus or Konqueror). You can even explore the diskette’s contents in Nautilus (as shown in Figure 4-1) or Konqueror. Diskettes are ideal as a portable storage solution for small files that need to be physically moved around. This chapter also covers using CD-writable and CD-rewritable drives. and how to read and copy data from a CD-ROM. 4. if two PCs are not on the same network. you should unmount it before ejecting it from the drive.Chapter 4. Now that the diskette has been mounted it is available to be copied from or written to. how to format diskettes. Viewing files on a Diskette with Nautilus When you are done using the diskette. 4. To mount a diskette. you can also mount a diskette by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing Disks => Floppy. insert it into the diskette drive and type mount /mnt/floppy/ at a shell prompt. and at a shell prompt type the following command : umount /mnt/floppy/ . save. and copy files to/from it as you would normally do to your hard drive.

This can be done with the Windows OS or with gfloppy (see Section 4.44MB diskette). Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette.3. 4. Then mount it in Linux as described in Section 4. Formatting a Diskette To use a diskette specifically with Red Hat Linux. ext2 is one of the file systems supported by Red Hat Linux.1.3.24 Chapter 4. choose Main Menu => System Tools => Floppy Formatter. Warning Formatting a diskette will erase all of its contents. You can now safely eject the diskette from the drive.1. Be sure to backup any files that you need before performing any of the following operations on your diskettes. As shown in Figure 4-2. you can unmount the diskette by right-clicking on the Unmount Volume from the menu.1. you can manipulate its contents in the same ways that you manipulate directories and files on your hard drive.1.1. The default settings are sufficient for most users and needs. You can also elect to quick format the diskette if it was previously formatted as ext2.2.1 Using gfloppy). type /usr/bin/gfloppy. the gfloppy interface is small and has few options. you need to format the diskette using the ext2 file system. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette To copy files from a Linux machine to an MS-DOS formatted diskette so that a Windows machine can read it you should format your diskette with an MS-DOS (FAT) file system. Using gfloppy To start gfloppy. and is the default method used for formatting diskettes.3. 4. however. . you can format your diskette with an MS-DOS file system type if necessary. The new file on the diskette should now be accessible from your Windows machine. From a shell prompt. You can also choose the density of your diskette (if you are not using the usual high density 3.5" 1.1 Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette. Copy files using the following command (substituting filename with the name of the file you wish to copy): cp filename /mnt/floppy You can then unmount the diskette and eject it from the drive. 4.1. Diskettes and CD-ROMs icon and choosing If you are using GNOME.

Diskettes and CD-ROMs 25 Figure 4-2. The -c option makes the mke2fs command check the device for bad blocks before creating the file system. then click Format. Once complete. it is ready to be used with your Red Hat Linux system. The mke2fs utility has a number of options. The status box will appear on top of the main window. gfloppy Status Box 4. Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette. your primary diskette drive is /dev/fd0. mke2fs essentially formats the device and creates an empty. showing you the status of formatting and verification (see Figure 4-3). Linux-compatible device which can then be used for storing files and data.1. Insert your diskette into the drive and issue the following command at a shell prompt: /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 On Linux systems. .3. Using mke2fs The mke2fs command is used to create a Linux ext2 file system on a device such as a hard drive partition or (in this case) a diskette. If your computer has more than one diskette drive. and so on.Chapter 4. The other options are covered in the mke2fs man page. gfloppy Insert a diskette and change the settings in gfloppy to suit your needs.2. Figure 4-3. your second /dev/fd1. /dev/fd0 refers to the first diskette drive. you can eject the diskette and close gfloppy.

Contents of a CD-ROM in Nautilus A CD desktop icon also appears. personal files. Figure 4-4. CD-ROMs The CD-ROM format is a popular medium to deliver typically large software applications as well as multimedia games and presentations. which you can use to unmount and eject your CD-ROM after use. Figure 4-4 shows the contents of a CD-ROM within the Nautilus file manager. CD-Rs and CD-RWs CD-writable (CD-R) drives have grown in popularity as an inexpensive way to backup and archive several megabytes of data. you must unmount it before you can eject it from your CD-ROM drive. and type the following command: mount /mnt/cdrom The CD-ROM should now be mounted and available for use with your file manager. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager By default. Insert a CD into your CD-ROM drive.26 Chapter 4. choose Eject from the menu. to unmount and eject the CD-ROM. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 4.2.1. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt You can also manually mount and unmount your CD-ROMs from a shell prompt. CDs are automatically mounted and the file manager is displayed allowing you to explore the contents of the CD. Most of the software that can be purchased from retail outlets come in the form of CD-ROMs. 4. Right-click on the icon to view all of the available choices. You can access your CD-ROM by clicking the home icon on the desktop and typing /mnt/cdrom in the location bar. open a shell prompt.2.3. 4. and even multimedia (audio/video and . After working with your CD. Close any applications or file managers that are using the CD-ROM and type the following command at a shell prompt: umount /mnt/cdrom You can now safely press the eject button on your CD-ROM drive to retrieve your CD.2.2. This section shows you how to use CD-ROMs on your Red Hat Linux system. 4. including applications. For example.

and click on the files and folders. You can also double click your home directory icon from the desktop and choose Go => CD Creator from the window menus. Figure 4-5. You can also type burn: in the Location bar to start CD Creator. press and hold the [Ctrl] key. click the Write to CD button in the CD Creator window. CD Creator allows you to drag and drop files from a Nautilus window to the CD Creator interface.3. When you are ready to write the files to your CD-R(W). Using CD Creator If you want to perform a quick file or directory backup to a CD-R or CD-RW. name the CD. insert a blank CD-R(W) into your drive and the CD Creator window will automatically display. The CD Creator Write Dialog Box . Figure 4-6.1. To access the CD Creator feature in Nautilus. The CD Creator Interface in Nautilus Open a new Nautilus window and select the files or directories you want to write to CD-R(W). and drag the files and folders to the CD Creator window. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 27 still image) presentations. Then release the [Ctrl] key. To select multiple files.Chapter 4. which displays a dialog box where you can select the writing speed. 4. Red Hat Linux includes several tools for using CD-Rs and CD-rewritable (CD-RW) drives. press and hold the left mouse button. and choose other options. there is a tool included in the Nautilus file manager called CD Creator.

It then allows you to configure settings for CD-writer. Note that your CD-R(W) drive brand may be different from the drive shown. Since it is generally recommended to periodically backup personal files.iso or . CD-ROM drive. X-CD-Roast first scans your device busses and find your CDR(W) drive. such as CD Writer Speed and CD Writer FIFO-Buffer Size. Figure 4-7. To start it at a shell prompt. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Click the Write files to CD button to start burning. Figure 4-8.img) files need to be stored in a central location accessible to X-CD-Roast. To start X-CD-Roast choose Main Menu => System Tools => CD Writer. You can configure the path where you wish to store CD images in the HD Settings tab under Path. . and more. as shown in Figure 4-7. the CD-R(W) should automatically eject from your drive when it is finished. X-CD-Roast automates the process of burning CD-Rs and CD-RWs and is highly configurable to many CD mastering or duplicating needs. the CD Creator can help you do so quickly. 4.28 Chapter 4.2. type /usr/bin/xcdroast. Figure 4-8 illustrates the Setup screen and its configuration options. Using X-CD-Roast X-CD-Roast is a graphical application for duplicating and creating (also known as mastering) CDROMs. You must specify a path on your hard drive’s file system that has at least 700 Megabytes (MB) of free space available. All CD image (. The CD Creator Write Status Window By default.3. A status window displays the writing progress. X-CD-Roast Setup Screen Check your CD-R(W) manufacturer documentation to set some of the CD Settings options.

2. Figure 4-9 shows the Write CD dialog box. There are other options within the Master Tracks dialog that allows you to configure advanced settings.2. is stored on tracks — by clicking Read CD. click the Duplicate CD button in the main panel.Chapter 4. you can preview each track with Play Audio-Tracks. Figure 4-10 shows a session that is preparing the entire /home directory for backup. You can access these tooltips by leaving your mouse pointer on a button or drop-down menu for at least two seconds. You can read all of the tracks on a CD — all CD-ROM information. Using X-CD-Roast to Create a CD It is always recommended to backup personal data and information often in case of hardware failure or file system corruption. 4. choose Write CD. You can set the speed at which you read a CD-ROM as well as find out some information about the CD-ROM track such as its type and size. X-CD-Roast allows you to backup files on your hard drive partition using Create CD. as several of the options have long. so no further configuration is necessary. as well as whether you wish to copy the CD-ROM on-the-fly or create an image file first before burning (which is recommended to prevent write or read errors from occurring during the duplication process). Since X-CD-Roast reads all tracks of a CD-ROM by default. . Diskettes and CD-ROMs 29 X-CD-Roast is well-documented within the interface itself. to burn your tracks onto CD-R(W) media. Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CD-ROMs To duplicate an existing CD-ROM for backup purposes. Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CDs 4. the defaults are set correctly to create data CD-ROMs. including data and audio. If you are copying tracks from an audio CD. This facility allows you to add files and directories into a CD session using Master Tracks. descriptive pop-up tips that informs you of the associated function in detail. where you can configure the speed at which you read and write the tracks to CD-R(W).3.1. you can delete unwanted tracks with Delete Tracks. Figure 4-9. Click the Write CD button to start the burning process.2. however.3. Finally.

but ISO images are the most common CD image format. and click the Write Tracks tab to return to the main writing dialog. 4. click the Create session/image tab to create the . There are other file types that can be burned as images. You must first click Calculate size.2. Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast Large files that end in .raw.iso are known as ISO9660 (or ISO) image files. then click Master to image file to create the image. highlight the ISO image file you wish to burn and click Add. For example.img file. move the ISO file to the path specified during setup. There are also other ISO image files available on FTP and websites. Tip You can also create and write the image to the CD-R(W) in one step by clicking Master and write onthe-fly in the Create session image tab. Using X-CD-Roast to Back-up Hard Drive Files Highlight the files and directories that you wish to add to the session and click Add. To write your tracks to the CD-R(W).3. It is recommended that you use the multi-step method instead of the on-the-fly methods. such as .img and . where you can click Write Tracks to burn the image to the CD-R(W).3. then Accept track layout. 4. To write an ISO image file to a CD-R(W) with X-CD-Roast. and click Add. In the Layout Tracks tab. there are two utilities available: mkisofs and cdrecord. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Figure 4-10.3.3. Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools If you want to use a shell prompt to write images to CD-R or CD-RWs. This saves a few steps but can sometimes cause read-write errors. The image displays in the Tracks to write box on the left side. These utilities have several advanced options that are beyond the scope of .30 Chapter 4. After you have added all files and directories you want to write to the CD-R(W). In the Layout tracks tab. Click Accept track layout. Red Hat Linux is freely available as ISO images that you can download and write to the CD-R(W). Click Write tracks to write the image to the CDR(W). click Write Tracks from the panel on the left. This automatically loads the Write Tracks tab. then click Create CD. highlight the image file you created in the box on the right.

It is most useful for archival and file backup purposes.3. refer to the additional resources in Section 4. Using cdrecord The cdrecord utility writes audio. which is useful for viewing the status of the image as it is being made.2.Chapter 4.). including speed.. however.iso and write it to CD-R(W) so that you can use it on your Red Hat Linux PC at work and your Windows laptop for trips.. refer to Section 4. Sets an Application ID — a text string that will be written into the volume header of the image which can be useful to determine what applications are on the CD.3.3. Excludes any directory immediately following this option. but exclude the subdirectory /home/joeuser/junk/ because it contains unnecessary files. and data settings. Generates Joliet naming records.3. To use cdrecord. .1. and/or data) CD-ROMs using options to configure several aspects of the write process.2 Using cdrecord . Using mkisofs The mkisofs utility creates ISO9660 image files that can be written to a CD-R(W). data. Suppose you wish to backup a directory called /home/joeuser/.. especially for UNIX/Linux environments. and the disc is mounted in Solaris and Windows environments.3.4 Additional Resources. and mixed-mode (a combination of audio.3.3. Sets verbose execution. Option -o -J -R -A Function Specifies an output file name of the ISO image. The images created by mkisofs can include all types of files. You want to create an ISO image called backup. You can now use the ISO image file with either X-CD-Roast as described in Section 4. Generates Rock Ridge (RR) naming records to preserve filename length and casing. For more information on using mkisofs. useful if the CD is used in Windows environments. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 31 this guide.iso -x /home/joeuser/junk/ -J -R -A -V -v /home/joeuser/ The image is created in the same directory that you ran the command. 4. this option can be repeated (for example. -x /home/joe/trash -x /home/joe/delete . you must first establish the device address of your CD-R(W) device by running the following command as root at a shell prompt: . -V -v -x Table 4-1. For more information about using cdrecord. the command line based CD recording utility.2.3 Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast. video. This can be done with mkisofs by running the following command: mkisofs -o backup. Table 4-1 explains each command line option. for basic image creation and writing. these tools save some time over the graphical alternatives such as X-CD-Roast. Sets a Volume ID — a name that is assigned to it if the image is burned. device. mkisofs Options 4.. or using cdrecord.

0 0) * 0. including some warnings about creating certain types of ISO images.7. audio and mixed-mode CD-ROMs.     . The same command can also be used for burning ISO image files downloaded from the Internet. Additional Resources This chapter briefly covers several applications. Diskettes and CD-ROMs cdrecord -scanbus This command shows all CD-R(W) devices on your computer.1.0 --blank=fast 4. • mkisofs man page — Comprehensive detail of the utility. You can use cdrecord to blank CD-RW discs for reuse by typing the following: cdrecord --dev=0. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/mkisofs. the device address (0. The following is an example output from running cdrecord -scanbus.version (where version is the version of cdrecord installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information. and sets write output (verbose [-v]).2.0c’ Removable CD-ROM 0.4.0 2) * 0.6.version (where version is the version of mkisofs installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information.3. switch to the root user and type the following at a shell prompt: cdrecord -v -eject speed=4 dev=0.0 3) ’HP ’ ’CD-Writer+ 9200 ’ ’1.3.4.3. Cdrecord 1.1.0 7) * To write the backup file image created with mkisofs in the previous section.4.iso The command sets the write speed (4).1’ scsibus0: 0.5. including some example commands for creating common ISO image files.0.0 4) * 0.0 6) * 0. Offers all options and commands in detail.8 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Jorg Schilling Using libscg version ’schily-0. The -eject argument ejects the CDROM after the write process is complete. Installed Documentation • cdrecord man page — Discusses how to burn data.0 5) * 0.0 backup. including some example commands for common CD-R(W) burning tasks.32 Chapter 4.3. It is important to remember the device address of the device used to write your CD. Refer to the following resources for more information about the applications in this chapter 4.0 1) * 0. Offers all options and commands in detail. such as Red Hat Linux ISO images. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/cdrecord.0). which is useful for tracking the status of the write process.

version (where version is the version of X-CD-Roast installed on your system) — Contains useful command-line options and usage information for this graphical CD-R(W) mastering application. which includes the dvdrecord utility for writing DVD-R(+W) discs.net/projects/cdrecord/ — The cdrecord project page on Freshmeat is regularly updated with the newest releases.freesoftware. http://freshmeat. 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 33 dvdrecord installed on your system) — For users who have DVD-R(+W) devices.4. Useful Websites • • • http://www.fsf. news. http://www. this set of documentation helps you get started mastering DVD-ROMs for data backup and multimedia presentation.org/dvdrtools/ — The official website of the dvdrtools project.xcdroast. and user commentary.org/ — The Official website of the X-CD-Roast project.2.version / (where version § ¦ ¥ ¥ • /usr/share/doc/xcdroast. § ¦ • /usr/share/doc/dvdrecord. ¤ ¤ is the version of .Chapter 4.

34 Chapter 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs .

2xx. You may receive one or more DNS entries from your Internet provider when you sign up. Some ISPs may require you to configure a master address (called the gateway) that authenticates your computer and allows it to connect to the Internet. go to the Main Menu => System Tools => Internet Configuration Wizard. You can then configure the connection that you created at any time using the Network Administration Tool. you must be running the X Window System and have root privileges. DNS servers act as a road map for the Internet. use one of the following methods: • • In the graphical desktop environment. Before connecting. DNS tracks IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. Your own ISP may have specific connection requirements for their service which differ from the instructions in this chapter. which can be used to create an Internet connection. including the following information: • • • • The phone number that your modem must dial to connect to your ISP if you are using a modem. To start the application. type the command internet-druid In both cases you will have to enter your root password to continue. People use the Internet for everything from information to finances to getting medical prescriptions on the Web. More information about the Network Administration Tool can be found in the chapter entitled Network Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. To use Internet Configuration Wizard. which is a unique set of numbers like 2xx. There are many types of Internet connections.2x. A gateway address. including: • • • • • ISDN Connection Modem Connection Wireless Connection xDSL Connection Ethernet Connections Red Hat Linux includes the Internet Configuration Wizard. you must have a connection to it. Your login name and password for your account if you are using an xDSL or modem connection. the DNS tells your machine where to send its traffic. check with your ISP for any specific instructions that they provide. However.2. in order to use the Internet. Getting Online Exploring the Internet has become a popular activity.Chapter 5. When you use the Internet. DNS entries: DNS means Domain Name System. each computer connected to the Internet must have an IP address. At a shell prompt. .

select xDSL Connection. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. select ISDN Connection. xDSL Connection An xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) connection uses high-speed transmissions through telephone lines. select Modem Connection. . Some DSL providers require you to configure a PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) connection with an Ethernet card. IDSL. select Ethernet Connection. start Internet Configuration Wizard. high-quality digital telecommunication lines as opposed to an analog modem connection. To configure this type of connection. and follow the steps in the wizard. If you must supply a username and password to connect. To configure this type of connection. start the Internet Configuration Wizard. Getting Online Figure 5-1. To configure this type of connection. Internet Configuration Wizard ISDN Connection An ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) connection uses high-speed. start Internet Configuration Wizard. Cable Modem Connection A cable modem connection uses the same coaxial cable that your TV cable travels on to transmit data. start Internet Configuration Wizard. To configure this type of connection. Most cable Internet providers require you to install an Ethernet card in your computer that connects to the cable modem.36 Chapter 5. Some DSL providers require you to configure your system to obtain an IP address through DHCP with an Ethernet card. Digital data is modulated into analog signals and sent over phone lines. Internet Configuration Wizard uses the term xDSL to mean all types of DSL connections. select Ethernet Connection. The Ethernet card is usually required to be configured for DHCP. start Internet Configuration Wizard. There are different types of DSL such as ADSL. the cable modem connects to the coaxial cable. This special phone line must be installed by a phone company. and follow the steps in the wizard. you are probably using PPPoE. To configure this type of connection. and SDSL. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. Modem Connection A modem connection uses a modem to establish a connection to the Internet. Ask your DSL provider which method you should use. Then. and follow the steps in the wizard.

Chapter 5. Getting Online Wireless Connection

37

If you are connecting your Red Hat Linux computer to a wireless access point (WAP) or peerto-peer (also called ad-hoc) network with a wireless (802.11x) network card, then you will need to configure your wireless device. Choose the Wireless Connection, then select the device from the list provided. You can then configure the device for DHCP or fixed IP addresses In the pop-up device configuration window. The Internet Configuration Wizard is a utility that guides you step-by-step through the process of establishing your Internet connection. Once your connection is up and running, you can then configure it to suit your needs or particular connection. For more detailed instructions, refer to the Network Configuration chapter in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.

38

Chapter 5. Getting Online

Chapter 6. Web Browsing
Once you have configured your Internet connection (see Chapter 5 Getting Online), you are ready to get online. Red Hat Linux comes with several Web browsers, graphical applications that use your Internet connection to access the World Wide Web: news, research, shopping, banking, and more. This chapter briefly explains how to surf the Web using Mozilla and Galeon. For information about using the Konqueror Web browser, refer to Section A.6 Browsing the Web with Konqueror.

6.1. Mozilla
Part of the mozilla.org organization’s wide range of Open Source Internet application developments, Mozilla is a powerful, integrated, and standards-compliant Web browser, email client, news reader, and more. The Web browsing component displays Web content such as webpages and images. Mozilla also uses plug-ins for interactive multimedia such as streaming video and Web animation. This section shows you how to use the Mozilla Web browser to explore the Internet. To start Mozilla click the Mozilla Web Browser launcher on the panel or choose Main Menu => Internet => Mozilla Web Browser.

Figure 6-1. Mozilla Main Browser Window

6.1.1. Using Mozilla
Mozilla functions like any Web browser that you may have used before. It has the standard navigational toolbars, buttons, and menus.

Figure 6-3.40 Chapter 6. The Mozilla Navigational Bar There is also a sidebar on the left that contains additional options. Address Book. such as integrated search functionality. there are the following small icons: Navigator. For information on using the Mozilla Mail email client. The Mozilla SideBar At the bottom left corner of the browser window. and a What’s Related option that displays webpages similar in topic to the page currently displayed in the main browsing area. refer to Chapter 7 Email Applications. Web Browsing The navigation bar has an address field with which you can type a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) — the name or address of a website — into the address field at the top of the browser window. Composer. These are separate applications integrated into the Mozilla suite and are useful for experiencing email. chat. there is the Personal Toolbar. and other aspects of the Internet besides the Web. which you can customize with your own bookmarks or quickly go back to your homepage. You can access Personal Toolbar folders by clicking the icon and choosing the website from the drop-down menu. bookmarks. The search results appears in the main browsing area. news. Type in a keyword or phrase into the address field and click the Search button. Mozilla supports keyword searching via the address field as well. Figure 6-2. and IRC Chat. The Personal Toolbar is useful for keeping and categorizing webpages so that you do not have to type the address every time you want to access the page. To add a site to your Personal Toolbar. . Mail. Finally. click and hold the left mouse button on the small icon next to the URL in the address field and drag it directly to the Personal Toolbar or into a folder icon.

newsgroups. Go to Help on the main menu and select Help Contents. Web Browsing 41 Mozilla also allows you to browse multiple websites within one browser window using navigational tabs.2. Galeon Galeon is a Web browser that is based on Mozilla. a working installation of Mozilla is required. Mozilla Composer 6. Instead of using two or more separate windows to read multiple webpages. right-click on the tab and choose Close Tab from the menu or click the X at the right of the tab bar to close the tab currently displayed. A list of topics will appear and clicking on any of these will provide you with information for creating and editing webpages using Mozilla Composer. This can be useful if you want to browse the Web without the need to email or chat with others. Mozilla Composer You can use Mozilla Composer to create webpages. 6.2. It is only a Web browser and does not feature email. For additional information on using Mozilla. To close a tab. Galeon also has some extra features that are not included in Mozilla. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Help Contents. or click on the Composer icon in the lower left part of the screen: . you can open a tab by clicking File => New => Navigation Tab or by pressing [Ctrl] and [T] at the same time. or anything other than Web browsing and searching. When the help screen opens. The Mozilla help files provide information on creating webpages with Composer. You do not need to know HTML to use this tool. To use Galeon. To open Composer.Chapter 6. Figure 6-4. Galeon uses Mozilla’s HTML and image renderer and plug-in system to display Web and multimedia content. click on the Contents tab and expand the Creating Webpages menu by clicking on the arrow next to it.1. . This will open the new tab and allow you to switch between tabs by clicking on them. go to Window => Composer on the Mozilla main menu.

The first time you launch Galeon. Once you have finished your configuration of Galeon. Figure 6-5. Online with Galeon Using Galeon is much like using Mozilla. go to Main Menu => Internet => More Internet => Galeon. Configuring Galeon During the initial configuration. . and Home buttons. as well as Reload and Stop buttons to refresh a webpage and stop it from loading. and even browser navigation shortcuts. Figure 6-6. respectively. Back. integrated search features. You can also configure Galeon’ personal toolbar with bookmarks. you have the option of importing bookmarks and preferences from Mozilla or other Web applications you may have installed on your system. the main browser will appear. Web Browsing To launch Galeon. There are navigational buttons for moving from one visited webpage to another using the Forward.42 Chapter 6. it will take you through the configuration process.

and you can switch between them by clicking on the each tab. For additional information or help with Galeon. 6. use the [Ctrl]-[T] key combination or select New Tab from the File menu. click Help on the top menu bar. you can choose to view the Galeon FAQ and Galeon manual. click the X button within the tab. Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts Table 6-1 shows some common keyboard shortcuts available in both Mozilla and Galeon. Galeon also has a navigational tab feature that can help you avoid having your desktop cluttered with browser windows. which is accessible by choosing Settings => Preferences from the browser’s main menu. Multiple pages can be stored in a single Galeon window. Keyboard Shortcuts Description Open a new tab for browsing multiple websites within one browser window Open a new browser window Close all browser windows and exits the application Move the cursor to the browser’s address field Print the current displayed webpage or document Move forward by one link or page Move backward by one link or page Reload the current page Open the browsing history Find a keyword or string within a page . Shortcut [Ctrl]-[T] [Ctrl]-[N] [Ctrl]-[Q] [Ctrl]-[L] [Ctrl]-[P] [Ctrl]-[right arrow] [Ctrl]-[left arrow] [Ctrl]-[R] [Ctrl]-[H] [Ctrl]-[F] Table 6-1.Chapter 6. Keyboard shortcuts can help you efficiently browse the Web. To close a tab. The tabbed browsing mode can be configured in the Tabs page of the Preferences Window.3. Web Browsing 43 Like Mozilla. or right-click the tab and choose Close Tab from the drop-down menu. From there. To launch a new Tab.

Web Browsing .44 Chapter 6.

POP. you should have some information from your Internet Service Provider (ISP) handy so that you can configure the client properly. Unless properly configured.someisp. is a protocol for retrieving email messages from your ISP’s email server. . Email Applications Email is a very popular way of communicating with others over the Internet. an application that understands the various email transmission standards and allows you to send. the place where incoming email is stored. and text-based clients like mutt. This is usually in the form of yourname@yourisp. is used to send email from a mail server to your email client’s inbox. Server type for sending email (SMTP) The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol for sending email messages between servers.net. choose the one that is most convenient and easy to use. you must know what type of server your network administrator or ISP is using. whereas POP mail is downloaded to your email client directly and does not stay on the server. short for Internet Message Access Protocol. IMAP. contact your ISP or network administrator. is usually in the form of mail. Since all email clients perform the same basic tasks (send and receive email). although some can use the newer IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol). and read email. Most ISP email servers use the POP protocol. you can choose one with the features that best suits your particular needs. The following lists a few important things you may need to know: Your email address The email address you will use to send and receive mail. including graphical email clients like Evolution and Mozilla Mail. receive. you will not be able to make full use of the email clients discussed in this chapter. This POP or IMAP address. Server type for receiving email (POP or IMAP) In order to receive mail. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate how to use some of the popular email applications included in Red Hat Linux. Most email systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another. All of the email client applications are designed to suit certain types of users. You can use email with an email client. Red Hat Linux includes several email applications. SMTP is also used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server.net. This chapter will briefly discuss the following email clients: • • • Evolution Mozilla Mail Text-based email clients Before you launch an email client. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your email application. the messages can then be retrieved with an email client using either POP or IMAP. If you have any questions regarding what information you need. IMAP differs from POP in that email from IMAP servers are stored on the server and stays there even as you download and read your mail. so. short for Post Office Protocol.Chapter 7.

46 Chapter 7. click on the Inbox icon. . and quick searches. To launch Evolution from the desktop panel. click Finish. Evolution Evolution is more than just an email client. and is the default email client for Red Hat Linux. Follow the on-screen instructions and fill in the information you collected from your ISP or administrator in the text boxes provided. go to Main Menu => Internet => Email. Figure 7-2. Evolution is a full-featured personal and workgroup information management tool for Linux and UNIX-based systems. When you are done. user-defined filters. which allows you to configure your email connection. Evolution Welcome Screen The first time you start Evolution you will be presented with the Welcome Screen (Figure 7-1). It additionally features a flexible calendar/scheduler which allows users to create and confirm group meetings and special events online. Email Applications 7. Figure 7-1. It provides all of the standard email client features.1. and you will be presented with the Main Screen as shown in Figure 7-2. Evolution Main Screen To see what is in your inbox or to send an email. including powerful mailbox management.

Chapter 7. While Evolution does so much more than read and send email. click Help from the main toolbar and choose the component you want to learn more about. Evolution New Email Message Screen Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to. this chapter focusses exclusively on its email capabilities. . Evolution Inbox Screen To compose a mail. If you would like to learn more about using some of the other features of Evolution. select New Message from the toolbar. like calendering/scheduling and group messaging. Figure 7-4. click Send on the toolbar. Email Applications 47 Figure 7-3.

select Main Menu => Extras Internet => Mozilla Mail. To start Mozilla Mail. Mozilla Mail New Email Message Screen . the Mozilla Help contents are located under Help on the main menu. Figure 7-5.48 Chapter 7. Mozilla Mail and News Figure 7-6. click on the mail icon near the lower left corner of the Mozilla screen. Mozilla Mail This section briefly covers the basic steps for sending and receiving email with Mozilla. To open Mozilla Mail while in Mozilla. Email Applications 7. If you need further information about using Mozilla Mail.2.

you first need to set up a newsgroup account. To join a newsgroup. click on the arrow next to the newsgroup account name and the list of groups you are subscribed to will appear beneath.Chapter 7. 7. The discussions are in threaded format (which means all topics and responses to the topic are sorted and organized for convenient reading) and subscribing to a group is very easy. If you choose to send later. The New Account Setup screen will appear. Click on your mail account name in the sidebar and select Create a new account from the options that appear on the right of the screen. Now. Newsgroup Account Setup Enter your name and email address on the next screen and click Next. Posting to a newsgroup is just like writing . you can just lurk. enter the name of your news server (if you do not know the name of your news server. you can go back to the main mail screen and go to File => Send unsent messages. Then. The newsgroup account you created will appear in the sidebar of the Mozilla mail screen. click on OK.2. When you are done. Email Applications 49 To send an email. You can even post and download pictures and files to Newsgroups (although your ISP may restrict Newsgroups to text-based postings only). which is a Newsgroup term for reading without posting messages. You do not have to post messages if you do not want to. click on the Send button or go to File => Send Now or Send Later. To read email. Select Newsgroup account and then click Next. Select the groups you are interested in reading and click Subscribe. Mozilla and Newsgroups Newsgroups are Internet discussion groups with specific topics. Once you read a message. Figure 7-7.1. click on the message you want to read. Select the newsgroup you want to access and a dialog box appears with information about downloading and reading existing messages. listing all the newsgroups available. A dialog box appears. On the last few screens. Right-click on this account name and select Subscribe. you can delete it. On the following screen. click on the mail folder you created for yourself to see a list of messages waiting for you. There are a great many newsgroups on the Web with topics ranging from politics to computer games to random strange thoughts. and more. contact your Internet service provider or network administrator for this information). save it to a separate folder. you can determine the name that this account will be referred to and review your settings.

all this makes for a visually appealing message when it gets to the recipient. mutt allows the user to control nearly all of the functions that mutt uses to send. there is always tab-completion to help you. textures. Most of the options are invoked using the set or unset commands. You do not have to type all your preferred configuration commands each time you run mutt. with either boolean or string values. Using Mutt Mutt is a small but very powerful text-based mail client for UNIX operating systems. For example :unset help turns off the handy keyboard command hints at the top of the screen.1. plain text email is just that — plain text. All configuration options can be changed at any time by typing a [:] followed by the relevant command. the first thing you see is a screen with a list of email messages. gives mutt its flexibility and configurability. Email Applications an email.3. e. Mutt’s configuration file.g. the layout is very controllable. On the other hand. ~/. you can save them in a file which is loaded every time the program starts up.3. This initial menu is called the index. right-click on the group name and select Unsubscribe. type :set help. The term plain text refers to textual data in ASCII format. If you cannot remember the command you want to use. The particular font can be specified. Plain text (also called clear text) is the most portable format because it is supported by nearly every email application on various types of machines. 7. The advantage of HTML formatted email is that they can contain graphics and interactive links to Web sites. . The number of options that mutt has available to it are truly astounding.50 Chapter 7. This configuration file must exist in your home directory. To turn those hints back on. Plain text emails are simple. Plain Text Email Clients Most modern email clients allow the user to select whether they want to send their emails in plain text or in HTML. They is nothing fancy. receive. except that the newsgroup name appears in the To field rather than an email address. It is also this file that might give new users problems. When you launch mutt. To unsubscribe from a newsgroup.muttrc or ~/. 7. there are no pictures embedded in the email.mutt/muttrc.muttrc. As is true with all powerful software. and pictures or backgrounds can be added. and read your mail. it takes time to understand the features and what they can do for you. This chapter will discuss the mutt plain text email client. and there are no special fonts. set folder = ~/Mail. it has to be named either ~/.

where you can customize your message headers. A text editor (defined by your $EDITOR environmental variable in the configuration file) will then launch allowing you to compose your message.Chapter 7. Mutt will prompt for the To: address and the Subject: line. Type your message. . add file attachments or simply press the [Y] key to send your email on its way. refer to the man pages for muttrc and mutt (type man muttrc or man mutt at the shell prompt). mutt Main Screen These messages are in a default mail folder. that you can think of as your inbox. save your file and exit the editor.2. In the index or pager views. use the [R] key to reply to a message or the [M] key to create a new one. After editing your email. You may also find the mutt manual to be very helpful. often called the mailspool. change the encoding. Mutt displays the compose menu. where x is the version number of mutt installed on your system.x . To learn more about mutt. Use the [K] and [J] keys on your keyboard to move the highlighted cursor up and down the list of messages. Email Applications 51 Figure 7-8. The mutt manual is installed in /usr/share/doc/mutt-1.

52 Chapter 7. Email Applications .

enter a short description for the printer. The printer name cannot contain spaces and must begin with a letter. and underscores (_). Figure 8-1. With few exceptions. as most operating systems require these CD-ROMs because they contain printer drivers — software that communicates with both the printer and the operating system. For remote printer setup and more advanced printer configuration issues. and configure it with the useful tools provided by Red Hat Linux. Printer Configuration Most computer users either own a printer at home or use one at work. . Printer hardware manufacturers distribute CD-ROMs or diskettes with their printers. such as one attached through a parallel port or USB port on your computer.Chapter 8. which can contain spaces.1. numbers. Adding a Local Printer To add a local printer. refer to the chapter called Printer Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. Optionally. turn on the printer. Red Hat Linux provides drivers for most printer models. enter a unique name for the printer in the Name text field. Printers have become a very popular PC peripheral due to their increasing quality and decreasing prices. This chapter shows you how to set up and test a printer directly connected to your Red Hat Linux system. Click Forward to proceed.2. Adding a Printer In the window shown in Figure 8-2. dashes (-). The printer name may contain letters. click the New button in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to display the window in Figure 8-1. The Printer Configuration Tool Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility for configuring local and remote printers without the need to install additional drivers and applications. The Printer Configuration Tool uses a step-by-step process that can help you configure a printer faster than editing configuration files manually. all you need to do is attach the printer to your Red Hat Linux system. 8. 8. thus the drivers and software on the printer manufacturer’s CD-ROM and diskettes are not needed.

Figure 8-3 appears. The device is usually /dev/lp0 for a parallel printer or /dev/usb/lp0 for a USB printer. Printer Configuration Figure 8-2.3 Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing to continue. Click Forward to continue. Selecting a Queue Name After clicking Forward. The printers are divided by manufacturers. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing After selecting the queue type of the printer. Select Locally-connected from the Select a queue type menu. the next step is to select the printer model. Select the printer model from the list. 8. .3. Adding a Local Printer The next step is to select the type of printer. The printer models are updated each time a different manufacturer is selected. Go to Section 8. click Rescan devices to rescan the computer or click Custom device to specify it manually. If it was not auto-detected. You will see a window similar to Figure 8-4. If no devices appear in the list. and select the device.54 Chapter 8. Select the name of the printer manufacturer from the pulldown menu. select the model from the list. Figure 8-3.

Chapter 8. clicking the Driver tab. Confirming Printer Configuration The last step is to confirm your printer configuration. LPD. Click the Apply button in the main window to save your changes and restart the printer daemon. the data is filtered multiple times and is converted to a format that the printer can not understand. print a test page to ensure the configuration is correct. Selecting a Printer Model The recommended print driver is selected based on the printer model selected. Click Apply to add the print queue if the settings are correct. Refer to Section 8. selecting a different print driver. clicking Edit. Printer Configuration 55 Figure 8-4. If you need to print characters beyond the basic ASCII set (including those used for languages such as Japanese). After applying the changes.5 Modifying Existing Printers for details. You can also configure options such as paper size if you edit the print queue after adding it. print a test page to try out this new configuration. or NCP). After applying the changes. The print driver processes the data that you want to print into a format the printer can understand. you need a print driver to process the data that is sent to the printer. and then applying the changes. If the test fails. 8. selecting the printer from the list. SMB.1.3.4 Printing a Test Page for details. To make sure the data is not filtered more than once. If you select an additional print driver on your local computer. . Click Back to modify the printer configuration. If you are configuring a remote printer (IPP. and printing a test page. you must review your driver options and select Prerender Postscript. applying the changes. Try selecting a print driver according to the manufacturer and model of the remote printer. first try selecting Generic as the manufacturer and Raw Print Queue or Postscript Printer as the printer model. Since a local printer is attached directly to your computer. the remote print server might not have a print driver configured. the remote print server usually has its own print driver. Refer to Section 8. Tip You can select a different print driver after adding a printer by starting the Printer Configuration Tool.

5. Figure 8-5. If you change the print driver or modify the driver options. Modifying Existing Printers To delete an existing printer.4. select the printer that you want to try out from the printer list. The window contains the current values for the selected printer. To print a test page. Click Apply in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. the settings can be edited by selecting the printer from the printer list and clicking the Edit button. The printer is removed from the printer list. The tabbed window shown in Figure 8-6 is displayed. To set the default printer. select the printer and click the Delete button on the toolbar. After adding the printer(s). The default printer icon appears in the Default column of the default printer in the list. Make any necessary changes. Printer Configuration 8. select the printer from the printer list and click the Default button on the toolbar. Printing a Test Page After you have configured your printer. Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon.56 Chapter 8. and click OK. Test Page Options 8. you should print a test page to test the different configuration. . then select the appropriate test page from the Test pulldown menu. you should print a test page to make sure the printer is functioning properly.

Depending on which queue type is chosen. Printer Configuration 57 Figure 8-6.1.5.4. Editing a Printer 8. The name of the printer should change in the printer list. • . try selecting Send End-ofTransmission (EOT) instead. Common options include: • Send Form-Feed (FF) should be selected if the last page of the print job is not ejected from the printer (for example. The queue type of the printer can be changed or just the settings. Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. 8. Refer to the appropriate section on adding a printer for a description of the options. Driver Options The Driver Options tab displays advanced printer options. Click OK to return to the main window. 8. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. 8. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. If it is changed. After making modifications. Send End-of-Transmission (EOT) should be selected if sending a form-feed does not work. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. Refer to Send Form-Feed (FF) above. If this does not work. click OK to return to the main window.3.5. Queue Type The Queue type tab shows the queue type that was selected when adding the printer and its settings. click OK to return to the main window.5. the form feed light flashes). Queue Name To rename a printer or change its short description. Printer Driver The Printer driver tab shows which print driver is currently being used.2. Some printers require both Send Form-Feed (FF) and Send Endof-Transmission (EOT) to eject the last page. change the value in the Queue name tab. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. different options are displayed.5. Options vary for each print driver.Chapter 8.

This option is only available if the PostScript driver is used with the CUPS printing system. The options include US Letter. Media Source defaults to Printer default. select this option to print Japanese fonts to a non-Japanese printer. Prerender Postscript should be selected if characters beyond the basic ASCII set are being sent to the printer but they are not printing correctly (such as Japanese characters). If the printer can print plain text. Effective Filter Locale defaults to C. the print driver assumes the unknown data is text and then converts it to PostScript. The print spool queue is a list of print jobs that have been sent to the printer and information about each print request. Printer Configuration Assume Unknown Data is Text should be selected if the print driver does not recognize some of the data sent to it. Do not choose it unless problems printing the correct fonts exist. Extra time is required to perform this action. This option prerenders non-standard PostScript fonts so that they are printed correctly. and more. US Legal. Convert Text to Postscript is selected by default. try unselecting this when printing plain text documents to decrease the time it takes to print. If this option is selected along with the Convert Text to Postscript option. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. this is not an option because text is always converted to PostScript. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon.6. If the printer does not support the fonts you are trying to print. such as the status of the request. Only select this option if there are problems printing. such as printing text file from Emacs or printing an image from The GIMP. Convert to PS level 1. Change this option to use paper from a different tray. For example. the print job is added to the print spool queue. try selecting this option. . the print driver assumes that any data that it can not recognize is text and attempts to print it as text. • • • GhostScript pre-filtering — allows you to select No pre-filtering. Otherwise. Also select this option if the printer can not handle PostScript level 3. If this option is selected. click OK to return to the main window. the job number. Managing Print Jobs When you send a print job to the printer daemon. click the Printer Manager icon on the panel to start the GNOME Print Manager as shown in Figure 8-7. Page Size allows the paper size to be selected. If Japanese characters are being printed. A3. and A4.58 Chapter 8. If you are running a graphical desktop environment. • • • • To modify the driver options. 8. or Convert to PS level 2 in case the printer can not handle certain PostScript levels. This option converts it to PostScript level 1. If the CUPS printing system is used. the username of the person who sent the request. accept the default of C. select ja_JP. the hostname of the system that sent the request.

select it from the list and select Edit => Cancel Documents from the pulldown menu. browse to the location of the file and drag and drop it on to the Print Manager icon on the Panel. Printer Notification Icon Clicking on the printer notification icon starts the GNOME Print Manager to display a list of current print jobs. List of Print Jobs To cancel a specific print job listed in the GNOME Print Manager. right-click on the icon for the printer and select Properties. Click OK to start printing the file.Chapter 8. To change the printer settings. If there are active print jobs in the print spool. Double-click on a configured printer to view the print spool queue as shown in Figure 8-8. a printer notification icon might appears in the Panel Notification Area of the desktop panel as shown in Figure 8-9. To print a file from Nautilus. . Figure 8-9. The window shown in Figure 8-10 is displayed. Figure 8-8. GNOME Print Manager It can also be started by selecting Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => System Tools => Print Manager. Printer Configuration 59 Figure 8-7. Because it probes for active print jobs every five seconds. The Printer Configuration Tool is then started. the icon might not be displayed for short print jobs. Also located on the Panel is a Print Manager icon.

60

Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

Figure 8-10. Print Verification Window To view the list of print jobs in the print spool from a shell prompt, type the command lpq. The last few lines will look similar to the following:
Rank Owner/ID active user@localhost+902 Class A Job Files 902 sample.txt Size Time 2050 01:20:46

Example 8-1. Example of lpq output If you want to cancel a print job, find the job number of the request with the command lpq and then use the command lprm job number . For example, lprm 902 would cancel the print job in Example 8-1. You must have proper permissions to cancel a print job. You can not cancel print jobs that were started by other users unless you are logged in as root on the machine to which the printer is attached. You can also print a file directly from a shell prompt. For example, the command lpr sample.txt will print the text file sample.txt. The print filter determines what type of file it is and converts it a format the printer can understand.

8.7. Additional Resources
To learn more about printing on Red Hat Linux, refer to the following resources.

8.7.1. Installed Documentation
• man printcap —

The manual page for the /etc/printcap printer configuration file.

• map lpr — The manual page for the lpr command that allows you to print files from the command

line.

• man lpd

— The manual page for the LPRng printer daemon.

Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

61

• man lprm

— The manual page for the command line utility to remove print jobs from the LPRng spool queue. — The manual page for the command line utility to print multiple pages on one sheet — The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon. The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon configuration file. The manual page for the class configuration file for CUPS.

• man mpage

of paper.

• man cupsd

• man cupsd.conf —

• man classes.conf —

8.7.2. Useful Websites
• •

http://www.linuxprinting.org — GNU/Linux Printing contains a large amount of information about printing in Linux. http://www.cups.org/ — Documentation, FAQs, and newsgroups about CUPS.

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Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

or opening a document from an email attachment.sda. Whether you are preparing for a business or school presentation.org. . address books. .gif. spreadsheets. spreadsheets. resumes. visual form of document formatting is called what you see is what you get (or WYSIWYG) editing. budgets. lectures.sxw. forms. Web presentations.sxi. and . business presentations.png Table 9-1.org suite is able to read.doc. and create files in several formats. It includes templates.Chapter 9. for example. lectures.org is much faster and easier than learning complex tags and code to format your documents and presentations.sxd. and presentation utilities. OpenOffice. .org Features The OpenOffice. If you have ever worked with or received . and wizards for creating basic professional documents and presentations quickly.htm/. Integration of the software that make up a productivity suite helps you to give impact to your presentations.html . or printed collateral. . The OpenOffice.doc or . which incorporates several complementary applications into one integrated package. you know they are commonly associated with the Microsoft Office suite. .bmp.jpg. Using OpenOffice. .1. . writing a formal letter.org suite.htm/.1. the OpenOffice. This real-time. including files which are commonly associated with Microsoft Office. slide shows .xls. business forms. simple databases Business and academic presentations. image formats.org suite has many file compatibility features. . graphs. Red Hat Linux includes a powerful business productivity suite called OpenOffice.slk.txt. line drawings. newsletters. It allows you complete control over the layout and content of your documents and lets you see the results as you edit it. Red Hat Linux has a tool that suits your needs. and artwork.org Features As you can see.org Calc OpenOffice. personnel directories. and allows you to .org Impress OpenOffice. . . productivity suites are graphical and include such applications as word processors.org Suite Productivity suites are collections of applications designed to save time and assist users at work. reports Spreadsheets. clip art.ppt. The OpenOffice.html .xls files. .sdw.csv. school papers. organizational charts .sxc.org Writer OpenOffice. .rtf. The applications that comprise a productivity suite are integrated — which means that you can.sdd Document Types Formal letters. Working with Documents Red Hat Linux includes several tools for managing all of your documents.sdc. at school.org Draw File Compatibility . 9. Application OpenOffice. tables. . including . charts. and at home. export files to several Illustrations.org suite contains several applications for creating and editing documents. OpenOffice. write a document with an embedded chart created by the spreadsheet application as well as a slide from a graphical presentation application. . . . Table 9-1 shows the many different types of files you can use and tasks you can accomplish with the OpenOffice. Usually. edit.1. 9.sxd.dbf.

design. click the Save button choose the file format from the File type drop down menu at the bottom of the browser window. justification (aligning the text of your document to the left. toggling the automatic highlighting of misspelled words. There are also buttons for opening. OpenOffice. You can settings. If you hover the mouse cursor over a toolbar button. to start it from a shell prompt. OpenOffice. which opens the pop-up file browser.org Writer. for files that you need to distribute to Microsoft Office users. You can immediately begin typing text into the document editing area at any time using the default .org Writer window is exactly what you get if you printed the document or if you gave the document file to someone else for them to view. Along the left side of the window.1.org Writer is a powerful word processor that features WYSIWYG formatting — what you see in the OpenOffice. 9. and printing documents. and print your documents without the need to memorize complex formatting tags or codes.org Writer from your desktop panel.org Writer in action: Figure 9-1.org is similar to other word processing applications you may have used before. To save your text. or if you are . However. At the top of the window are various functions collected into toolbars that let you choose your fonts.64 Chapter 9. Working with Documents accomplish several tasks for academic. A word processor is like a text editor but has several additional features that allow you to format. The main interface is the document editing area (the white space in the middle of the window) where you can add and edit text. or right margins). There is also a text box that enables you to specify the exact location of a document on your machine and load the document into the editing area. choose Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice.2. center.org Writer Writing documents using OpenOffice. and more. there is a toolbar with buttons for checking your spelling.org Writer To start OpenOffice. business. The following sections shows you how to use the OpenOffice. OpenOffice.org suite. The default file type is appropriate for files that you are working on exclusively with OpenOffice. or home use. You can display more detailed Tips by clicking the Help menu and choosing Extended Tips. a pop-up Tip is displayed with a brief explanation of the button’s functionality. as well as buttons for creating new documents (which will open up a new window with a blank document for you to add content). Figure 9-1 shows OpenOffice.org applications. keyword and phrase searching. saving. letter sizes. and other convenient editing functions. type oowriter.

org Calc from a shell prompt. you can save the file as a Microsoft Word file type that others will be able to open it in Microsoft Word.org Calc from the desktop panel. .org Writer is useful for general document editing. label. OpenOffice.3. Working with Documents 65 editing a file that was sent as an email attachment with the .org Calc From large enterprises to home offices. Figure 9-2 shows an image added to a document. To add an image to the document. and choose the image from the pop-up file browser. To start OpenOffice. Figure 9-2.doc extension. professionals in every industry use spreadsheets for keeping records. such as a quantity. and manipulating data. While OpenOffice. To start OpenOffice. charts.1. The image will appear where you placed your cursor and can be made larger or smaller by clicking on the resizing borders around the image. Consult Table 9-1 for available file formats. select Insert => Graphics => From File. formats which can be read by almost every computer with a Web browser (such as Mozilla) or PDF viewer application (such as xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader). you can also add objects such as images. 9. you can save it in any format that you wish. You can even incorporate spreadsheet data into your documents for a professional touch.org Calc in action.org Calc is a software spreadsheet application that allows you to enter and manipulate data cells organized in columns and rows. Figure 9-3 shows OpenOffice.Chapter 9. type oocalc. and tables to your document to complement your text or give impact to your documents. or mathematical formula. select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. A cell is a container for individual pieces of data. You can perform calculations on groups of cells (such as adding or subtracting a column of cells) or create charts based on the quantities contained in a group of cells.org Calc. OpenOffice. creating business charts. Note that you can also export your document to HTML or PDF format. illustrations. Adding an Image to Your Document Once you have created your document.

Click Next to display the many different charts and graphs you can create using your data. refer to the documentation by selecting Help => Contents.org Calc has several preset functions and calculations (such as =SUM() for addition/multiplication.org Impress presentations. you can create a personal budget by entering data descriptions (such as rent. groceries. You can move it anywhere on the screen for printing. Then you can run a formula on column B to come up with a total.. If you need to create charts or graphs for class or business presentations. and utilities) into column A and the quantities of those data descriptions in column B.org Calc allows you to enter the data either in the cell itself by double clicking the cell and typing your information or by using the Input Line (the text box on the toolbar). Highlight the areas you would like to chart. .org Calc OpenOffice.. and =subtotal()for preparing receipts).66 Chapter 9. The graph will be displayed anchored within the spreadsheet window. =quotient() for division. OpenOffice.. OpenOffice. Working with Documents Figure 9-3.org Calc allows you to enter and manipulate personal or business data. OpenOffice. In the Chart window. For example. For detailed information about creating functions for calculating your numerical data in OpenOffice. OpenOffice. the data ranges you chose will be shown in the text box for you to customize further if desired. or you can save the graph as an object that you can then embed in OpenOffice. Choose the style you want. then click Insert => Chart.org has several chart and graph templates available.org Writer documents or OpenOffice. and click Create.org Calc.

Working with Documents 67 Figure 9-4. OpenOffice.org Impress from the graphical desktop.org Calc into a slide.org Calc You can save spreadsheets created with OpenOffice. You can make slides with itemized lists.sxc as well as Microsoft Office compatible . webpages. You can even import charts and graphs created by OpenOffice.org Impress is a graphical tool that can help you make a more convincing presentation. 9.1. Additionally.org Impress features a step-by-step automated presentation wizard called AutoPilot that allows you to create presentations from a collection of default style templates.org Impress. To start OpenOffice.xls formats. you can export rendered charts and graphs to several image file formats and integrate them with document files. Creating Charts with OpenOffice. . select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice.org Impress Visual aids can give your presentations an added impact that catches your audience’s attention and keeps them interested.org Calc. OpenOffice.org Calc in several file formats. including the native . and presentations.org Impress in action.org Impress from a shell prompt. type ooimpress.Chapter 9. OpenOffice. or images. Figure 9-5 shows OpenOffice.4. refer to the help page located in Help => Contents from the file menus. outlines. To start OpenOffice. For more information about using OpenOffice.

OpenOffice. OpenOffice. The presentation will be presented in full screen. To add new slides to your presentation. and any animated visual effects you want to apply to the slides if you run presentations from your computer.org Impress format (for example.. You can also print your presentation to plain or transparent paper formats by clicking File => Print from the file menu. you will be presented with the AutoPilot. transparent paper for overhead projectors. the Microsoft PowerPoint format (mypresentation. You can select a pre-formatted slide from the list or start with a blank slide and customize the layout yourself.ppt). You can choose the style of your slides.sdd). You can also preview your presentation at any point by selecting Slide Show => Slide Show from the file menus. slides..68 Chapter 9. you can choose the type of slide you want to create. or a display monitor). Your presentation can be saved in several file formats. mypresentation. and a pop-up window will appear allowing you to choose the layout of the new slide.org Impress When you first start OpenOffice. which you can exit by cycling through every slide until you reach the end or by pressing the [Esc] key at any point in the slide show. . Working with Documents Figure 9-5. in the floating toolbar.org Impress. or StarImpress format (mypresentation. the medium with which you will present your slides (plain paper. You can have as many slides in your presentation as you need.sxi). Figure 9-6. You can save in the native OpenOffice. click Insert Slide.org Impress AutoPilot Wizard Once you have chosen your preferences with AutoPilot tool.

org Draw allows you to make illustrations and save them in several formats that you can add to printed documents.org Draw. or attach to emails.png. OpenOffice. place on websites. you will find that OpenOffice. Using your mouse as a you would a pen or a paintbrush.org Draw has some of the same basic functions.org Draw If you are familiar with illustration and graphics applications such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information). To start OpenOffice.jpg or . When you complete your illustration or image modifications. click Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. 3D objects such as cones and cubes. You can create images and fill them with the color of your choice using the Area Style/Filling drop-down menu on the main toolbar.org Draw.1. you can save the file in one of several native file formats or export your work to several popular formats such as . For more information on using OpenOffice.org Draw in action. Figure 9-7 Shows OpenOffice. 69 9. Refer to Table 9-1 for the complete list of compatible image file formats. type oodraw.5. Figure 9-7. refer to the documentation located at Help => Contents from the file menus.org Draw also allows you to open and import images and modify them with the tools provided. . There are toolbars for creating straight and curved lines. you can use OpenOffice. click Help => Contents from the file menus.Chapter 9. OpenOffice. OpenOffice. Working with Documents To learn more about OpenOffice.org Draw from the desktop panel.org Draw from a shell prompt. and more. You can additionally insert text into your illustrations. To start OpenOffice.org Impress. basic shapes such as squares and circles.org Draw.org Draw If you want to create graphics for your documents and presentations. OpenOffice.

You can navigate the text file by clicking and holding the scroll bar on the right edge of the window and moving your mouse cursor up and down. use the arrow keys to navigate through the text file line-by-line. and print files. such as system logs and configuration files. You can also cut and paste text to and from other graphical desktop applications. create new text files. Figure 9-8. You can begin using gedit immediately or click the Open button to locate the plain text file you want to edit. edit. gedit is a graphical text editor. Tip gedit allows you to open multiple text files in one window using separate tabs for each file. click Main Menu => Accessories => Text Editor. If you have a file already open and want to copy text from another file. and save plain text files. Editing Text Files Red Hat Linux includes several text editors. Press the [Page Up] and [Page Down] keys to advance the document a page at a time. or. choose the file you want . It can open.70 Chapter 9. Working with Documents 9. Note gedit can only be used in a graphical desktop environment.2. you are presented with a blank editing area. Plain text files are files that contain text without any font or style formatting applied to it. gedit has a clear and understandable interface that uses tabs so that you can open more than one file at the same time without opening more than one gedit window. To start gedit. click Open. gedit Once gedit is running. The file will load into the main editing area as shown in Figure 9-8. applications that allow you to view and modify plain text files. You can also start gedit by typing gedit at a shell prompt.

Chapter 9. to save an existing file under a new name or in a different location. vi opens a file in Normal mode. and vi reverts to Normal mode. which is convenient if. press [:] and type [w] then [q] to write your changes to the file and exit the application.2. meaning that you can view and run built-in commands on the file but you cannot add text to it. type [:] and then type [q] followed by [!]. You can also choose File => Save As. For more information about gedit. © ¨ . Figure 9-9. a pop-up window will prompt you to name the file and save it in the directory of your choice. You can navigate between each file by clicking on the the tab associated with the particular filename. If you have made changes to the text file that you want to save. Red Hat Linux includes the vi (pronounced vee-eye) text editor.. or by choosing File => Save from the file menus. To exit vi. press [i] (for Insert mode). search.. you can save it by pressing the Save button in the toolbar. If you are writing a new text file. To open a file with vi type vi filename at a shell prompt.1. and modify text files. for example. Once you have modified or written your text file. To add text. you are editing a configuration file and you want to test your changes without losing your original configuration. If you are editing an existing file. which will allow you to make any modifications you need to. which exits without saving changes. vi is a simple application that opens within the shell prompt and allows you to view. press [:] (which is the vi command mode) and press [q] then [Enter]. press [Esc]. then any changes you make will automatically appear in the file the next time you open it. type vi at a shell prompt. Shell Prompt Text Editors If you are not using a graphical desktop and want to read and modify a text or configuration file. To exit insert mode. choose Help => Contents from the file menus to access the gedit manual. Working with Documents 71 to access. 9. vi By default. If you accidentally made changes to a file and you want to exit vi without saving the changes. and the file will open in a new tab within the gedit window. To start vi. More information about using vi can be found by typing man vi at a shell prompt.

In your desktop environment. To view a PDF you must have a PDF reader. 2. To view the xpdf man page. Working with Documents 9. 4.72 Chapter 9. making it possible to send formatted documents and have them appear on the recipient’s monitor or printer as they were intended. Select the PDF file you want to view and click Open. An open source application called xpdf is included with Red Hat Linux. print. Another popular PDF viewer is Adobe Acrobat Reader. Figure 9-10. go to Main Menu => Graphics => PDF Viewer. . PDF captures formatting information from a variety of desktop publishing applications. While it is not included with Red Hat Linux. The xpdf toolbar at the bottom has navigational tools that let you move backward and forward through the PDF document.adobe. as well as standard zoom. Viewing PDFs A PDF (Portable Document Format) file is an electronic image of a document. Right-click in the xpdf screen to display a list of options.com/. Select Open to display the file browser. and find tools. You can also launch xpdf by typing xpdf at a shell prompt. xpdf To view a PDF with xpdf: 1. 3.3. at a shell prompt type man xpdf. you can download it free of charge at http://www. The xpdf man page provides useful information on the xpdf options.

Chapter 10. Red Hat Linux provides many packages to assist you in having some fun with your computer. You can also change the way the application functions by clicking on the Open Preferences button. If the interface does not appear. From games and toys to multimedia applications. CD Player Interface The CD Player interface acts similar to a standard CD player. and the files are compact (audio files can easily be transferred across the Internet). To take advantage of this technology. Figure 10-2. There is even a sliding bar that allows you to adjust the volume. place the CD in your CD-ROM drive. Playing Audio CDs To play an audio CD. click Main Menu => Sound & Video => CD Player to launch the CD Player application. pause.1. a cross-platform multimedia player which allows you to play several digital audio file formats. . Press the Next track and Previous Track buttons to skip forward or backward one track. 10. Figure 10-1. Audio. You can edit the track listings for your CDs by clicking the Open track editor button. and stop functions. Playing Digital Audio Files Digital audio has become very popular in recent years. and General Amusement This chapter presents you with the lighter side of Red Hat Linux. Here you can set themes for the player as well as set the behavior of the CD-ROM drive when you open or quit the CD Player application.2. with play. you can also use the Track List drop down menu to select a track from the available listing. Users enjoy the technology because the sound quality is excellent compared to analog tape or records. CD Player Preferences 10. Red Hat Linux includes the powerful X Multimedia System (XMMS). The CD Player application should appear automatically and begin playing the first audio track. Video.

by genre or artist). To adjust the volume click the volume slider (the long slider above the Open button) to the left to lower the volume or to the right to increase it like a CD player. There are also buttons to stop. you see that there are several files to choose from. To launch XMMS. Audio.74 Chapter 10. refer to the man page by typing man xmms at a shell prompt. and General Amusement Figure 10-3. for some reason. 10. a popular new audio file format. the . type the command xmms. Video. pause. click the Open button window. XMMS can be extended via plugins to play a number of other digital multimedia formats. and most module formats. Notice that XMMS begins to play your audio files immediately. To launch XMMS from a shell prompt. By default XMMS can play Ogg Vorbis.pls file is an audio playlist file. Troubleshooting Your Sound Card If. and choose a file from the Load File(s) Figure 10-4. This can be convenient if you have several audio files and you want to categorize them (for example.3. The Load File(s) Window In Figure 10-4. Highlight the file you wish to play (if you have multiple files. You can use XMMS to add audio files into a list and then save it as a playlist. RIFF wave. go to Main Menu => Sound & Video => XMMS.1. XMMS Interface XMMS can be used for more than just playing digital audio files. To learn more about using XMMS and its many options. The files that end in . and skip (backward and forward) your audio files. you can run the Sound Card Configuration Tool utility.ogg are Ogg Vorbis files. Additionally. Using XMMS To play an audio file with XMMS. . 10. click and hold the mouse button and drag it over all of the files you want to open) and click OK.2. you do not hear sound and know that you do have a sound card installed.

conf file as discussed below (this strategy is not recommended for most new users) or refer to the documentation that came with your sound card for more information. Figure 10-5. refer to the Linux Sound HOWTO at the Linux Documentation Project webpage: http://www.com/ to see if your card is supported. You can then click the Play test sound button to play a sound sample. Video. You can edit your modules. Manual Sound Card Configuration If your sound card is not a plug and play card.redhat. but there are some sound cards that are not completely compatible or may not work at all. A small text box pops up prompting you for your root password. Sound Card Configuration Tool 10.1. you can manually edit your /etc/modules. If the utility detects a plug and play sound card.3.tldp. If you can hear the sample.3. Audio. For example: alias sound sb alias midi opl3 options opl3 io=0x388 options sb io=0x220 irq=7 dma=0.1. it will automatically try to configure the correct settings for your card.1. If you are having trouble configuring your sound card.conf file to include the sound card module that it should use.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/ .1 mpu_io=0x300 For information on configuring sound manually.Chapter 10. choose Main Menu => System Settings => Soundcard Detection. although they are not quite as simple as running the Sound Card Configuration Tool. select OK and your sound card configuration is complete. there are alternatives. 10. The Sound Card Configuration Tool utility probes your system for sound cards. Note Most sound cards are supported by Red Hat Linux. and General Amusement 75 To use the Sound Card Configuration Tool. If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work If the Sound Card Configuration Tool does not work (if the sample does not play and you still do not have audio sounds). check the Hardware Compatibility List at http://hardware.

However. button next to the Monitor Type entry.. which then prompt you to input your root password. click the Advanced tab. you should be able to start an X session and enjoy your graphical desktop environment. Video.backup in case you need it to switch back to a previous configuration. The games included in Red Hat Linux appeal to quite a large number of video game enthusiasts. click the Advanced tab. Audio.. click Main Menu => System Settings => Display. then click the Configure. You can also start from a shell prompt by typing the command redhat-config-xfree86. A pop-up window prompts you for your root password. you can use the X Configuration Tool utility. then click the Configure. Figure 10-6 shows the Advanced tab for configuring your video device manually. Games Playing games under Red Hat Linux is a fun way to pass the time. 10.. To configure your video card manually. If you are working from a shell prompt and X is not working. for example. A pop-up window will display a list of video card models. Troubleshooting Your Video Card Video card configuration is handled during the Red Hat Linux installation (refer to the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide for more information). Figure 10-6. Note The X Configuration Tool backs up your system’s original video configuration file to /etc/X11/XF86Config. Choose your model and click OK.. Follow the instructions that appear on the screen. button next to the Video Card entry. A pop-up window will display a list of monitor models. You should do this. or if you need to reconfigure your settings.76 Chapter 10. X Configuration Tool To configure your monitor manually.5. You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your monitor for the correct model and vertical/horizontal frequency settings. To run the X Configuration Tool. redhat-config-xfree86 attempts to start a minimal X session to allow you to continue your configuration.4. and General Amusement 10. X Configuration Tool attempts to automatically configure your video card and monitor settings for you. You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your video card for the correct model and settings by clicking the Probe Videocard button. if you did not choose to configure a video card at that time. Whether you enjoy card games like . Choose your model and click OK. if you install a new video card. When you have finished reconfiguring your video card and monitor.

google. Same GNOME — Match the Marbles Game 10. here are a few suggestions: • • • • http://www. Video.linuxgames. you can click them to make them disappear. you can find it in Red Hat Linux. For more information. Finding Games Online There are many more games available within Red Hat Linux and online. http://happypenguin. Audio.tuxgames. http://www. Figure 10-7 shows a fun game for kids of all ages called Same GNOME. http://www. You can also browse the Internet for linux games using a search engine. board games like Chess.6. arcade games like Tux Racer.linuxgaming.org/ — the Linux gaming repository. In this game you point your mouse at matching marbles until they start to spin. then.com/.Chapter 10.net — A website that covers Linux-compatible games in depth.com — A store where you can buy games just for Linux. Figure 10-7. or space shooting games like Chromium and Maelstrom.com/ — a Linux gaming news site. click Main Menu => Games and select the game of your choice. . The object of the game is to make all the marbles disappear. To start a game. such as http://www. and General Amusement 77 Aisle Riot (a solitaire card game).

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Chapter 10. Audio, Video, and General Amusement

Chapter 11. Working with Images
Digital images have grown in popularity with the development of the graphical Internet and the increasing quality of digital cameras. There are several types of image files, some of which are created using sophisticated illustration software packages, while others are made from digital sources such as a scanner or camera. You may have downloaded some of these image files from the Web or received them in an email. You may also want to create your own images to send to others. You can view and modify the most common types of image files using the many applications included in Red Hat Linux.

11.1. Viewing Images
This section discusses some of the common tools for viewing image files. Certain tools included in Red Hat Linux are specialized applications with several functions that enhance your image viewing experience; while others are general-purpose file managers that have integrated image viewing functionality.

11.1.1. Using Nautilus to View Images
Nautilus is a general-purpose file manager and browser for your graphical desktop environment. Nautilus has many functions beyond simple image viewing; however, for this section, we will use it for basic image browsing. For more information about Nautilus, see Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop. Nautilus is known for its ease-of-use and it handles images with the same ease as it does for other file types. To begin browsing your image collection with Nautilus, double-click your home desktop icon: You will be presented with a view of all files and folders within your home directory. Double-click the image (or the folder containing the image) and Nautilus will open the file or folder within its browser window. Figure 11-1 shows that Nautilus automatically creates thumbnails of any images in your folders:

Figure 11-1. Contents of a Folder in Nautilus

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Chapter 11. Working with Images

Double-click on any thumbnail icon to view the image in its native size. The image will load within the browser window. To increase or decrease the size of the viewed image in Nautilus, click on the zoom buttons next to the Location: field as shown in Figure 11-2:

Figure 11-2. The Zoom Function in Nautilus Click the + button to increase the size of the image or - to decrease it.

11.1.2. Using gThumb
gThumb is a powerful image viewer for graphical desktop users that supports several image file formats, including:
• • • • • • • • •

JPG/JPEG GIF PGM XPM PNG PCX TIF/TIFF PPM BMP

gThumb is useful for viewing individual image files as well as browsing collections of files in folders. It supports zoom in and zoom out functions, as well as thumbnail sized preview icons of all image files within a directory. It also supports several advanced options not found in Nautilus. gThumb can be started from your desktop panel. Choose Main Menu => Graphics => gThumb Image Viewer or type gthumb at a shell prompt to start the application. gThumb will browse your user home directory by default. If you have any images in this directory, the gallery panel will automatically generate thumbnails for you to highlight and view in the main display area.

2. By default. 11. Working with Images 81 Figure 11-3.Chapter 11. each image in the slide show is presented for 4 seconds. gThumb Displaying a Folder of Images The interface of gThumb is straightforward. choose Set Image as Wallpaper. You can center the image on the page. type the path to the the directory where your images are located and highlight the first image in the main gallery panel. You can combine functions within gThumb and create a dynamic presentation effect for groups of images within a directory. You can stop the slide show at any time by pressing [Esc] or by moving your mouse cursor and clicking the Restore Normal View pop-up button that appears on the top left corner of the screen.2. and then choose the orientation of the image. The gThumb interface also has a text field for you to enter a particular path to your image directories. . Click the Slide Show button on the toolbar and you will start a full-screen slide show where gThumb displays images in full screen. right-click on an image. which fills your desktop with multiple instances of the image. set to full screen (which covers your entire screen with the image). right-click anywhere in the main gallery area and choose Set Image as Wallpaper => Restore. 11. The toolbar allows you to fit the image to the display window. and be printed on your configured printer. copying.1. which resizes the image from its native resolution to fit your screen size. Changing your Desktop Wallpaper with gThumb To change your desktop wallpaper with gThumb. In the text field below the toolbar. You can also set an image as your desktop wallpaper within the pop-up menu. and converting an image from one file format to another. You can also tile the image. The image can be zoomed in and out.1. Right-clicking on an image in the display area opens a pop-up menu of file management options such as renaming. and write descriptions about the images. To restore your desktop wallpaper to its default. Configuring gThumb gThumb allows you to customize several settings by choosing Edit => Preferences. which sets the image at its native resolution on the desktop and fills the rest of the space with the default desktop color if the image is smaller than your desktop resolution.2. Double-click an image preview thumbnail to view it within the main gallery area. collect multiple files into a catalog for easier access if they are located in different directories. You can also scale and stretch the image.1. moving.

From a shell prompt. and change the interval between cycled images during a slide show.2. 11. Manipulating Images with the GIMP The GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) is a powerful tool that can be used to create. This section offers a quick overview of the GIMP and refers you to comprehensive references for learning more about it. . The GThumb Preferences Dialog Box To find out more about using and configuring gThumb. computer-generated images. manipulate. choose Help => Contents from the main menu.82 Chapter 11. Working with Images The preferences pop-up menu lets advanced users change several of the default gThumb behaviors. scanned images. You can choose the layout of the application window. alter. GIMP Basics To use the GIMP. you start the GIMP using the command gimp. customize a default image directory on startup. Figure 11-4. and more.1. and enhance digital image files — photographs. or you can start the GIMP from the desktop by choosing Main Menu => Graphics => The GIMP. change thumbnail preview sizes.2. Figure 11-5 shows a typical GIMP session in action. you will need to know some of the basics. 11.

You will see the Load Image dialog.Chapter 11. The Load Image Dialog .2. select File => Open. Figure 11-6. Working with Images 83 Figure 11-5. The GIMP in Action 11.2. Loading a File To load an existing file. as shown in Figure 11-6.

You can also double-click on a file name to open it. If you type the first letter (or more) of a file name into the Selection field and press the [Tab] key. 11. Working with Images The Load Image dialog displays your working directory — the directory you were in when the GIMP was launched. the GIMP provides more than one method to accomplish tasks. Figure 11-7 shows an example of an image after the Newsprint filter has been applied: Figure 11-7.. Saving a File To save an image file. 11.. The file you select appears in the Selection field near the bottom of the dialog. Select the quantity of lines per inch using the sliders. or even fill selected regions with the color of your choice. imagine you have a picture that you would like to modify to make it look as if it were clipped from a newspaper.. The Save Image dialog looks almost exactly like the Load Image dialog and navigation of the file system tree and choosing files works in the same way. Once you have selected a file. An Image modified with a GIMP Filter The Toolbox also has several easily accessible functions.4.jpg. the view will change to only those subdirectories and/or files beginning with that letter or letters. . you can add text to images. including .2. which displays a set of menus containing most of the GIMP’s many capabilities. click OK. click on the OK button to open it. You can navigate up and down the file system tree by double-clicking on the Directories list on the left. you must choose an image format. click on the Generate Preview button. and filter application. . If you want to see a thumbnail of the image. rotation. The GIMP supports a wide variety of image formats. File name completion is supported by the GIMP. right-click on the image and select Filters => Distorts => Newsprint. erase regions of an image. right click on the image and choose File => Save (or Save as). When you reach a desired quantity and are ready to render the image. Using the Toolbox. including image sizing.gif.3. A thumbnail preview is displayed in the dialog. To do this. When you are saving an image.84 Chapter 11. You will see the Save Image dialog if you choose Save as or if you choose Save and the file has not been saved before. The GIMP then renders the image with the new effect applied. For example. a Generate Preview button is displayed. .png.bmp.2. alternatively. and . then selecting a file to open from the Files list on the right. GIMP Options Like many applications. The easiest way to work with images is to right-click the image.

Click OK and your text is displayed as a floating section on the image. there is so much more you can do with them. You can then move the text to the position you wish using the Move Layers tool. from the GIMP toolbar menu. where you can choose a font and type some text in the provided text box.. .3. You can always undo your mistakes by right-clicking on the image and choosing Edit => Undo. The GIMP manual page contains some of the more advanced command line options and environment variables associated with it. Using the Text Tool on an Image As you can see.sourceforge. Working with Images 85 button and click on your image. accessible right from your PC.1. Useful Websites The Web has several sites of interest if you are looking for more detailed information about an application covered in this chapter: • http://gthumb.3.3. 11. 11. 11. You can read the manual page by typing man gimp at a shell or terminal prompt. select the loads the Text Tool dialog box. Installed Documentation Some applications discussed have online documentation included with the package.net — The official GThumb home page. Additional Resources While this chapter covers several applications briefly. do not worry. refer to the documentation in Help => Contents in the gThumb main menu.2. Try exploring some of the options yourself..Chapter 11. Refer to the following resources if you are interested in learning more about the applications in this chapter. if you wish to add text to a file. The GIMP also has a help browser accessible by choosing Help => Help. If you make a mistake. • • For more information about using gThumb. Figure 11-8 shows our photo with exciting new text: Figure 11-8. and it takes some time to master all of its functions. the GIMP is a powerful image editing tool. This For example.

Inc. 11. GIMP Essential Reference by Alex Harford. Coriolis Group Grokking the GIMP by Carey Bunks.gimp.3. Related Books If you need in-depth information about the many capabilities of the GIMP. Working with Images • • • • • http://www. Frank Kasper and Associates.org/gimp/ — The GIMP website of tigert (Tuomas Kuosmanen).gimp.rru. The following books were available at the time of this writing: • • • • • • The Artists’ Guide to the GIMP by Michael J.html — A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) list for questions commonly asked about the GIMP by GIMP users (as opposed to developers). Inc.com/~meo/gimp/faq-user. Kylander. Hungry Minds.com/ — The companion website to the book Grokking the GIMP. et al.org/manual/ — The online GIMP User Manual. by Carey Bunks. New Riders Publishing GIMP for Linux Bible by Stephanie Cottrell Bryant.gimp.3. New Riders Publishing Sams Teach Yourself GIMP in 24 Hours by Joshua and Ramona Pruitt. try your favorite bookstore. GIMP: The Official Handbook by Karin Kylander and Olof S. Sams . Chapter 11. The entire book is also available on the site for download http://tigert. http://manual. http://gimp-savvy.org/ — The official GIMP website.86 http://www. Hammel.

. 12. choose Select => All. To start gtKam. Using gtKam Red Hat Linux supports over 100 digital camera models. it is likely that Red Hat Linux will support it. click on the images you want.1.. Red Hat Linux supports several brands of digital cameras and has applications that help you access. you can choose your camera from the drop-down list or let gtKam automatically find your camera by clicking Detect. you need to configure it to work with your digital camera. allowing you to open. it will be shown as an icon on the left panel of the main gtKam window.Chapter 12. whether your camera uses USB or serial ports to communicate with your computer. Figure 12-1. Adding a Camera in gtKam Once you have added your camera. You can also start gtKam by typing gtkam at a shell prompt. view. Directories shown below the icon may differ depending on your brand of camera... then save the images to disk. save. gtKam is a graphical application that allows you to interface with your digital camera. choose Main Menu => Graphics => Digital Camera Tool. So. From the menu. Working with Digital Cameras Digital cameras have recently grown in popularity because of their increasing image quality and easy interaction with desktop PCs. Click Apply to accept the changes and OK to close the dialog box. view. gtKam works directly with your digital camera. the settings will be saved with each additional use. From this panel. Select the directory that commonly stores your images and the stored images will immediately load as thumbnail images in the main panel. From the pop-up dialog. You only have to configure gtKam for your camera once. If you want to save all of the stored images. Digital cameras create high-quality images that allow you to send to others over the Internet or print on a color printer. and modify your digital photographs. You can also download the images to your computer and modify it with image manipulation programs such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information about image manipulation tools). choose Camera => Add Camera. Before you begin using gtKam. which you can then save to disk by choosing File => Save Selected Photos. and delete images directly.

net/proj/gtkam/ .sourceforge.88 Chapter 12. Working with Digital Cameras Figure 12-2. refer to the gtKam page at the gPhoto website: http://gphoto. Viewing Images with gtKam For more information about using gtKam.

Shell Prompt Basics 13. However. A Shell Prompt This section explains how to navigate the file system.1. the shell interprets these commands. Experienced users can write shell scripts to expand their capabilities even further. Bourne. and other shell prompt basics. 13. This lead to the development of the Bourne shell (known as sh). In less time than it might take to open a file manager. many Red Hat Linux functions can be completed faster from the shell prompt than from a graphical user interface (GUI). such as the C shell (csh) and the Korn shell (ksh). and then the shell tells the OS what to do. A shell prompt looks similar to other command-line interfaces with which you might be familiar.R. a task can be finished with just a few commands at a shell prompt. and then create. The History of the Shell When AT&T software engineers Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson were designing UNIX™. You can be perfectly productive in the X Window System and only have to open a shell prompt to complete a few tasks. . something that offered better features than the command interpreters available at that time. Since the creation of the Bourne shell. Why Use a Shell Prompt Graphical environments for Linux have come a long way in the past few years. other shells have been developed.Chapter 13. which could take commands from the user and interpret them so that computers could use them. delete. Figure 13-1. perform simple administration tasks. or modify files from a GUI. manipulate files. created by S. locate a directory.2. they wanted to create a way for people to interact with their new system. Operating systems at that time came with command interpreters. But Ritchie and Thompson wanted something more. Users type commands at a shell prompt.

Typing this command by itself will always return you to your home directory. it is easy to get lost or forget the name of your current directory. bash is the default shell for interactive users. not the entire path. Changing Directories with cd Changing directories is easy as long as you know where you are (your current directory) and how that relates to where you want to go. Figure 13-2. Although your Red Hat Linux system includes several different shells. When the system responds to requests for information. developers began to work on the language behind the Bourne shell as well as some of the popular features from other shells available at the time. use the cd command. you asked your Linux system to display your current location. When you typed pwd. The result was the Bourne Again Shell. Your system responded by printing the full path of the current directory in the shell prompt window. The Command pwd Shows You Where You Are To determine the exact location of the current directory at a shell prompt and type the command pwd. which is in the /home directory. the Bash prompt in Red Hat Linux shows just your current directory. Determining Your Current Directory with pwd Once you start looking through directories. 13. moving to any other directory requires a pathname. The command pwd stands for print working directory. You will see something such as: /home/sam This example shows that you are in the user sam’s directory. To change directories. the response is called standard output. You will find that using pwd is very helpful as you learn to navigate your Red Hat Linux system.4. 13.3. Shell Prompt Basics When the Free Software Foundation sought a royalty-free shell. You can learn more about bash by reading the bash man page (type man bash at a shell prompt). or bash.90 Chapter 13. and can be printed to the shell prompt or can be redirected to other programs or to other output devices such as printers. . By default.

you should be in the directory X11. which is where you will find configuration files and directories related to the X Window System. it is a relative path. Go up one level to your login directory’s parent directory (probably /home) 2. Absolute paths start at the top of the file system with / (referred to as root) and then look down for the requested directory. use the cd . will present you with an error message explaining that there is no such directory. using an absolute path would get you to the /etc/X11 directory more quickly./. you need to move up in the directory tree. For example: cd /etc/X11 Absolute paths start from the root directory (/) and move down to the directory you specify. Otherwise. or /../. directory) 3. tells your system to go up to the directory immediately above the one in which you are currently working. go to the X11 directory Conversely. The following directory tree illustrates how cd operates... This is because there is no directory1 below directory3. Using relative paths allows you to change to a directory relative to the directory you are currently in. A path is absolute if the first character is a /. Shell Prompt Basics 91 You can use absolute or relative pathnames. command./etc/X11 After using the full command in the example. .. type the relative path: cd .. Using absolute paths allows you to change to a directory from the / directory. relative paths look down from your current directory. Then go down to the etc directory 4. Then go up to that directory’s parent (which is the root. To move up to directory1. From your home directory. Take a look at your last cd command. You told your system to: 1. It tells Linux to start at the top of the directory tree (/) and change to directory1. The command cd . To go up two directories. Use the following exercise to test what you have learned so far regarding absolute and relative paths. / /directory1 /directory1/directory2 /directory1/directory2/directory3 If you are currently in directory3 and you want to switch to directory1. which can be convenient if you are changing to a subdirectory within your current directory. wherever that may be. Finally. Executing the command cd directory1 while you are in directory3. which requires you to know and type the complete path.Chapter 13. type: cd /directory1 This is an example of an absolute path.

Command cd cd ~ cd / cd /root Function returns you to your login directory also returns you to your login directory takes you to the entire system’s root directory takes you to the home directory of the root. Denying access to the root and other users’ accounts (or login directories) is one way your Linux system prevents accidental or malicious tampering. this absolute path would take you straight to subdirfoo.. it is as if you had logged in as root originally. See Section 13. su Tip The command su means substitute users and it allows you to log in as another user temporarily. use the su command. which can be your guide for moving up and down directories using relative pathnames./dir3/dir2 this relative path would take you up two directories. you must be the root user to access this directory takes you to the home directory.makes you become root with root’s login shell. or superuser. Shell Prompt Basics Note Always make sure you know which working directory you are in before you state the relative path to the directory or file you want to get to.. then to dir3. you are denied permission to access that directory. cd Options Now that you are starting to understand how to change directories. To change to the root login and root directory. account created at installation. then to the dir2 directory..92 Chapter 13. though. cd ~otheruser cd /dir1/subdirfoo cd . if otheruser has granted you permission regardless of which directory you are in. a subdirectory of dir1 cd /home cd . where user login directories are usually stored moves you up one directory takes you to otheruser’s login directory. . see what happens when you change to root’s login directory (the superuser account). when you state the absolute path to another directory or file. You do not have to worry about your position in the file system. Typing su ./. Type: cd /root If you are not logged in as root. When you type su by itself and press [Enter]. If you are not sure. Table 13-1.14 Ownership and Permissions. you become root (also called the superuser) while still inside your login shell (your user’s home directory). type pwd and your current working directory will be displayed.

you can read the man page by typing man ls at a shell prompt. ownership. window managers. Figure 13-3. at the prompt type man ls | col -b | lpr. superuser status. ls with the -a Option Hidden files are mostly configuration files which set preferences in programs. . Using the ls command. just add the long option (-l) to the ls -a command. does not show all the files in the directory. Type the command ls -a. Viewing all the files using the ls -a command can give you plenty of detail.Chapter 13. you will see the changes in your command prompt to show your new. Shell Prompt Basics 93 As soon as you give the root password. 13. This command shows the file creation date. by adding more than one option. shells. Now you will see files that begin with dots. by itself. you are not usually looking for these configuration files. when it was created and more. but you can view still more information. The ls command. and more. Many options are available with the ls command. and you will return to your user account. If you want to print the man page. type exit at the prompt. permissions. When you are searching for something in a directory. If you want to see the size of a file or directory. you can display the contents of your current directory. the root account designation at the front of the prompt and "#" at the end.5. so keep them hidden to help avoid some screen clutter when viewing directories at the shell prompt. Some files are hidden files (also called dot files) and can only be seen with an additional option specified to the ls command. its size. Tip To see all the options of the ls command. When you are done working as root. View Directory Contents with ls Now that you know how to change directories. The reason they are hidden is to help prevent any accidental tampering by the user. it is time to learn how to view the contents of these directories. and more.

. — reverse. Lists all the files in the directory. • -a — all. you can view the full list by reading the ls man page (man ls).filename). at the top of your list refer to the parent directory and the current directory. The . With locate. Search for a file or directory with the locate command. Shell Prompt Basics You do not have to be in the directory whose contents you want to view to use the ls command. Sorts files by their sizes. size.txt. permissions (modes). — file type. For example.txt. read the locate man page (type man locate at a shell prompt).6. and . type: locate finger The locate command uses a database to locate files and directories that have the word finger in the file or directory name. if you want to search for all files with the word finger in the name. including • -F • -r • -R • -S 13. and so on. Sample ls Output for the /etc Directory The following is a short list of some options commonly used with ls. For example. Locating Files and Directories There will be times when you know a file or directory exists but you will not know where to find it. To learn more about locate. including the hidden files (.. owner. whether the file is a link to somewhere else on the system and where its link points. creation date. Remember. The search results could include a file called finger. @ to indicate a symbolic link to another file. you will see every file or directory whose name contains the search criterion. group. Lists details about contents. respectively. These symbols include / to indicate a directory.94 Chapter 13. — size. and * to indicate an executable file. Adds a symbol to the end of each listing. type: ls -al /etc Figure 13-4. Lists the contents of the directory from back to front. a directory named fingerthumbnails. • -l — long. a file called pointerfinger. — recursive. This option lists the contents of all directories below the current directory recursively. to see what is in the /etc/ directory from your home directory.

the slocate database that is used by the locate command will be current. Unlike cron. For example. You can cancel jobs in the queue by typing lprm followed by the print job number displayed when you use the lpq command. as long as the database is up to date. which is used to catalog file locations. Shell Prompt Basics 95 The locate command works very quickly. performing various tasks (such as updating the locate database) at regularly scheduled intervals. 389 is the job number. type lprm 389 and press [Enter]. and monthly jobs that are usually controlled by cron. log in as root (type su at a shell prompt and then your root password) and type the command updatedb. it can be used on machines that are not running 24 hours a day. sends that specified file to the print queue. type lpq at the command line. 13. The cron task periodically updates the slocate database. followed by a filename. Type lpq. That database is automatically updated on a nightly basis through a cron job. it does not assume that the machine is running continuously. Refer to the man page on anacron (type man anacron at the command line) and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information. To read the cron man page.txt print job. This section explains how to print. The lpr command. type man cron at the shell prompt. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information on cron. with a frequency specified in days. and you will see information similar to this: active root 389 foo. to control daily. Printing From The Command Line Printing is not an involved process whether you click on a button in a GUI or type commands from the command line. cancel.txt In this example. To cancel the foo. cron is a small program that runs in the background. and view print jobs from the command line. Hence.7.txt file. assuming you have a properly configured printer connected to your system.txt prints the foo. weekly. Note You can run anacron to have your system execute commands periodically. lpr foo. After a few minutes. Tip Cron is a daemon that executes tasks at regularly scheduled intervals. To update the database manually. Switching between operating systems and shutting down your machine at the end of the day can interfere with the automatic database update run by cron. . Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information about setting up your printer. To view the jobs waiting in the print queue.Chapter 13.

txt). type the following at a shell prompt (pressing the [Enter] key takes you to the next blank line):   . Manipulating Files with cat Red Hat Linux has a utility which can help you keep short lists. The cat Command To redirect the output of cat to a file. The utility is called cat. Using Redirection Redirection means causing the shell to change what it considers to be standard input or where the standard output should be going. 13. but there is a quicker and easier way to clear the contents displayed in the terminal. To prevent this. the terminal window you are working in can begin to look crowded.9. You can then use the up and down arrow keys to move backward and forward through the pages. The command cat will also display the contents of an entire file on the screen (for example.9. Once you close the file. For more on using pipes to combine two separate functions. short for concatenate. To redirect standard output.1. see Section 13. use the cat filename. You can always exit from the terminal window and open a new one. Sometimes. type cat filename. The following example shows cat repeating every line that is entered: Figure 13-5. Shell Prompt Basics 13. and even show you information about your system. Clearing and Resetting the Terminal After even one ls command in a shell prompt. you may accidentally open a program file or some other non-text file in a terminal window. Placing after the cat command (or after any utility or application that writes to standard output) directs its output to the filename following the symbol.8. The clear command does just what it implies: it clears the terminal window. type reset to return the terminal window to its default values. Try typing the command clear at the shell prompt. using cat by itself outputs whatever you input to the screen as if it were repeating the line you just typed.txt | less command. you could find that the text you are typing does not match the output on the monitor. Using the pipe (|) and the less command together displays the file one page at a time. 13.10 Pipes and Pagers. use the symbol. which means to combine files.96 Chapter 13. For example. In such cases. gather lists together. it will quickly scroll past you on the screen. If the file is fairly long.

type: cat sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics 97 Figure 13-6. followed by: bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! Now. That redirection was to a brand new file you made called sneakers.txt Caution Be careful when you redirect the output to a file. you can then use cat to read the file. For this example. Next. type the command cat > home.txt  cat sneakers. Type the following:  cat sneakers. use the [Ctrl]-[D] key combination again to quit cat. Do you notice anything different in Figure 13-6? There are no repeated entries. As you learned earlier.Chapter 13. You can find the file in the directory you were in when you started cat (type ls if you want to see it listed). because you can easily overwrite an existing file! Make sure the name of the file you are creating does not match the name of a pre-existing file.txt.txt.txt and redirect the output of both files to a brand new file called saturday.txt.txt saturday.txt . That is because the standard output from cat was redirected. unless you want to replace it. on an empty line.txt home. then [Enter].txt with sneakers. Use output redirection again for another file and call it home. use cat to join home. Redirecting Output to a File Press [Enter] to go to an empty line and use the [Ctrl]-[D] keys to quit cat. At the prompt.txt (you will find an example in Figure 13-7).

txt ended.txt now.txt to the information already in sneakers.txt.txt and saturday. You want to add the information in home.2. Shell Prompt Basics Figure 13-7.txt (as shown in Figure 13-8). so type: home.txt where sneakers. To make your comparison. then saturday.txt   However.txt to the file sneakers. Similar to when you used the symbol.98 Chapter 13. By appending the output.txt sneakers. cat saturday.9. Take two files which have already been created (sneakers. Compare the results of the files sneakers. you are adding information to a file. The best explanation is a demonstration. when you use of a file entirely. The final output shows the contents of buy some sneakers then go to the coffee shop then buy some coffee bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! The command you typed appended the output from the file home.txt) and join them by using the append output symbol.txt The contents of both files will be displayed — first sneakers. you save yourself time (and a bit of disk clutter) by using existing files. Joining Files and Redirecting Output You can see that cat has added home. and you will see that they are identical. rather than replacing the contents .txt and home. you tell your shell to send the information somewhere other than standard output.txt at the end of the file: Now check the file using the command cat sneakers.   cat home. type: cat sneakers. Appending Standard Output You can use output redirection to add new information to the end of an existing file.txt. rather than creating a new file.  .txt. 13.txt.txt.

Because you used the less-than symbol ( ) to separate the cat command from the file. Redirecting Standard Input   cat sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics 99 Figure 13-8. you can perform the same type of redirection with standard input. the output of Figure 13-9.txt  When you use the redirect standard input symbol read as input for a command. you are telling the shell that you want a file to be . .9.txt was read by cat. Type: sneakers.3. Redirecting Standard Input Not only can you redirect standard output. Stringing Commands and Comparing Files 13. Use a file you have already created to demonstrate this idea.Chapter 13.

type dmesg | less.11. to move back a screen.1. while more uses the [Spacebar] and the [B] key for forward and backward navigation. To search the output of a text file using less. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file. Use the arrow keys to navigate the file. press [Q]. press [B]. Type: grep coffee sneakers. but what if the contents of a directory scroll by too quickly for you to view them? View the contents of the /etc/ directory with the command: ls -al /etc How do you get a closer look at the output before it moves off the screen? One way is to pipe the output to a utility called less. 13. List the contents of the /etc directory using ls and more.txt | lpr This command prints every line in the sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics 13. Consider the ls command that was discussed earlier. press [/] and type the search term. The more Command The main difference between more and less is that less allows backward and forward movement using the arrow keys. pipes connect the standard output of one command to the standard input of another command. to search for output. you can use the arrow keys to navigate with less.100 Chapter 13. ls -al /etc | more . Pipes and Pagers In Linux. Pipes can also be used to print only certain lines from a file. to quit. To move forward a screen. a pager utility that allows you to view information one page (or screen) at a time. There are plenty of options available with ls. ls -al /etc | less Now you can view the contents of /etc one screen at a time. Alternatively.3 The grep Command). You will be able to read the file one screen at a time. press [Space].txt file that mentions the word "coffee" (read more about grep in Section 13.10.10. at a shell prompt. For example: /Linux Tip To read startup messages more closely. Use the vertical bar (|) to pipe the commands.

For example.11. you can only read the first ten lines of a file. The head Command You can use the head command to look at the beginning of a file. you can view the last ten lines of a file. More Commands for Reading Text Files You have already been introduced to several basic shell prompt commands for reading files in text editors. Using tail.2. 13. The command is: head can be a useful command.1. The tail Command The reverse of head is tail. For example: /foo Use the [Spacebar] to move forward through the pages. Press [q] to exit. You can change the number of lines displayed by specifying a number option as shown in the following command: 13. to actively watch /var/log/messages. you will not see how long the file actually is.Chapter 13. 13. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file. tail automatically print new messages from an open file to the screen in real-time. Piping Output of ls to more To search the output of a text file using more. By default.11. Shell Prompt Basics 101 Figure 13-10. This can be useful for viewing the last 10 lines of a log file for important system messages. type the following at a shell prompt as the root user: tail -f /var/log/messages  head -20  head filename filename . You can also use tail to watch log files as they are updated. but because it is limited to the first several lines. Here are a few more. Using the -f option.11.

then have those results either saved as a file or sent to a printer.11.11. Wildcards and Regular Expressions What if you forget the name of the file you are looking for? Using wildcards or regular expressions.4. numbers. you can perform actions on a file or files without knowing the complete filename. grep searches are case sensitive. I/O Redirection and Pipes You can use pipes and output redirection when you want to store and/or print information to read at a later time. for example.txt.txt | lpr 13.102 Chapter 13. then substitute the remainder with a wildcard. Shell Prompt Basics 13. For example. To print the information about references to "coffee" in sneakers." so type: ls sneak*. be aware that it is quite long. The grep Command The grep command is useful for finding specific character strings in a file.5. 13. If you want to print the file. for example.txt.txt ! . and symbols that make finding particular directories and files easier than examining long directory listings to find what you are searching for. That means that searching for Coffee is different than searching for coffee. you can open and read the file with less or vi (vi bash. which allows for a case-insensitive search through a file.txt. just type: grep coffee sneakers. use grep to search for particular contents of a file. if you want to find every reference made to "coffee" in the file sneakers. Wildcards are special symbols that you can substitute for letters. Just fill out what you know. Tip To read more about wildcards and regular expressions.txt).11. You can. Among grep’s options is -i. We know the file is called "sneak____.txt and there is the name of the file: sneakers.3. Then. take a look at the bash man page (man bash).txt. Remember that you can save the file to a text file by typing man bash | col -b bash.txt You would see every line in that file where the word "coffee" is found. Read the grep man page for more about this command. you would type: grep coffee sneakers. Tip Unless otherwise specified.

though. for example.txt and any other files whose name ends with . The first time.txt or begin with sn.txt file. using ? can help locate a file matching a search pattern. Regular expressions are more complex than the straightforward asterisk or question mark. Shell Prompt Basics 103 You will probably use the asterisk (*) most frequently when you are searching. Like the asterisk. that is when regular expressions can be useful. at the shell prompt. When an asterisk.1 Using Redirection.txt or: ls sn* You would find sneakers.txt was called sneak*. One solution is to use the command line history. you can specify that you do not want to search out everything by using the asterisk.txt Nothing happens.txt as a result. but you are instead looking for a file with an asterisk in the name. because there is no sneakrs.9. Command History and Tab Completion It does not take long before the thought of typing the same command over and over becomes unappealing. The asterisk will search out everything that matches the pattern you are looking for. By scrolling with the [Up Arrow] and [Down Arrow] keys. of course. In this case. if there were such a filename. and/or sneakerz. then use the left-arrow key to get to the point where we missed the "e. just happens to be part of a filename. If the file is called sneak*. type: cat sneakrs. as might be the case if the file Using the backslash (\). sneakers.txt. you would get sneakers.12. It helps to narrow your search as much as possible. Use the up-arrow key to bring back the command.txt. type: sneak\*.txt Here is a brief list of wildcards and regular expressions: • * • ? — Matches all characters — Matches one character in a string — Matches the * character — Matches the ? character — Matches the ) character • \* • \? • \) 13.txt. So even by typing: ls *. you can find plenty of your previously typed commands. ? is useful for matching a single character." Insert the letter and press [Enter] again. No problem.Chapter 13.txt. One way to narrow a search is to use the question mark symbol (?). Try it by taking a look again at sneakers. One minor typing error can ruin lines of a series of commands. .txt (created in Section 13.txt. however. We now see the contents of sneakers. so if you were searching for sneaker?.

type: history | grep sneak Another time-saving tool is known as command completion. more. The line which reads. Here is how you can quickly find a previously used command: say you are searching for a command that is similar to cat sneak-something. and you think it might be in your history file. 13. command. including updatedb and uptime. You have used the command. or pathname and then press the [Tab] key. Be aware that the file can be long. Tip By typing the env command at a shell prompt. up to 500 commands can be stored in the bash command line history file. press [b]. We can read it in a number of ways: by using vi. we can see the environment variable that controls the size of the command line history. Tip To find a command in your history file without having to keep hitting the arrow keys or page through the history file. called . If you type part of a file. The command line history is actually kept in a file. use grep. bash will present you with either the remaining portion of the file/path. The only requirement is that you separate the commands with a semicolon. cat. type up. to move back a screen.bash_history To move forward a screen. but the subdirectory has not been created. HISTFILESIZE=500 shows the number of commands that bash will store.3-2.bash_history in your login directory. mv foobar-1. and others. press [q].i386.104 Chapter 13. or a beep (if sound is enabled on your system). then at the shell prompt.11. If you get a beep.13. but remember a portion of the command.rpm. You can combine both the creation of the rpms/ directory and the moving of your downloaded file into the directory by typing the following at a shell prompt: mkdir rpms/.3 The grep Command . Using Multiple Commands Linux allows you to enter multiple commands at one time. press the [Tab] key twice and you will see a list of possible completions.rpm rpms/ Running the combination of commands creates the directory and moves the file in one line. Shell Prompt Basics By default. your command is completed for you. Suppose you have downloaded a new file called foobar-1. and you want to put it in a new subdirectory within your home directory called rpms/. a powerful search utility (see Section 13. if you forget the command updatedb. At the shell prompt. . less.3-2. just press [Tab] again to obtain a list of the files/paths that match what has been typed so far. To read it with the more command.i386. For example. you can su to root. press [Space]. from your home directory type: more . By typing the partial command upd and pressing [Tab] again. to quit.

writing. you received the following message: cd /root bash: /root: Permission denied That was one demonstration of Linux’s security features. sneakers. Remember that. like UNIX. you can also specify whether certain groups can read. Reading.14.txt (see Section 13. is a multi-user system. by default. Linux. Permissions for sneakers. That means you can specify who is allowed to read the file. or (if it is an application instead of a text file) who can execute the file. This is because whoever knows the root password has complete access.Chapter 13.1 Using Redirection) in your login directory. write to. You can see who can read (r) and write to (w) the file. Ownership and Permissions Earlier in this chapter. The remaining nine slots are actually three sets of permissions for three different categories of users. it has ten slots.txt with the ls command using the -l option (see Figure 13-11). so sneakers. and executing are the three main settings in permissions. date and time of file creation. and to which group the owner belongs (sam). One way to gain entry when you are denied permission is to su to root. when you tried to change to root’s login directory.txt Other information to the right of the group includes file size. Take a closer look at sneakers. You created the file belongs to you.txt All files and directories are "owned" by the person who created them. Figure 13-11. as well as who created the file (sam). and file permissions are one way the system protects against malicious tampering. There is a lot of detail provided here. The first slot represents the type of file. But switching to the superuser is not always convenient or recommended. since it is easy to make mistakes and alter important configuration files as the superuser. as you learned earlier. write to the file. For example: -rw-rw-r-- . Shell Prompt Basics 105 13.9. and file name. The first column shows current permissions. or execute a file. the name of your group is the same as your login name. Since users are placed into a group when their accounts are created.

In the following example.txt The file’s owner (in this case.txt.106 Chapter 13. the owner and group can read and write to the file.14.txt and identify its permissions. Caution Remember that file permissions are a security feature. group. you should only grant read and write permissions to those who truly need them. you will see one of the following: • r • w • x — file can be read — file can be written to — file can be executed (if it is a program) When you see a dash in owner.txt with the chmod command.txt If you are the owner of the file or are logged into the root account you can change any permissions for the owner. and others. so they can read it. as well. Anyone outside of the group can only read the file (r--). As a rule. write notes in it. Whenever you allow anyone else to read. sam) has permission to read and write to the file. or others. with its initial permissions settings: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. The group. write to. group. you are increasing the risk of files being tampered with. 13. Look again at the first column of sneakers. sam. the group in which the file belongs. which specifies the file type. so neither the owner or the group has permission to execute it. and execute files.1. it means that particular permission has not been granted. . The chmod Command Use the chmod command to change permissions. and save it. Shell Prompt Basics Those three sets are the owner of the file. This example shows how to change the permissions on sneakers. or deleted. altered. It is not a program." meaning other users on the system. ls -l sneakers.txt -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. That means you will have to change the "others" section of the file permissions. you want to allow everyone to write to the file. Right now. and "others. (rw-) | | type owner (rw-) | group (r--) 1 sam sam | others The first item. has permission to read and write to sneakers. in each of the following three sets. The original file looks like this. can show one of the following: • d — a directory — a regular file (rather than directory or link) — a symbolic link to another program or file elsewhere on the system • -(dash) • l Beyond the first item.

type the following: chmod o+w sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics Take a look at the file first. list the file’s details again.— removes the permission = — makes it the only permission Want to test your permissions skills? Remove all permissions from sneakers.txt Think of these settings as a kind of shorthand when you want to change permissions with chmod.txt The o+w command tells the system you want to give others write permission to the file sneakers.txt By typing go-rw. Now. everyone can read and write to the file. The result will look like this: -rw------1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.txt 107 The previous command displays this file information: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.txt. g. type: ls -l sneakers. To check the results.txt — for everyone.txt Now. the file looks like this: -rw-rw-rw1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. the owner) g — the group to which the user belongs o — others (not the owner or the owner’s group) a — everyone or all (u. chmod go-rw sneakers. . Here is a list of what the shorthand represents: Identities u — the user who owns the file (that is. To remove read and write permissions from sneakers.txt. you are telling the system to remove read and write permissions for the group and for others from the file sneakers.txt use the chmod command to take away both the read and write permissions. At the shell prompt. because all you really have to do is remember a few symbols and letters with the chmod command.Chapter 13.txt Now. and o) Permissions r — read access w — write access x — execute access Actions + — adds the permission .

txt .txt Now. you can always change its permissions back with the following command: chmod u+rw sneakers. you are really allowing (or denying) permission to search through that directory.14. see if you can read the file with the command cat sneakers. Changing Permissions With Numbers Remember the reference to the shorthand method of chmod? Here is another way to change permissions. you can change permissions for entire directory trees.txt. although it may seem a little complex at first.txt: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.108 Chapter 13. the file owner. restore your own and your group’s access: chmod ug+x tigger tigger directory. But since the file belongs to you. Here is what happens now when you try to cd to into tigger: bash: tigger: Permission denied Next.2. including your own. if you check your work with ls -l you will see that only others will be denied access to the 13. successfully locked the file. it will not matter who has read or write access. can read the file again. when you add or remove execute permission for a directory. Go back to the original permissions for sneakers. Because you can not really "execute" a directory as you would an application.txt to verify that you.txt Use the command cat sneakers.txt: Permission denied Removing all permissions. For example. Here are some common examples of settings that can be used with chmod: • g+w — adds write access for the group — removes all permissions for others — allows the file owner to execute the file — allows everyone to read and write to the file — allows the owner and group to read the file — allows only the group to read and execute (not write) • o-rwx • u+x • a+rw • ug+r • g=rx By adding the -R option. type: chmod a-x tigger to remove everyone’s execute permissions. Shell Prompt Basics chmod a-rwx sneakers. which should return the following: cat: sneakers. No one will be able to get into the directory unless they know the exact file name. If you do not allow others to have execute permission to tigger. Now.

and the total for others is four. the group and others have (700) — Only the owner has read. If you want to change sneakers. and execute permissions. chmod 664 sneakers. four. To return the group’s write access for the file. you would have a value of 6. For sneakers. numerical values and their meanings: • -rw------• -rw-r--r-- (600) — Only the owner has read and write permissions.Chapter 13. it is not a good idea to use these settings.txt Warning Setting permissions to 666 will allow everyone to read and write to a file or directory.txt Now verify the changes by listing the file.txt so those in your group will not have write access. add the value of w (2) to the second set of permissions. here are the numerical permissions settings: (rw-) | 4+2+0 (rw-) | 4+2+0 (r--) | 4+0+0 The total for the user is six. write.txt. To implement these new settings. read only. Setting permissions to 777 allows everyone read. (644) — Only the owner has read and write permissions. The numerical values. would become six. For example. Type: ls -l sneakers.txt Now. These permissions could allow tampering with sensitive files. Shell Prompt Basics Each permission setting can be represented by a numerical value: • • • • 109 r=4 w=2 x=1 -=0 When these values are added together.txt. 4 (read) + 2 (write) = 6. the total for the group is six. and four (644).txt The output should be: -rw-r--r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. but can still read the file. remove the access by subtracting two (2) from that set of numbers. if you want read and write permissions. the total is used to set specific permissions. and execute permission. then. write. Here is a list of some common settings. • -rwx------ . so in general. neither the group nor others have write permission to sneakers. The permissions setting is read as 664. type: chmod 644 sneakers.

write.110 Chapter 13. write. the group and others have only execute. and execute permissions. (711) — The owner has read.(666) • -rwxrwxrwx Here are some common settings for directories: • drwx-----• drwxr-xr-x (700) — Only the user can read. — Everyone can read and write to the file. (755) — Everyone can read the directory. write in this directory. and execute permissions. and execute. (Be careful with these permissions.) (777) — Everyone can read. . the group and others have only read and execute. write. (Again. users and groups have read and execute permissions.) • -rw-rw-rw. this permissions setting can be hazardous. Shell Prompt Basics • -rwxr-xr-x • -rwx--x--x (755) — The owner has read.

This is normal behavior and is used to prevent non-privileged users from modifying or deleting important system files. This chapter also discusses compression tools to create archives of your files for backup or to conveniently send to others. Users that do not have superuser access might find the following directories useful for finding their home directories. every file is stored in a directory. modifications. Unless you are a system administrator or have root (superuser) access. the root account’s home directory (/root) and the root directory for the entire file system (/). Tip Red Hat Linux uses the term root in several different ways. In Linux. these subdirectories can also contain files and other subdirectories. There would not be a tree without a root. • /home — Default location for users’ home directories. directories within it (called subdirectories) which hold files and may contain subdirectories of their own. who has permission to do anything). be sure to know which root is being discussed. Managing Files and Directories Your desktop file manager is a powerful and important tool for managing files and directories using the graphical desktop. documentation • /usr/share/doc — Location of documentation for installed packages. For example. everything is connected to the root directory. you probably do not have permission to write to the files and directories outside of your home directory. unless you are root. These directories may contain. For example. a user with the username foo has the home directory /home/foo. or execute a file. which might be confusing to new users. and other changes. the # " . or be the "parent" of.1. For example. You might think of the file system as a tree-like structure and directories as branches. This chapter discusses various shell prompt commands that can be used to manage files and directories on your Red Hat Linux system. delete. for the redhat-config-date software package is located in /usr/share/doc/redhat-config-date. Note Due to system security. reading documentation. A Larger Picture of the File System Every operating system has a method of storing data in files and directories so that it can keep track of additions. you will not be able to gain access to all system-level files and directories. Directories can also contain directories. When you are speaking to someone and using the term root.version-number . and the same is true for the Linux file system. /home is the default location for users’ home directories.Chapter 14. you will receive an error message saying your access is denied. There is the root account (the superuser. which is represented as a single forward slash (/). No matter how far away the directories branch. or storing temporary files. If you do not have the permission to open. 14. Certain directories are reserved for specific purposes.

and tar files. Most compressed files for Linux use the gzip compression.gif • .2. For information on working with bzip2.1.com/fhs. A file’s extension is the last part of a file’s name after the final dot (in the file sneakers.png • .ps — a PostScript file.3 File Compression and Archiving.txt • . File Formats • . Managing Files and Directories • /tmp — The reserved directory for all users to store temporary files.tbz • . — a file compressed with gzip • .pathname. refer to the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide.2.txt.html/. commonly found in MS-DOS applications. gzip.bz2 • . Compressed and Archived Files • . refer to Section 14.tgz • .zip — a file compressed with ZIP compression. Here is a brief listing of file extensions and their meanings: 14.tar • . you may see certain file types that you do not recognize because of their unfamiliar extension.112 Chapter 14.jpg • . Identifying and Working with File Types If you are new to Linux. Files stored here are not permanent. so finding a . 14. also known as a tar file — a tarred and bzipped file — a tarred and gzipped file. The FHS guidelines help to standardize the way system programs and files are stored on all Linux systems.htm • .gz — a file compressed with bzip2 — a file archived with tar (short for tape archive). formatted for printing • . To learn more about the FHS. You can also visit the FHS website at http://www. PDF stands for Portable Document Format — a PNG image file (short for Portable Network Graphic) — a plain ASCII text file — an audio file — an image file • . Your Red Hat Linux system is compatible with many other Linux distributions because of the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS).xpm .2. 14. A system process removes old files from this directory on a periodic basis.au — an audio file — a GIF image file — an HTML file — a JPEG image file — an electronic image of a document. Do not write any files or directories that you want to keep here.pdf • . "txt" is that file’s extension).wav • .zip archive for Linux files is rare.2.

the command file saturday will display ASCII text. For example. System Files • .2. File Compression and Archiving Sometimes it is useful to store a group of files in one file so that they can be backed up.rpm — a configuration file.3. Tip To learn more about file. An archive file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file.h • .py • . It is important to understand the distinction between an archive file and a compressed file.c — a C program language source code file — a C++ program language source code file — a C or C++ program language header file — a program object file — a Perl script — a Python script — a library file — a shell script — a TCL script • . as well. So what happens when a file does not have an extension. The archive file is not compressed — it uses the same amount of disk space as all the individual files and directories combined.o • .conf • . or less commands. read the man page by typing man file.lock • .pl • .sh • . Managing Files and Directories 113 14. Using the file command.3. It is also sometimes useful to compress files into one file so that they use less disk space and download faster via the Internet. telling you it is a text file. see Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics. or even transferred to a different computer. 14. or by using a text editor such as gedit or vi. — a lock file.so • .Chapter 14. Any file that is designated as a text file should be readable by using the cat. you can tell what type of file it is by typing: file saturday In the example.4. or used consistently. For more information on helpful commands for reading files.tcl But file extensions are not always used.cfg extension. Configuration files sometimes use the .cpp • . determines whether a program or device is in use — a Red Hat Package Manager file used to install software 14. easily transferred to another directory. more. or the file does not seem to be what the extension says it is supposed to be? That is when the file command can be helpful. Programming and Scripting Files • .2. A . you find a file called saturday without an extension.

Note An archive file is not compressed. You can even create an archive file and then compress it to save disk space. A file menu will pop up. File . if you have a file called foo. but a compressed file can be an archive file.1. 14. It is also integrated into the desktop environment and graphical file manager to make working with archived files easier. Managing Files and Directories compressed file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file and stored in a way that uses less disk space than all the individual files and directories combined. For example. Figure 14-1.3.gz located in your home directory. Figure 14-1 shows File Roller in action. you can compress files that you do not use very often or files that you want to save but do not use anymore. You can also start File Roller from a shell prompt by typing file-roller. allowing you to choose the archive you wish to work with.tar. File Roller supports common UNIX and Linux file compression and archiving formats and has a simple interface and extensive help documentation if you need it. The File Roller browser window will appear with the decompressed/unarchived file in a folder for you to extract or browse. and archive files and directories.1. If you do not have enough disk space on your computer. Using File Roller Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility called File Roller that can compress. Decompressing and Unarchiving with File Roller To unarchive and/or decompress a file click the Open toolbar button. File Roller in Action 14. Tip If you are using a file manager (such as Nautilus).1. decompress. To start File Roller click Main Menu => Accessories => File Roller.3. you can double-click the file you wish to unarchive or decompress to start File Roller. highlight the file and click OK.114 Chapter 14. The file will appear in the main File Roller browser window as a folder. which you can navigate by double-clicking the folder icon.

File Roller allows you to create archives of your files and directories. and click Close to close the archive. Managing Files and Directories 115 Roller preserves all directory and subdirectory structures. For example. bzip2. You can extract individual files or entire archives by clicking the Extract button. Click OK and your new archive is now ready to be filled with files and directories.gz) format from the drop-down menu and type the name of the archive file you want to create. In Red Hat Linux you can compress files with the compression tools gzip.2. allowing you to specify an archive name and the compression technique. or zip. click Add. click New on the toolbar. or send multiple files or a directory of files to another user. uncompressed files. If you need to transfer files between Linux and other operating system such . A file browser will pop up.3. choosing the directory you would like to save the unarchived files. Creating Archives with File Roller If you need to free some hard drive space. Creating an Archive with File Roller Tip There is much more you can do with File Roller than is explained here. The gzip compression tool can also be found on most UNIXlike operating systems. Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt Compressed files use less disk space and download faster than large. you may choose a Tar Compressed wity gzip (tar. Refer to the File Roller manual (available by clicking Help => Manual) for more information. To create a new archive. 14. To add files to your new archive.Chapter 14. which is convenient if you are looking for a particular file in the archive. Click OK when you are finished. and clicking OK. which will pop up a browser window (Figure 14-2) that you can navigate to find the file or directory you want to be in the archive.2. Figure 14-2. The bzip2 compression tool is recommended because it provides the most compression and is found on most UNIX-like operating systems.1.3. 14.

Compression Tool gzip bzip2 zip File Extension .bz2.116 Chapter 14. 14.bz2. file3.bz2 is deleted and replaced with filename.gz. Files compressed with gzip are uncompressed with gunzip. Managing Files and Directories as MS Windows.gz . Bzip2 and Bunzip2 To use bzip2 to compress a file.bz2 . you should use zip because it is more compatible with the compression utilities on Windows. file2. . Tip For more information. 14. Gzip and Gunzip To use gzip to compress a file. type the following command: bunzip2 filename. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename.bz2 file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. Compression Tools By convention. type man bzip2 and man bunzip2 at a shell prompt to read the man pages for bzip2 and bunzip2. type the following command at a shell prompt: bzip2 filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename. and files compressed with zip are given the extension . type the following command at a shell prompt: gzip filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename. files compressed with bzip2 are given the extension .2.bz2.gz.bz2 The filename. To expand the compressed file.1.2. files compressed with gzip are given the extension .zip.3.zip Uncompression Tool gunzip bunzip2 unzip Table 14-1. files compressed with bzip2 are uncompressed with bunzip2.3.2. and files compressed with zip are uncompressed with unzip. You can use bzip2 to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: bzip2 filename.

zip filesdir In this example. filename. file3.gz file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. To extract the contents of a zip file. file2. Tip For more information.3.gz is deleted and replaced with filename. file2.2. type man zip and man unzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for zip and unzip. Managing Files and Directories To expand the compressed file. You can use gzip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: gzip -r filename. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename.zip represents the file you are creating and filesdir represents the directory you want to put in the new zip file. Zip and Unzip To compress a file with zip.Chapter 14.gz. file3. The -r option specifies that you want to include all files contained in the filesdir directory recursively. type the following command: gunzip filename.zip You can use zip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: zip -r filename. type the following command: unzip filename.zip file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. type man gzip and man gunzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for gzip and gunzip. Tip For more information. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename. type the following command: zip -r filename.zip.gz 117 The filename.3. 14. .

then extracting the archive file will result in the creation of the directory foo/ in your current working directory with the file bar. • -t • -v • -x • -z • -j To create a tar file.txt inside of it.tar. Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt A tar file is a collection of several files and/or directories in one file. use the filename specified for the creation of the tar file. — show the progress of the files being archived. type: tar -tvf filename. if the tarfile contains a file called bar. unarchive the specified file. when used with the -x option. preserving any directory structure that the archive file used.tbz.tar This command does not remove the tar file.tar To extract the contents of a tar file. You can also expand and unarchive a bzip tar file in one command: . however. For example.tar represents the file you are creating and directory/file represents the directory and file you want to put in the archived file. the filename.tbz file with the bunzip2 command.tbz file is removed and replaced with filename.tar /home/mine/work /home/mine/school The above command places all the files in the work and the school subdirectories of /home/mine in a new file called filename. You can tar multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: tar -cvf filename. Remember. The above command creates an archive file and then compresses it as the file filename. use the -j option: tar -cjvf filename.tar in the current directory. filename.3.3.bz2 extension. To create a tarred and bzipped compressed file. To list the contents of a tar file. — compress the tar file with bzip2. Some of the options used with the tar are: • -c • -f — create a new archive. This is a good way to create backups and archives. — extract files from an archive. — show the list of files in the tar file. Managing Files and Directories 14.tbz. — when used with the -c option. If you uncompress the filename. but it places copies of its unarchived contents in the current working directory.118 Chapter 14. the tar command does not compress the files by default.txt within a directory called foo/.tbz file tar files compressed with bzip2 are conventionally given the extension . type: tar -xvf filename. sometimes users archive their files using the tar. — compress the tar file with gzip.tar directory/file In this example. type: tar -cvf filename.

1. You can also use wildcards. which will create an empty file that you can use to add text or data.tar and then compresses it as the file filename. use the -z option: tar -czvf filename.tgz Tip Type the command man tar for more information about the tar command.Chapter 14. 14. type the following command.tgz file is removed and replaced with filename. Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt Files can be manipulated using one of the graphical file managers.tar. This command creates the archive file filename. moving.) If you uncompress the filename.tgz. or deleting multiple files and directories faster. such as Nautilus or Konqueror.5 Wildcards and Regular Expressions. They can also be manipulated using a shell prompt.tgz file tar files compressed with gzip are conventionally given the extension .4. which is often faster. To copy a file. ) ( 0) ( cp source destination ' % & $ touch filename sam 0 Apr 10 17:09 newfile . as explained in Section 13. there is a variety of ways to manipulate files and directories. typing the command ls -l newfile at the shell prompt returns the following output: -rw-rw-r-1 sam 14.11.tgz file with the gunzip command. you can see that the file contains zero (0) bytes of information because it is an empty file. You can expand a gzip tar file in one command: tar -xzvf filename. To create a file with touch. Copying Files Like so many other Linux features.4. the filename. If you run a directory listing.tgz. Managing Files and Directories 119 tar -xjvf filename. to make the process of copying. This section explains how to manipulate files at the shell prompt. For example. (The file filename.2.tbz To create a tarred and gzipped compressed file. 14. Creating Files You can create new files either with applications (such as text editors) or by using the command touch.4.tar is not saved. Replace filename with the name of your choice. type the following at a shell prompt.

Prompts you to confirm if the file is going to overwrite a file in your destination. • -f — force.txt tigger 2 1 Replace source with the name of the file you want to copy. this option is dangerous. be very careful about using it until you become more comfortable with your system. you will be given the chance to make sure you want to replace an existing file. Managing Files and Directories destination with the So. 14. — recursive. because like the -i option for cp. and name of the directory where you want the file to go. this will copy the whole directory tree.3.120 Chapter 14. use cp -i to copy the file again to the same location.txt in the tigger directory. Tip To learn more about relative and absolute pathnames. use the mv command. Shows the progress of the files as they are being moved. This is a good option. Unless you know what you are doing. move to your home directory and type: cp sneakers.txt tigger cp: overwrite ’tigger/sneakers. see the mv man page (type man mv).txt to the directory tigger/ in your home directory. tigger is one directory down from our home directory. cp -i sneakers. This will prompt you if the file you have selected will overwrite an existing file in the destination directory. Common options for mv include the following: • -i — interactive. Our home directory is the parent of the directory tigger. to copy the file sneakers. • -v Now that you have the file sneakers. Among the options you can use with cp are the following: • -i • -r — interactive. subdirectories and all. Read the cp man page (type man cp at the shell prompt) for a full list of the options available with cp.txt tigger/ You can use both relative and absolute pathnames with cp. 2 1 . refer to Section 13. Shows the progress of the files as they are being copied. This is a handy option because it can help prevent you from making mistakes. press [N] and [Enter]. — verbose. For more about mv. If you do not want to overwrite the file. Overrides the interactive mode and moves without prompting.4. • -v If you want to move a file out of your home directory and into another existing directory. — verbose. type the following (you will need to be in your home directory): mv sneakers. press [Y] and then [Enter]. Moving Files To move files.txt’? To overwrite the file that is already there.4 Changing Directories with cd . Rather than just copying all the specified files and directories.

— force. This might not be a good idea. Now you need to learn how to delete files and directories. To remove directories with rm. Deleting files and directories with the rm command is a straightforward process.Chapter 14. See the rm man page for more information. Managing Files and Directories Alternatively. but be careful. • -v • -r To delete the file piglet. and you created the directory tigger using mkdir. Options for removing files and directories include: • -i • -f — interactive. This option can stop you from deleting a file by mistake.txt Warning Once a file or directory is removed with the rm command. Shows the progress of the files as they are being removed.txt /home/newuser/tigger 121 14. Overrides interactive mode and removes the file(s) without prompting. but only if the directory is empty. rm -i piglet. To remove a file using a wildcard. the same command using absolute pathnames looks like mv sneakers.txt’? You can also delete files using the wildcard *.4. — recursive. because you can easily delete files you did not intend to throw away. if you want to recursively remove the directory tigger you would type: . you must specify the -r option.txt rm: remove ’piglet. Prompts you to confirm the deletion. unless you know exactly what you are doing.txt /home/newuser/sneakers. type: rm piglet. For example: rm piglet. — verbose. For example. you would type: rm pig* The above command will remove all files in the directory which start with the letters pig.4. Will delete a directory and all files and subdirectories it contains. Use the -i (interactive) option to give you a second chance to think about whether or not you really want to delete the file. it is gone permanently and cannot be retrieved. You can also remove multiple files using the rm command. Deleting Files and Directories You learned about creating files with the touch command.txt with the rm command. for example).txt You can use rmdir to remove a directory (rmdir foo.txt sneakers.

Managing Files and Directories rm -r tigger If you want to combine options. you are in trouble. Warning The rm command can delete your entire file system! If you are logged in as root and you type the simple command rm -rf /. such as forcing a recursive deletion. so a directory which has files in it will not be deleted. you can type: rm -rf tigger A safer alternative to using rm for removing directories is the rmdir command. Read the rmdir man page (man rmdir) to find out more about this command. . With this command. this command will recursively remove everything on your system.122 Chapter 14. you will not be allowed to use recursive deletions.

Users do not have to learn how to use RPM or worry about resolving software package dependencies. Users do not have to search the Web for updated packages or security alerts. All Security Alerts. Your RHN Red Hat Network saves users time because they receive email when updated packages are released. This chapter explains three ways to update your system: using Red Hat Network. and using the Red Hat Linux Installation CD-ROMs.com/.redhat. 15.Chapter 15. Figure 15-1. known as RPM packages.1. By default. Red Hat Network installs the packages as well. Each Red Hat Network account comes with: • Errata Alerts — learn when Security Alerts. Bug Fix Alerts. A package is just a file that contains a software program. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Red Hat Linux consists of various software applications and utilities. RHN does it all. Red Hat Network Red Hat Network is an Internet solution for managing one or more Red Hat Linux systems. using the online Errata List. and Enhancement Alerts (collectively known as Errata Alerts) can be downloaded directly from Red Hat using the Red Hat Update Agent standalone application or through the RHN website available at http://rhn. Bug Fix Alerts. and Enhancement Alerts are issued for all the systems in your network through the Basic interface .

124 Chapter 15. downloaded individual packages.com/ and entitle the system to a service offering.redhat. and schedule actions such as Errata Updates through a secure Web browser connection from any computer • • • • • To start using Red Hat Network. Select Main Menu Button => System Tools => Red Hat Network on your desktop. Everyone receives a free Red Hat Network account for one system. follow these three basic steps: 1. 3. Start scheduling updates through the RHN website or download and install Errata Updates with the Red Hat Update Agent. . Log in to RHN at http://rhn. Additional accounts can be purchased. Execute the command up2date from a shell prompt. Create a System Profile using one of the following methods: • • • Registering the system with RHN during the Setup Agent the first time your system boots after installation. 2. Relevant Errata Automatic email notifications — receive an email notification when an Errata Alert is issued for your system Scheduled Errata Updates — schedule delivery of Errata Updates Package installation — Schedule package installation on one or more systems with the click of a button Red Hat Update Agent — use the Red Hat Update Agent to download the latest software packages for your system (with optional package installation) Red Hat Network website — manage multiple systems. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Figure 15-2.

Instructions for updating the packages are on the individual Errata pages. and Enhancement Alerts (collective known as Errata Alerts) can also be downloaded from the Red Hat website at http://www. tests and approves the RPMs posted on this site.3. Click on the name of the Errata Alert that you want to apply to your system.redhat. Figure 15-3. Updating Errata packages from the Red Hat Linux Errata website is recommended for more experienced Red Hat Linux users.html 15.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/.4 Downloaded Packages. Installing Software with the Package Management Tool . a convenient panel icon that displays visible alerts when there is an update for your Red Hat Linux system. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages 125 For more detailed instructions. It then prompts you for the root password so that you can install packages. Click on the Red Hat Linux version you are using to view a list of all available errata for Red Hat Linux. Errata List It is recommended that new users use Red Hat Network to download and install/upgrade packages. If you enter the correct root password. refer to Section 15. Inc.Chapter 15. Tip Red Hat Linux includes the Red Hat Network Notification Tool. the Package Management Tool interface appears and allows you to select packages groups to install as well as individual packages within the groups. All Security Alerts.com/help/basic/applet. read the Red Hat Network User Reference Guide available at http://www. Installation CD-ROMs Place the first Red Hat Linux CD-ROM in your CD-ROM drive.com/apps/support/errata/. Red Hat.redhat. It also requires users to resolve software dependencies manually. Refer to the following URL for more information about the applet: http://rhn. RPMs downloaded from other sites are not supported.redhat. For more information about installing packages downloaded from our errata sites. A software dependency is when a package is dependent on other package being installed. Select Yes when asked if you want to run the autorun program from the CD.2. Bug Fix Alerts. 15.

Figure 15-5. You can add packages by clicking the checkbox next to each package. Individual Package Selection After selecting packages. the package will be installed and you can immediately begin using the software from the installed package. remove the checkmark (see Figure 15-4). if there are dependencies. Figure 15-4. you can install them by opening your file manager and double-clicking the package you want to install. However.4. . such as package or library files needed. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information about the Package Management Tool. To uninstall a package. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages The Package Management Tool marks what packages are already installed on your system with a checkmark.126 Chapter 15. Downloaded Packages If you have downloaded packages from an errata on the Red Hat website. 15. If all goes well. The Package Management Tool should open up and check the package for any dependencies you need to fulfill before installation. click the Update button to install or uninstall the selected packages. the Package Management Tool will alert you with suggested files and packages you need to install. RPM Package Dependencies The packages necessary to fulfill the dependency issues can be installed by following the steps in Section 15.3 Installation CD-ROMs.

you are often required to make system-wide changes which only root can make. it is asking you to log in to your system.3.1. If you created a user account with the Setup Agent. If you are using your normal user account. After rebooting. For more information about using RPM and Package Management Tool. you should then be able to install the RPM file without further errors.redhat. or received that information from a network. this chapter will ease you step-by-step through some common tasks and get you on your way. refer to Section 1.Chapter 16. If you are getting an error message similar to failed to open /var/lib/rpm/packages. and everything seemed to go fine. Error Messages During Installation of RPMs How do I install an RPM from a CD or the Internet? I keep getting an error message when I use rpm. You can create a new user after logging in as root with the User Manager graphical tool or the useradd shell prompt utility.localdomain by default. It is highly recommended that you create at least one user account for regular use of your Red Hat Linux system. your Red Hat Linux installation will call your machine localhost. I get a message telling me it needs a localhost login and password. you will not have permission to make such changes by default.com/docs/. 16. 16. but I still get "command not found" when I type its name. I think I have the right name. When you install software.6 Creating a User Account.2. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD or online at http://www. also known as root. it is because you do not have proper permission to install RPM files. Localhost Login and Password I have installed Red Hat Linux.rpm. Starting Applications I installed an application I downloaded from the Internet. You need to be the root user in order to install RPM files. you can log in using that user name and password. then you can log in as the super user. The root password is the system password you assigned during installation. switch to the root user by running the following command: su After entering the root password when prompted. For more information. Frequently Asked Questions This chapter answers some of the most common questions about using Red Hat Linux that you may ask as you become more familiar with it. If you did not create a user account. When you get to that initial prompt. From recovering forgotten passwords to troubleshooting package installation problems. What are these? Unless you specified a host name for your computer. At a shell prompt. so why will it not start? . such as creating new directories outside of your user home directory or making changes to your system configuration. 16.

You can then make the changes to . For example. You can do this by adding the directory to your PATH environment variable. Start a text editor. such as gedit or vi.128 Chapter 16. imagine that you have downloaded the setiathome client application and want to try it out. you can place utilities and programs in your path and be able to execute them without having to type .bash_profile You will see a PATH statement.bash_profile.3.bash_profile. 16. Now. You can customize your settings so that you are not required to use the type the full path to the application each time. Avoid modifying files such as the root user’s .1. You can open the file called . You follow the directions for installing the software. Frequently Asked Questions If you are trying to start an application from the shell prompt and it is not working. you will have to edit your PATH environment variable.bash_profile By adding paths to your . try typing out the full directory path before the name of the application’s executable (such as /usr/local/bin/my-executable). similar to the one shown below. Editing Your PATH If you frequently start programs that are not located in a directory that your user shell has been configured to search. which creates a subdirectory in your home directory called seti/. because of the potential security risks. Caution These instructions are intended only for user accounts. you will have to edit your user shell configuration file to add the directory containing the executable you wish to run. PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin: To the end of this statement. add $HOME/seti as shown below: PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin/:$HOME/seti: Save the file and exit the text editor. To do this. at a shell prompt.bash_profile by typing the following: gedit .bash_profile take effect immediately by typing the following command: source ./ in front of the command. start the application using the full path to the executable file as shown below: /home/joe/seti/setiathome The reason you may need to type the full pathnames in order to start an application is because the executable was not placed in a directory where your user shell environment knew it could be found (such as /usr/local/bin). .

Once you have determined where your Windows partition is located on your hard drive. To find this information. This file system type can be mounted and read within Linux. as this is the device that you mount to access your Windows data. then you cannot mount and read from it as Red Hat Linux does not support NTFS file systems.4. Hardware Browser hard disk device listing Select Hard Drives from the panel and find your Windows partition from the Disk Information displayed. Figure 16-1. Figure 16-1 shows Hardware Browser in action. Note the Device information for your Windows partition. You should first determine where your Windows partition is located by determining what physical hard disk your Windows partition is located in (such as the primary master IDE drive or the the first SCSI drive).Chapter 16. you can use the Hardware Browser. Create a directory in which the Windows partition will be mounted by typing the following command. For example: mkdir /mnt/windows . which lists detailed information about the hardware in your Red Hat Linux system. Accessing a Windows Partition I have a dual-boot system with Red Hat Linux and Windows 98. 16. however. if your Windows partition uses NTFS. a Windows partition). To start the Hardware Browser. Windows partitions normally use the FAT or FAT32 file system type. log in as root (type su and then enter the root password) at a shell prompt. Frequently Asked Questions 129 Tip For more information about using and configuring your shell prompt refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics. choose Main Menu => System Tools => Hardware Browser. in two different ways. Is there a way to access my Windows partition while I am running Linux? You can access another partition on your system (for example.

the /etc/fstab file is read. you must modify the /etc/fstab file. and I did not write it down. The next time the system is rebooted. Say you were reading the man page the day before. su to root.bash_history at the shell prompt and the results will display one page at a time. Next. type the command cd /mnt/windows. and the Windows partition is automatically mounted in the directory /mnt/windows. There are plenty of ways to your command history. press [q].umask=0 0 0 Save the file and exit your text editor. which configures all file systems and disk device mounting options. To search for the command. To access the partition at a shell prompt. You can glimpse the history of your commands by typing history at the shell prompt. Finding Commands Quickly I was looking at a man page yesterday. but I cannot remember the name of the command I was reading about. press the [b] key. As root. By default.bash_history is with a utility such as less. press the [Space] bar. but cannot recall its name. as in ls "Program Files". Another way to view . type: history | grep man You will see a list of all the commands you typed which have the word man in them. Alternatively.bash_history. type the following command at a shell prompt (where /dev/hda1 is the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows You may then logout of root user mode and access your Windows data by changing into the mounted Windows partition: cd /mnt/windows To automatically mount a Windows partition every time you boot your Red Hat Linux system. To navigate through directories or files with spaces. following the above example.5. How do I get the man page back? The command you used will most likely be stored in a file called . but the results will speed by too quickly for your to read ever line. a powerful search utility. Frequently Asked Questions Before you can access the partition. Paging through .130 Chapter 16. 16. and to quit. . see Section 16. open the /etc/fstab in a text editor by typing (for example): gedit /etc/fstab Add the following on a new line (replacing /dev/hda1 with the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows vfat auto. Type less .6 Tips on Using Command History. to move back a screen. you can search through the file for keywords using grep. At a shell prompt.bash_history to find a command can be tedious. surround the name of the directory or file with quotation marks. For other tips and tricks. you will need to mount it in the directory you just created. this file records the last 500 commands you typed at the shell prompt. To move forward a screen.

another paging utility. You will then be able to see the output one screen. 16.7.6. you will see a numbered list scroll by very quickly. type the following command at the shell prompt: ls -al /etc | less To move forward a screen. Frequently Asked Questions 131 16. 16. [Up arrow] and [down arrow]: At the shell or GUI terminal prompt. This way. You can achieve the same results with more. press [Space] bar.6. pipe the output to a utility such as less or more.Chapter 16. How can I actually read the output? To prevent the output of ls from scrolling by too quickly. Press [Enter] to execute the command. Keep ls Output from Scrolling Whenever I type ls I can barely see the output of the directory because it scrolls by too quickly. bang": Typing !! (called "bang bang") executes the last command in the history. "Bang number": Typing !number (as in !302) will execute the command which is numbered 302 in the history file. Tips on Using Command History What are some other ways I can use command history? If you type history.1. "Bang string": Typing !string (as in !rpm) will execute a command with the most recent matching string from the history file. If you have configured a printer.1. type the following to pipe the output of a command to the printer: ls -al /etc | lpr . Printing ls Output You can also print directory listings by piping the output to a printer in the same way that you piped the output to your screen. or "page" at at time. You probably do not need to see all of the last 500 commands. so the command history 20 might be useful. you can press the up arrow to move back through previous commands in your history list (the down arrow will move you forward through the commands) until you find the command you want. To read the contents of /etc with less. just as if you had typed it on the command line. to move back a screen. press the [b] key. press [q]. 16. only the previous 20 commands you typed will display (you can use any quantity as an argument of the history command). Other Shortcuts Here are other command history shortcuts which may be useful to you: • • • • "Bang. showing you the previous 500 commands you have used.7. to quit.

9. then you can log in to root as you normally would. If you use the default boot loader.132 Chapter 16. Frequently Asked Questions 16. you can configure your system so that you can log in directly to X. Once you are finished. You will be presented with a boot entry listing. Open a shell prompt. You must edit one file. Changing Login from Console to X at Startup How do I change my login from the console to the graphical screen? Instead of logging in to your system at the console and typing the startx command to start the X Window System. GRUB. Password Maintenance I forgot or want to change my user account password. then add the word single to tell GRUB to boot into single-user Linux mode.05# 5. you will have a graphical login prompt. Open a shell prompt and type the following: passwd username Replace username with your normal user name. To enter single-user mode. reboot your computer. When you are finished. From here. You can then reboot by typing reboot at the prompt. 2. /etc/inittab.4. su to root by typing su . reboot the computer. How do I log in now? You can log in using single-user mode and create a new root password. Press [Enter] to make the editing change take effect. 4. you will be presented with a shell prompt similar to the following: sh-2. 16. 3. The next time you log in. by changing just one number in the runlevel section. You can now change the root password by typing bash# passwd root You will be asked to re-type the password for verification. the password will be changed. You will be brought back to the edit mode screen.18-0.10. The passwd command will then ask for the new password. you can enter single user mode by performing the following: 1. If you’re in your user account. 16. Press the Spacebar once to add a blank space. Look for the line that looks similar to the following: kernel /vmlinuz-2. Forgotten Password Help! I forgot my root password. type [e] to enter into editing mode.4 ro root=/dev/hda2 Press the arrow key until this line is highlighted and press [e].8. press [b] and GRUB will boot single-user Linux mode. which you will need to enter twice. At the boot loader menu. After it finishes loading. You can now use the new password to log in to your user account.

Now. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 . The file /etc/inittab will open.Single user mode # 2 . without NFS (The same as 3.Multiuser.reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:3:initdefault: id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.X11 # 6 .halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # 1 . Frequently Asked Questions 133 Now. you will see a section of the file which looks like this: # Default runlevel. You will see a message telling you that the file has been modified. To change from a console to a graphical login. if you do not have networking) # 3 . Type [Y] for yes. Within the first screen. type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. . Your changed line should look like the following: id:5:initdefault: When you are satisfied with your change.Full multiuser mode # 4 . and asking you to confirm your change. save and exit the file using the [Ctrl]-[x] keys.unused # 5 . your next login after reboot will be from the graphical screen.Chapter 16. you should change the number in the line Warning Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.

Frequently Asked Questions .134 Chapter 16.

your default desktop will look similar to Figure A-2. you can view help documentation on topics such as using and configuring the desktop. The HelpCenter You can access the HelpCenter from the Main Menu by selecting Help. Using The Desktop Once you start KDE. and working with the Konquerer file manager.1. This appendix covers the basics of using KDE: system navigation.3. visit the official website at http://www.Appendix A. and panels. A. it allows you to access your Red Hat Linux system and applications using your mouse and keyboard. To access HelpCenter from the desktop. menus. working with files and applications. From this main page. right-click on the desktop and select the Help => K Desktop Handbook. Introducing KDE The K Desktop Environment (KDE) is a graphical desktop that uses common graphical objects such as icons. working with the many applications included with KDE. windows. and customizing the desktop to suit your needs.kde. The opening screen of the HelpCenter browser appears like Figure A-1. . A. If you would like to learn more about KDE.2. KDE: The K Desktop Environment A. Figure A-1. Finding Help You can access a comprehensive set of documentation about KDE through the HelpCenter.org.

You can access any one of these resources by double-clicking on the associated icon.and double-clicking mouse buttons and chording keystrokes to create time-saving shortcuts. Right-click on the trash can and select Empty Trash Bin to delete the items from your system permanently. The panel taskbar shows your currently running applications. You can also access the main menu and configure the desktop to suit your needs. and backgrounds. You can drag and drop files and application icons to any location on the desktop. document windows. Click on an icon to open the associated resource. file folders. Configuration tools are also available which allow you to customize the way the desktop behaves at events such as single. You can change the appearance of buttons. word processor. Move to Trash. The KDE desktop works similarly to other graphical desktop environments. or application launchers. The panel contains application launchers.136 Appendix A. the Start Here icon for applications and configuration tools. When you right-click on these icons. You can have up to 16 desktops running at the same time in KDE. The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel. and so on. A. window and frame decorations. and Copy. The default KDE desktop displays icons for the trash can. You can also add new icons for all types of applications and resources to the desktop. and other commonly used applications. Rename. Using The Panel The panel stretches across the bottom of the desktop. you see several options for working with these resources. Icons located on the desktop can be files. it contains the main menu icon and quick-launch icons for starting a Web browser. folders. and a diskette icon. . and the desktop manager. panel. A Typical KDE Desktop The KDE desktop displays application launchers. such as Delete. The desktop itself is also highly customizable.4. By default. device links. status indicators. email client. You can drag and drop unwanted items such as files you no longer need to the Trash icon. or file manager. your home directory. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-2.

right-click on the panel and choose Add. Office. The main menu also contains several submenus that organize applications and tools into several categories. This section covers them in detail. A. you can lock your screen. A.2. and customize your main menu. time and date display. Applications and utilities can be added easily to the panel. and configure your desktop. Using The Main Menu The Main Menu is the central point for using KDE. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 137 Figure A-3. There are some applets that run on the panel by default. Then select Application Button and make your choice from the menus. set a panel hiding configuration (where the panel remains hidden until you hover over the panel area). To add an application launcher to the panel. Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel. Clicking on the Main Menu icon on the panel displays a large master menu from which you can perform tasks such as launch applications. . You can add and remove buttons that launch applications easily. Right-click on the panel and select Configure Panel to open the panel Settings.1. Figure A-4. You can configure panel orientation and size. including Graphics. You can also run applications from a command line as well as logout of your KDE session. and launching applications by typing commands in a text box. Internet.4. Click Help at any time to learn more about configuring your panel. Click on Help for more information on these options. The Panel The panel is highly configurable. find files. Games.Appendix A. which will display a password-protected screensaver. Panel Settings Other tabs in Settings contain options to further customize your panel and taskbar. There are several types of applets performing functions such as system monitoring. From the Main Menu.4. and more.

the KDE desktop configuration tool will open.1.) by deleting the default names and typing a new name in each desktop’s corresponding text box.2. 2. For example. KDE provides four desktops that you can use to display multiple applications without having to crowd all of them onto one desktop. while you are writing a message in Evolution on desktop one. and so on. open applications. and Paths. Each desktop can hold icons. KDE: The K Desktop Environment By default. drag the bar to the left. For more desktops. for fewer desktops. and be individually customized. Virtual Desktop Configuration You can change the names of your desktops (from Desktop 1. and Background icons are where you can make various desktop configuration changes. You can also change the number of desktops available to you by adjusting the slider in the Number of Desktops. For example. to customize each virtual desktop to have different backgrounds. Right-click on the desktop. click the virtual desktop you want to change. You can change the number and names of desktops available in KDE by making these adjustments: 1. 3. . Desktop 2. etc. Select Configure Desktop. Figure A-5.org Writer word processor open on desktop three. Click the Multiple Desktops icon (see Figure A-5).138 A. you will see a brief menu of actions you can choose. you can have Mozilla browsing the Web on desktop two. the OpenOffice. Working with Multiple Desktops Appendix A. drag the bar to the right. click the Background icon. uncheck the Common Background checkbox. The Appearance. and choose the color or image you want to make your background using the associated tabs. Behavior.4.

Buttons for your desktops appear on the panel in the Desktop Pager. Click OK to close the desktop configuration tool.2. Desktop Background Configuration After you make any adjustments to your desktop configuration. [Ctrl]-[F3] takes you to desktop three. both minimized and displayed. . Figure A-7. To scroll through the tasks. When you have found the task you want to maximize and bring to the front. To pick an item from the taskbar. on all desktops. Click on a tile to move to a different desktop. while tapping the [Tab] key.2. For example. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 139 Figure A-6. A. hold down both the [Alt]-[Tab] key. click Apply to save the changes. Tip Another way to bring minimized or background windows to the front is to use the [Alt] and [Tab] keys.4. Tip You can use the keyboard combination of the [Ctrl] and Function keys to switch desktops.Appendix A. [Ctrl]-[F2] switches to desktop two. Applications on the Taskbar You can maximize running applications or bring them to the front of your working windows by clicking on the associated item on the taskbar. release both keys and the application appears on the desktop. Viewing The Taskbar The taskbar displays all running applications. and so on. hold down the [Alt] key.

4. click Hide automatically. This automatically adds an icon on the panel. and change the way it behaves. Hiding.3. Konqueror will open up in a window on your desktop. allowing you to adjust all panel settings.5. This section explains some of the ways Konqueror can help you work with and enjoy your Red Hat Linux system. Choose the Hiding tab. The Settings window will appear. surf the Web. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To further customize the panel for your particular needs. configure your Red Hat Linux system. Configuring the KDE Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually. and adjust the number of seconds to elapse before the panel is hidden. or any one of the specific properties (Arrangement. Konqueror allows you to configure your KDE desktop. Click Apply then OK to close the Settings dialog. and more from one interface. After exploring. Menus. The Konqueror File Manager . and so on). click on your home directory icon . right-click the panel and choose Configure Panel. To add a new launcher to the panel. KDE: The K Desktop Environment A. Managing Files Konqueror is the file manager and a Web browser for the KDE desktop. Figure A-8. browse digital images. right-click the panel and choose Add => Application Button and choose the application or resource you wish to add to the panel. You can move the icon anywhere you want on the panel by right-clicking the icon and choosing Move Application Button. To alter the default panel settings.4. allowing you to navigate through your home directory and throughout your Red Hat Linux file system. place it on any edge of your desktop. To start Konqueror for file management.140 Appendix A. A. play multimedia files. change its size and color. The panel will remain hidden until you hover over the panel area to make it reappear.4. where Application is the name of the application associated with the icon. you can include additional launcher icons to start applications without using the main menu or Start Here. you can return to your home directory by clicking the Home button on the toolbar. A.

Konqueror also displays thumbnail icons for text. Konqueror is also a full featured Web browser. Figure A-9 shows the navigation panel. A. images.6. network resources. A. You can also delete files and folders by right-clicking on the item and choosing Delete. This panel appears on the left side of the Konqueror file browser window by default. file system. Files and folders in the main window frame can be moved or copied to another folder or sent to the trash. but with component technology used throughout KDE.Appendix A. browsing history. . Browsing the Web with Konqueror Konqueror not only allows you to browse your local and network file system. The navigation panel makes Konqueror an efficient solution for users who want fast and easy access to all of their files and information.5. The navigation panel makes many of your sytem resources available to you in convenient tabbed icons. It can also preview sounds from digital audio files. Figure A-9. and has a built-in media player for playing multimedia files without having to open a separate application. PostScript/PDF files. which you can use to explore the World Wide Web.1. and Web files. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 141 You can navigate through the file system by clicking on folders within the main window frame or through the hierarchical file system viewer on the navigation panel as shown in Figure A-8. To launch Konqueror choose Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => Konqueror Web Browser. Working with the Navigation Panel The navigation panel lets you access your Web bookmarks. The Navigation Panel Another useful feature of Konqueror is the navigation panel.

To begin your Web session. and more. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Konqueror Handbook.142 Appendix A. you will be presented with the Tips page. featured protocols. and OpenSSL). Welcome to Konqueror When you first launch Konqueror. plug-ins. . For additional information on using Konqueror. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-10. you will see the Specifications screen. This page shows you basic tips for using Konqueror so that you can begin to take advantage of the many features. you will be presented with an Introduction screen. By clicking Continue from the Tips screen. If you click Continue at the end of the webpage. This screen displays information on supported standards (such as Cascading Stylesheets. This screen offers basic instructions for browsing webpages. enter a URL in the Location field.

When you double-click on a thumbnail icon. Using Konqueror to View Images You can also use the Konqueror file manager to view images. Figure A-12. Using Konqueror as an image browser works similarly to Nautilus (see Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information). The Konqueror Handbook A.7. If you chose KDE as your default desktop environment. Viewing an Image in Konqueror .Appendix A. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 143 Figure A-11. the browser displays the image in its native size. click on your home directory desktop icon to access the Konqueror file manager: . Image files automatically generate thumbnail image icons for you to preview within the file browser window. as shown in Figure A-12.

. A pop-up menu will appear allowing you to open the application you wish to use. refer to the KMail user manual (Help => KMail Handbook) or visit KMail’s homepage at http://kmail. The Configure Mail Client window consists of the following sections: Identities.. Security. KMail KMail is an email tool for KDE. KDE: The K Desktop Environment To zoom in and out of an image.. Have your email information from your service provider or administrator handy so that you can fill in the required information to begin using KMail. you first need to change the way Konqueror renders the image. Appearance. choose Graphics and scroll down the list of applications.org. as well as with The GIMP. choose View => View Mode => Image Viewer Part.. and Folders. To open KMail. From the window menu. Before you can really use KMail. Figure A-14. select Settings from the KMail toolbar. The Open With. To run the configuration tool.. Dialog Box A. Click on the GIMP icon and click OK. as shown in Figure A-13. . Image viewing configuration on the Konqueror Toolbar You can also open the image with more advanced image viewers. Composer. and click on Configure KMail.144 Appendix A..kde. This will re-display the image and allow you to rotate and zoom in on the image using the two magnifying glass icons or the magnification percentage drop-down menu on the toolbar. To launch the GIMP. Rightclick on the image.8. as seen in Figure A-14. choose Open With. Figure A-13. It has an intuitive graphical interface similar to Evolution that allows you to send and receive email using a graphical interface. you must configure it so it can send and receive mail. click on the Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => KMail. then Other... Network. To begin sending and receiving messages you will have to change the settings in the Identities and Network tabs. For additional information.

To compose a mail. and more. KMail Main Screen Once you have your email settings configured. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 145 Figure A-15. emails ready to be sent.Appendix A. The folders on the left side of the KMail screen allow you to view emails you have received. KMail New Email Message Screen . click on the new message icon in the tool bar: Figure A-16. emails you have sent. you can begin sending and receiving email.

and window border appearance.10. Appearance & Themes This sections allows you to customize the visual aspect of your desktop environment.9. and more. click Send in the toolbar: . from the menu. assigning all digital music files to open in XMMS instead of the default player). The KDE Control Center. System Administration This section is an advanced system configuration interface. Figure A-17. Customizing KDE KDE allows you to configure the desktop and your system to suit your needs. You will need your root password to configure most of these options. Web Browsing This section allows you to configure the Konqueror Web browser. plugins. proxy settings (if available). A. Linux kernel configuration. The following list explains some of the configuration options in detail. This section allows you to configure system boot settings. A. login management. you can also configure accessibility features such as audible and visual cues and keyboard/mouse customization. KDE Logout Screen . icons. It is strongly recommended that you leave these settings at their default values unless you understand the consequences of changing them. and enhanced browsing using keyword shortcuts. From the Main Menu. KDE Components This section lets you configure the Konqueror file manager and customize certain file operations. Regional & Accessibility This section allows you to set country and language options to your particular locale. lets you customize the look and behavior of the desktop. where User is your account username. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to. You can also customize mouse and keyboard events which makes working with the desktop as efficient for your needs as possible. You can customize background images and configure fonts. themes. For users with sight or hearing impairments. available by selecting Main Menu => Control Center. You can also associate files to applications that you prefer (for example. panel elements. select Logout User.146 Appendix A. select Logout User where User is your account username. screensavers. website cookies. In either case click Logout and your session will end. Logging Out of KDE There are two ways to log out of your KDE session. right-click on the desktop and. You can configure options such as cache sizes. To log out from the desktop.

Applications . Category Word Processors Spreadsheets Presentations Charts and Diagrams Graphics Image Viewers Digital Cameras/Scanners PDAs CD Recording Text Editors Email Clients Web Browsers Chat/Instant Messaging PDF/PostScript Viewers Personal Finance Fax Sound Recommended Application OpenOffice. The GIMP KPilot. Scanning (XSane) Jpilot CD Creator. lynx X-Chat. Emacs. Applications in between (parentheses) denotes the formal name of the application. aumix.org Calc OpenOffice. The GIMP Scan and OCR Program (Kooka). CD Player (GNOME CD). KSpread KPresenter. Kate Kmail. Konquerer. mutt Galeon. KDE Sound Mixer. XFig Icon Editor (K Icon Editor) Image Viewer (Kuickshow). Mozilla Mail. MagicPoint Kchart. cdrecord. KMid Sound Recorder (GNOME Sound).org Write OpenOffice. X-CD-Roast Text Editor (gedit) Evolution Mozilla Instant Messenger (GAIM) xpdf Gnucash Fax Viewer (KFax) Audio Player (XMMS). KDE CD Player. Kivio. Applications The following table shows some of the Red Hat Linux applications that are available to perform many common tasks. Evolution KOnCD vi. This is not a complete list of all applications available. links.Volume Monitor (VUMeter) Extras KWord Gnumeric.Appendix B. Chatzilla Ghostview Table B-1. Paint Program (KPaint) GThumb Digital Camera Tool (gtKam).org Impress Dia The GIMP.

148 Appendix B. Applications .

some commands are identical.txt diff file1 file2 grep this word or phrase thisfile.txt Displays command help Creates a directory Views a file Renames a file command /? mkdir more ren . A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands Many Linux commands typed at a shell prompt are similar to the commands you would type in DOS. Command’s Purpose Copies files Moves files Lists files Clears screen Closes shell prompt Displays or sets date Deletes files "Echoes" output to the screen Edits files with simple text editor Compares the contents of files Finds a string of text in a file Formats a diskette MS-DOS copy move dir cls exit date del echo edit fc find format a: Linux cp mv ls clear exit date rm echo gedit(a) diff grep mke2fs or mformat(b) man(c) mkdir less(d) mv(e) Basic Linux Example cp thisfile.txt mv thisfile. read its associated man page (for example.txt (if diskette is in A:) /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 (/dev/fd0 is the Linux equivalent of A:) man command mkdir directory less thisfile.txt thatfile. This appendix provides common commands used at the DOS prompt in Windows and their counterparts in Linux. To learn more about each command.txt /home/thisdirectory mv thisfile. Basic examples of how the command are used at the Linux shell prompt are also provided. Note that these commands usually have a number of options.txt /home/thisdirectory ls clear exit date rm thisfile. type man ls at the shell prompt to read about the ls command).txt echo this message gedit thisfile. In fact.Appendix C.

This formats a disk for the DOS file system. cd . d. b. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands MS-DOS chdir Linux pwd Basic Linux Example pwd Changes directories cd with a specified pathname path (absolute path) Changes directories cd . Table C-1. with a relative path Displays the time Shows amount of RAM in use time mem cd pathname cd /directory/directory cd ... c. "move" that file to the same directory with a new name.150 Command’s Purpose Displays your location in the file system Appendix C. You can also use info for some commands. as seen in this example. if you want to rename a file in the same directory. The more pager can also be used to page through a file one screen at a time. other editors you can use in place of Gedit include Emacs and vi.. date free date free Notes: a. Similar Commands . e. The mv command can both move a file and. Gedit is a graphical text editor.

such as log files and the printer spool. — Contains configuration files and directories. /tmp/ allows all users on a system read • /home/ • /opt/ — Default location of user home directories. — The home directory of root. You will be unable to boot your computer if you delete the directory and then reboot your Red Hat Linux system. • /tmp/ — The temporary and write access. — Contains the kernel and other files used during system startup. The directory /usr/sbin/ also contains many system commands. System Directories This is a list of the primary Red Hat Linux system directories. This directory is used mainly by third-party developers for easy installation and uninstallation of their software packages. Used by fsck to place orphaned files (files without names). • /dev/ • /etc/ • /var/ • /usr/ — Contains files and directories directly relating to users of the system. Each directory is described briefly. • /sbin/ — Location of many system commands.img image file and load needed device • /proc/ • /initrd/ — A directory modules during bootup. For example. directory for users and programs. the superuser. — For variable (or constantly changing) files. such as shutdown. Warning Do not delete the /initrd/ directory. the default CD-ROM mount point is /mnt/cdrom/. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide and the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. such as programs and supporting library files. that is used to mount the initrd. — A virtual file system (not actually stored on the disk) that contains system information used by certain programs. The directory /usr/bin/ also stores user commands. • /root/ • /mnt/ • /boot/ • /lost+found/ — • /lib/ — Contains many library files used by programs in /bin/ and /sbin/. . • /bin/ — Used to store user commands. — Directory where optional files and programs are stored. For additional directory information. — Stores device files. — This directory typically contains the mount points for file systems mounted after the system is booted. The directory /usr/lib/ contains more library files for user applications.Appendix D.

152 Appendix D. System Directories .

If you are working in a terminal. exit = logout. By default.Appendix E. Type this at a shell prompt to refresh the screen if characters are unclear or appear corrupt. [Ctrl]+[Alt] + one of the function keys displays an available screen. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Delete] = shutdown and reboots your Red Hat Linux system. [Ctrl] + [l] = clears the terminal. It will automatically complete the command or show all commands that match the characters you typed. Click the middle mouse button to paste it. For example. Type the first few characters of a command or filename and then press the [Tab] key. • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Use this quick shortcut instead of typing exit or logout. [Up] and [Down] Arrow = shows command history.html#shortcuts • • • [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Backspace] = kills your current X session. Shuts down your current session and reboots the OS. Type this command to clear all visible data from the shell prompt screen. Many more are available in addition to what is listed here. Keyboard Shortcuts Here are a few keyboard shortcuts you can use to perform common tasks quickly. you can click both the left and right mouse buttons simultaneously to perform a paste. Point the cursor to the spot where you want it pasted. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. [Ctrl] + [u] = clears the current line. If you have more than one application open at a time. press the [up] or [down] arrow to scroll through a history of commands you have typed from the current directory. if you configured your mouse to emulate a third mouse button. [Ctrl] + [d] = logout of (and close) shell prompt. Kills your graphical desktop session and returns you to the login screen. history = shows history of commands. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Fn] = switches screens. type history followed by a space and a number. you can use [Alt] + [Tab] to switch among open tasks and applications. When using a shell prompt. [Ctrl] + [e] = moves cursor to end of a line. [Middle Mouse Button] = pastes highlighted text. This shortcut does the same thing as typing clear at a command line. Use this command when using a shell prompt. [Alt] + [Tab] = switches tasks in a graphical desktop environment. Type this at a shell prompt to logout of the current user or root account. Type this at a shell prompt to see a numbered list of the previous 1000 commands you typed. To display a shorter list of previously used commands. [F1] through [F6] are shell prompt screens and [F7] is the graphical desktop screen.dk/linux-newbie/lnag_commands. Use only when the normal shutdown procedure does not work. Use this if the normal exit procedure does not work. Use the left mouse button to highlight the text. visit: http://sunsite. history 20. [Ctrl] + [a] = moves cursor to the beginning of a line. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. reset = refreshes the shell prompt screen. [Tab] = command autocomplete. When you see the command you want to use. clear = clears the shell prompt screen. press [Enter]. use this shortcut to clear the current line from the cursor all the way to the beginning of the line. In a two mouse system. For more command line and keyboard shortcuts.

154 Appendix E. Keyboard Shortcuts .

v creating graphics with OpenOffice. 94 multiple. 96 cron. 90 reset. 95 DOS. 104 print working directory (pwd). 30 with X-CD-Roast. 105 numerical settings. 30 and mkisofs. 32 and CD Creator. 103 tips. 26 additional resources. 26 additional resources. 90 chmod. 90 change directories. common options with. 31 CDs. 27 with cdrecord. deleting) rm -r (See directories. 108 clear. 7 B bunzip2. 26 additional resources. 105 numerical settings. 108 clear. playing. 98 applets adding to KDE panel. 30 and mkisofs. 27 and cdrecord. 127 compressing files. 137 applications and Red Hat Linux. 131 ls -a. 149 finding. 69 creating user accounts. 101 cat. 130 grep. 130 locate. 30 with mkisofs. 96 cd. 101 head. 90 pwd. 131 command line options printing from. 140 adding to the panel. 115 burning CDs. using. 96 rm (See files. 16 on the desktop panel. 113 conventions document. 101 common user questions. 127 archiving files. 27 and cdrecord. 104 su. 113 commands (See shell prompt) cat. 93 ls. 96 command history. 92 tail. deleting) stringing together. 93 ls -al. 90 CD-rewritable (CD-RW). 32 with CD Creator. 101 history. 30 and X-CD-Roast. 7 appending standard output. 32 and CD Creator. 94 ls.org Draw. 73 chmod. 28 bzip2. 30 and X-CD-Roast. 14 panel in KDE. 96 cd. 60 . ii copying and pasting text when using X. 28 cdrecord.Index A accounts creating. 28 CD-writable (CD-R). 115 C cat. 93 keeping output from scrolling. 147 starting from shell prompt.

127 accessing a Windows partition. 120 moving at a shell prompt. 112 archiving. 151 listing contents. 119 renaming at a shell prompt. 119 deleting. 81 KDE. 72 text files. 121 deleting at a shell prompt. 125 Evolution (See email clients) ext2 file system and floppy disks. 21 dateconfig (See Time and Date Properties Tool) desktop (See graphical desktop) applets. 25 mounting.org Writer. 138 devices digital cameras. 127 starting applications. 70 dot files (See hidden files) drag and drop. 69 environment variables PATH. 87 DHCP. 112 compressing. 130 history tips and tricks. 127 feedback contact information for this manual. 87 directories changing. 50 mutt. 93 managing from shell prompt. 23 using. 35 digital cameras. 119 copying at a shell prompt. 113 with File Roller. 129 finding previous used commands. 119 formats. 144 Mozilla Mail. 114 compressed.org. 23 formatting. 131 login problems. 90 copying. 50 . 48 Newsgroups. 132 permissions for installing RPMs. 14 background changing. v drawing OpenOffice. 112 managing from shell prompt. 131 keeping ls output from scrolling. 113 file manager for KDE. 49 mutt. 113 with File Roller. 128 errata updating with. 119 creating touch. 120 diskettes. 23 DNS definition. 114 copying. 111 file types. 63 OpenOffice. 112 files archived. 111 File Roller. 119 deleting. 23 unmounting. 63 OpenOffice. 24 mke2fs. 119 types of. 46 KMail. 112 Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. v FHS (See Filesystem Hierarchy Standard) file. 16 file managers. 18. 64 PDF. 135 desktops multiple KDE. 140 Nautilus. 114 file system understanding.org Draw. 112 floppy disks (See diskettes) E email clients.156 D date configuration. 35 documents. 50 plain text. 121 descriptions. 89 moving. 24 F FAQ. 45 Evolution. 89 moving.

157
formatting diskettes, 24

I
images additional resources, 85 manipulation, 79 GIMP, 82 viewing, 79, 79 gThumb, 80 Konqueror, 143 Nautilus, 79 Internet configuring, 35 Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 introduction, i IP address, 35

G
games and amusements, 76 finding more online, 77 getting started logging in, 5 Setup Agent, 1 GIMP, 82 opening a file, 83 saving a file, 84 GNOME desktop (See graphical desktop) GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 graphical desktop, 13 applets, 16 background changing, 18, 81 customizing, 18 logging out of, 20 main menu, 14 Nautilus, 16 panel, 14 Start Here , 17 using, 13 workspace, 13 graphical login changing to, 132 graphics GIMP, 82 gThumb, 80 changing wallpaper with, 81 gunzip, 115 gzip, 115

K
KDE, 135 applets adding, 140 multiple desktops, 138 customizing, 146 desktop, 135 desktop icons, 136 desktops multiple, 138 switching, 139 documentation, 135 Konqueror navigation panel, 141 main menu, 137 panel, 136 applets, 137 switching tasks, 139 Taskbar, 139 website, 135 keyboard shortcuts, 153 KMail (See email clients) Konqueror (See Web browsers) KDE file manager, 140 navigation panel, 141 viewing images with, 143

H
Hardware Browser, 129 help with KDE finding, 135 hidden files, 93 history finding commands using, 130

158

L
less, 100 linux commands (See shell prompt) listing directories (See commands, ls) log in, 5 logging in, 5 graphical, 132 graphical login, 6 virtual console login, 6 logging out, 11 from the desktop, 20 KDE, 146 login problems using single-user mode, 132 ls, 93 printing output, 131 viewing output, 131

configuring, 21 ntpd, 21 ntpd, 21

O
online connecting with Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 OpenOffice.org, 63 Draw, 69 features, 63 Impress, 67 Writer, 64, 65 ownership and permissions, 105

P
pagers, 100 less, 100 panel configuring, 16 configuring the, 140 KDE, 136 adding applications, 137 customizing, 137 hiding, 137 on the graphical desktop, 14 partitions accessing Windows, 129 password forgotten, 132 passwords secure, 8 PATH, 128 editing, 127 pathnames relative and absolute, 90 PDF viewing, 72 xpdf, 72 peripherals digital cameras, 87 permissions numerical settings, 108 setting for new RPMs, 127 permissions and ownership, 105 pipes, 100 plain text (See text files) Point-to-Point Protocol, 35 PPP, 35 presentations OpenOffice.org Impress, 67 printer configuration adding

M
main menu in KDE, 137 on the desktop, 14 mke2fs, 25 mkisofs, 31 mouse how to use, v Mozilla (See Web browsers) Mozilla Mail (See email clients) music Ogg Vorbis, 73 Wave, 73 XMMS, 73 using, 74 mutt (See email clients)

N
Nautilus, 16 disabling text icons, 17 disabling thumbnails, 17 viewing images with, 79 Network Time Protocol (See NTP) new users creating accounts, 7 Newsgroups (See email clients) NTP

159
local printer, 53 cancel print job, 60 default printer, 56 delete existing printer, 56 driver options, 57 Assume Unknown Data is Text, 57 Convert Text to Postscript, 58 Effective Filter Locale, 58 GhostScript pre-filtering, 58 Media Source, 58 Page Size, 58 Prerender Postscript, 58 Send End-of-Transmission (EOT), 57 Send Form-Feed (FF), 57 edit driver, 57 edit existing printer, 56 GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 local printer, 53 managing print jobs, 58 modifying existing printers, 56 notification icon, 59 printing from the command line, 60 rename existing printer, 57 test page, 56 viewing print spool, 59 viewing print spool, command line, 60 printing from command line, 95 pwd, 90

S
Setup Agent, 1 shell, 89 history of, 89 shell prompt, 7 basic commands, 89 chmod, 106 single-user mode, 132 software installing, 123 upgrading, 123 sound card configuring, 74 Sound Card Configuration Tool, 74 spreadsheets OpenOffice.org Calc, 65 standard input redirecting, 99 standard output appending, 98 redirecting, 96 Start Here, 17 changing desktop background with, 18 startup messages dmesg | more, 100 startx, 6 su, 92 superuser (See commands, su) switching desktops KDE, 139 switching tasks KDE, 139 system directories descriptions, 151

R
Red Hat Network, 123 Red Hat Update Agent, 123 redhat-config-date (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redhat-config-time (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redirecting standard input, 99 redirection, 96 reset, 96 RHN (See Red Hat Network) root, 111 and root login, 111 logging in as, 5 RPM, 125 installing packages, 123 upgrading packages, 123 RPMs error message while installing, 127 installing with Gnome-RPM, 127

T
tab completion, 103 Taskbar KDE, 139 terminal (See shell prompt) terms introductory, 3 text files, 70 editing, 70 from a shell prompt, 71 The Graphical Desktop, 6 time configuration, 21 synchronize with NTP server, 21 time zone configuration, 22 timetool (See Time and Date Properties Tool) Trash icon

71 W wallpaper changing. 115 user account creating. 76 xpdf. 72 .160 KDE. 7 importance of. 136 troubleshooting sound card. 39 Konqueror. 5 utilities cat. 141 Mozilla. 96 less. 18 Web browsers. 39 Windows accessing on a separate partition add line to /etc/fstab. 39 X X Configuration Tool. 39 using. 39 Mozilla. 74 video card. 76 U unzip. 129 World Wide Web browsers. 100 V vi .

Colophon The Red Hat Linux manuals are written in DocBook SGML v4. and warning). Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer . The DocBook SGML files are written in Emacs with the help of PSGML mode. Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer John Ha — Primary Writer/Maintainer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Tammy Fox — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. Bailey — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer. The HTML and PDF formats are produced using custom DSSSL stylesheets and custom jade wrapper scripts. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. They may be freely redistributed with the Red Hat documentation. Moore — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide. caution. Writer/Maintainer of custom DocBook stylesheets and scripts Edward C. tip.1 format. Garrett LeSage created the admonition graphics (note. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide Johnray Fuller — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. The Red Hat Linux Product Documentation Team consists of the following people: Sandra A. important.

162 .

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