Red Hat Linux 9

Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide

Red Hat Linux 9: Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc.
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Table of Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... i 1. Changes to This Manual ........................................................................................................ i 2. Document Conventions......................................................................................................... ii 3. Copying and Pasting Text With X........................................................................................ iv 4. Using the Mouse ................................................................................................................... v 5. We Need Feedback! .............................................................................................................. v 6. Sign Up for Support .............................................................................................................. v 1. Getting Started ................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1. Setup Agent....................................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Introductory Terms............................................................................................................. 3 1.3. Logging In.......................................................................................................................... 5 1.3.1. Graphical Login .................................................................................................. 5 1.3.2. Virtual Console Login......................................................................................... 6 1.4. Graphical Interface............................................................................................................. 6 1.5. Opening a Shell Prompt ..................................................................................................... 7 1.6. Creating a User Account.................................................................................................... 7 1.7. Documentation and Help ................................................................................................... 8 1.7.1. Manual Pages ...................................................................................................... 9 1.7.2. Red Hat Linux Documentation ......................................................................... 10 1.8. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 11 1.8.1. Graphical Logout .............................................................................................. 11 1.8.2. Virtual Console Logout..................................................................................... 11 1.9. Shutting Down your Computer ........................................................................................ 11 1.9.1. Graphical Shutdown.......................................................................................... 11 1.9.2. Virtual Console Shutdown ................................................................................ 12 2. Using the Graphical Desktop ....................................................................................................... 13 2.1. Using the Desktop............................................................................................................ 13 2.2. Using the Panel ................................................................................................................ 14 2.2.1. Using the Main Menu ...................................................................................... 14 2.2.2. Using Applets.................................................................................................... 14 2.2.3. Using the Notification Area .............................................................................. 15 2.2.4. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel............................................................. 16 2.2.5. Configuring the Desktop Panel ......................................................................... 16 2.3. Using Nautilus ................................................................................................................ 16 2.4. Start Here ......................................................................................................................... 17 2.4.1. Customizing the Desktop.................................................................................. 18 2.4.2. Customizing your System ................................................................................. 19 2.5. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 20 3. Configuring the Date and Time ................................................................................................... 21 3.1. Time and Date Properties................................................................................................. 21 3.2. Time Zone Configuration................................................................................................. 21 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs .............................................................................................................. 23 4.1. Using Diskettes ................................................................................................................ 23 4.1.1. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette.............................................................. 23 4.1.2. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette ................................................... 24 4.1.3. Formatting a Diskette........................................................................................ 24 4.2. CD-ROMs ........................................................................................................................ 25 4.2.1. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager ....................................................... 26 4.2.2. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt ............................................................ 26 4.3. CD-Rs and CD-RWs ........................................................................................................ 26 4.3.1. Using CD Creator............................................................................................ 27 4.3.2. Using X-CD-Roast........................................................................................... 28

..........................2.........4................... OpenOffice............................................ 55 8................................................ 50 8...................... 54 8....... Installed Documentation .....................5...........4............................................. 60 8.................... Mozilla and Newsgroups ............... Playing Digital Audio Files .....1..4............... Plain Text Email Clients ...... 61 9.................................................................... 45 7.................................1............................ Email Applications.............. Editing Text Files .... 71 10.........................3........... 55 8.....................2........................ 50 7... 73 10......................... 39 6...... 53 8.... Queue Name ....... Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing....................................................7..............................................3.................................................................................................................. 41 6............................................... 63 9......................................................2.................................................................... Games ...............................................................................3...............................................2.................... Printing a Test Page..........................1....................................... 73 10....... Additional Resources ......................................................7..............................................................................................................2.......... Using Mutt ............................................. 33 5.........1................................................................1...................6........ 76 10....................................... Confirming Printer Configuration ...................................................... OpenOffice......3.......................... 67 9...... 41 6............2...... 69 9... 47 7............................................ 56 8..................................................1.................... Mozilla Composer......................................3.............................................. Mozilla Mail........................................................................ 58 8...5..................................................................5...........4...2. 63 9........................................ Galeon ..................................................... Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools ........................ 74 10....................org Writer .................................................... Shell Prompt Text Editors .................. Video.............................3................................4........3..... 65 9.. Audio............ 39 6................................................................... The Printer Configuration Tool .............................................................................2....... 57 8. The OpenOffice................ Web Browsing.................... Modifying Existing Printers......... Queue Type ........... Getting Online .. 77 ........................................................................................................ Mozilla.......................................................7............................... and General Amusement................. 71 9.....................1............................. 35 6....... 63 9............... Printer Driver................................... Troubleshooting Your Sound Card .......................... OpenOffice..............1..................... 57 8.................................................1......5................ OpenOffice......3................. 53 8....... 57 8.....................................org Calc .....................................2... Adding a Local Printer........................................................................................................................................................................... Driver Options.....3....................3........................................................................................................................... 32 4..........................................1........................................................................... Playing Audio CDs ................................1.........................................................5.............................................. 75 10..1..................5.................1...............................org Draw.......1..............1.......1..... 60 8................... Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts ........................................................................................... Additional Resources .... 49 7.......2...1....................................... Working with Documents................................. Using Mozilla.......... Managing Print Jobs ........................................... 73 10....2........................................ 57 8......org Features. 39 6......1................................. Viewing PDFs ..................................... Finding Games Online .............. 32 4..............................................1..............4.1.. Useful Websites ................1............... Using XMMS ............................................................. 43 7.....4......6................................................. Printer Configuration ............................................................................. OpenOffice..... Troubleshooting Your Video Card ...... 30 4............. Installed Documentation ...........................................2.................................... 45 7.......................................................................................... Useful Websites .........5............................................................ 53 8. Evolution. 64 9.1................. If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work.........2.........................................1................org Suite.............................. 75 10.........org Impress....... 69 9..................................................................................................................................................................3...4. 74 10.............3................

......14....1..............................2..................................... Clearing and Resetting the Terminal............................................................ 82 11.. 104 13......... Creating Files ...2........2....... 83 11.. I/O Redirection and Pipes ......................................................... 114 14........... A Larger Picture of the File System . Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt ..........3.......2.. 85 11...................................... 99 13..3.............. The more Command .............................3......................... Using Redirection ..........................11.................2............................... Useful Websites ................2.........3.........2........ 79 11............ Wildcards and Regular Expressions............................ Using gtKam .....................3....... 87 12.......................................................................12..... 84 11....................................................................................9.....................9............ 100 13............................................................................................... Locating Files and Directories .. 119 14.................................................................................. Viewing Images.............3.....................1...........1................................................. 117 14............... Working with Images...................................................10....................................1.... 111 14....... 113 14....................................................................................................................................................................11.............. Command History and Tab Completion .................................. Why Use a Shell Prompt....................... 98 13.... File Formats ..... Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt........................................2................. 90 13.... Using File Roller...................... 101 13.2...........................................................................................11................. Manipulating Images with the GIMP.............. Programming and Scripting Files ......1........................................ 89 13............... Working with Digital Cameras ... 108 14..................................................................................... Identifying and Working with File Types ...........11...................6................................. 84 11.. 94 13...............................................10...................................................... Compressed and Archived Files ..........4... 111 14.2....................................3........... Using Nautilus to View Images............................................3........................................... 86 12............................. 80 11................................... 104 13........... 90 13.......3....................................................... 101 13...... 89 13.................................2................ Saving a File ................................................... Changing Permissions With Numbers ................11......................................... Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt................................................3............. 85 11............1............... View Directory Contents with ls.............................5......1........................................ Redirecting Standard Input ..................................................... 119 ....................................2...................................................................2................................... 95 13........................................3...................................................................................................................................7.......... Installed Documentation ............. Shell Prompt Basics ..............................................................1....4............. 106 13. 112 14........................................................4.......... Managing Files and Directories ...... Pipes and Pagers .................... Appending Standard Output ........9......................................................................... More Commands for Reading Text Files....... 112 14....................................................... 112 14.......................................................................................1...........3...1....3.................................................................................. 101 13..... 103 13............8................ Printing From The Command Line................ Manipulating Files with cat........................... File Compression and Archiving ....4......... Additional Resources . 96 13... 95 13....... The History of the Shell......5..... 102 13...................................... 96 13................. GIMP Options .1.............................. Determining Your Current Directory with pwd ......11.... 79 11.............1............2. The tail Command............. 93 13................. 87 13................................................2................... GIMP Basics ...........14.............................4......... Using gThumb ................. 113 14. 102 13............................................ The head Command ...........................................................................2................................................................................ 99 13..........3.......................2............... 89 13.................. Loading a File ...... System Files ............. Related Books .... Ownership and Permissions...................... 112 14.....1.............. Using Multiple Commands ......1.......................................................... 101 13... 85 11.. The chmod Command....... Changing Directories with cd ..... The grep Command.........................................................14...............2.........................................................11.....................1.........................................................................................................................................................................................................1............................................................ 79 11...............4..............................3...2...... 82 11............ 115 14.................................9............................13..........

.............. 127 16................................................ Managing Files................................... 146 B............................. 137 A...... 147 C........................................................... Errata List......4......................................................................................................................3.... 129 16.............. 123 15.. 153 Index................. Localhost Login and Password ...................... Using The Panel .............. 130 16........... 120 14................8....................................................................................... 126 16..................2.............................................................................. 143 A... Other Shortcuts ........................ Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages.................................................................... Password Maintenance....... 131 16..........4...... Using The Main Menu. Deleting Files and Directories .......... Copying Files ....... Finding Help ......................... 151 E............................................................5............ Using Applets...2........................................7....8..................................................................... Tips on Using Command History ........... 127 16..................................... The Navigation Panel................................ 149 D.......... Forgotten Password............................................ 140 A..........9.............................................................................. KMail ...............4..........................7............. 146 A...............1............................................ Error Messages During Installation of RPMs...................................................................................................10........3......... 121 15.................. 141 A................................................1.....................................4......4.........9........ Red Hat Network .................... Editing Your PATH ..................... 135 A.................................................4............................................................................... 125 15....................................................... Moving Files ........2..................3.... A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands .................... 131 16.......... 140 A...........................................................................................................................3..... Browsing the Web with Konqueror ..............4....14....................... Applications ........................................................ Printing ls Output......................... 127 16................ 136 A................................................................... Keyboard Shortcuts ...................3........ Using The Desktop............................................................. Finding Commands Quickly ........................................................1.........................................................................4............................................................................................................................................................4.......................... 132 A..................................................... 137 A............................................ Logging Out of KDE....................2...1............ Customizing KDE ......................................................................... Configuring the KDE Panel ............................................... Introducing KDE.................................1....................4........................................ Frequently Asked Questions ....6.....................................................................................1........................ System Directories... 161 ..................................................................... 155 Colophon............................................. Changing Login from Console to X at Startup ..................... 135 A............................... 132 16.......... KDE: The K Desktop Environment .................................................. 119 14........................................................................................................ Keep ls Output from Scrolling ................................... 139 A........... 127 16........................ Downloaded Packages ...........4.................................1.. 135 A............................ Starting Applications ............................................... 128 16.................... 130 16................6... Using Konqueror to View Images ........................................................................................................................................................ 144 A..........................2...... Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel .........................................5............................5................... 125 15................ 135 A............................ 141 A.........10.......................................6............................................................................3.....4........................................................ Accessing a Windows Partition ................ 131 16........................ Installation CD-ROMs ........................................................ 123 15..................................1.............7............................................ 131 16.

feels. Forget about the conventions of other operating systems and. warnings. and the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. you should have read the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide and successfully installed Red Hat Linux. Once the basics are covered. hints. with an open mind. such as customizing a desktop. Topics discussed include: • • • • • Using the graphical desktop environment Managing files and directories Working with documents Using the Web and email Working with a digital camera After conquering the basics of your Red Hat Linux system. You can find this information in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. This manual is designed to help new and intermediate Linux users navigate and perform common tasks. Note Although this manual reflects the most current information possible. approach Red Hat Linux as a new. You will find useful tips. the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer.redhat. They can be found on the Red Hat Linux CD #1 and online at: http://www. the tasks covered in this manual become progressively more advanced. The Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide focuses primarily on how to perform tasks in these two environments. Changes to this manual include: Working with Digital Cameras This new chapter discusses using a digital camera with gtKam. HTML and PDF versions of the Red Hat Linux manuals are available on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD and online at http://www. configuring a printer. and versatile alternative. and getting online. and screen shots interspersed throughout. . This manual is task-oriented. you should read the Red Hat Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to our documentation being finalized. the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. Most users choose to work within either the GNOME or KDE graphical desktop environments (other desktop environments are also available). interesting. you will learn the basics of using Red Hat Linux.com/docs/ 1.com/docs/. you may need information on more advanced topics. Keep in mind that Linux looks.redhat. and performs differently from other operating systems you may have used. First.Introduction Welcome to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide! By now. Changes to This Manual This manual has been expanded to include new features in Red Hat Linux 9 as well as topics requested by our readers.

and more. and how to connect to a network time server to get accurate time and date information for your Red Hat Linux system has been moved from the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide to this manual. directory names. The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and filesystems. in the current working directory. sizes. 2. so the entire phrase will be displayed as a command. For example: Use Mozilla to browse the Web. This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on the command line and press [Enter] to invoke a command. For example: Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file. different words are represented in the same style to indicate their inclusion in a specific category. and RPM package names are represented this way. when used) are represented this way.ii Configuring Date and Time Introduction A chapter on configuring your system time. manage your printer. Examples: The . they are considered to be part of the command. named testfile. This style should indicate that a particular file or directory exists by that name on your Red Hat Linux system. and weights. Using the Graphical Desktop This chapter has been modified to reflect the new desktop environment and the various ways you can use and configure it. filename Filenames. Document Conventions When you read this manual. your time zone. The types of words that are represented this way include the following: command Linux commands (and other operating system commands. including how to change your desktop background. Sometimes a command contains words that would be displayed in a different style on their own (such as filenames). . application This style indicates that the program is an end-user application (as opposed to system software). paths. This highlighting is systematic.bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases for your own use. Working with Documents This chapter includes information on editing text files in a graphical environment (with gEdit) and at a shell prompt (with vi). In these cases. typefaces. Diskettes and CD-ROMs This chapter now includes information about backing up files to CD-R and CD-RW media using CD Creator in Nautilus. Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program. you will see that certain words are represented in different fonts.

button on a GUI screen or window This style indicates that the text will be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen. Example: Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require a password before stopping. [key]-[combination] A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. error messages. it indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu. and interactive prompts for your input during scripts or programs shown this way. top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window When you see a word in this style.png reports The output returned in response to the command (in this case. For example: The [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[Backspace] key combination will exit your graphical session and return you to the graphical login screen or the console. Examples: $ # [stephen@maturin stephen]$ . For example: iii To use [Tab] completion. Your terminal will display the list of files in the directory that start with that letter.Introduction [key] A key on the keyboard is shown in this style. which is a computer’s way of signifying that it is ready for you to input something. If you need to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu. For example: Under File on a GNOME terminal. If you click on the word on the GUI screen. it is being used to identify a particular GUI screen or an element on a GUI screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or field).html backupfiles logs mail paulwesterberg. word. will be shown in this style. they will be shown like the following example: Go to Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => Programming => Emacs to start the Emacs text editor. When you see text shown in this style. the contents of the directory) is shown in this style. you will see the New Tab option that allows you to open multiple shell prompts in the same window. computer output When you see text in this style. For example: Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed. text found on a GUI interface A title. it indicates text displayed by the computer on the command line. or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window will be shown in this style. the rest of the menu should appear. prompt A prompt. For example: Use the ls command to display the contents of a directory: $ ls Desktop Mail about. You will see responses to commands you typed in. type in a character and then press the [Tab] key.

Important If you modify the DHCP configuration file. you will need to type in the text command at the boot: prompt. Do not choose this installation class unless you are sure you have no data you need to save. In other words. a rose is not a ROSE is not a rOsE. caution. Caution Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you need to use the root account for system administration tasks. Additionally. the changes will not take effect until you restart the DHCP daemon. or into a text box on a GUI screen. In order of how critical the information is to your system. we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of information. these items will be marked as note. For example: Note Remember that Linux is case sensitive. or a warning.iv Introduction leopard login: user input Text that the user has to type. tip. Tip The directory /usr/share/doc contains additional documentation for packages installed on your system. is displayed in this style. . text is displayed in this style: To boot your system into the text based installation program. Warning If you choose not to partition manually. important. In the following example. either on the command line. a server installation will remove all existing partitions on all installed hard drives.

You will find your Product ID on a black. If you have a two-button mouse. To sign up. 5.com/apps/activate/. red. If you’re instructed to drag and drop an item on your GUI desktop. If you need to use the middle or right mouse button. If you have found an error. You will be entitled to any or all of the following benefits.redhat. pressing both mouse buttons at the same time equates to pressing the missing third (middle) button. Sign Up for Support If you have an edition of Red Hat Linux 9. To copy text. 4.) The phrase "drag and drop" may be familiar to you. click on something and hold the mouse button down. and white card in your Red Hat Linux box. When submitting a bug report. Under the Brim: The Red Hat E-Newsletter — Every month. While continuing to hold down the mouse button. 6. that means click the left mouse button. Copying and Pasting Text With X Copying and pasting text is easy using your mouse and the X Window System. In this document. try to be as specific as possible when describing it. please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily. drag the item by moving the mouse to a new location. if you are instructed to click with the mouse on something. Red Hat Network — Easily update your packages and receive security notices that are customized for your system. get the latest news and product information directly from Red Hat. release the mouse button to drop the item.redhat.com for more details. We Need Feedback! If you spot a typographical error in the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. To paste the text somewhere.’s support team.Introduction v 3. . Inc.com/bugzilla/) against the component rhl-gsg. be sure to mention the manual’s identifier: rhl-gsg(EN)-9-Print-RHI (2003-02-20T01:05) If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation. (This will be reversed if you’ve configured your mouse to be used by a left handed person. you should have selected three-button emulation during the installation process. simply click and drag your mouse over the text to highlight it. that will be explicitly stated. When you’ve reached the desired location. depending upon the Red Hat Linux product you purchased: • • • Red Hat support — Get help with your installation questions from Red Hat. click the middle mouse button in the spot where the text should be placed. Go to http://rhn. please remember to sign up for the benefits you are entitled to as a Red Hat customer. Using the Mouse Red Hat Linux is designed to use a three-button mouse. If you’re using three-button emulation. or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better.redhat. we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla (http://bugzilla. go to http://www.

and thank you for choosing Red Hat Linux! The Red Hat Documentation Team .vi Introduction To read more about technical support for Red Hat Linux. Good luck. refer to the Getting Technical Support Appendix in the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide.

Getting Started From booting up to shutting down. The Setup Agent guides you through the configuration of your Red Hat Linux system. Red Hat Linux provides tools and applications to help you get the most out of your computing environment. an optional full name for the account. install software. the Setup Agent is presented. you can set your system time and date. This chapter guides you through some basic tasks that you can perform on your Red Hat Linux system. 1. . whether you are working or playing. and a password (which you must enter twice). add users to your system. Setup Agent allows you to configure your environment at the beginning.Chapter 1. and more. Setup Agent The first time you start your Red Hat Linux system. so that you can get started using your Red Hat Linux system quickly. register your machine with the Red Hat Network. Figure 1-1. The Setup Agent lets you enter a username. Using this tool. Setup Agent The Setup Agent first prompts you to create a user account that you should use on a routine basis. It is not recommended to log in to your root account for common computing tasks. as you may damage your system or unintentionally delete a file. This creates a user account that you can use to log into your Red Hat Linux system and which has its own home directory on the system to store files.1.

month. . For more information about Red Hat Network and registering your machine. refer to the Red Hat Network documentation at http://www. Selecting No. Getting Started Figure 1-2. which adjusts the clock on your computer’s BIOS (Basic Input Output System). I do not want to register my system skips the registration. use the provided text boxes. To set the day.2 Chapter 1.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/. minutes. User Account The Setup Agent allows you to manually set your machine’s date and time. I would like to register my system with Red Hat Network. You may also synchronize your date and time automatically with a network time server — a computer that sends accurate date and time settings to your system through a network connection. click Forward to continue. To set your time in hours.redhat. Date and Time Configuration To register your system with Red Hat Network and receive automatic updates of your Red Hat Linux system. Check the box labeled Enable Network Time Protocol and use the drop-down menu to select the time server you want to use. and year on your system. This will start the Red Hat Update Agent — a utility that guides you step-by-step through the registration of your machine with Red Hat Network. Figure 1-3. choose Yes. and seconds. Once you have set your time and date. use the calendar interface.

. button. button. you must insert CD 1. Red Hat Network Registration Client To install Red Hat Linux RPM packages that you did not install during installation. Press Forward to exit the Setup Agent. Installing Additional Software Now that your system is configured. and follow the instructions. you are ready to log in and start using Red Hat Linux. click the Install. click the Install. you should also learn new terminology. change the CD..2. Figure 1-5. This section defines a few basic terms you should learn. choose the package(s) or component you want to install.. software from third-party providers. 1. Insert the CD containing the software or documentation you want to install. You will see these terms often throughout all Red Hat Linux documentation including the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide: . Introductory Terms When you learn about a new operating system.Chapter 1.. and. you can do so at the Additional CDs screen. Getting Started 3 Figure 1-4. if prompted . Note If you are installing a package from the Red Hat Linux Installation CDs. or documentation from the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD.

and panels which allow a user to initiate actions such as starting applications and opening files using a mouse and keyboard. Graphical User Interface (GUI): A general term for interactive windows. Getting Started Command: An instruction given to the computer. You must be logged in as root to accomplish certain system administration tasks. You can customize your desktop to have special backgrounds. The panel contains the Main Menu button and shortcut icons to start commonly used programs. icons. which can reduce the chance of damaging your Red Hat Linux installation or applications permanently. The desktop is where your user Home and Start Here icons are located. Icons are small images representing an application. Man page and Info page: Man (short for manual) and Info pages give detailed information about a command or file (man pages tend to be brief and provide less explanation than Info pages). Shell prompt: A command line interface between the user and the operating system (Figure 1-7). shortcut or system resource (such as a diskette drive). User accounts are created so that typical user tasks can be done without using the root account. Launcher icons usually refer to application shortcuts. colors. For example. Graphical Desktop: The most visible area of a GUI. A Shell Prompt . The shell interprets commands entered by the user and passes them on to the operating system. most often with the keyboard or mouse. To close man or Info pages. Panels can also be customized to suit your needs. folder. Panel: A desktop toolbar. RPM: RPM stands for RPM Package manager and is how Red Hat builds and delivers its software files. An RPM is a software package file you can install on your Red Hat Linux computer. such as changing administrative passwords and running system configuration tools. press [q]. usually located across the bottom of your desktop (such as Figure 1-6). • • • Figure 1-7. to read the man page for the su command. menus. and pictures to add a personal touch.4 Chapter 1. The Desktop Panel Root: Root is an administrative user account created during installation and has complete access to the system. type man su at a shell prompt (or type info su for the info page). Command line: The space at the shell prompt where commands are typed. • • • • • • • Figure 1-6.

3. some new users are tempted to use only this account for all of their activities. or system administrator. If you are "in X" or "running X". Note Red Hat Linux applications and files are case sensitive. Caution Because your Red Hat Linux system creates the root account during installation. you are introducing yourself to the system (also called authentication). refer to Section 1. • Although the emphasis throughout this book is on navigation and productivity using the graphical desktop environment. This is a dangerous idea. but it is not recommended. root refers to the root user (also known as the superuser). X or X Window System: These terms refer to the graphical user interface environments. which is primarily used in a network setting. you can skip ahead to Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop. Again. you will not be allowed access to your system. you must log in as root. you have access to important system files that you can change (or damage if you are not careful). By default. . which means that typing root refers to a different account than Root. 1.3. Getting Started 5 • su and su -: The command su gives you access to the root account or other accounts on your system. Logging in with the su . Logging In The next step to using your Red Hat Linux system is to log in. both the graphical and shell prompt methods of logging in and using your Red Hat Linux system are discussed for your reference. Unlike some other operating systems. If you created only the root account. If you type the wrong user name or password. If you did not create a user account using the Setup Agent. If you have already created and logged in to a user account. your Red Hat Linux system uses accounts to manage privileges.command makes you root within the root account shell.1. Use caution when you are logged in as root. You can easily damage your system by accidentally deleting or modifying sensitive system files.6 Creating a User Account to learn how to set up a user account.Chapter 1. Graphical Login When your system has booted. Not all accounts are created equal: some accounts have fewer rights to access files or services than others. When you log in. 1. a graphical login screen is displayed as shown in Figure 1-8. because the root account is allowed to do anything on the system. After you create a user account. your machine will probably be called localhost. maintain security. you are working in a GUI rather than a console environment. You may be tempted to forego creating and using a user account during or after installation. When you type su to switch to your root account while still inside your user account shell. and more. unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname. it is highly recommended that you log in as that user instead of root to prevent accidental damage to your Red Hat Linux installation.

you will see a login prompt similar to the following after booting your system: Red Hat Linux release 9 Kernel 2. you will find a graphical interface known as a desktop similar to Figure 1-9. press [Enter]. Logging in from the graphical login screen automatically starts the graphical desktop for you. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt. type your username at the login prompt. which is primarily used in a network setting. type root at the login prompt. and press [Enter].18-14 on an i686 localhost login: Unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname. type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt.4.4. press [Enter]. Graphical Interface When you installed Red Hat Linux you had the opportunity to install a graphical environment. . To log in as a normal user.6 Chapter 1. The Graphical Login Screen To log in as root from the graphical login screen.localdomain. press [Enter]. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt. 1. Once you start the X Window System. you can type the command startx to start the graphical desktop. and press [Enter]. your machine will probably be called localhost. and press [Enter]. press [Enter]. After logging in. type your username at the login prompt.2. Virtual Console Login During installation. To log in as a normal user. 1. then type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt and press [Enter]. Getting Started Figure 1-8. type root at the login prompt. if you selected an installation type other than Workstation or Personal Desktop and chose text as your login type. To log in as root from the console.3.

5. You can open a shell prompt by selecting Main Menu => System Tools => Terminal. Click Add User. click the System Settings icon. You can also start the User Manager by typing redhat-config-users at a shell prompt. 2. You can also select Main Menu => System Settings => Users & Groups from the panel. If you are not logged in as root. Click the Start Here icon on the desktop. or press [Ctrl]-[D] at the prompt. The window shown in Figure 1-10 will appear. type exit at the prompt. If you did not create at least one account (not including the root account) you should do so now. To create a user account graphically using the User Manager: 1. . an application that allows you to type commands instead of using a graphical interface for all computing activities. To exit a shell prompt. you will be prompted for your root password.6. 1.Chapter 1. You should avoid working in the root account for daily tasks. In the new window that opens. There are two ways to create new and/or additional user accounts: using the graphical User Manager application or from a shell prompt. The Graphical Desktop 1. Getting Started 7 Figure 1-9. you were given the opportunity to create one or more user accounts using the Setup Agent. click the X button on the upper right corner of the shell prompt window. it is sometimes useful and faster to perform tasks from a shell prompt. You can also start a shell prompt by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing New Terminal from the menu. While the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide primarily focuses on performing tasks using the graphical interface and graphical tools. Refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics for further details. 3. Opening a Shell Prompt The desktop offers access to a shell prompt. and then click the Users & Groups icon. Creating a User Account When you first started your Red Hat Linux system after installation.

and enter the root password. 5. type the command su . Getting Started Figure 1-10. You can use both uppercase and lowercase letters. the full name of the user for whom this account is being created. useradd jsmith). Along with the Red Hat Linux documentation there are manual pages. If you are not logged in as root. 4. initials. In the Create New User dialog box. and a password (which you will enter a second time for verification). 1. Often. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details about additional options. as well as numbers and characters. To create a user account from a shell prompt: 1. documents that detail usage of important applications and files. Avoid easy selections. you can accept the defaults for the other configuration options. Your password should be at least six characters. usernames are variations on the user’s name. such as jsmith for John Smith. or birthplace to something more creative. Type useradd followed by a space and the username for the new account you are creating at the command line (for example. signaling that the user account creation is complete. For most users. 6. The password is the key to your account. 5. Press [Enter]. At the Retype new password: prompt. The name of this user’s home directory and the name of the login shell should appear by default. consider a variation of a word. 2. so it should be both unique and easy for you to remember. Open a shell prompt. 3. Important You should take precautions when you choose a password. The Red Hat User Manager 4. enter a username (this can be an abbreviation or nickname).7. The new user will appear in the user list. such as a1rPl4nE for airplane. INFO pages which break information about an . enter the same password to confirm your selection. passwd jsmith). User account names can be anything from the user’s name. Documentation and Help There are several resources available to get the information you need to use and configure your Red Hat Linux system.8 Chapter 1. such as qwerty or password. If you want to pick an easy-to-remember but somewhat unique password. Type passwd followed by a space and the username again (for example. Click OK. At the New password: prompt enter a password for the new user and press [Enter].

1. Manual Pages Applications. and programs. The SYNOPSIS field shows the common usage of the executable. Man Pages are structured in such a way that users can quickly scan the page for pertinent information. You can choose any method of accessing documentation that best suits your needs. as all of these resources are either already installed on your Red Hat Linux system or can be easily installed. to access the man page for the ls command. type the following: man ls The NAME field shows the executable’s name and a brief explanation of what function the executable performs. which is important when dealing with commands that they have never previously encountered.1. 1. . Figure 1-11. such as what options are declared and what types of input (such as files or values) the executable supports.1. The DESCRIPTION field shows available options and values associated with a file or executable. To exit the man page.7. See Also shows related terms.7. All instances of the keyword will be highlighted throughout the man page. 1. type [Q]. Getting Started 9 application down by context-sensitive menus. files.Chapter 1. To search a man page for keywords type [/] and then a keyword or phrase and press [Enter]. For example. and shell prompt commands usually have corresponding manual pages (also called man pages) that show the reader available options and values of file or executable. utilities. and help files that are included in the main menubar of graphical applications. allowing you to quickly read the keyword in context. Using man Man Pages can be accessed via shell prompt by typing the command man and the name of the executable. Reading a Man Page with the Shell Prompt To navigate the man page you can use the [Page Down] and [Page Up] keys or use the [Spacebar] to move down one page and [B] to move up.

Package Management Tool Displaying Documentation Available for Installation After you have installed the documentation packages you want. 1.2. All of the Red Hat Linux manuals are on this CD. Figure 1-12. Getting Started Printing man pages is a useful way to archive commonly used commands. man command will output the contents of the command man page to col.3. 1. The lpr command sends the formatted content to the printer. RPM. Type man man at the shell prompt for more information. Red Hat Linux Documentation If you have the Red Hat Linux boxed set. man has its own man page. perhaps in bound form for quick reference.gz) are also available at http://www. The man Man Page Just like other commands.redhat.7.1.2.1. and compressed tarball format (. Individual downloads of our documentation in HTML. you can access them at any time by clicking Main Menu => Documentation. remember to take a look at the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD.com/docs/ you can install these manuals from a shell prompt.com/docs/. Open a shell prompt. Once you have logged in to your user account. inserting the Documentation CD in your CD-ROM drive should automatically start the Package Management Tool and allow you to install any of the Red Hat Linux documentation.10 1. If you have downloaded individual documentation RPM packages from the Red Hat website at http://www.tar. you can print a man page by typing the following command at a shell prompt: man command| col -b | lpr The example above combines separates commands into one unique function.7. and type the following at the command line: su . Printing a Man Page Chapter 1.7.redhat. which formats the contents to fit within a printed page. If you have a printer available and configured for use with Red Hat Linux (refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information). Follow the instructions and choose the documentation you would like to install. PDF.

Figure 1-13. When the confirmation dialog appears as shown in Figure 1-13. 1. as well as any programs which are running.rpm. Type exit at the command line and press [Enter].noarch. Enter the password at the prompt and press [Enter]. For example.2. . check the Save current setup option. select the Logout option and click the Yes button.8. as you may lose unsaved data or damage your system. the file name for the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide will look something like rhl-gsg-en-9.9. Shutting Down your Computer Before turning off your computer. You will be asked for your root password. To install all of the Red Hat Linux manuals.Chapter 1. This logs you out of the root account and back to your user account.rpm with the full file name of the manual that you want to install. Virtual Console Logout If you are not using the X Window System. and you logged in at the console. replace rhl-*. type exit or [Ctrl]-[D] to log out of the console session. To install only certain manuals. To save the configuration of your desktop. Getting Started 11 Press [Enter]. so you would type the following to install it on your system: rpm -ivh /mnt/cdrom/rhl-gsg-en-9. Graphical Logout To log out your graphical desktop session.1. Now go to Main Menu => Documentation and select the manual you want to read. Logout Confirmation 1. 1.rpm Press [Enter]. select Main Menu => Log Out.8.noarch. it is important to properly shut down Red Hat Linux.rpm Press [Enter]. Logging Out 1.8. Never turn your computer off without shutting down first. You are now logged in as root. change to the directory that contains the RPM files and type the following: rpm -ivh rhl-*.

1.12 Chapter 1. Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux. you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: Power down. type the following command: halt Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux. you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: System halted.8 Logging Out. Graphical Shutdown If you are in the graphical desktop. If your computer does not.1. log out of your session as described in Section 1.9. If your computer does not. Getting Started 1.2. select Shutdown and click OK to confirm. Virtual Console Shutdown To shutdown your computer at a shell prompt. From the graphical desktop logout screen shown in Figure 1-13.9. .

Chapter 2. Using the Desktop Your first view of the graphical desktop will look something like Figure 2-1. You can drag and drop files and application icons to areas that are easily accessible. . The panel contains application launcher icons. switch workspaces. Figure 2-1. The Graphical Desktop The graphical desktop gives you access to the applications and system settings on your computer. This chapter covers the fundamentals of the desktop and how you can configure it for your needs. The menu systems can be found by clicking on the Main Menu button by double-clicking on the Start Here icon icon. You can add new . The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel. You will notice that it offers three main tools to make use of the applications on your system: panel icons. double-click on its icon. and menus. and displays the status of your system. application launchers. Both new and experienced users will be able to take full advantage of their Red Hat Linux systems using the graphical desktop. and small applications called applets that let you control sound volume. desktop icons. a notification area for notification icons. The icons elsewhere on the desktop can be shortcuts to file folders. They can also be found on the desktop and then clicking the Applications The desktop works in the manner you might expect it to when working with other operating systems. Using the Graphical Desktop Red Hat Linux includes a powerful graphical desktop environment where you can easily access your applications. 2. and system resources. and shortcuts to removable devices such as CD-ROM and diskettes when they have been mounted. files. To open a folder or launch an application.1.

Figure 2-2. You can change the appearance of most of the tools and applications and change system settings with provided configuration tools. There are a few applets that run on your panel by default. These sub-menus give you access to a full range of applications on your system. Applets let you monitor various aspects of your system. From the Main Menu. Notice that. Figure 2-3. You can also use the keyboard shortcut [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[up-arrow]. panel. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[down-arrow]. or [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[left-arrow] to switch between desktops. Applets embedded on the panel allow you to run specific tasks or monitor your system or services while remaining out of your way. in addition to the recommended applications. Using the Graphical Desktop icons for files and applications to the desktop. Workspace Switcher The graphical desktop gives you the ability to use multiple workspaces so you do not have to have all of your running applications crowding one viewable desktop area. These applets are fairly important and are covered in the following list. Some applets perform useful tasks while others are designed to be entertaining. you can also access additional applications within each sub-menu. The panel also holds the Main Menu. you can also log out. Using the Panel The desktop panel is the bar that stretches across the bottom of the screen and holds icons and small applications which makes using your system easier. and lock your screen (which runs a password protected screen saver). you can start most applications included in Red Hat Linux. find files. 2. The Workspace Switcher represents each workspace (or desktop) in small squares and show the applications running on them.1. 2.14 Chapter 2. Using the Main Menu You can click on the Main Menu button access the applications on your system. to expand it into a large set of menus that allow you to From here. The notification area holds alert icons such as the one for Red Hat Network so that you can be quickly alerted to critical messages. Workspace Switcher . The Panel 2. run applications from a command line. Click on one of the squares with your mouse to move to that desktop. Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[right-arrow]. and file manager.2.2.2. which contains shortcuts for all of your applications.2.

This is very helpful if you decide to minimize an application as it will seem to disappear from the desktop. It disappears when the authentication times out. The Taskbar is an applet which shows you the titles of running applications on any one virtual desktop. Figure 2-6. Using the Notification Area Red Hat Network Notification Tool Part of the Notification Area. The applet shows you different images that indicate whether your system is up to date or needs upgrades. The Printer Notification Icon . it will launch the registration component. Figure 2-4. If you are not registered with Red Hat Network. Right-click on the applet icon for a list of options from which to choose. you can bring it back by clicking on its title in the Taskbar. Figure 2-5. If you click on the icon. Click on the icon to view running print jobs. the Red Hat Network Notification Tool provides you with an easy way to make sure your system is up-to-date with current errata and bug fixes from Red Hat. a list of available updates will be displayed. Using the Graphical Desktop Taskbar 15 Next to the Workspace Switcher is the Taskbar. Figure 2-7. Once it disappears. To update your system. click the button to launch the Red Hat Update Agent.Chapter 2.3.2. The Taskbar 2. Red Hat Network Notification Tool The Authentication Icon The key icon that is sometimes displayed in the Notification Area is a security notification that displays whenever you have gained root authentication for your system (such as running a graphical system configuration tool). Authentication Icon Printer Notification Icon The Printer Notification Icon allows you to manage your print jobs. and cancel jobs by right-clicking on the job and selecting Cancel.

This will launch a dialog box that allows you to enter the name of the application. Nautilus is designed to be much more than a visual listing of files. and even choose an icon for the application. select Add to Panel. change its size and color. Click OK and the new launcher icon will appear on the panel. Then select an application that appears in the menu. the Weather Report applet has been added to show the current local weather and temperature.2. This will automatically add a launcher icon based on the properties of the item in the Main Menu. right-click in an unused area of the panel and select Properties.16 Chapter 2. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To make the panel fit your needs.5. When you select an applet.3. 2. access your network resources.4. 2. right-click on the panel and choose Add to Panel => Utility => Notification Area. and choose from the various types of applets. To add an applet to the panel. To alter the default panel settings. Tip Another quick and easy way to add a launcher to the panel is to right-click on an unused area of the panel and choose Add to Panel => Launcher from menu. its position on the desktop. It allows you to configure your desktop. browse your photo collection. If you choose to autohide the panel. it will appear on your panel. The Weather Report Applet on the Panel To add a launcher icon to the panel. and change the way it behaves. then the notification area was removed from the desktop panel. it will not appear on the desktop until you move your mouse pointer over the panel area (called hovering). Nautilus becomes a shell for your entire desktop experience. right-click in an unused area on the panel. Using Nautilus The graphical desktop includes a file manager called Nautilus that gives you a graphical display of your system and personal files. and whether you want the panel to be automatically hidden (Autohide) when not in use. Using the Graphical Desktop Warning If you cannot see any of the notification icons. You can set the size of the panel.. however. Configuring the Desktop Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually. To add the it back to your panel. Figure 2-8. the location and name of the command that starts the application (such as /usr/bin/foo). 2.. and more all from one integrated interface. In Figure 2-8. . you may want to add more applets and launcher icons. In essence. right-click in an unused area on the panel and select Add to Panel => Launcher. place it on any edge of your desktop.2.. configure your Red Hat Linux system.

To turn off this feature. Start Here Figure 2-9. To start Nautilus as a file manager. The Start Here screen includes icons that allow you to access your favorite applications. and system settings. the Start Here window provides a central location for using and customizing your system. Once you have another Nautilus window. click the Home button. then select Never in the drop down for Show Thumbnails. 2. select Edit => Preferences. You can access the Start Here screen at any time by double-clicking on the desktop icon labeled Start Here. To copy the file to another directory. The following sections explain how to use the Nautilus to enhance your desktop experience. you see a scaled-down (or thumbnail) version of the image. Select the Preview tab. The Start Here Window Start Here was designed to hold all of the tools and applications you need to access when using your system. dragging a file from one directory to another moves the file. By default. you can navigate through your home directory or the rest of the file system. You can open another Nautilus window by selecting File => New Window.4. From your favorite applications to system and configuration tools. Main Menu items. this means you see a portion of the actual text in the icon. Using the Graphical Desktop 17 Working in Nautilus is efficient and provides an alternative to searching through the various submenus connected to the Main Menu or using a shell prompt to navigate the file system.Chapter 2. server configuration tools. double-click on your home directory icon: Once Nautilus appears. By default. The browser window contains folders and files which you can drag with your mouse to move and copy into new locations. For text files. press the [Ctrl] key while dragging and dropping the file. . For images. Disabling this (and other) previewing feature increases the speed of Nautilus. To return to your home directory. desktop preferences. image files in your home directory will be seen as thumbnails. you can drag and drop files to different directories.

Figure 2-10. and finally select Background.4.1.4. 2. which presents you with a wide selection of configuration options. Using the Graphical Desktop Tip You can add your favorite locations to the Bookmarks. you can configure a shortcut to move from your current Workspace to Workspace 2 by pressing [Ctrl]-[F2]. Navigate to the location you want to bookmark. and then select Bookmarks => Add Bookmark.4. you can configure it. right-click on the desktop and choose Change Desktop Background from the menu. to play a sound when you log in to your desktop. To start the Background Preferences tool. For example. For example. Keyboard Shortcuts You can configure shortcuts — pressing a combination of keystrokes on the keyboard — to perform actions within an application or on your desktop. Background You can configure your background with new colors or a new image. select Preferences. You can also double-click the Start Here icon. Sound In this section you can configure the system sounds associated with various functions.1. You can choose from several background images included with Red Hat Linux in the /usr/share/backgrounds/ directory.18 Chapter 2. The Background Preferences Tool . you can select the Preferences icon to configure your desktop.1 Changing your Desktop Background. or you can use your own image. To learn more about configuring your desktop background. Changing your Desktop Background One way to dramatically alter the appearance of your graphical desktop is to change the background using the Background Preferences tool.1. The following lists some of the options and tools in each area. 2.1. Customizing the Desktop From the Start Here screen. refer to Section 2.

which is useful if you use a small image or if you use a tile (or pattern) image from /usr/share/backgrounds/tiles/ or from your own image collection. Click Close to save and exit the Background Preferences tool. You can also drag an image into the window from your own image directory. Using the Graphical Desktop 19 The Background Preferences tool allows you to load a new background from a directory of provided images (/usr/share/backgrounds/images/). You will be able to set your time zone information as well. The Desktop with a New Background If you want to create a background with your own custom colors and no images. 2. To fill the desktop with an image without tiling it. The System Settings icon includes tools that help you set up your system for personal everyday use. leaving the default background colors to fill in any remaining desktop space.4. Choose your own Top Color and Bottom Color and the color gradient (or the blending of colors). There are several additional options for displaying your background image. Refer to Chapter 3 Configuring the Date and Time for details on using this tool. Customizing your System The Start Here screen in Nautilus contains additional configuration tools that help you with your new Red Hat Linux system and the server applications included. choose the No Picture option and adjust your colors using the Background Style options. Figure 2-11.2. The Wallpaper option displays multiple instances of your image across the desktop. Figure 2-11 shows a background image of flowers and plants that is stretched to fill the entire desktop. .Chapter 2. The Centered option places your image in the center of the desktop. The following lists some of the tools included in System Settings and what you can do with them. use the Scaled or Stretched options. Date & Time This tool allows you to set the date and time of your machine.

The printer may be connected to your machine or available on a network. Refer to Section 10. select the Log Out menu item from the Main Menu. Using the Graphical Desktop The Sound Card Configuration Tool tool probes your machine for available sound devices.20 Soundcard Detection Chapter 2. You may also find server configuration tools in the Start Here area. These tools help you configure services and applications you are using on the local machine to serve other machines. The Desktop Log Out Confirmation To quit the graphical desktop. Printing The Printer Configuration Tool allows you to add a new printer to your system. Figure 2-12. The server configuration tools are found by clicking on the System Settings icon and then the Server Settings icon. Refer to Section 1. Users & Groups The User Manager tool allows you to add and remove users from your system. depending on which install type you specified during installation. This will bring up a dialog which presents you with the options listed above. Logging Out When you have finished working and want to quit GNOME. Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details.6 Creating a User Account for details. You must have those server applications installed before these tools appear in this section. you are presented with the choice of logging out of GNOME (leaving the system running). 2. or halting the system completely. .3 Troubleshooting Your Sound Card for more details on configuring your sound hardware. A few examples of the tools found in this area are the HTTP Configuration Tool and the Bind Configuration Tool.5. restarting the machine.

and click on the day of the week to change the day of the week. the first tabbed window that appears is for configuring the system date and time and the NTP daemon (ntpd). Time and Date Properties To change the date. To enable this feature. click the Enable Network Time Protocol button. use the up and down arrow buttons beside the Hour. Your system will not start synchronizing with the NTP server until you click OK. You can choose one of the predefined servers or type a server name in the pulldown menu. You must be running the X Window System and have root privileges. the NTP daemon settings. Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. to configure the time zone used by the system. in an XTerm or a GNOME terminal). To change the time. and to setup the Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon to synchronize the system clock with a time server. Configuring the Date and Time The Time and Date Properties Tool allows the user to change the system date and time. After you click OK.Chapter 3. the configuration will be saved and the NTP daemon will be started (or restarted if it is already running). and Second in the Time section. Minute. Figure 3-1. 3. use the arrows to the left and right of the month to change the month. The Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon synchronizes the system clock with a remote time server or time source (such as a satellite). Use the arrows to the left and right of the year to change the year.1. Clicking the OK button will apply any changes that you have made to the date and time. To start the application from the desktop go to the Main Menu Button => System Settings => Date & Time or type the command redhat-config-date at a shell prompt (for example. Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. The application allows you to configure a NTP daemon to synchronize your system clock with a remote server. . Time and Date Properties As shown in Figure 3-1. This will enable the Server pulldown menu. and the time zone settings and then exit the program.

UTC stands for the universal time zone. click the Time Zone tab. The time zone can be changed by either using the interactive map or by choosing the desired time zone from the list below the map. Time Zone Configuration To configure the system time zone.2. select the System clock uses UTC option. . Figure 3-2. To use the map. Timezone Properties If your system clock is set to use UTC. A red X will appear and the time zone selection will change in the list below the map. Configuring the Date and Time 3.22 Chapter 3. also known as Greenwich mean time (GMT). Click OK to apply the changes and exit the program. click on the city that represents the desired time zone. Other time zones are determined by adding or subtracting from the UTC time.

For example. you can also mount a diskette by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing Disks => Floppy. 4. Alternatively. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette A diskette must first be mounted before it can be used. This chapter discusses how to read and write files to and from diskettes. diskettes are a great solution to transfer files from one computer to the other. Using Diskettes Diskettes are one of the oldest removable media solutions available for the personal computer (PC). Now that the diskette has been mounted it is available to be copied from or written to. This chapter also covers using CD-writable and CD-rewritable drives. The diskette drive activity light should blink as the diskette’s file system is mounted to the /mnt/floppy directory. you should unmount it before ejecting it from the drive. if two PCs are not on the same network. To mount a diskette. You can even explore the diskette’s contents in Nautilus (as shown in Figure 4-1) or Konqueror. You can open.1. Figure 4-1.1. and copy files to/from it as you would normally do to your hard drive. This mounts the diskette and adds a desktop icon which you can double-click to explore the diskette contents. 4. how to format diskettes. and how to read and copy data from a CD-ROM. Diskettes are ideal as a portable storage solution for small files that need to be physically moved around. insert it into the diskette drive and type mount /mnt/floppy/ at a shell prompt. save. Viewing files on a Diskette with Nautilus When you are done using the diskette. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Using diskettes and CD-ROMs with Red Hat Linux requires some understanding about removable media. close any applications that may be using files on the diskette or exploring the diskette’s contents (such as Nautilus or Konqueror). To do this. You can access the contents of the diskette by changing into that directory with the cd /mnt/floppy/ command.Chapter 4. and at a shell prompt type the following command : umount /mnt/floppy/ .1.

ext2 is one of the file systems supported by Red Hat Linux. From a shell prompt. and is the default method used for formatting diskettes. Using gfloppy To start gfloppy. The new file on the diskette should now be accessible from your Windows machine. you can unmount the diskette by right-clicking on the Unmount Volume from the menu. 4. Formatting a Diskette To use a diskette specifically with Red Hat Linux. type /usr/bin/gfloppy. Diskettes and CD-ROMs icon and choosing If you are using GNOME. As shown in Figure 4-2. you can format your diskette with an MS-DOS file system type if necessary.1. . Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette. Copy files using the following command (substituting filename with the name of the file you wish to copy): cp filename /mnt/floppy You can then unmount the diskette and eject it from the drive. You can also elect to quick format the diskette if it was previously formatted as ext2. the gfloppy interface is small and has few options. choose Main Menu => System Tools => Floppy Formatter. Then mount it in Linux as described in Section 4.1 Using gfloppy).3.1. Be sure to backup any files that you need before performing any of the following operations on your diskettes. 4. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette To copy files from a Linux machine to an MS-DOS formatted diskette so that a Windows machine can read it you should format your diskette with an MS-DOS (FAT) file system.1.1.44MB diskette). This can be done with the Windows OS or with gfloppy (see Section 4.1. You can now safely eject the diskette from the drive. You can also choose the density of your diskette (if you are not using the usual high density 3.2. The default settings are sufficient for most users and needs.3.3.1 Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette. you need to format the diskette using the ext2 file system. you can manipulate its contents in the same ways that you manipulate directories and files on your hard drive. 4.1.5" 1.24 Chapter 4. however. Warning Formatting a diskette will erase all of its contents.

mke2fs essentially formats the device and creates an empty.Chapter 4. /dev/fd0 refers to the first diskette drive. Once complete. gfloppy Status Box 4. If your computer has more than one diskette drive. it is ready to be used with your Red Hat Linux system. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 25 Figure 4-2. . Using mke2fs The mke2fs command is used to create a Linux ext2 file system on a device such as a hard drive partition or (in this case) a diskette. your primary diskette drive is /dev/fd0. gfloppy Insert a diskette and change the settings in gfloppy to suit your needs. The status box will appear on top of the main window.3. and so on. The mke2fs utility has a number of options.2. Linux-compatible device which can then be used for storing files and data. you can eject the diskette and close gfloppy. The other options are covered in the mke2fs man page.1. then click Format. Insert your diskette into the drive and issue the following command at a shell prompt: /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 On Linux systems. Figure 4-3. showing you the status of formatting and verification (see Figure 4-3). your second /dev/fd1. Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette. The -c option makes the mke2fs command check the device for bad blocks before creating the file system.

This section shows you how to use CD-ROMs on your Red Hat Linux system. 4. and even multimedia (audio/video and . 4.2. open a shell prompt. to unmount and eject the CD-ROM.26 Chapter 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 4. You can access your CD-ROM by clicking the home icon on the desktop and typing /mnt/cdrom in the location bar.1. Right-click on the icon to view all of the available choices. which you can use to unmount and eject your CD-ROM after use. 4. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt You can also manually mount and unmount your CD-ROMs from a shell prompt. and type the following command: mount /mnt/cdrom The CD-ROM should now be mounted and available for use with your file manager. CD-Rs and CD-RWs CD-writable (CD-R) drives have grown in popularity as an inexpensive way to backup and archive several megabytes of data. personal files. CD-ROMs The CD-ROM format is a popular medium to deliver typically large software applications as well as multimedia games and presentations. including applications.3. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager By default.2.2. Insert a CD into your CD-ROM drive. CDs are automatically mounted and the file manager is displayed allowing you to explore the contents of the CD. After working with your CD. choose Eject from the menu. Figure 4-4. Most of the software that can be purchased from retail outlets come in the form of CD-ROMs. you must unmount it before you can eject it from your CD-ROM drive. Contents of a CD-ROM in Nautilus A CD desktop icon also appears. For example. Close any applications or file managers that are using the CD-ROM and type the following command at a shell prompt: umount /mnt/cdrom You can now safely press the eject button on your CD-ROM drive to retrieve your CD. Figure 4-4 shows the contents of a CD-ROM within the Nautilus file manager.2.

1. The CD Creator Interface in Nautilus Open a new Nautilus window and select the files or directories you want to write to CD-R(W). When you are ready to write the files to your CD-R(W). Diskettes and CD-ROMs 27 still image) presentations. there is a tool included in the Nautilus file manager called CD Creator.Chapter 4. and drag the files and folders to the CD Creator window. which displays a dialog box where you can select the writing speed. press and hold the [Ctrl] key. Figure 4-5.3. name the CD. CD Creator allows you to drag and drop files from a Nautilus window to the CD Creator interface. 4. The CD Creator Write Dialog Box . You can also double click your home directory icon from the desktop and choose Go => CD Creator from the window menus. To access the CD Creator feature in Nautilus. To select multiple files. Using CD Creator If you want to perform a quick file or directory backup to a CD-R or CD-RW. Red Hat Linux includes several tools for using CD-Rs and CD-rewritable (CD-RW) drives. You can also type burn: in the Location bar to start CD Creator. insert a blank CD-R(W) into your drive and the CD Creator window will automatically display. and click on the files and folders. press and hold the left mouse button. click the Write to CD button in the CD Creator window. and choose other options. Figure 4-6. Then release the [Ctrl] key.

type /usr/bin/xcdroast. A status window displays the writing progress. Figure 4-7. X-CD-Roast first scans your device busses and find your CDR(W) drive. 4. and more. Note that your CD-R(W) drive brand may be different from the drive shown. Since it is generally recommended to periodically backup personal files. the CD Creator can help you do so quickly. CD-ROM drive. You can configure the path where you wish to store CD images in the HD Settings tab under Path. the CD-R(W) should automatically eject from your drive when it is finished.28 Chapter 4.iso or . To start it at a shell prompt. It then allows you to configure settings for CD-writer. To start X-CD-Roast choose Main Menu => System Tools => CD Writer.3. Figure 4-8.2. Using X-CD-Roast X-CD-Roast is a graphical application for duplicating and creating (also known as mastering) CDROMs. X-CD-Roast Setup Screen Check your CD-R(W) manufacturer documentation to set some of the CD Settings options. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Click the Write files to CD button to start burning.img) files need to be stored in a central location accessible to X-CD-Roast. . The CD Creator Write Status Window By default. All CD image (. Figure 4-8 illustrates the Setup screen and its configuration options. X-CD-Roast automates the process of burning CD-Rs and CD-RWs and is highly configurable to many CD mastering or duplicating needs. You must specify a path on your hard drive’s file system that has at least 700 Megabytes (MB) of free space available. such as CD Writer Speed and CD Writer FIFO-Buffer Size. as shown in Figure 4-7.

Click the Write CD button to start the burning process.2. Using X-CD-Roast to Create a CD It is always recommended to backup personal data and information often in case of hardware failure or file system corruption.3. There are other options within the Master Tracks dialog that allows you to configure advanced settings. descriptive pop-up tips that informs you of the associated function in detail.2. so no further configuration is necessary. is stored on tracks — by clicking Read CD. Finally.1.3. You can set the speed at which you read a CD-ROM as well as find out some information about the CD-ROM track such as its type and size. If you are copying tracks from an audio CD. X-CD-Roast allows you to backup files on your hard drive partition using Create CD. . to burn your tracks onto CD-R(W) media. the defaults are set correctly to create data CD-ROMs. Since X-CD-Roast reads all tracks of a CD-ROM by default.Chapter 4. you can preview each track with Play Audio-Tracks.2. as well as whether you wish to copy the CD-ROM on-the-fly or create an image file first before burning (which is recommended to prevent write or read errors from occurring during the duplication process). Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CD-ROMs To duplicate an existing CD-ROM for backup purposes. Figure 4-10 shows a session that is preparing the entire /home directory for backup. choose Write CD. you can delete unwanted tracks with Delete Tracks. You can read all of the tracks on a CD — all CD-ROM information. You can access these tooltips by leaving your mouse pointer on a button or drop-down menu for at least two seconds. This facility allows you to add files and directories into a CD session using Master Tracks. where you can configure the speed at which you read and write the tracks to CD-R(W). Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CDs 4. Figure 4-9 shows the Write CD dialog box. as several of the options have long. Figure 4-9. including data and audio. however. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 29 X-CD-Roast is well-documented within the interface itself. click the Duplicate CD button in the main panel. 4.

Using X-CD-Roast to Back-up Hard Drive Files Highlight the files and directories that you wish to add to the session and click Add. To write an ISO image file to a CD-R(W) with X-CD-Roast.3. This saves a few steps but can sometimes cause read-write errors. and click Add. This automatically loads the Write Tracks tab. then Accept track layout. There are other file types that can be burned as images.3. click the Create session/image tab to create the . After you have added all files and directories you want to write to the CD-R(W). These utilities have several advanced options that are beyond the scope of . Diskettes and CD-ROMs Figure 4-10. such as .2. In the Layout Tracks tab. It is recommended that you use the multi-step method instead of the on-the-fly methods. then click Create CD.raw.30 Chapter 4. Tip You can also create and write the image to the CD-R(W) in one step by clicking Master and write onthe-fly in the Create session image tab.iso are known as ISO9660 (or ISO) image files. You must first click Calculate size. highlight the image file you created in the box on the right. highlight the ISO image file you wish to burn and click Add.img file. Red Hat Linux is freely available as ISO images that you can download and write to the CD-R(W). click Write Tracks from the panel on the left. move the ISO file to the path specified during setup. To write your tracks to the CD-R(W). where you can click Write Tracks to burn the image to the CD-R(W). The image displays in the Tracks to write box on the left side.img and . Click Write tracks to write the image to the CDR(W). In the Layout tracks tab. there are two utilities available: mkisofs and cdrecord. For example. There are also other ISO image files available on FTP and websites. Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools If you want to use a shell prompt to write images to CD-R or CD-RWs. and click the Write Tracks tab to return to the main writing dialog.3. but ISO images are the most common CD image format. 4. Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast Large files that end in . then click Master to image file to create the image. 4.3. Click Accept track layout.

-V -v -x Table 4-1. Sets an Application ID — a text string that will be written into the volume header of the image which can be useful to determine what applications are on the CD. Using cdrecord The cdrecord utility writes audio.3. and the disc is mounted in Solaris and Windows environments. Option -o -J -R -A Function Specifies an output file name of the ISO image.iso and write it to CD-R(W) so that you can use it on your Red Hat Linux PC at work and your Windows laptop for trips. you must first establish the device address of your CD-R(W) device by running the following command as root at a shell prompt: . It is most useful for archival and file backup purposes. refer to Section 4. You can now use the ISO image file with either X-CD-Roast as described in Section 4.. You want to create an ISO image called backup. Generates Joliet naming records. video. Generates Rock Ridge (RR) naming records to preserve filename length and casing. which is useful for viewing the status of the image as it is being made. and mixed-mode (a combination of audio.). To use cdrecord. however.3. this option can be repeated (for example... refer to the additional resources in Section 4. and/or data) CD-ROMs using options to configure several aspects of the write process. or using cdrecord.3.3 Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast. .3. the command line based CD recording utility. Table 4-1 explains each command line option. and data settings. device.3.iso -x /home/joeuser/junk/ -J -R -A -V -v /home/joeuser/ The image is created in the same directory that you ran the command.4 Additional Resources. especially for UNIX/Linux environments. Sets verbose execution.2. Suppose you wish to backup a directory called /home/joeuser/. 4. The images created by mkisofs can include all types of files.2. useful if the CD is used in Windows environments. -x /home/joe/trash -x /home/joe/delete . Sets a Volume ID — a name that is assigned to it if the image is burned. data. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 31 this guide. This can be done with mkisofs by running the following command: mkisofs -o backup.2 Using cdrecord . Excludes any directory immediately following this option.Chapter 4. but exclude the subdirectory /home/joeuser/junk/ because it contains unnecessary files. For more information about using cdrecord. including speed.3. for basic image creation and writing.1. mkisofs Options 4. For more information on using mkisofs..3. these tools save some time over the graphical alternatives such as X-CD-Roast. Using mkisofs The mkisofs utility creates ISO9660 image files that can be written to a CD-R(W).

3.2. It is important to remember the device address of the device used to write your CD.0 --blank=fast 4. You can use cdrecord to blank CD-RW discs for reuse by typing the following: cdrecord --dev=0. which is useful for tracking the status of the write process.0).0.6.1. such as Red Hat Linux ISO images. Installed Documentation • cdrecord man page — Discusses how to burn data.1’ scsibus0: 0. the device address (0.0 3) ’HP ’ ’CD-Writer+ 9200 ’ ’1.version (where version is the version of cdrecord installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information.4. including some example commands for creating common ISO image files. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/cdrecord.3.0 4) * 0. switch to the root user and type the following at a shell prompt: cdrecord -v -eject speed=4 dev=0.8 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Jorg Schilling Using libscg version ’schily-0. including some warnings about creating certain types of ISO images.32 Chapter 4.7. Diskettes and CD-ROMs cdrecord -scanbus This command shows all CD-R(W) devices on your computer.3. The same command can also be used for burning ISO image files downloaded from the Internet. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/mkisofs. Additional Resources This chapter briefly covers several applications.iso The command sets the write speed (4). The -eject argument ejects the CDROM after the write process is complete.1.0 1) * 0.3.4.version (where version is the version of mkisofs installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information. audio and mixed-mode CD-ROMs. The following is an example output from running cdrecord -scanbus.5.     .0 6) * 0.0 0) * 0.0 2) * 0.0 backup.0c’ Removable CD-ROM 0.0 7) * To write the backup file image created with mkisofs in the previous section.4. • mkisofs man page — Comprehensive detail of the utility.0 5) * 0. and sets write output (verbose [-v]). Offers all options and commands in detail. Offers all options and commands in detail. Cdrecord 1. Refer to the following resources for more information about the applications in this chapter 4. including some example commands for common CD-R(W) burning tasks.

which includes the dvdrecord utility for writing DVD-R(+W) discs.version (where version is the version of X-CD-Roast installed on your system) — Contains useful command-line options and usage information for this graphical CD-R(W) mastering application.net/projects/cdrecord/ — The cdrecord project page on Freshmeat is regularly updated with the newest releases.freesoftware. 4. Useful Websites • • • http://www. § ¦ • /usr/share/doc/dvdrecord.org/ — The Official website of the X-CD-Roast project. news.4. this set of documentation helps you get started mastering DVD-ROMs for data backup and multimedia presentation.2.fsf. http://www. ¤ ¤ is the version of . and user commentary. http://freshmeat.Chapter 4.org/dvdrtools/ — The official website of the dvdrtools project.xcdroast. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 33 dvdrecord installed on your system) — For users who have DVD-R(+W) devices.version / (where version § ¦ ¥ ¥ • /usr/share/doc/xcdroast.

Diskettes and CD-ROMs .34 Chapter 4.

To use Internet Configuration Wizard. including: • • • • • ISDN Connection Modem Connection Wireless Connection xDSL Connection Ethernet Connections Red Hat Linux includes the Internet Configuration Wizard. including the following information: • • • • The phone number that your modem must dial to connect to your ISP if you are using a modem. type the command internet-druid In both cases you will have to enter your root password to continue. More information about the Network Administration Tool can be found in the chapter entitled Network Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.2xx. A gateway address. you must be running the X Window System and have root privileges. To start the application. which is a unique set of numbers like 2xx. Your own ISP may have specific connection requirements for their service which differ from the instructions in this chapter. Before connecting. DNS servers act as a road map for the Internet. you must have a connection to it. each computer connected to the Internet must have an IP address. DNS entries: DNS means Domain Name System. Getting Online Exploring the Internet has become a popular activity. DNS tracks IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. There are many types of Internet connections. People use the Internet for everything from information to finances to getting medical prescriptions on the Web. However. in order to use the Internet. You may receive one or more DNS entries from your Internet provider when you sign up. the DNS tells your machine where to send its traffic. At a shell prompt. go to the Main Menu => System Tools => Internet Configuration Wizard. Your login name and password for your account if you are using an xDSL or modem connection.2x. Some ISPs may require you to configure a master address (called the gateway) that authenticates your computer and allows it to connect to the Internet. use one of the following methods: • • In the graphical desktop environment. When you use the Internet. . You can then configure the connection that you created at any time using the Network Administration Tool.Chapter 5.2. check with your ISP for any specific instructions that they provide. which can be used to create an Internet connection.

To configure this type of connection. There are different types of DSL such as ADSL. Then. Cable Modem Connection A cable modem connection uses the same coaxial cable that your TV cable travels on to transmit data. Getting Online Figure 5-1. Ask your DSL provider which method you should use. To configure this type of connection. select Ethernet Connection. If you must supply a username and password to connect. and follow the steps in the wizard. Modem Connection A modem connection uses a modem to establish a connection to the Internet. Digital data is modulated into analog signals and sent over phone lines. the cable modem connects to the coaxial cable. high-quality digital telecommunication lines as opposed to an analog modem connection. start Internet Configuration Wizard. and follow the steps in the wizard. start Internet Configuration Wizard. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. select ISDN Connection. and SDSL.36 Chapter 5. select Ethernet Connection. start Internet Configuration Wizard. To configure this type of connection. The Ethernet card is usually required to be configured for DHCP. . IDSL. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. select Modem Connection. Some DSL providers require you to configure your system to obtain an IP address through DHCP with an Ethernet card. Internet Configuration Wizard ISDN Connection An ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) connection uses high-speed. Internet Configuration Wizard uses the term xDSL to mean all types of DSL connections. To configure this type of connection. xDSL Connection An xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) connection uses high-speed transmissions through telephone lines. This special phone line must be installed by a phone company. Most cable Internet providers require you to install an Ethernet card in your computer that connects to the cable modem. start the Internet Configuration Wizard. you are probably using PPPoE. select xDSL Connection. start Internet Configuration Wizard. Some DSL providers require you to configure a PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) connection with an Ethernet card. To configure this type of connection. and follow the steps in the wizard.

Chapter 5. Getting Online Wireless Connection

37

If you are connecting your Red Hat Linux computer to a wireless access point (WAP) or peerto-peer (also called ad-hoc) network with a wireless (802.11x) network card, then you will need to configure your wireless device. Choose the Wireless Connection, then select the device from the list provided. You can then configure the device for DHCP or fixed IP addresses In the pop-up device configuration window. The Internet Configuration Wizard is a utility that guides you step-by-step through the process of establishing your Internet connection. Once your connection is up and running, you can then configure it to suit your needs or particular connection. For more detailed instructions, refer to the Network Configuration chapter in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.

38

Chapter 5. Getting Online

Chapter 6. Web Browsing
Once you have configured your Internet connection (see Chapter 5 Getting Online), you are ready to get online. Red Hat Linux comes with several Web browsers, graphical applications that use your Internet connection to access the World Wide Web: news, research, shopping, banking, and more. This chapter briefly explains how to surf the Web using Mozilla and Galeon. For information about using the Konqueror Web browser, refer to Section A.6 Browsing the Web with Konqueror.

6.1. Mozilla
Part of the mozilla.org organization’s wide range of Open Source Internet application developments, Mozilla is a powerful, integrated, and standards-compliant Web browser, email client, news reader, and more. The Web browsing component displays Web content such as webpages and images. Mozilla also uses plug-ins for interactive multimedia such as streaming video and Web animation. This section shows you how to use the Mozilla Web browser to explore the Internet. To start Mozilla click the Mozilla Web Browser launcher on the panel or choose Main Menu => Internet => Mozilla Web Browser.

Figure 6-1. Mozilla Main Browser Window

6.1.1. Using Mozilla
Mozilla functions like any Web browser that you may have used before. It has the standard navigational toolbars, buttons, and menus.

refer to Chapter 7 Email Applications. and IRC Chat. To add a site to your Personal Toolbar. Figure 6-3. there is the Personal Toolbar. click and hold the left mouse button on the small icon next to the URL in the address field and drag it directly to the Personal Toolbar or into a folder icon. Finally. You can access Personal Toolbar folders by clicking the icon and choosing the website from the drop-down menu. Address Book. Mail. bookmarks. These are separate applications integrated into the Mozilla suite and are useful for experiencing email. which you can customize with your own bookmarks or quickly go back to your homepage. Mozilla supports keyword searching via the address field as well. such as integrated search functionality. news. chat. Composer.40 Chapter 6. and other aspects of the Internet besides the Web. and a What’s Related option that displays webpages similar in topic to the page currently displayed in the main browsing area. Web Browsing The navigation bar has an address field with which you can type a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) — the name or address of a website — into the address field at the top of the browser window. . For information on using the Mozilla Mail email client. Type in a keyword or phrase into the address field and click the Search button. The Personal Toolbar is useful for keeping and categorizing webpages so that you do not have to type the address every time you want to access the page. there are the following small icons: Navigator. The Mozilla SideBar At the bottom left corner of the browser window. The search results appears in the main browsing area. The Mozilla Navigational Bar There is also a sidebar on the left that contains additional options. Figure 6-2.

Figure 6-4. or anything other than Web browsing and searching. right-click on the tab and choose Close Tab from the menu or click the X at the right of the tab bar to close the tab currently displayed.2. Galeon also has some extra features that are not included in Mozilla. Mozilla Composer You can use Mozilla Composer to create webpages.2. It is only a Web browser and does not feature email. go to Window => Composer on the Mozilla main menu. You do not need to know HTML to use this tool. Web Browsing 41 Mozilla also allows you to browse multiple websites within one browser window using navigational tabs. Instead of using two or more separate windows to read multiple webpages. . you can open a tab by clicking File => New => Navigation Tab or by pressing [Ctrl] and [T] at the same time. For additional information on using Mozilla. A list of topics will appear and clicking on any of these will provide you with information for creating and editing webpages using Mozilla Composer. Galeon uses Mozilla’s HTML and image renderer and plug-in system to display Web and multimedia content. When the help screen opens. To use Galeon. To open Composer.Chapter 6. Go to Help on the main menu and select Help Contents. Galeon Galeon is a Web browser that is based on Mozilla. This can be useful if you want to browse the Web without the need to email or chat with others. The Mozilla help files provide information on creating webpages with Composer. To close a tab. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Help Contents. Mozilla Composer 6. 6. a working installation of Mozilla is required. This will open the new tab and allow you to switch between tabs by clicking on them.1. or click on the Composer icon in the lower left part of the screen: . newsgroups. click on the Contents tab and expand the Creating Webpages menu by clicking on the arrow next to it.

. Configuring Galeon During the initial configuration.42 Chapter 6. Once you have finished your configuration of Galeon. as well as Reload and Stop buttons to refresh a webpage and stop it from loading. you have the option of importing bookmarks and preferences from Mozilla or other Web applications you may have installed on your system. and Home buttons. Figure 6-6. Back. and even browser navigation shortcuts. respectively. The first time you launch Galeon. go to Main Menu => Internet => More Internet => Galeon. There are navigational buttons for moving from one visited webpage to another using the Forward. integrated search features. Web Browsing To launch Galeon. Figure 6-5. You can also configure Galeon’ personal toolbar with bookmarks. the main browser will appear. Online with Galeon Using Galeon is much like using Mozilla. it will take you through the configuration process.

click the X button within the tab. Multiple pages can be stored in a single Galeon window. Web Browsing 43 Like Mozilla. or right-click the tab and choose Close Tab from the drop-down menu.3. Keyboard Shortcuts Description Open a new tab for browsing multiple websites within one browser window Open a new browser window Close all browser windows and exits the application Move the cursor to the browser’s address field Print the current displayed webpage or document Move forward by one link or page Move backward by one link or page Reload the current page Open the browsing history Find a keyword or string within a page . For additional information or help with Galeon. 6.Chapter 6. The tabbed browsing mode can be configured in the Tabs page of the Preferences Window. To launch a new Tab. To close a tab. click Help on the top menu bar. Keyboard shortcuts can help you efficiently browse the Web. which is accessible by choosing Settings => Preferences from the browser’s main menu. From there. Galeon also has a navigational tab feature that can help you avoid having your desktop cluttered with browser windows. use the [Ctrl]-[T] key combination or select New Tab from the File menu. and you can switch between them by clicking on the each tab. you can choose to view the Galeon FAQ and Galeon manual. Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts Table 6-1 shows some common keyboard shortcuts available in both Mozilla and Galeon. Shortcut [Ctrl]-[T] [Ctrl]-[N] [Ctrl]-[Q] [Ctrl]-[L] [Ctrl]-[P] [Ctrl]-[right arrow] [Ctrl]-[left arrow] [Ctrl]-[R] [Ctrl]-[H] [Ctrl]-[F] Table 6-1.

Web Browsing .44 Chapter 6.

Red Hat Linux includes several email applications. Unless properly configured. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate how to use some of the popular email applications included in Red Hat Linux. is used to send email from a mail server to your email client’s inbox. IMAP. and text-based clients like mutt. choose the one that is most convenient and easy to use. although some can use the newer IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol). is usually in the form of mail. an application that understands the various email transmission standards and allows you to send. The following lists a few important things you may need to know: Your email address The email address you will use to send and receive mail. short for Internet Message Access Protocol. and read email. short for Post Office Protocol. POP.net. Since all email clients perform the same basic tasks (send and receive email).Chapter 7.net. so. is a protocol for retrieving email messages from your ISP’s email server. including graphical email clients like Evolution and Mozilla Mail. This is usually in the form of yourname@yourisp. you should have some information from your Internet Service Provider (ISP) handy so that you can configure the client properly. Most ISP email servers use the POP protocol. you must know what type of server your network administrator or ISP is using. SMTP is also used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. Server type for receiving email (POP or IMAP) In order to receive mail. IMAP differs from POP in that email from IMAP servers are stored on the server and stays there even as you download and read your mail. Server type for sending email (SMTP) The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol for sending email messages between servers. . This chapter will briefly discuss the following email clients: • • • Evolution Mozilla Mail Text-based email clients Before you launch an email client. receive. All of the email client applications are designed to suit certain types of users. Most email systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another.someisp. If you have any questions regarding what information you need. You can use email with an email client. you can choose one with the features that best suits your particular needs. the place where incoming email is stored. whereas POP mail is downloaded to your email client directly and does not stay on the server. the messages can then be retrieved with an email client using either POP or IMAP. you will not be able to make full use of the email clients discussed in this chapter. Email Applications Email is a very popular way of communicating with others over the Internet. contact your ISP or network administrator. This POP or IMAP address. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your email application.

Email Applications 7.1. including powerful mailbox management. click Finish. Evolution is a full-featured personal and workgroup information management tool for Linux and UNIX-based systems. and you will be presented with the Main Screen as shown in Figure 7-2. user-defined filters. When you are done. It provides all of the standard email client features. go to Main Menu => Internet => Email. Figure 7-2. Evolution Welcome Screen The first time you start Evolution you will be presented with the Welcome Screen (Figure 7-1). Figure 7-1. It additionally features a flexible calendar/scheduler which allows users to create and confirm group meetings and special events online.46 Chapter 7. Evolution Evolution is more than just an email client. and is the default email client for Red Hat Linux. which allows you to configure your email connection. click on the Inbox icon. To launch Evolution from the desktop panel. . and quick searches. Evolution Main Screen To see what is in your inbox or to send an email. Follow the on-screen instructions and fill in the information you collected from your ISP or administrator in the text boxes provided.

. Figure 7-4. If you would like to learn more about using some of the other features of Evolution.Chapter 7. Evolution New Email Message Screen Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to. select New Message from the toolbar. click Send on the toolbar. Email Applications 47 Figure 7-3. like calendering/scheduling and group messaging. click Help from the main toolbar and choose the component you want to learn more about. While Evolution does so much more than read and send email. Evolution Inbox Screen To compose a mail. this chapter focusses exclusively on its email capabilities.

Figure 7-5. To open Mozilla Mail while in Mozilla.48 Chapter 7. To start Mozilla Mail. the Mozilla Help contents are located under Help on the main menu. Mozilla Mail New Email Message Screen . If you need further information about using Mozilla Mail. Email Applications 7.2. select Main Menu => Extras Internet => Mozilla Mail. Mozilla Mail This section briefly covers the basic steps for sending and receiving email with Mozilla. click on the mail icon near the lower left corner of the Mozilla screen. Mozilla Mail and News Figure 7-6.

The discussions are in threaded format (which means all topics and responses to the topic are sorted and organized for convenient reading) and subscribing to a group is very easy. Newsgroup Account Setup Enter your name and email address on the next screen and click Next. On the following screen. When you are done. Now. There are a great many newsgroups on the Web with topics ranging from politics to computer games to random strange thoughts. you can delete it. Then. To join a newsgroup. click on the message you want to read. you can go back to the main mail screen and go to File => Send unsent messages. On the last few screens. Select the newsgroup you want to access and a dialog box appears with information about downloading and reading existing messages. click on the Send button or go to File => Send Now or Send Later. Email Applications 49 To send an email. You do not have to post messages if you do not want to. A dialog box appears. which is a Newsgroup term for reading without posting messages. Once you read a message. Posting to a newsgroup is just like writing . contact your Internet service provider or network administrator for this information). save it to a separate folder. You can even post and download pictures and files to Newsgroups (although your ISP may restrict Newsgroups to text-based postings only). Mozilla and Newsgroups Newsgroups are Internet discussion groups with specific topics. 7. you can determine the name that this account will be referred to and review your settings. Select Newsgroup account and then click Next.Chapter 7. If you choose to send later. listing all the newsgroups available. click on OK. The newsgroup account you created will appear in the sidebar of the Mozilla mail screen. you can just lurk. enter the name of your news server (if you do not know the name of your news server. click on the mail folder you created for yourself to see a list of messages waiting for you. Right-click on this account name and select Subscribe. Select the groups you are interested in reading and click Subscribe. The New Account Setup screen will appear. Figure 7-7. click on the arrow next to the newsgroup account name and the list of groups you are subscribed to will appear beneath.2.1. and more. To read email. Click on your mail account name in the sidebar and select Create a new account from the options that appear on the right of the screen. you first need to set up a newsgroup account.

muttrc or ~/. When you launch mutt. and read your mail. For example :unset help turns off the handy keyboard command hints at the top of the screen. To unsubscribe from a newsgroup. You do not have to type all your preferred configuration commands each time you run mutt. gives mutt its flexibility and configurability. To turn those hints back on. ~/.muttrc. This chapter will discuss the mutt plain text email client.1. right-click on the group name and select Unsubscribe. Plain text (also called clear text) is the most portable format because it is supported by nearly every email application on various types of machines.3. This initial menu is called the index.50 Chapter 7. plain text email is just that — plain text.3. Email Applications an email. Plain Text Email Clients Most modern email clients allow the user to select whether they want to send their emails in plain text or in HTML. Mutt’s configuration file.g. the first thing you see is a screen with a list of email messages. and pictures or backgrounds can be added. with either boolean or string values. If you cannot remember the command you want to use. Most of the options are invoked using the set or unset commands. there is always tab-completion to help you. As is true with all powerful software. On the other hand. The term plain text refers to textual data in ASCII format. Using Mutt Mutt is a small but very powerful text-based mail client for UNIX operating systems. and there are no special fonts. The particular font can be specified. e. The number of options that mutt has available to it are truly astounding. mutt allows the user to control nearly all of the functions that mutt uses to send.mutt/muttrc. All configuration options can be changed at any time by typing a [:] followed by the relevant command. They is nothing fancy. Plain text emails are simple. This configuration file must exist in your home directory. it takes time to understand the features and what they can do for you. textures. it has to be named either ~/. 7. It is also this file that might give new users problems. type :set help. you can save them in a file which is loaded every time the program starts up. set folder = ~/Mail. receive. except that the newsgroup name appears in the To field rather than an email address. 7. The advantage of HTML formatted email is that they can contain graphics and interactive links to Web sites. there are no pictures embedded in the email. all this makes for a visually appealing message when it gets to the recipient. the layout is very controllable. .

In the index or pager views. mutt Main Screen These messages are in a default mail folder. where x is the version number of mutt installed on your system. Type your message. change the encoding. After editing your email. Mutt displays the compose menu. refer to the man pages for muttrc and mutt (type man muttrc or man mutt at the shell prompt). . To learn more about mutt. A text editor (defined by your $EDITOR environmental variable in the configuration file) will then launch allowing you to compose your message. where you can customize your message headers. add file attachments or simply press the [Y] key to send your email on its way. that you can think of as your inbox. use the [R] key to reply to a message or the [M] key to create a new one.2.Chapter 7. You may also find the mutt manual to be very helpful. often called the mailspool. save your file and exit the editor. Email Applications 51 Figure 7-8. Mutt will prompt for the To: address and the Subject: line.x . The mutt manual is installed in /usr/share/doc/mutt-1. Use the [K] and [J] keys on your keyboard to move the highlighted cursor up and down the list of messages.

Email Applications .52 Chapter 7.

2. and underscores (_). turn on the printer. as most operating systems require these CD-ROMs because they contain printer drivers — software that communicates with both the printer and the operating system. Adding a Local Printer To add a local printer. This chapter shows you how to set up and test a printer directly connected to your Red Hat Linux system. With few exceptions.1. The Printer Configuration Tool uses a step-by-step process that can help you configure a printer faster than editing configuration files manually. Printer hardware manufacturers distribute CD-ROMs or diskettes with their printers. Optionally. The Printer Configuration Tool Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility for configuring local and remote printers without the need to install additional drivers and applications. dashes (-). and configure it with the useful tools provided by Red Hat Linux. click the New button in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to display the window in Figure 8-1. 8. enter a short description for the printer. Click Forward to proceed.Chapter 8. such as one attached through a parallel port or USB port on your computer. enter a unique name for the printer in the Name text field. all you need to do is attach the printer to your Red Hat Linux system. thus the drivers and software on the printer manufacturer’s CD-ROM and diskettes are not needed. The printer name may contain letters. which can contain spaces. The printer name cannot contain spaces and must begin with a letter. refer to the chapter called Printer Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. Adding a Printer In the window shown in Figure 8-2. Figure 8-1. Printers have become a very popular PC peripheral due to their increasing quality and decreasing prices. Red Hat Linux provides drivers for most printer models. . For remote printer setup and more advanced printer configuration issues. numbers. Printer Configuration Most computer users either own a printer at home or use one at work. 8.

. the next step is to select the printer model.54 Chapter 8. 8. Click Forward to continue. Go to Section 8.3 Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing to continue. click Rescan devices to rescan the computer or click Custom device to specify it manually. Printer Configuration Figure 8-2. Select the name of the printer manufacturer from the pulldown menu.3. Select the printer model from the list. If it was not auto-detected. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing After selecting the queue type of the printer. Figure 8-3 appears. select the model from the list. Adding a Local Printer The next step is to select the type of printer. You will see a window similar to Figure 8-4. Select Locally-connected from the Select a queue type menu. and select the device. Selecting a Queue Name After clicking Forward. The device is usually /dev/lp0 for a parallel printer or /dev/usb/lp0 for a USB printer. The printers are divided by manufacturers. Figure 8-3. If no devices appear in the list. The printer models are updated each time a different manufacturer is selected.

8. Refer to Section 8.4 Printing a Test Page for details. SMB.Chapter 8. and then applying the changes. Since a local printer is attached directly to your computer. print a test page to try out this new configuration. clicking the Driver tab. Click the Apply button in the main window to save your changes and restart the printer daemon. Printer Configuration 55 Figure 8-4. applying the changes. Selecting a Printer Model The recommended print driver is selected based on the printer model selected. Click Back to modify the printer configuration. LPD.5 Modifying Existing Printers for details. If you select an additional print driver on your local computer. selecting a different print driver. first try selecting Generic as the manufacturer and Raw Print Queue or Postscript Printer as the printer model. To make sure the data is not filtered more than once. and printing a test page. Click Apply to add the print queue if the settings are correct. clicking Edit. If you need to print characters beyond the basic ASCII set (including those used for languages such as Japanese). You can also configure options such as paper size if you edit the print queue after adding it. If you are configuring a remote printer (IPP. After applying the changes. you must review your driver options and select Prerender Postscript. print a test page to ensure the configuration is correct. selecting the printer from the list. . The print driver processes the data that you want to print into a format the printer can understand. If the test fails. the remote print server usually has its own print driver.3. the data is filtered multiple times and is converted to a format that the printer can not understand. the remote print server might not have a print driver configured. After applying the changes. Tip You can select a different print driver after adding a printer by starting the Printer Configuration Tool.1. Try selecting a print driver according to the manufacturer and model of the remote printer. Confirming Printer Configuration The last step is to confirm your printer configuration. or NCP). you need a print driver to process the data that is sent to the printer. Refer to Section 8.

Printing a Test Page After you have configured your printer.56 Chapter 8. select the printer and click the Delete button on the toolbar. select the printer that you want to try out from the printer list. select the printer from the printer list and click the Default button on the toolbar. Make any necessary changes. Figure 8-5. To print a test page. Click Apply in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. The tabbed window shown in Figure 8-6 is displayed. The window contains the current values for the selected printer. the settings can be edited by selecting the printer from the printer list and clicking the Edit button. To set the default printer. The default printer icon appears in the Default column of the default printer in the list. Modifying Existing Printers To delete an existing printer. If you change the print driver or modify the driver options. you should print a test page to test the different configuration. . Printer Configuration 8. then select the appropriate test page from the Test pulldown menu. Test Page Options 8.5. and click OK. After adding the printer(s). Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. you should print a test page to make sure the printer is functioning properly. The printer is removed from the printer list.4.

This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. change the value in the Queue name tab.4. Click OK to return to the main window. 8. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon.Chapter 8.5. click OK to return to the main window. Driver Options The Driver Options tab displays advanced printer options.1.5. Printer Configuration 57 Figure 8-6. The queue type of the printer can be changed or just the settings. Depending on which queue type is chosen.5. The name of the printer should change in the printer list. If it is changed. different options are displayed. After making modifications. Options vary for each print driver. Some printers require both Send Form-Feed (FF) and Send Endof-Transmission (EOT) to eject the last page. Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. Refer to the appropriate section on adding a printer for a description of the options. 8. • . Editing a Printer 8. 8. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. Send End-of-Transmission (EOT) should be selected if sending a form-feed does not work. Queue Name To rename a printer or change its short description. Queue Type The Queue type tab shows the queue type that was selected when adding the printer and its settings. If this does not work. Refer to Send Form-Feed (FF) above. click OK to return to the main window.2.3. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. try selecting Send End-ofTransmission (EOT) instead. Printer Driver The Printer driver tab shows which print driver is currently being used.5. the form feed light flashes). Common options include: • Send Form-Feed (FF) should be selected if the last page of the print job is not ejected from the printer (for example.

Also select this option if the printer can not handle PostScript level 3. Extra time is required to perform this action. the print driver assumes that any data that it can not recognize is text and attempts to print it as text. Do not choose it unless problems printing the correct fonts exist. This option is only available if the PostScript driver is used with the CUPS printing system. The print spool queue is a list of print jobs that have been sent to the printer and information about each print request. If the CUPS printing system is used. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. . Prerender Postscript should be selected if characters beyond the basic ASCII set are being sent to the printer but they are not printing correctly (such as Japanese characters). Only select this option if there are problems printing. the print driver assumes the unknown data is text and then converts it to PostScript. and A4. click the Printer Manager icon on the panel to start the GNOME Print Manager as shown in Figure 8-7. try unselecting this when printing plain text documents to decrease the time it takes to print. Change this option to use paper from a different tray. select this option to print Japanese fonts to a non-Japanese printer. select ja_JP. • • • • To modify the driver options. Effective Filter Locale defaults to C. Convert Text to Postscript is selected by default. accept the default of C. Page Size allows the paper size to be selected. this is not an option because text is always converted to PostScript. the print job is added to the print spool queue. the username of the person who sent the request. Media Source defaults to Printer default. click OK to return to the main window. 8.58 Chapter 8. This option converts it to PostScript level 1. For example. If you are running a graphical desktop environment. such as the status of the request. If the printer does not support the fonts you are trying to print. Convert to PS level 1. If this option is selected along with the Convert Text to Postscript option. the job number. US Legal. If the printer can print plain text. or Convert to PS level 2 in case the printer can not handle certain PostScript levels. Managing Print Jobs When you send a print job to the printer daemon. Otherwise. the hostname of the system that sent the request. Printer Configuration Assume Unknown Data is Text should be selected if the print driver does not recognize some of the data sent to it. If this option is selected. A3. This option prerenders non-standard PostScript fonts so that they are printed correctly. and more. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon.6. such as printing text file from Emacs or printing an image from The GIMP. The options include US Letter. try selecting this option. If Japanese characters are being printed. • • • GhostScript pre-filtering — allows you to select No pre-filtering.

a printer notification icon might appears in the Panel Notification Area of the desktop panel as shown in Figure 8-9. Figure 8-9. Double-click on a configured printer to view the print spool queue as shown in Figure 8-8. Printer Notification Icon Clicking on the printer notification icon starts the GNOME Print Manager to display a list of current print jobs. The Printer Configuration Tool is then started. If there are active print jobs in the print spool. right-click on the icon for the printer and select Properties. Click OK to start printing the file. . Because it probes for active print jobs every five seconds. To change the printer settings. To print a file from Nautilus. List of Print Jobs To cancel a specific print job listed in the GNOME Print Manager. browse to the location of the file and drag and drop it on to the Print Manager icon on the Panel. Also located on the Panel is a Print Manager icon.Chapter 8. select it from the list and select Edit => Cancel Documents from the pulldown menu. The window shown in Figure 8-10 is displayed. the icon might not be displayed for short print jobs. Figure 8-8. GNOME Print Manager It can also be started by selecting Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => System Tools => Print Manager. Printer Configuration 59 Figure 8-7.

60

Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

Figure 8-10. Print Verification Window To view the list of print jobs in the print spool from a shell prompt, type the command lpq. The last few lines will look similar to the following:
Rank Owner/ID active user@localhost+902 Class A Job Files 902 sample.txt Size Time 2050 01:20:46

Example 8-1. Example of lpq output If you want to cancel a print job, find the job number of the request with the command lpq and then use the command lprm job number . For example, lprm 902 would cancel the print job in Example 8-1. You must have proper permissions to cancel a print job. You can not cancel print jobs that were started by other users unless you are logged in as root on the machine to which the printer is attached. You can also print a file directly from a shell prompt. For example, the command lpr sample.txt will print the text file sample.txt. The print filter determines what type of file it is and converts it a format the printer can understand.

8.7. Additional Resources
To learn more about printing on Red Hat Linux, refer to the following resources.

8.7.1. Installed Documentation
• man printcap —

The manual page for the /etc/printcap printer configuration file.

• map lpr — The manual page for the lpr command that allows you to print files from the command

line.

• man lpd

— The manual page for the LPRng printer daemon.

Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

61

• man lprm

— The manual page for the command line utility to remove print jobs from the LPRng spool queue. — The manual page for the command line utility to print multiple pages on one sheet — The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon. The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon configuration file. The manual page for the class configuration file for CUPS.

• man mpage

of paper.

• man cupsd

• man cupsd.conf —

• man classes.conf —

8.7.2. Useful Websites
• •

http://www.linuxprinting.org — GNU/Linux Printing contains a large amount of information about printing in Linux. http://www.cups.org/ — Documentation, FAQs, and newsgroups about CUPS.

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Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

Whether you are preparing for a business or school presentation. It includes templates.html .png Table 9-1. graphs. business presentations.txt. It allows you complete control over the layout and content of your documents and lets you see the results as you edit it.org Writer OpenOffice. budgets. at school. Table 9-1 shows the many different types of files you can use and tasks you can accomplish with the OpenOffice. Red Hat Linux has a tool that suits your needs.htm/. spreadsheets. business forms. clip art.sdw. write a document with an embedded chart created by the spreadsheet application as well as a slide from a graphical presentation application. .Chapter 9. edit. image formats. charts. .org Features The OpenOffice. which incorporates several complementary applications into one integrated package.org.sxc. export files to several Illustrations. line drawings. productivity suites are graphical and include such applications as word processors.html . .1.csv.org suite contains several applications for creating and editing documents.ppt. Working with Documents Red Hat Linux includes several tools for managing all of your documents. simple databases Business and academic presentations. the OpenOffice. address books. you know they are commonly associated with the Microsoft Office suite. or printed collateral. Integration of the software that make up a productivity suite helps you to give impact to your presentations.1.doc or .org Calc OpenOffice.sdc.1. OpenOffice. .org Impress OpenOffice. newsletters. The OpenOffice. and allows you to .sxw. Using OpenOffice. including files which are commonly associated with Microsoft Office.sxd.org suite. 9. visual form of document formatting is called what you see is what you get (or WYSIWYG) editing.org Draw File Compatibility .htm/.doc. . writing a formal letter.org suite has many file compatibility features. and artwork. The OpenOffice.sxi. personnel directories. . This real-time. tables.sda. lectures. Web presentations. for example. including . OpenOffice. Usually. and create files in several formats. Application OpenOffice. . resumes.sxd.org suite is able to read.jpg. . and at home.slk.rtf. or opening a document from an email attachment. 9.org is much faster and easier than learning complex tags and code to format your documents and presentations.xls. and . . The applications that comprise a productivity suite are integrated — which means that you can. Red Hat Linux includes a powerful business productivity suite called OpenOffice. If you have ever worked with or received . spreadsheets. . school papers. . .dbf.gif. and presentation utilities.sdd Document Types Formal letters.org Features As you can see. . .org Suite Productivity suites are collections of applications designed to save time and assist users at work.bmp. lectures. .xls files. and wizards for creating basic professional documents and presentations quickly. organizational charts . forms. slide shows . reports Spreadsheets. .

as well as buttons for creating new documents (which will open up a new window with a blank document for you to add content). At the top of the window are various functions collected into toolbars that let you choose your fonts. Along the left side of the window. click the Save button choose the file format from the File type drop down menu at the bottom of the browser window. However. for files that you need to distribute to Microsoft Office users. a pop-up Tip is displayed with a brief explanation of the button’s functionality.org Writer window is exactly what you get if you printed the document or if you gave the document file to someone else for them to view.org Writer in action: Figure 9-1. saving. 9. toggling the automatic highlighting of misspelled words.org Writer from your desktop panel.64 Chapter 9. There is also a text box that enables you to specify the exact location of a document on your machine and load the document into the editing area. or home use. keyword and phrase searching.1. OpenOffice.2.org Writer To start OpenOffice. design. business. type oowriter.org suite. The following sections shows you how to use the OpenOffice. letter sizes. to start it from a shell prompt. A word processor is like a text editor but has several additional features that allow you to format. To save your text. You can display more detailed Tips by clicking the Help menu and choosing Extended Tips. and more. choose Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice.org is similar to other word processing applications you may have used before. Figure 9-1 shows OpenOffice. If you hover the mouse cursor over a toolbar button.org Writer. The default file type is appropriate for files that you are working on exclusively with OpenOffice.org applications. You can immediately begin typing text into the document editing area at any time using the default . The main interface is the document editing area (the white space in the middle of the window) where you can add and edit text. or right margins). center. justification (aligning the text of your document to the left. and printing documents. Working with Documents accomplish several tasks for academic. There are also buttons for opening. and other convenient editing functions. OpenOffice. or if you are . You can settings.org Writer Writing documents using OpenOffice. there is a toolbar with buttons for checking your spelling.org Writer is a powerful word processor that features WYSIWYG formatting — what you see in the OpenOffice. OpenOffice. and print your documents without the need to memorize complex formatting tags or codes. which opens the pop-up file browser.

Consult Table 9-1 for available file formats.doc extension.Chapter 9. or mathematical formula. you can save the file as a Microsoft Word file type that others will be able to open it in Microsoft Word. OpenOffice. OpenOffice. select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. charts. Figure 9-2. You can even incorporate spreadsheet data into your documents for a professional touch. 9. and manipulating data.3. formats which can be read by almost every computer with a Web browser (such as Mozilla) or PDF viewer application (such as xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader). such as a quantity.org Calc.1. To add an image to the document. Working with Documents 65 editing a file that was sent as an email attachment with the . While OpenOffice.org Calc From large enterprises to home offices. To start OpenOffice. The image will appear where you placed your cursor and can be made larger or smaller by clicking on the resizing borders around the image. Figure 9-2 shows an image added to a document. Figure 9-3 shows OpenOffice. select Insert => Graphics => From File.org Calc from the desktop panel. illustrations.org Writer is useful for general document editing. . A cell is a container for individual pieces of data.org Calc in action.org Calc is a software spreadsheet application that allows you to enter and manipulate data cells organized in columns and rows. and choose the image from the pop-up file browser. label. creating business charts. and tables to your document to complement your text or give impact to your documents.org Calc from a shell prompt. Note that you can also export your document to HTML or PDF format. type oocalc. professionals in every industry use spreadsheets for keeping records. Adding an Image to Your Document Once you have created your document. To start OpenOffice. you can save it in any format that you wish. you can also add objects such as images. You can perform calculations on groups of cells (such as adding or subtracting a column of cells) or create charts based on the quantities contained in a group of cells.

.org Impress presentations. and =subtotal()for preparing receipts). =quotient() for division. you can create a personal budget by entering data descriptions (such as rent. For detailed information about creating functions for calculating your numerical data in OpenOffice. Highlight the areas you would like to chart.org Calc. Working with Documents Figure 9-3.. OpenOffice. The graph will be displayed anchored within the spreadsheet window. OpenOffice.org has several chart and graph templates available. In the Chart window. You can move it anywhere on the screen for printing.. or you can save the graph as an object that you can then embed in OpenOffice. and click Create. OpenOffice. . Choose the style you want.org Calc allows you to enter the data either in the cell itself by double clicking the cell and typing your information or by using the Input Line (the text box on the toolbar). For example. groceries. then click Insert => Chart. If you need to create charts or graphs for class or business presentations.org Calc allows you to enter and manipulate personal or business data. Then you can run a formula on column B to come up with a total. refer to the documentation by selecting Help => Contents. the data ranges you chose will be shown in the text box for you to customize further if desired. Click Next to display the many different charts and graphs you can create using your data.org Calc has several preset functions and calculations (such as =SUM() for addition/multiplication.org Writer documents or OpenOffice.66 Chapter 9. and utilities) into column A and the quantities of those data descriptions in column B.org Calc OpenOffice. OpenOffice.

Figure 9-5 shows OpenOffice.org Impress in action. refer to the help page located in Help => Contents from the file menus.org Impress from a shell prompt. OpenOffice.org Impress features a step-by-step automated presentation wizard called AutoPilot that allows you to create presentations from a collection of default style templates. you can export rendered charts and graphs to several image file formats and integrate them with document files.org Calc You can save spreadsheets created with OpenOffice.1. select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice.org Impress is a graphical tool that can help you make a more convincing presentation. OpenOffice.org Impress Visual aids can give your presentations an added impact that catches your audience’s attention and keeps them interested. including the native . To start OpenOffice. You can make slides with itemized lists. You can even import charts and graphs created by OpenOffice.Chapter 9.sxc as well as Microsoft Office compatible . type ooimpress.4. or images.org Calc. Creating Charts with OpenOffice. 9.org Calc into a slide.org Calc in several file formats. For more information about using OpenOffice. outlines. Working with Documents 67 Figure 9-4. webpages.org Impress from the graphical desktop. and presentations. Additionally. .org Impress.xls formats. OpenOffice. To start OpenOffice.

in the floating toolbar. or a display monitor). slides. To add new slides to your presentation. Your presentation can be saved in several file formats. Figure 9-6.org Impress AutoPilot Wizard Once you have chosen your preferences with AutoPilot tool. transparent paper for overhead projectors. you will be presented with the AutoPilot. You can save in the native OpenOffice.org Impress When you first start OpenOffice.sxi). You can have as many slides in your presentation as you need. the Microsoft PowerPoint format (mypresentation. . OpenOffice. Working with Documents Figure 9-5.. and any animated visual effects you want to apply to the slides if you run presentations from your computer.org Impress format (for example.. which you can exit by cycling through every slide until you reach the end or by pressing the [Esc] key at any point in the slide show. The presentation will be presented in full screen. and a pop-up window will appear allowing you to choose the layout of the new slide.sdd).ppt).68 Chapter 9. You can choose the style of your slides. or StarImpress format (mypresentation. click Insert Slide. the medium with which you will present your slides (plain paper. you can choose the type of slide you want to create. mypresentation. You can also preview your presentation at any point by selecting Slide Show => Slide Show from the file menus.org Impress. You can also print your presentation to plain or transparent paper formats by clicking File => Print from the file menu. OpenOffice. You can select a pre-formatted slide from the list or start with a blank slide and customize the layout yourself.

Figure 9-7 Shows OpenOffice.png. Figure 9-7. When you complete your illustration or image modifications. OpenOffice.org Draw If you want to create graphics for your documents and presentations. . 69 9. To start OpenOffice. and more.org Draw allows you to make illustrations and save them in several formats that you can add to printed documents. click Help => Contents from the file menus. you can save the file in one of several native file formats or export your work to several popular formats such as . you can use OpenOffice. You can create images and fill them with the color of your choice using the Area Style/Filling drop-down menu on the main toolbar.5.org Draw.org Impress. 3D objects such as cones and cubes. basic shapes such as squares and circles.1. you will find that OpenOffice.Chapter 9.org Draw also allows you to open and import images and modify them with the tools provided. refer to the documentation located at Help => Contents from the file menus. There are toolbars for creating straight and curved lines. or attach to emails. You can additionally insert text into your illustrations. OpenOffice. Refer to Table 9-1 for the complete list of compatible image file formats. Working with Documents To learn more about OpenOffice. type oodraw. To start OpenOffice. click Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. Using your mouse as a you would a pen or a paintbrush.org Draw has some of the same basic functions.org Draw.jpg or .org Draw in action.org Draw If you are familiar with illustration and graphics applications such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information).org Draw. OpenOffice. For more information on using OpenOffice.org Draw from a shell prompt. OpenOffice. place on websites.org Draw from the desktop panel.

you are presented with a blank editing area. Plain text files are files that contain text without any font or style formatting applied to it. such as system logs and configuration files.70 Chapter 9. Press the [Page Up] and [Page Down] keys to advance the document a page at a time. gedit has a clear and understandable interface that uses tabs so that you can open more than one file at the same time without opening more than one gedit window. Figure 9-8. If you have a file already open and want to copy text from another file. You can begin using gedit immediately or click the Open button to locate the plain text file you want to edit. You can also start gedit by typing gedit at a shell prompt. choose the file you want .2. edit. To start gedit. Working with Documents 9. The file will load into the main editing area as shown in Figure 9-8. and save plain text files. applications that allow you to view and modify plain text files. Note gedit can only be used in a graphical desktop environment. click Main Menu => Accessories => Text Editor. Editing Text Files Red Hat Linux includes several text editors. gedit is a graphical text editor. You can also cut and paste text to and from other graphical desktop applications. You can navigate the text file by clicking and holding the scroll bar on the right edge of the window and moving your mouse cursor up and down. Tip gedit allows you to open multiple text files in one window using separate tabs for each file. and print files. create new text files. use the arrow keys to navigate through the text file line-by-line. click Open. It can open. or. gedit Once gedit is running.

which exits without saving changes. press [:] (which is the vi command mode) and press [q] then [Enter]. Once you have modified or written your text file. then any changes you make will automatically appear in the file the next time you open it. 9. press [:] and type [w] then [q] to write your changes to the file and exit the application. You can also choose File => Save As. You can navigate between each file by clicking on the the tab associated with the particular filename. search. To start vi.. choose Help => Contents from the file menus to access the gedit manual. to save an existing file under a new name or in a different location.Chapter 9. and the file will open in a new tab within the gedit window. If you are editing an existing file. press [i] (for Insert mode). for example. type [:] and then type [q] followed by [!]. which is convenient if. vi is a simple application that opens within the shell prompt and allows you to view. you are editing a configuration file and you want to test your changes without losing your original configuration. type vi at a shell prompt.2. vi By default. and vi reverts to Normal mode. To open a file with vi type vi filename at a shell prompt. To exit vi. and modify text files. meaning that you can view and run built-in commands on the file but you cannot add text to it.1. Shell Prompt Text Editors If you are not using a graphical desktop and want to read and modify a text or configuration file. To add text. Working with Documents 71 to access. a pop-up window will prompt you to name the file and save it in the directory of your choice. If you have made changes to the text file that you want to save. To exit insert mode. Red Hat Linux includes the vi (pronounced vee-eye) text editor.. © ¨ . Figure 9-9. press [Esc]. which will allow you to make any modifications you need to. If you are writing a new text file. For more information about gedit. or by choosing File => Save from the file menus. vi opens a file in Normal mode. If you accidentally made changes to a file and you want to exit vi without saving the changes. More information about using vi can be found by typing man vi at a shell prompt. you can save it by pressing the Save button in the toolbar.

Select Open to display the file browser. print. Another popular PDF viewer is Adobe Acrobat Reader.adobe. go to Main Menu => Graphics => PDF Viewer. as well as standard zoom. you can download it free of charge at http://www. To view the xpdf man page. Figure 9-10. To view a PDF you must have a PDF reader. 4. 2. You can also launch xpdf by typing xpdf at a shell prompt. Working with Documents 9. The xpdf man page provides useful information on the xpdf options. 3. making it possible to send formatted documents and have them appear on the recipient’s monitor or printer as they were intended. at a shell prompt type man xpdf.com/. In your desktop environment. and find tools. . The xpdf toolbar at the bottom has navigational tools that let you move backward and forward through the PDF document. xpdf To view a PDF with xpdf: 1. An open source application called xpdf is included with Red Hat Linux. Select the PDF file you want to view and click Open. Viewing PDFs A PDF (Portable Document Format) file is an electronic image of a document.72 Chapter 9.3. Right-click in the xpdf screen to display a list of options. While it is not included with Red Hat Linux. PDF captures formatting information from a variety of desktop publishing applications.

with play. 10. Figure 10-2. CD Player Interface The CD Player interface acts similar to a standard CD player.2. CD Player Preferences 10. Red Hat Linux provides many packages to assist you in having some fun with your computer. and stop functions. and General Amusement This chapter presents you with the lighter side of Red Hat Linux. From games and toys to multimedia applications. and the files are compact (audio files can easily be transferred across the Internet). Figure 10-1. You can also change the way the application functions by clicking on the Open Preferences button. click Main Menu => Sound & Video => CD Player to launch the CD Player application. a cross-platform multimedia player which allows you to play several digital audio file formats. There is even a sliding bar that allows you to adjust the volume. Here you can set themes for the player as well as set the behavior of the CD-ROM drive when you open or quit the CD Player application. If the interface does not appear. Press the Next track and Previous Track buttons to skip forward or backward one track. Audio.Chapter 10. You can edit the track listings for your CDs by clicking the Open track editor button. Playing Digital Audio Files Digital audio has become very popular in recent years. .1. Red Hat Linux includes the powerful X Multimedia System (XMMS). pause. Video. Users enjoy the technology because the sound quality is excellent compared to analog tape or records. place the CD in your CD-ROM drive. To take advantage of this technology. The CD Player application should appear automatically and begin playing the first audio track. Playing Audio CDs To play an audio CD. you can also use the Track List drop down menu to select a track from the available listing.

To adjust the volume click the volume slider (the long slider above the Open button) to the left to lower the volume or to the right to increase it like a CD player. Using XMMS To play an audio file with XMMS. To learn more about using XMMS and its many options. To launch XMMS. . This can be convenient if you have several audio files and you want to categorize them (for example. There are also buttons to stop. By default XMMS can play Ogg Vorbis.pls file is an audio playlist file. RIFF wave. Highlight the file you wish to play (if you have multiple files. the . You can use XMMS to add audio files into a list and then save it as a playlist. and General Amusement Figure 10-3. and skip (backward and forward) your audio files. for some reason. by genre or artist). click the Open button window. you see that there are several files to choose from. 10. you do not hear sound and know that you do have a sound card installed. XMMS Interface XMMS can be used for more than just playing digital audio files. and choose a file from the Load File(s) Figure 10-4. and most module formats. The Load File(s) Window In Figure 10-4.74 Chapter 10. XMMS can be extended via plugins to play a number of other digital multimedia formats. 10.3. To launch XMMS from a shell prompt.2. Video. Audio. go to Main Menu => Sound & Video => XMMS. refer to the man page by typing man xmms at a shell prompt. you can run the Sound Card Configuration Tool utility.1. type the command xmms. a popular new audio file format. Notice that XMMS begins to play your audio files immediately.ogg are Ogg Vorbis files. Troubleshooting Your Sound Card If. pause. Additionally. The files that end in . click and hold the mouse button and drag it over all of the files you want to open) and click OK.

If the utility detects a plug and play sound card.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/ . 10. it will automatically try to configure the correct settings for your card.com/ to see if your card is supported. Figure 10-5. and General Amusement 75 To use the Sound Card Configuration Tool. If you can hear the sample.1. A small text box pops up prompting you for your root password. although they are not quite as simple as running the Sound Card Configuration Tool. For example: alias sound sb alias midi opl3 options opl3 io=0x388 options sb io=0x220 irq=7 dma=0. Audio. Sound Card Configuration Tool 10. Note Most sound cards are supported by Red Hat Linux.1.Chapter 10. If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work If the Sound Card Configuration Tool does not work (if the sample does not play and you still do not have audio sounds). there are alternatives. If you are having trouble configuring your sound card.tldp. Video. choose Main Menu => System Settings => Soundcard Detection. Manual Sound Card Configuration If your sound card is not a plug and play card. select OK and your sound card configuration is complete.conf file as discussed below (this strategy is not recommended for most new users) or refer to the documentation that came with your sound card for more information.3. refer to the Linux Sound HOWTO at the Linux Documentation Project webpage: http://www. The Sound Card Configuration Tool utility probes your system for sound cards.3. check the Hardware Compatibility List at http://hardware. you can manually edit your /etc/modules.redhat. You can then click the Play test sound button to play a sound sample.conf file to include the sound card module that it should use. You can edit your modules. but there are some sound cards that are not completely compatible or may not work at all.1 mpu_io=0x300 For information on configuring sound manually.1.

button next to the Monitor Type entry.. X Configuration Tool attempts to automatically configure your video card and monitor settings for you. X Configuration Tool To configure your monitor manually. then click the Configure. You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your monitor for the correct model and vertical/horizontal frequency settings. A pop-up window will display a list of video card models. Figure 10-6. you can use the X Configuration Tool utility. 10.76 Chapter 10.. A pop-up window prompts you for your root password. Video.. You should do this. Note The X Configuration Tool backs up your system’s original video configuration file to /etc/X11/XF86Config. You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your video card for the correct model and settings by clicking the Probe Videocard button. click Main Menu => System Settings => Display. Games Playing games under Red Hat Linux is a fun way to pass the time. Troubleshooting Your Video Card Video card configuration is handled during the Red Hat Linux installation (refer to the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide for more information). you should be able to start an X session and enjoy your graphical desktop environment.4. Follow the instructions that appear on the screen. The games included in Red Hat Linux appeal to quite a large number of video game enthusiasts. Choose your model and click OK.. You can also start from a shell prompt by typing the command redhat-config-xfree86. When you have finished reconfiguring your video card and monitor. then click the Configure. redhat-config-xfree86 attempts to start a minimal X session to allow you to continue your configuration. To run the X Configuration Tool. which then prompt you to input your root password. A pop-up window will display a list of monitor models. Choose your model and click OK. If you are working from a shell prompt and X is not working. click the Advanced tab. for example. Whether you enjoy card games like .backup in case you need it to switch back to a previous configuration. click the Advanced tab. However. To configure your video card manually. if you did not choose to configure a video card at that time.5. if you install a new video card. button next to the Video Card entry. Figure 10-6 shows the Advanced tab for configuring your video device manually. or if you need to reconfigure your settings. and General Amusement 10. Audio.

linuxgames. http://www. Audio.com/ — a Linux gaming news site. or space shooting games like Chromium and Maelstrom.6.linuxgaming. To start a game. http://happypenguin. You can also browse the Internet for linux games using a search engine. Video.net — A website that covers Linux-compatible games in depth. arcade games like Tux Racer. click Main Menu => Games and select the game of your choice. Figure 10-7 shows a fun game for kids of all ages called Same GNOME.google. you can click them to make them disappear.com — A store where you can buy games just for Linux. Finding Games Online There are many more games available within Red Hat Linux and online. http://www.tuxgames. such as http://www.org/ — the Linux gaming repository. you can find it in Red Hat Linux. Same GNOME — Match the Marbles Game 10. then. In this game you point your mouse at matching marbles until they start to spin. and General Amusement 77 Aisle Riot (a solitaire card game). board games like Chess. For more information. here are a few suggestions: • • • • http://www.com/. . Figure 10-7. The object of the game is to make all the marbles disappear.Chapter 10.

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Chapter 10. Audio, Video, and General Amusement

Chapter 11. Working with Images
Digital images have grown in popularity with the development of the graphical Internet and the increasing quality of digital cameras. There are several types of image files, some of which are created using sophisticated illustration software packages, while others are made from digital sources such as a scanner or camera. You may have downloaded some of these image files from the Web or received them in an email. You may also want to create your own images to send to others. You can view and modify the most common types of image files using the many applications included in Red Hat Linux.

11.1. Viewing Images
This section discusses some of the common tools for viewing image files. Certain tools included in Red Hat Linux are specialized applications with several functions that enhance your image viewing experience; while others are general-purpose file managers that have integrated image viewing functionality.

11.1.1. Using Nautilus to View Images
Nautilus is a general-purpose file manager and browser for your graphical desktop environment. Nautilus has many functions beyond simple image viewing; however, for this section, we will use it for basic image browsing. For more information about Nautilus, see Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop. Nautilus is known for its ease-of-use and it handles images with the same ease as it does for other file types. To begin browsing your image collection with Nautilus, double-click your home desktop icon: You will be presented with a view of all files and folders within your home directory. Double-click the image (or the folder containing the image) and Nautilus will open the file or folder within its browser window. Figure 11-1 shows that Nautilus automatically creates thumbnails of any images in your folders:

Figure 11-1. Contents of a Folder in Nautilus

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Chapter 11. Working with Images

Double-click on any thumbnail icon to view the image in its native size. The image will load within the browser window. To increase or decrease the size of the viewed image in Nautilus, click on the zoom buttons next to the Location: field as shown in Figure 11-2:

Figure 11-2. The Zoom Function in Nautilus Click the + button to increase the size of the image or - to decrease it.

11.1.2. Using gThumb
gThumb is a powerful image viewer for graphical desktop users that supports several image file formats, including:
• • • • • • • • •

JPG/JPEG GIF PGM XPM PNG PCX TIF/TIFF PPM BMP

gThumb is useful for viewing individual image files as well as browsing collections of files in folders. It supports zoom in and zoom out functions, as well as thumbnail sized preview icons of all image files within a directory. It also supports several advanced options not found in Nautilus. gThumb can be started from your desktop panel. Choose Main Menu => Graphics => gThumb Image Viewer or type gthumb at a shell prompt to start the application. gThumb will browse your user home directory by default. If you have any images in this directory, the gallery panel will automatically generate thumbnails for you to highlight and view in the main display area.

The toolbar allows you to fit the image to the display window. You can stop the slide show at any time by pressing [Esc] or by moving your mouse cursor and clicking the Restore Normal View pop-up button that appears on the top left corner of the screen. which fills your desktop with multiple instances of the image. Working with Images 81 Figure 11-3. set to full screen (which covers your entire screen with the image). . The image can be zoomed in and out. You can also set an image as your desktop wallpaper within the pop-up menu. Changing your Desktop Wallpaper with gThumb To change your desktop wallpaper with gThumb. Double-click an image preview thumbnail to view it within the main gallery area.1. and be printed on your configured printer. choose Set Image as Wallpaper.1. The gThumb interface also has a text field for you to enter a particular path to your image directories. which resizes the image from its native resolution to fit your screen size. gThumb Displaying a Folder of Images The interface of gThumb is straightforward. You can center the image on the page. You can combine functions within gThumb and create a dynamic presentation effect for groups of images within a directory. Click the Slide Show button on the toolbar and you will start a full-screen slide show where gThumb displays images in full screen. 11. 11. In the text field below the toolbar.2.2. and write descriptions about the images. moving. which sets the image at its native resolution on the desktop and fills the rest of the space with the default desktop color if the image is smaller than your desktop resolution. and then choose the orientation of the image. You can also scale and stretch the image. collect multiple files into a catalog for easier access if they are located in different directories. Configuring gThumb gThumb allows you to customize several settings by choosing Edit => Preferences.2. copying. right-click on an image. right-click anywhere in the main gallery area and choose Set Image as Wallpaper => Restore. type the path to the the directory where your images are located and highlight the first image in the main gallery panel. You can also tile the image.1. each image in the slide show is presented for 4 seconds. and converting an image from one file format to another. By default.Chapter 11. Right-clicking on an image in the display area opens a pop-up menu of file management options such as renaming. To restore your desktop wallpaper to its default.

11.2.82 Chapter 11. customize a default image directory on startup. you start the GIMP using the command gimp.2. . The GThumb Preferences Dialog Box To find out more about using and configuring gThumb.1. This section offers a quick overview of the GIMP and refers you to comprehensive references for learning more about it. alter. GIMP Basics To use the GIMP. You can choose the layout of the application window. Figure 11-5 shows a typical GIMP session in action. and enhance digital image files — photographs. 11. you will need to know some of the basics. or you can start the GIMP from the desktop by choosing Main Menu => Graphics => The GIMP. From a shell prompt. change thumbnail preview sizes. and change the interval between cycled images during a slide show. and more. choose Help => Contents from the main menu. scanned images. manipulate. Figure 11-4. computer-generated images. Manipulating Images with the GIMP The GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) is a powerful tool that can be used to create. Working with Images The preferences pop-up menu lets advanced users change several of the default gThumb behaviors.

Loading a File To load an existing file.2. Working with Images 83 Figure 11-5. The Load Image Dialog .2. You will see the Load Image dialog. Figure 11-6. select File => Open. The GIMP in Action 11. as shown in Figure 11-6.Chapter 11.

For example. Using the Toolbox. a Generate Preview button is displayed. Figure 11-7 shows an example of an image after the Newsprint filter has been applied: Figure 11-7. If you want to see a thumbnail of the image. Select the quantity of lines per inch using the sliders.png. The file you select appears in the Selection field near the bottom of the dialog. GIMP Options Like many applications. Saving a File To save an image file.gif. alternatively. and . erase regions of an image. The Save Image dialog looks almost exactly like the Load Image dialog and navigation of the file system tree and choosing files works in the same way. the view will change to only those subdirectories and/or files beginning with that letter or letters. click OK. and filter application. imagine you have a picture that you would like to modify to make it look as if it were clipped from a newspaper. You will see the Save Image dialog if you choose Save as or if you choose Save and the file has not been saved before. When you are saving an image. The easiest way to work with images is to right-click the image. 11. Working with Images The Load Image dialog displays your working directory — the directory you were in when the GIMP was launched. click on the Generate Preview button.. An Image modified with a GIMP Filter The Toolbox also has several easily accessible functions.. right-click on the image and select Filters => Distorts => Newsprint. or even fill selected regions with the color of your choice. .3.2.2.. The GIMP supports a wide variety of image formats. File name completion is supported by the GIMP. click on the OK button to open it. including image sizing. You can navigate up and down the file system tree by double-clicking on the Directories list on the left.4. then selecting a file to open from the Files list on the right. You can also double-click on a file name to open it. . right click on the image and choose File => Save (or Save as). 11. A thumbnail preview is displayed in the dialog. . the GIMP provides more than one method to accomplish tasks.bmp. you must choose an image format. rotation. When you reach a desired quantity and are ready to render the image. If you type the first letter (or more) of a file name into the Selection field and press the [Tab] key.jpg. Once you have selected a file. The GIMP then renders the image with the new effect applied. which displays a set of menus containing most of the GIMP’s many capabilities. including . you can add text to images. To do this.84 Chapter 11.

if you wish to add text to a file. and it takes some time to master all of its functions. accessible right from your PC. from the GIMP toolbar menu.sourceforge.3. You can read the manual page by typing man gimp at a shell or terminal prompt. refer to the documentation in Help => Contents in the gThumb main menu. Useful Websites The Web has several sites of interest if you are looking for more detailed information about an application covered in this chapter: • http://gthumb.3. select the loads the Text Tool dialog box. Refer to the following resources if you are interested in learning more about the applications in this chapter.. do not worry. 11. there is so much more you can do with them. If you make a mistake. Installed Documentation Some applications discussed have online documentation included with the package.2. . Try exploring some of the options yourself. Additional Resources While this chapter covers several applications briefly. Using the Text Tool on an Image As you can see.Chapter 11. You can always undo your mistakes by right-clicking on the image and choosing Edit => Undo. the GIMP is a powerful image editing tool.net — The official GThumb home page. where you can choose a font and type some text in the provided text box. The GIMP manual page contains some of the more advanced command line options and environment variables associated with it. The GIMP also has a help browser accessible by choosing Help => Help. You can then move the text to the position you wish using the Move Layers tool. This For example. Click OK and your text is displayed as a floating section on the image. 11. 11. Working with Images 85 button and click on your image.3.. • • For more information about using gThumb.1. Figure 11-8 shows our photo with exciting new text: Figure 11-8.

86 http://www. Sams .org/ — The official GIMP website. 11. Inc.org/manual/ — The online GIMP User Manual.3. The entire book is also available on the site for download http://tigert. Hungry Minds.rru.gimp.org/gimp/ — The GIMP website of tigert (Tuomas Kuosmanen). et al. by Carey Bunks. Working with Images • • • • • http://www.com/ — The companion website to the book Grokking the GIMP.gimp. The following books were available at the time of this writing: • • • • • • The Artists’ Guide to the GIMP by Michael J. http://gimp-savvy. Inc. try your favorite bookstore. GIMP Essential Reference by Alex Harford.gimp. Frank Kasper and Associates. Chapter 11. New Riders Publishing Sams Teach Yourself GIMP in 24 Hours by Joshua and Ramona Pruitt. Coriolis Group Grokking the GIMP by Carey Bunks. http://manual. Related Books If you need in-depth information about the many capabilities of the GIMP. Hammel. New Riders Publishing GIMP for Linux Bible by Stephanie Cottrell Bryant.com/~meo/gimp/faq-user.3.html — A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) list for questions commonly asked about the GIMP by GIMP users (as opposed to developers). GIMP: The Official Handbook by Karin Kylander and Olof S. Kylander.

the settings will be saved with each additional use. You can also download the images to your computer and modify it with image manipulation programs such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information about image manipulation tools). view. From the pop-up dialog. which you can then save to disk by choosing File => Save Selected Photos.Chapter 12. choose Main Menu => Graphics => Digital Camera Tool. whether your camera uses USB or serial ports to communicate with your computer. Working with Digital Cameras Digital cameras have recently grown in popularity because of their increasing image quality and easy interaction with desktop PCs. . You only have to configure gtKam for your camera once. Select the directory that commonly stores your images and the stored images will immediately load as thumbnail images in the main panel. allowing you to open.. choose Select => All. Adding a Camera in gtKam Once you have added your camera. you need to configure it to work with your digital camera. 12. you can choose your camera from the drop-down list or let gtKam automatically find your camera by clicking Detect. and delete images directly.1. Digital cameras create high-quality images that allow you to send to others over the Internet or print on a color printer. then save the images to disk. choose Camera => Add Camera. and modify your digital photographs. it will be shown as an icon on the left panel of the main gtKam window.. So. click on the images you want. From this panel. Click Apply to accept the changes and OK to close the dialog box. To start gtKam. gtKam works directly with your digital camera. Using gtKam Red Hat Linux supports over 100 digital camera models. it is likely that Red Hat Linux will support it. Before you begin using gtKam. Figure 12-1. If you want to save all of the stored images. Directories shown below the icon may differ depending on your brand of camera. You can also start gtKam by typing gtkam at a shell prompt. From the menu. gtKam is a graphical application that allows you to interface with your digital camera. view. save.. Red Hat Linux supports several brands of digital cameras and has applications that help you access.

Viewing Images with gtKam For more information about using gtKam.88 Chapter 12.net/proj/gtkam/ . refer to the gtKam page at the gPhoto website: http://gphoto. Working with Digital Cameras Figure 12-2.sourceforge.

Since the creation of the Bourne shell. A Shell Prompt This section explains how to navigate the file system. Operating systems at that time came with command interpreters. . Shell Prompt Basics 13. many Red Hat Linux functions can be completed faster from the shell prompt than from a graphical user interface (GUI). Experienced users can write shell scripts to expand their capabilities even further. Figure 13-1. Why Use a Shell Prompt Graphical environments for Linux have come a long way in the past few years. the shell interprets these commands. perform simple administration tasks. However. or modify files from a GUI. something that offered better features than the command interpreters available at that time.1.R. The History of the Shell When AT&T software engineers Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson were designing UNIX™. Bourne. In less time than it might take to open a file manager. a task can be finished with just a few commands at a shell prompt. But Ritchie and Thompson wanted something more. Users type commands at a shell prompt. locate a directory. and then create.2. and other shell prompt basics. manipulate files. delete. This lead to the development of the Bourne shell (known as sh). they wanted to create a way for people to interact with their new system. such as the C shell (csh) and the Korn shell (ksh). which could take commands from the user and interpret them so that computers could use them. You can be perfectly productive in the X Window System and only have to open a shell prompt to complete a few tasks. and then the shell tells the OS what to do.Chapter 13. created by S. other shells have been developed. 13. A shell prompt looks similar to other command-line interfaces with which you might be familiar.

When you typed pwd. use the cd command. The Command pwd Shows You Where You Are To determine the exact location of the current directory at a shell prompt and type the command pwd. By default. The result was the Bourne Again Shell. . moving to any other directory requires a pathname. and can be printed to the shell prompt or can be redirected to other programs or to other output devices such as printers. Your system responded by printing the full path of the current directory in the shell prompt window. The command pwd stands for print working directory. the response is called standard output.90 Chapter 13. To change directories. the Bash prompt in Red Hat Linux shows just your current directory. Determining Your Current Directory with pwd Once you start looking through directories. which is in the /home directory. 13. Typing this command by itself will always return you to your home directory. you asked your Linux system to display your current location. 13. not the entire path.3. or bash.4. Shell Prompt Basics When the Free Software Foundation sought a royalty-free shell. Figure 13-2. Changing Directories with cd Changing directories is easy as long as you know where you are (your current directory) and how that relates to where you want to go. bash is the default shell for interactive users. You will see something such as: /home/sam This example shows that you are in the user sam’s directory. You will find that using pwd is very helpful as you learn to navigate your Red Hat Linux system. Although your Red Hat Linux system includes several different shells. it is easy to get lost or forget the name of your current directory. developers began to work on the language behind the Bourne shell as well as some of the popular features from other shells available at the time. When the system responds to requests for information. You can learn more about bash by reading the bash man page (type man bash at a shell prompt).

Finally. This is because there is no directory1 below directory3. use the cd . Using absolute paths allows you to change to a directory from the / directory. . From your home directory. To move up to directory1.Chapter 13. Executing the command cd directory1 while you are in directory3. / /directory1 /directory1/directory2 /directory1/directory2/directory3 If you are currently in directory3 and you want to switch to directory1./. For example: cd /etc/X11 Absolute paths start from the root directory (/) and move down to the directory you specify.. Using relative paths allows you to change to a directory relative to the directory you are currently in./. Then go up to that directory’s parent (which is the root. Take a look at your last cd command. which is where you will find configuration files and directories related to the X Window System. Absolute paths start at the top of the file system with / (referred to as root) and then look down for the requested directory. type the relative path: cd . command. Go up one level to your login directory’s parent directory (probably /home) 2. will present you with an error message explaining that there is no such directory. You told your system to: 1. Then go down to the etc directory 4. tells your system to go up to the directory immediately above the one in which you are currently working. The command cd . type: cd /directory1 This is an example of an absolute path. wherever that may be. A path is absolute if the first character is a /. which requires you to know and type the complete path. it is a relative path. relative paths look down from your current directory. Use the following exercise to test what you have learned so far regarding absolute and relative paths. you need to move up in the directory tree... using an absolute path would get you to the /etc/X11 directory more quickly. or /. you should be in the directory X11. It tells Linux to start at the top of the directory tree (/) and change to directory1. directory) 3. which can be convenient if you are changing to a subdirectory within your current directory.. Shell Prompt Basics 91 You can use absolute or relative pathnames. To go up two directories. go to the X11 directory Conversely. The following directory tree illustrates how cd operates.. Otherwise./etc/X11 After using the full command in the example.

see what happens when you change to root’s login directory (the superuser account). Shell Prompt Basics Note Always make sure you know which working directory you are in before you state the relative path to the directory or file you want to get to. When you type su by itself and press [Enter]. a subdirectory of dir1 cd /home cd . Command cd cd ~ cd / cd /root Function returns you to your login directory also returns you to your login directory takes you to the entire system’s root directory takes you to the home directory of the root. . To change to the root login and root directory./dir3/dir2 this relative path would take you up two directories. it is as if you had logged in as root originally.. you become root (also called the superuser) while still inside your login shell (your user’s home directory). you must be the root user to access this directory takes you to the home directory. Table 13-1. or superuser. this absolute path would take you straight to subdirfoo./.. You do not have to worry about your position in the file system. then to dir3. type pwd and your current working directory will be displayed. cd Options Now that you are starting to understand how to change directories. use the su command.14 Ownership and Permissions. Typing su . See Section 13.92 Chapter 13. if otheruser has granted you permission regardless of which directory you are in. you are denied permission to access that directory.. If you are not sure. which can be your guide for moving up and down directories using relative pathnames. su Tip The command su means substitute users and it allows you to log in as another user temporarily. account created at installation. cd ~otheruser cd /dir1/subdirfoo cd . Type: cd /root If you are not logged in as root. when you state the absolute path to another directory or file. Denying access to the root and other users’ accounts (or login directories) is one way your Linux system prevents accidental or malicious tampering. though. then to the dir2 directory.makes you become root with root’s login shell. where user login directories are usually stored moves you up one directory takes you to otheruser’s login directory.

at the prompt type man ls | col -b | lpr. when it was created and more. View Directory Contents with ls Now that you know how to change directories. the root account designation at the front of the prompt and "#" at the end. by itself. superuser status. Some files are hidden files (also called dot files) and can only be seen with an additional option specified to the ls command. The ls command. Tip To see all the options of the ls command. just add the long option (-l) to the ls -a command. ls with the -a Option Hidden files are mostly configuration files which set preferences in programs. shells. permissions. Now you will see files that begin with dots.Chapter 13. you will see the changes in your command prompt to show your new. When you are searching for something in a directory. by adding more than one option. Shell Prompt Basics 93 As soon as you give the root password. you can read the man page by typing man ls at a shell prompt. you are not usually looking for these configuration files. The reason they are hidden is to help prevent any accidental tampering by the user. and more. window managers. does not show all the files in the directory.5. Using the ls command. and you will return to your user account. If you want to see the size of a file or directory. 13. so keep them hidden to help avoid some screen clutter when viewing directories at the shell prompt. type exit at the prompt. you can display the contents of your current directory. . it is time to learn how to view the contents of these directories. but you can view still more information. Figure 13-3. Viewing all the files using the ls -a command can give you plenty of detail. Many options are available with the ls command. This command shows the file creation date. its size. When you are done working as root. ownership. Type the command ls -a. If you want to print the man page. and more.

whether the file is a link to somewhere else on the system and where its link points. @ to indicate a symbolic link to another file. group. For example. . — file type. you will see every file or directory whose name contains the search criterion. Lists the contents of the directory from back to front. creation date. and . permissions (modes). Remember. type: ls -al /etc Figure 13-4.filename). • -l — long. These symbols include / to indicate a directory. — size. Sample ls Output for the /etc Directory The following is a short list of some options commonly used with ls. owner.txt. Sorts files by their sizes. a directory named fingerthumbnails. respectively. at the top of your list refer to the parent directory and the current directory. and * to indicate an executable file. Locating Files and Directories There will be times when you know a file or directory exists but you will not know where to find it.94 Chapter 13. The search results could include a file called finger.6. Shell Prompt Basics You do not have to be in the directory whose contents you want to view to use the ls command. size. Search for a file or directory with the locate command. To learn more about locate. — reverse. Adds a symbol to the end of each listing. The . For example. to see what is in the /etc/ directory from your home directory. a file called pointerfinger. • -a — all. including • -F • -r • -R • -S 13. Lists details about contents. Lists all the files in the directory. and so on. — recursive. read the locate man page (type man locate at a shell prompt).txt. type: locate finger The locate command uses a database to locate files and directories that have the word finger in the file or directory name. if you want to search for all files with the word finger in the name. This option lists the contents of all directories below the current directory recursively.. including the hidden files (. With locate. you can view the full list by reading the ls man page (man ls).

For example. type lprm 389 and press [Enter].txt file. as long as the database is up to date. sends that specified file to the print queue. 13. type lpq at the command line. This section explains how to print. and view print jobs from the command line. Type lpq. followed by a filename.7. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information on cron. To cancel the foo. Unlike cron. Printing From The Command Line Printing is not an involved process whether you click on a button in a GUI or type commands from the command line. After a few minutes. To read the cron man page.Chapter 13. it can be used on machines that are not running 24 hours a day. lpr foo. The lpr command. 389 is the job number. Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information about setting up your printer. which is used to catalog file locations. The cron task periodically updates the slocate database. cron is a small program that runs in the background. with a frequency specified in days. performing various tasks (such as updating the locate database) at regularly scheduled intervals. Hence. Tip Cron is a daemon that executes tasks at regularly scheduled intervals. to control daily. To view the jobs waiting in the print queue. assuming you have a properly configured printer connected to your system. Shell Prompt Basics 95 The locate command works very quickly. type man cron at the shell prompt. it does not assume that the machine is running continuously. Note You can run anacron to have your system execute commands periodically. log in as root (type su at a shell prompt and then your root password) and type the command updatedb. . Refer to the man page on anacron (type man anacron at the command line) and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information.txt prints the foo. That database is automatically updated on a nightly basis through a cron job.txt In this example. and monthly jobs that are usually controlled by cron.txt print job. Switching between operating systems and shutting down your machine at the end of the day can interfere with the automatic database update run by cron. weekly. cancel. To update the database manually. You can cancel jobs in the queue by typing lprm followed by the print job number displayed when you use the lpq command. the slocate database that is used by the locate command will be current. and you will see information similar to this: active root 389 foo.

short for concatenate.txt | less command.9. The cat Command To redirect the output of cat to a file. Try typing the command clear at the shell prompt. 13. see Section 13. you could find that the text you are typing does not match the output on the monitor. Using the pipe (|) and the less command together displays the file one page at a time. For example. using cat by itself outputs whatever you input to the screen as if it were repeating the line you just typed. type reset to return the terminal window to its default values. The utility is called cat. Clearing and Resetting the Terminal After even one ls command in a shell prompt.txt). the terminal window you are working in can begin to look crowded. The command cat will also display the contents of an entire file on the screen (for example. which means to combine files. Sometimes. Using Redirection Redirection means causing the shell to change what it considers to be standard input or where the standard output should be going. To prevent this. gather lists together. Manipulating Files with cat Red Hat Linux has a utility which can help you keep short lists. For more on using pipes to combine two separate functions. To redirect standard output.10 Pipes and Pagers. use the cat filename. Once you close the file. The clear command does just what it implies: it clears the terminal window.9. 13. Shell Prompt Basics 13.1.96 Chapter 13. If the file is fairly long. it will quickly scroll past you on the screen. You can then use the up and down arrow keys to move backward and forward through the pages. Placing after the cat command (or after any utility or application that writes to standard output) directs its output to the filename following the symbol. The following example shows cat repeating every line that is entered: Figure 13-5. You can always exit from the terminal window and open a new one. type the following at a shell prompt (pressing the [Enter] key takes you to the next blank line):   . and even show you information about your system.8. In such cases. type cat filename. use the symbol. but there is a quicker and easier way to clear the contents displayed in the terminal. you may accidentally open a program file or some other non-text file in a terminal window.

use cat to join home.txt saturday.Chapter 13.txt.txt  cat sneakers.txt Caution Be careful when you redirect the output to a file. then [Enter].txt with sneakers. Redirecting Output to a File Press [Enter] to go to an empty line and use the [Ctrl]-[D] keys to quit cat. Do you notice anything different in Figure 13-6? There are no repeated entries. Use output redirection again for another file and call it home. type the command cat > home. because you can easily overwrite an existing file! Make sure the name of the file you are creating does not match the name of a pre-existing file. type: cat sneakers.txt home. At the prompt. That redirection was to a brand new file you made called sneakers.txt and redirect the output of both files to a brand new file called saturday.txt.txt. followed by: bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! Now. you can then use cat to read the file. You can find the file in the directory you were in when you started cat (type ls if you want to see it listed). unless you want to replace it. Next. As you learned earlier. That is because the standard output from cat was redirected. For this example. use the [Ctrl]-[D] key combination again to quit cat.txt . Shell Prompt Basics 97 Figure 13-6. on an empty line.txt (you will find an example in Figure 13-7). Type the following:  cat sneakers.

txt. Appending Standard Output You can use output redirection to add new information to the end of an existing file. when you use of a file entirely. You want to add the information in home.txt and saturday. Joining Files and Redirecting Output You can see that cat has added home.98 Chapter 13. The final output shows the contents of buy some sneakers then go to the coffee shop then buy some coffee bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! The command you typed appended the output from the file home.2. 13. To make your comparison. The best explanation is a demonstration.   cat home. you tell your shell to send the information somewhere other than standard output. you are adding information to a file.txt.txt to the file sneakers.txt at the end of the file: Now check the file using the command cat sneakers. By appending the output. so type: home. Take two files which have already been created (sneakers. rather than creating a new file. and you will see that they are identical.txt) and join them by using the append output symbol.9. you save yourself time (and a bit of disk clutter) by using existing files.txt sneakers.txt.txt.txt where sneakers.txt   However. Shell Prompt Basics Figure 13-7.txt The contents of both files will be displayed — first sneakers. rather than replacing the contents .  .txt now.txt.txt ended.txt and home. Similar to when you used the symbol. type: cat sneakers. Compare the results of the files sneakers.txt to the information already in sneakers. cat saturday. then saturday.txt (as shown in Figure 13-8).

9. . you are telling the shell that you want a file to be .Chapter 13. the output of Figure 13-9. Redirecting Standard Input   cat sneakers.3. Stringing Commands and Comparing Files 13. Redirecting Standard Input Not only can you redirect standard output.txt  When you use the redirect standard input symbol read as input for a command. Because you used the less-than symbol ( ) to separate the cat command from the file.txt was read by cat. you can perform the same type of redirection with standard input. Use a file you have already created to demonstrate this idea. Type: sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics 99 Figure 13-8.

Alternatively. There are plenty of options available with ls. Use the vertical bar (|) to pipe the commands. Pipes and Pagers In Linux.11. You will be able to read the file one screen at a time. a pager utility that allows you to view information one page (or screen) at a time. ls -al /etc | less Now you can view the contents of /etc one screen at a time.100 Chapter 13. to move back a screen. To move forward a screen.txt | lpr This command prints every line in the sneakers. Use the arrow keys to navigate the file.10.1. pipes connect the standard output of one command to the standard input of another command. Pipes can also be used to print only certain lines from a file. press [Space]. To search the output of a text file using less. 13. at a shell prompt. press [B]. to quit. For example: /Linux Tip To read startup messages more closely. The more Command The main difference between more and less is that less allows backward and forward movement using the arrow keys.3 The grep Command). you can use the arrow keys to navigate with less. but what if the contents of a directory scroll by too quickly for you to view them? View the contents of the /etc/ directory with the command: ls -al /etc How do you get a closer look at the output before it moves off the screen? One way is to pipe the output to a utility called less. Shell Prompt Basics 13. List the contents of the /etc directory using ls and more.txt file that mentions the word "coffee" (read more about grep in Section 13. Type: grep coffee sneakers. type dmesg | less. while more uses the [Spacebar] and the [B] key for forward and backward navigation. to search for output. ls -al /etc | more . press [Q].10. Consider the ls command that was discussed earlier. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file. press [/] and type the search term.

you can view the last ten lines of a file. The head Command You can use the head command to look at the beginning of a file. but because it is limited to the first several lines. Press [q] to exit. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file. type the following at a shell prompt as the root user: tail -f /var/log/messages  head -20  head filename filename . You can change the number of lines displayed by specifying a number option as shown in the following command: 13.Chapter 13. Here are a few more. The tail Command The reverse of head is tail. Piping Output of ls to more To search the output of a text file using more. 13. For example. 13. Using tail. you can only read the first ten lines of a file.11.2.11. For example: /foo Use the [Spacebar] to move forward through the pages.11. The command is: head can be a useful command. you will not see how long the file actually is. Using the -f option. You can also use tail to watch log files as they are updated. By default. Shell Prompt Basics 101 Figure 13-10. to actively watch /var/log/messages. This can be useful for viewing the last 10 lines of a log file for important system messages. tail automatically print new messages from an open file to the screen in real-time. More Commands for Reading Text Files You have already been introduced to several basic shell prompt commands for reading files in text editors.1.

txt You would see every line in that file where the word "coffee" is found. If you want to print the file. Wildcards are special symbols that you can substitute for letters. 13. grep searches are case sensitive. Remember that you can save the file to a text file by typing man bash | col -b bash. For example. then have those results either saved as a file or sent to a printer. for example. Tip Unless otherwise specified. take a look at the bash man page (man bash).txt and there is the name of the file: sneakers.txt. for example.3.11.txt | lpr 13. Just fill out what you know. Wildcards and Regular Expressions What if you forget the name of the file you are looking for? Using wildcards or regular expressions. That means that searching for Coffee is different than searching for coffee. To print the information about references to "coffee" in sneakers." so type: ls sneak*. I/O Redirection and Pipes You can use pipes and output redirection when you want to store and/or print information to read at a later time. and symbols that make finding particular directories and files easier than examining long directory listings to find what you are searching for. you would type: grep coffee sneakers.11. if you want to find every reference made to "coffee" in the file sneakers.txt.txt). Then. you can perform actions on a file or files without knowing the complete filename.102 Chapter 13. We know the file is called "sneak____. Among grep’s options is -i. numbers. Tip To read more about wildcards and regular expressions.txt.5.11.txt ! . which allows for a case-insensitive search through a file. you can open and read the file with less or vi (vi bash. Shell Prompt Basics 13. You can. The grep Command The grep command is useful for finding specific character strings in a file. then substitute the remainder with a wildcard. use grep to search for particular contents of a file.4.txt. just type: grep coffee sneakers. be aware that it is quite long. Read the grep man page for more about this command.

The asterisk will search out everything that matches the pattern you are looking for. that is when regular expressions can be useful. We now see the contents of sneakers." Insert the letter and press [Enter] again. By scrolling with the [Up Arrow] and [Down Arrow] keys. then use the left-arrow key to get to the point where we missed the "e.txt Here is a brief list of wildcards and regular expressions: • * • ? — Matches all characters — Matches one character in a string — Matches the * character — Matches the ? character — Matches the ) character • \* • \? • \) 13.txt. just happens to be part of a filename. however. and/or sneakerz.txt.txt as a result. Use the up-arrow key to bring back the command. It helps to narrow your search as much as possible. because there is no sneakrs. type: cat sneakrs. ? is useful for matching a single character. No problem. If the file is called sneak*. for example. sneakers. though.txt. you can find plenty of your previously typed commands.txt. Try it by taking a look again at sneakers.txt (created in Section 13. Regular expressions are more complex than the straightforward asterisk or question mark. One solution is to use the command line history. you can specify that you do not want to search out everything by using the asterisk.txt.txt was called sneak*.Chapter 13. you would get sneakers. if there were such a filename. Like the asterisk. as might be the case if the file Using the backslash (\). In this case. When an asterisk. One way to narrow a search is to use the question mark symbol (?). Command History and Tab Completion It does not take long before the thought of typing the same command over and over becomes unappealing. Shell Prompt Basics 103 You will probably use the asterisk (*) most frequently when you are searching. so if you were searching for sneaker?. One minor typing error can ruin lines of a series of commands. type: sneak\*.txt or: ls sn* You would find sneakers. The first time.9.txt and any other files whose name ends with .12.1 Using Redirection.txt Nothing happens.txt file. using ? can help locate a file matching a search pattern. So even by typing: ls *. . at the shell prompt. of course.txt or begin with sn. but you are instead looking for a file with an asterisk in the name.

including updatedb and uptime. Here is how you can quickly find a previously used command: say you are searching for a command that is similar to cat sneak-something. from your home directory type: more . and others. we can see the environment variable that controls the size of the command line history.3-2. if you forget the command updatedb. your command is completed for you. and you want to put it in a new subdirectory within your home directory called rpms/. and you think it might be in your history file. use grep. Tip By typing the env command at a shell prompt. just press [Tab] again to obtain a list of the files/paths that match what has been typed so far. to quit. Shell Prompt Basics By default. You have used the command. At the shell prompt.i386. but the subdirectory has not been created. mv foobar-1. By typing the partial command upd and pressing [Tab] again.3 The grep Command . The command line history is actually kept in a file. then at the shell prompt.13. bash will present you with either the remaining portion of the file/path.i386. but remember a portion of the command. up to 500 commands can be stored in the bash command line history file. For example. You can combine both the creation of the rpms/ directory and the moving of your downloaded file into the directory by typing the following at a shell prompt: mkdir rpms/.11.104 Chapter 13. If you get a beep. press the [Tab] key twice and you will see a list of possible completions. to move back a screen.bash_history To move forward a screen. or a beep (if sound is enabled on your system). more.rpm rpms/ Running the combination of commands creates the directory and moves the file in one line. less. Be aware that the file can be long. Suppose you have downloaded a new file called foobar-1. If you type part of a file. HISTFILESIZE=500 shows the number of commands that bash will store. type: history | grep sneak Another time-saving tool is known as command completion. called . press [Space]. The only requirement is that you separate the commands with a semicolon. press [b]. Using Multiple Commands Linux allows you to enter multiple commands at one time. cat. 13. or pathname and then press the [Tab] key. Tip To find a command in your history file without having to keep hitting the arrow keys or page through the history file. We can read it in a number of ways: by using vi. a powerful search utility (see Section 13. press [q]. command.rpm. you can su to root. To read it with the more command. type up. The line which reads.bash_history in your login directory.3-2. .

write to the file. write to. the name of your group is the same as your login name. This is because whoever knows the root password has complete access. Reading. You can see who can read (r) and write to (w) the file.9.txt with the ls command using the -l option (see Figure 13-11). or execute a file. it has ten slots. There is a lot of detail provided here.txt (see Section 13. Figure 13-11. Linux. writing. Take a closer look at sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics 105 13. For example: -rw-rw-r-- . or (if it is an application instead of a text file) who can execute the file. But switching to the superuser is not always convenient or recommended. Since users are placed into a group when their accounts are created. as you learned earlier. and to which group the owner belongs (sam). you can also specify whether certain groups can read. The remaining nine slots are actually three sets of permissions for three different categories of users. and file permissions are one way the system protects against malicious tampering. The first slot represents the type of file. like UNIX. when you tried to change to root’s login directory. so sneakers. Remember that. One way to gain entry when you are denied permission is to su to root. since it is easy to make mistakes and alter important configuration files as the superuser.Chapter 13. Ownership and Permissions Earlier in this chapter. Permissions for sneakers. sneakers. and executing are the three main settings in permissions. by default. is a multi-user system. The first column shows current permissions.1 Using Redirection) in your login directory. That means you can specify who is allowed to read the file.txt Other information to the right of the group includes file size. you received the following message: cd /root bash: /root: Permission denied That was one demonstration of Linux’s security features. as well as who created the file (sam). You created the file belongs to you.txt All files and directories are "owned" by the person who created them.14. date and time of file creation. and file name.

The group. so they can read it. That means you will have to change the "others" section of the file permissions. it means that particular permission has not been granted. sam. write to. and others. or deleted. Caution Remember that file permissions are a security feature. Look again at the first column of sneakers. It is not a program. has permission to read and write to sneakers.txt with the chmod command. and execute files. This example shows how to change the permissions on sneakers. . which specifies the file type." meaning other users on the system. Shell Prompt Basics Those three sets are the owner of the file. (rw-) | | type owner (rw-) | group (r--) 1 sam sam | others The first item.14. can show one of the following: • d — a directory — a regular file (rather than directory or link) — a symbolic link to another program or file elsewhere on the system • -(dash) • l Beyond the first item. you want to allow everyone to write to the file. Whenever you allow anyone else to read.txt -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. with its initial permissions settings: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. or others. in each of the following three sets. the group in which the file belongs. the owner and group can read and write to the file. sam) has permission to read and write to the file. you are increasing the risk of files being tampered with. as well. you will see one of the following: • r • w • x — file can be read — file can be written to — file can be executed (if it is a program) When you see a dash in owner. group.106 Chapter 13.1.txt If you are the owner of the file or are logged into the root account you can change any permissions for the owner. ls -l sneakers. so neither the owner or the group has permission to execute it. group. and "others. you should only grant read and write permissions to those who truly need them. altered. The chmod Command Use the chmod command to change permissions. The original file looks like this.txt The file’s owner (in this case. 13. As a rule. In the following example. write notes in it. Anyone outside of the group can only read the file (r--).txt.txt and identify its permissions. and save it. Right now.

chmod go-rw sneakers. Now. Shell Prompt Basics Take a look at the file first.txt Now. .txt — for everyone.txt By typing go-rw. the file looks like this: -rw-rw-rw1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. and o) Permissions r — read access w — write access x — execute access Actions + — adds the permission . type: ls -l sneakers. At the shell prompt. type the following: chmod o+w sneakers.txt Now. you are telling the system to remove read and write permissions for the group and for others from the file sneakers. g. everyone can read and write to the file. the owner) g — the group to which the user belongs o — others (not the owner or the owner’s group) a — everyone or all (u. because all you really have to do is remember a few symbols and letters with the chmod command. To check the results. Here is a list of what the shorthand represents: Identities u — the user who owns the file (that is.txt use the chmod command to take away both the read and write permissions. To remove read and write permissions from sneakers.txt.— removes the permission = — makes it the only permission Want to test your permissions skills? Remove all permissions from sneakers.txt.Chapter 13.txt 107 The previous command displays this file information: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.txt Think of these settings as a kind of shorthand when you want to change permissions with chmod. The result will look like this: -rw------1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.txt The o+w command tells the system you want to give others write permission to the file sneakers. list the file’s details again.

txt to verify that you. Because you can not really "execute" a directory as you would an application. Here are some common examples of settings that can be used with chmod: • g+w — adds write access for the group — removes all permissions for others — allows the file owner to execute the file — allows everyone to read and write to the file — allows the owner and group to read the file — allows only the group to read and execute (not write) • o-rwx • u+x • a+rw • ug+r • g=rx By adding the -R option. Shell Prompt Basics chmod a-rwx sneakers.txt: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.14. restore your own and your group’s access: chmod ug+x tigger tigger directory.108 Chapter 13.txt . you can always change its permissions back with the following command: chmod u+rw sneakers. the file owner. when you add or remove execute permission for a directory. Changing Permissions With Numbers Remember the reference to the shorthand method of chmod? Here is another way to change permissions. Go back to the original permissions for sneakers. Now. No one will be able to get into the directory unless they know the exact file name. it will not matter who has read or write access. For example.2. you can change permissions for entire directory trees. successfully locked the file. although it may seem a little complex at first. type: chmod a-x tigger to remove everyone’s execute permissions.txt Use the command cat sneakers. If you do not allow others to have execute permission to tigger.txt. including your own. you are really allowing (or denying) permission to search through that directory. But since the file belongs to you. which should return the following: cat: sneakers. can read the file again. Here is what happens now when you try to cd to into tigger: bash: tigger: Permission denied Next.txt: Permission denied Removing all permissions.txt Now. see if you can read the file with the command cat sneakers. if you check your work with ls -l you will see that only others will be denied access to the 13.

txt Now verify the changes by listing the file. (644) — Only the owner has read and write permissions.txt so those in your group will not have write access. here are the numerical permissions settings: (rw-) | 4+2+0 (rw-) | 4+2+0 (r--) | 4+0+0 The total for the user is six. The permissions setting is read as 664.txt. If you want to change sneakers. would become six. and four (644). • -rwx------ . For example. then. you would have a value of 6. it is not a good idea to use these settings. To return the group’s write access for the file. chmod 664 sneakers.txt Warning Setting permissions to 666 will allow everyone to read and write to a file or directory. the total is used to set specific permissions. The numerical values. four. so in general. and the total for others is four. For sneakers.Chapter 13. neither the group nor others have write permission to sneakers. the group and others have (700) — Only the owner has read. and execute permissions. Shell Prompt Basics Each permission setting can be represented by a numerical value: • • • • 109 r=4 w=2 x=1 -=0 When these values are added together. add the value of w (2) to the second set of permissions. write. These permissions could allow tampering with sensitive files. Setting permissions to 777 allows everyone read. To implement these new settings. read only. if you want read and write permissions. and execute permission. but can still read the file. Here is a list of some common settings. write. 4 (read) + 2 (write) = 6.txt. the total for the group is six.txt The output should be: -rw-r--r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. numerical values and their meanings: • -rw------• -rw-r--r-- (600) — Only the owner has read and write permissions. type: chmod 644 sneakers. remove the access by subtracting two (2) from that set of numbers. Type: ls -l sneakers.txt Now.

the group and others have only read and execute. the group and others have only execute. users and groups have read and execute permissions.) • -rw-rw-rw. write in this directory. and execute permissions. (Be careful with these permissions. (711) — The owner has read.(666) • -rwxrwxrwx Here are some common settings for directories: • drwx-----• drwxr-xr-x (700) — Only the user can read.) (777) — Everyone can read. this permissions setting can be hazardous. — Everyone can read and write to the file. write. Shell Prompt Basics • -rwxr-xr-x • -rwx--x--x (755) — The owner has read. and execute.110 Chapter 13. write. and execute permissions. (Again. (755) — Everyone can read the directory. . write.

directories within it (called subdirectories) which hold files and may contain subdirectories of their own.Chapter 14. be sure to know which root is being discussed. No matter how far away the directories branch. reading documentation. modifications. A Larger Picture of the File System Every operating system has a method of storing data in files and directories so that it can keep track of additions. for the redhat-config-date software package is located in /usr/share/doc/redhat-config-date. which might be confusing to new users. these subdirectories can also contain files and other subdirectories. In Linux. You might think of the file system as a tree-like structure and directories as branches. Directories can also contain directories. Unless you are a system administrator or have root (superuser) access. There would not be a tree without a root. everything is connected to the root directory.1. who has permission to do anything). For example. and the same is true for the Linux file system. and other changes. you will not be able to gain access to all system-level files and directories. These directories may contain. For example. every file is stored in a directory. you probably do not have permission to write to the files and directories outside of your home directory. Users that do not have superuser access might find the following directories useful for finding their home directories. a user with the username foo has the home directory /home/foo. unless you are root. the root account’s home directory (/root) and the root directory for the entire file system (/). documentation • /usr/share/doc — Location of documentation for installed packages.version-number . If you do not have the permission to open. delete. or execute a file. or storing temporary files. When you are speaking to someone and using the term root. Tip Red Hat Linux uses the term root in several different ways. There is the root account (the superuser. For example. which is represented as a single forward slash (/). Managing Files and Directories Your desktop file manager is a powerful and important tool for managing files and directories using the graphical desktop. This chapter also discusses compression tools to create archives of your files for backup or to conveniently send to others. or be the "parent" of. you will receive an error message saying your access is denied. the # " . • /home — Default location for users’ home directories. Certain directories are reserved for specific purposes. /home is the default location for users’ home directories. 14. Note Due to system security. This chapter discusses various shell prompt commands that can be used to manage files and directories on your Red Hat Linux system. This is normal behavior and is used to prevent non-privileged users from modifying or deleting important system files.

ps — a PostScript file. The FHS guidelines help to standardize the way system programs and files are stored on all Linux systems. gzip. commonly found in MS-DOS applications.html/.2. For information on working with bzip2.tbz • .gz — a file compressed with bzip2 — a file archived with tar (short for tape archive). Here is a brief listing of file extensions and their meanings: 14.xpm . Compressed and Archived Files • . A system process removes old files from this directory on a periodic basis. Do not write any files or directories that you want to keep here.tar • . "txt" is that file’s extension).wav • .tgz • .htm • . Managing Files and Directories • /tmp — The reserved directory for all users to store temporary files.png • .zip — a file compressed with ZIP compression. formatted for printing • . Files stored here are not permanent.112 Chapter 14. — a file compressed with gzip • .2. 14. refer to Section 14. you may see certain file types that you do not recognize because of their unfamiliar extension. so finding a .au — an audio file — a GIF image file — an HTML file — a JPEG image file — an electronic image of a document.jpg • .1. Your Red Hat Linux system is compatible with many other Linux distributions because of the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS).pathname.zip archive for Linux files is rare. You can also visit the FHS website at http://www.2.txt • .txt. 14. A file’s extension is the last part of a file’s name after the final dot (in the file sneakers. Most compressed files for Linux use the gzip compression. and tar files. refer to the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide.gif • . also known as a tar file — a tarred and bzipped file — a tarred and gzipped file.pdf • . PDF stands for Portable Document Format — a PNG image file (short for Portable Network Graphic) — a plain ASCII text file — an audio file — an image file • .com/fhs. Identifying and Working with File Types If you are new to Linux.2.bz2 • . File Formats • .3 File Compression and Archiving. To learn more about the FHS.

rpm — a configuration file. you find a file called saturday without an extension. An archive file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file. or less commands. The archive file is not compressed — it uses the same amount of disk space as all the individual files and directories combined.conf • . telling you it is a text file. Configuration files sometimes use the . more. or by using a text editor such as gedit or vi.cfg extension. or used consistently. Managing Files and Directories 113 14.4. A . see Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics. as well.pl • .3. System Files • .2. Tip To learn more about file.so • . easily transferred to another directory. It is important to understand the distinction between an archive file and a compressed file. Any file that is designated as a text file should be readable by using the cat.cpp • . So what happens when a file does not have an extension. the command file saturday will display ASCII text.o • . or even transferred to a different computer. read the man page by typing man file.lock • . determines whether a program or device is in use — a Red Hat Package Manager file used to install software 14. Using the file command.py • . Programming and Scripting Files • . For example. File Compression and Archiving Sometimes it is useful to store a group of files in one file so that they can be backed up. or the file does not seem to be what the extension says it is supposed to be? That is when the file command can be helpful. 14.Chapter 14. — a lock file. you can tell what type of file it is by typing: file saturday In the example.2. For more information on helpful commands for reading files.c — a C program language source code file — a C++ program language source code file — a C or C++ program language header file — a program object file — a Perl script — a Python script — a library file — a shell script — a TCL script • .sh • .tcl But file extensions are not always used.h • . It is also sometimes useful to compress files into one file so that they use less disk space and download faster via the Internet.3.

decompress. 14. you can compress files that you do not use very often or files that you want to save but do not use anymore.3.114 Chapter 14. which you can navigate by double-clicking the folder icon. It is also integrated into the desktop environment and graphical file manager to make working with archived files easier.gz located in your home directory. Note An archive file is not compressed. The File Roller browser window will appear with the decompressed/unarchived file in a folder for you to extract or browse. you can double-click the file you wish to unarchive or decompress to start File Roller.1.1. allowing you to choose the archive you wish to work with. File Roller supports common UNIX and Linux file compression and archiving formats and has a simple interface and extensive help documentation if you need it. A file menu will pop up. but a compressed file can be an archive file. Using File Roller Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility called File Roller that can compress. highlight the file and click OK. You can even create an archive file and then compress it to save disk space.3. File Roller in Action 14. Figure 14-1 shows File Roller in action. If you do not have enough disk space on your computer. You can also start File Roller from a shell prompt by typing file-roller. and archive files and directories. Decompressing and Unarchiving with File Roller To unarchive and/or decompress a file click the Open toolbar button. if you have a file called foo. Figure 14-1. For example.tar. File . Managing Files and Directories compressed file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file and stored in a way that uses less disk space than all the individual files and directories combined.1. Tip If you are using a file manager (such as Nautilus). To start File Roller click Main Menu => Accessories => File Roller. The file will appear in the main File Roller browser window as a folder.

3. Creating an Archive with File Roller Tip There is much more you can do with File Roller than is explained here. or send multiple files or a directory of files to another user. allowing you to specify an archive name and the compression technique.3. you may choose a Tar Compressed wity gzip (tar.1. and click Close to close the archive. To add files to your new archive. Creating Archives with File Roller If you need to free some hard drive space. Figure 14-2. Click OK and your new archive is now ready to be filled with files and directories. For example. The gzip compression tool can also be found on most UNIXlike operating systems. Click OK when you are finished. In Red Hat Linux you can compress files with the compression tools gzip. choosing the directory you would like to save the unarchived files. 14.gz) format from the drop-down menu and type the name of the archive file you want to create. and clicking OK. bzip2. The bzip2 compression tool is recommended because it provides the most compression and is found on most UNIX-like operating systems. or zip. To create a new archive. which is convenient if you are looking for a particular file in the archive. uncompressed files. A file browser will pop up. Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt Compressed files use less disk space and download faster than large. 14. Refer to the File Roller manual (available by clicking Help => Manual) for more information.Chapter 14. click New on the toolbar. File Roller allows you to create archives of your files and directories. If you need to transfer files between Linux and other operating system such . Managing Files and Directories 115 Roller preserves all directory and subdirectory structures. which will pop up a browser window (Figure 14-2) that you can navigate to find the file or directory you want to be in the archive. You can extract individual files or entire archives by clicking the Extract button.2.2. click Add.

bz2. Compression Tools By convention. 14.bz2.2. files compressed with bzip2 are uncompressed with bunzip2. . type man bzip2 and man bunzip2 at a shell prompt to read the man pages for bzip2 and bunzip2. You can use bzip2 to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: bzip2 filename.1. type the following command at a shell prompt: bzip2 filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename.zip Uncompression Tool gunzip bunzip2 unzip Table 14-1.zip. you should use zip because it is more compatible with the compression utilities on Windows. Files compressed with gzip are uncompressed with gunzip.bz2 is deleted and replaced with filename. Compression Tool gzip bzip2 zip File Extension .2. type the following command at a shell prompt: gzip filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename. Bzip2 and Bunzip2 To use bzip2 to compress a file. files compressed with bzip2 are given the extension . Tip For more information.116 Chapter 14. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename. Gzip and Gunzip To use gzip to compress a file.gz . and files compressed with zip are uncompressed with unzip.2.bz2 The filename. files compressed with gzip are given the extension . file3. file2.gz. Managing Files and Directories as MS Windows.bz2.3. type the following command: bunzip2 filename. To expand the compressed file.gz. 14.3.bz2 file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. and files compressed with zip are given the extension .bz2 .

You can use gzip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: gzip -r filename. To extract the contents of a zip file.gz file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. file2. type the following command: zip -r filename. type the following command: gunzip filename. file2. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename. file3. . 14. type man zip and man unzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for zip and unzip. file3.gz.zip filesdir In this example.2. The -r option specifies that you want to include all files contained in the filesdir directory recursively. filename.zip You can use zip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: zip -r filename. Zip and Unzip To compress a file with zip. Managing Files and Directories To expand the compressed file.zip.3.gz is deleted and replaced with filename.3. type the following command: unzip filename. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename.Chapter 14. type man gzip and man gunzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for gzip and gunzip.zip represents the file you are creating and filesdir represents the directory you want to put in the new zip file. Tip For more information.gz 117 The filename. Tip For more information.zip file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1.

unarchive the specified file. filename.tar This command does not remove the tar file.118 Chapter 14. If you uncompress the filename. the filename. Managing Files and Directories 14.3. sometimes users archive their files using the tar.tbz file with the bunzip2 command. if the tarfile contains a file called bar. To list the contents of a tar file. — show the list of files in the tar file.3.tbz. — compress the tar file with gzip. preserving any directory structure that the archive file used. but it places copies of its unarchived contents in the current working directory.tbz file is removed and replaced with filename. The above command creates an archive file and then compresses it as the file filename. Some of the options used with the tar are: • -c • -f — create a new archive.tbz. type: tar -xvf filename. the tar command does not compress the files by default. however.tar. when used with the -x option. — compress the tar file with bzip2. type: tar -cvf filename. use the -j option: tar -cjvf filename.tar To extract the contents of a tar file. Remember. use the filename specified for the creation of the tar file.txt within a directory called foo/.tar /home/mine/work /home/mine/school The above command places all the files in the work and the school subdirectories of /home/mine in a new file called filename. — show the progress of the files being archived. This is a good way to create backups and archives. type: tar -tvf filename.tar directory/file In this example. — extract files from an archive. Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt A tar file is a collection of several files and/or directories in one file. then extracting the archive file will result in the creation of the directory foo/ in your current working directory with the file bar. You can also expand and unarchive a bzip tar file in one command: .tar represents the file you are creating and directory/file represents the directory and file you want to put in the archived file. • -t • -v • -x • -z • -j To create a tar file. For example. — when used with the -c option.bz2 extension. You can tar multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: tar -cvf filename. To create a tarred and bzipped compressed file.txt inside of it.tbz file tar files compressed with bzip2 are conventionally given the extension .tar in the current directory.

tgz file with the gunzip command.1. to make the process of copying. type the following at a shell prompt. use the -z option: tar -czvf filename.tgz file tar files compressed with gzip are conventionally given the extension . Replace filename with the name of your choice. as explained in Section 13. which is often faster.2. For example. (The file filename. typing the command ls -l newfile at the shell prompt returns the following output: -rw-rw-r-1 sam 14. This section explains how to manipulate files at the shell prompt. Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt Files can be manipulated using one of the graphical file managers. which will create an empty file that you can use to add text or data.Chapter 14.) If you uncompress the filename. the filename.tgz Tip Type the command man tar for more information about the tar command.tgz.tar.tgz file is removed and replaced with filename. you can see that the file contains zero (0) bytes of information because it is an empty file.tbz To create a tarred and gzipped compressed file. You can also use wildcards. If you run a directory listing. To create a file with touch.tgz. Creating Files You can create new files either with applications (such as text editors) or by using the command touch. there is a variety of ways to manipulate files and directories. or deleting multiple files and directories faster.11. 14. such as Nautilus or Konqueror. type the following command.4. Copying Files Like so many other Linux features. You can expand a gzip tar file in one command: tar -xzvf filename.tar is not saved. Managing Files and Directories 119 tar -xjvf filename.tar and then compresses it as the file filename. They can also be manipulated using a shell prompt. 14. ) ( 0) ( cp source destination ' % & $ touch filename sam 0 Apr 10 17:09 newfile .4. This command creates the archive file filename. moving.4.5 Wildcards and Regular Expressions. To copy a file.

• -v If you want to move a file out of your home directory and into another existing directory. you will be given the chance to make sure you want to replace an existing file. this will copy the whole directory tree. cp -i sneakers. For more about mv. • -v Now that you have the file sneakers. This will prompt you if the file you have selected will overwrite an existing file in the destination directory. 14. Shows the progress of the files as they are being moved. Tip To learn more about relative and absolute pathnames. to copy the file sneakers.txt in the tigger directory. use cp -i to copy the file again to the same location. Among the options you can use with cp are the following: • -i • -r — interactive.120 Chapter 14. This is a good option.3.txt tigger 2 1 Replace source with the name of the file you want to copy.txt tigger/ You can use both relative and absolute pathnames with cp.txt tigger cp: overwrite ’tigger/sneakers. see the mv man page (type man mv). subdirectories and all. press [N] and [Enter].4. • -f — force. move to your home directory and type: cp sneakers. use the mv command. Unless you know what you are doing. Shows the progress of the files as they are being copied. and name of the directory where you want the file to go. Overrides the interactive mode and moves without prompting. This is a handy option because it can help prevent you from making mistakes. tigger is one directory down from our home directory. Moving Files To move files. be very careful about using it until you become more comfortable with your system. 2 1 . this option is dangerous.4 Changing Directories with cd . — verbose. Rather than just copying all the specified files and directories. Common options for mv include the following: • -i — interactive. Read the cp man page (type man cp at the shell prompt) for a full list of the options available with cp. because like the -i option for cp.txt’? To overwrite the file that is already there. type the following (you will need to be in your home directory): mv sneakers.txt to the directory tigger/ in your home directory. refer to Section 13. Prompts you to confirm if the file is going to overwrite a file in your destination. Managing Files and Directories destination with the So. Our home directory is the parent of the directory tigger. If you do not want to overwrite the file. press [Y] and then [Enter]. — verbose. — recursive.

You can also remove multiple files using the rm command. • -v • -r To delete the file piglet. To remove directories with rm. unless you know exactly what you are doing. This option can stop you from deleting a file by mistake. Deleting Files and Directories You learned about creating files with the touch command.txt /home/newuser/tigger 121 14. Prompts you to confirm the deletion. you must specify the -r option. For example. if you want to recursively remove the directory tigger you would type: . but be careful. Will delete a directory and all files and subdirectories it contains. Overrides interactive mode and removes the file(s) without prompting.4. you would type: rm pig* The above command will remove all files in the directory which start with the letters pig.txt rm: remove ’piglet. This might not be a good idea.txt’? You can also delete files using the wildcard *. Options for removing files and directories include: • -i • -f — interactive.txt You can use rmdir to remove a directory (rmdir foo. For example: rm piglet.txt with the rm command.txt Warning Once a file or directory is removed with the rm command. the same command using absolute pathnames looks like mv sneakers. it is gone permanently and cannot be retrieved. rm -i piglet. Now you need to learn how to delete files and directories. — recursive. Use the -i (interactive) option to give you a second chance to think about whether or not you really want to delete the file. — verbose.Chapter 14. Managing Files and Directories Alternatively. type: rm piglet.txt sneakers. Deleting files and directories with the rm command is a straightforward process. and you created the directory tigger using mkdir. because you can easily delete files you did not intend to throw away.txt /home/newuser/sneakers. — force. for example). but only if the directory is empty. See the rm man page for more information. To remove a file using a wildcard. Shows the progress of the files as they are being removed.4.

Warning The rm command can delete your entire file system! If you are logged in as root and you type the simple command rm -rf /. you are in trouble. you will not be allowed to use recursive deletions. so a directory which has files in it will not be deleted. such as forcing a recursive deletion. . you can type: rm -rf tigger A safer alternative to using rm for removing directories is the rmdir command. Read the rmdir man page (man rmdir) to find out more about this command. this command will recursively remove everything on your system. With this command.122 Chapter 14. Managing Files and Directories rm -r tigger If you want to combine options.

This chapter explains three ways to update your system: using Red Hat Network. and using the Red Hat Linux Installation CD-ROMs. All Security Alerts. known as RPM packages. Bug Fix Alerts. and Enhancement Alerts are issued for all the systems in your network through the Basic interface . 15. using the online Errata List. Red Hat Network Red Hat Network is an Internet solution for managing one or more Red Hat Linux systems. Your RHN Red Hat Network saves users time because they receive email when updated packages are released. Each Red Hat Network account comes with: • Errata Alerts — learn when Security Alerts. By default. A package is just a file that contains a software program. Bug Fix Alerts. Figure 15-1.com/. Users do not have to search the Web for updated packages or security alerts. RHN does it all. Users do not have to learn how to use RPM or worry about resolving software package dependencies. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Red Hat Linux consists of various software applications and utilities.redhat.1. Red Hat Network installs the packages as well.Chapter 15. and Enhancement Alerts (collectively known as Errata Alerts) can be downloaded directly from Red Hat using the Red Hat Update Agent standalone application or through the RHN website available at http://rhn.

Select Main Menu Button => System Tools => Red Hat Network on your desktop. Start scheduling updates through the RHN website or download and install Errata Updates with the Red Hat Update Agent. Create a System Profile using one of the following methods: • • • Registering the system with RHN during the Setup Agent the first time your system boots after installation. follow these three basic steps: 1. 2. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Figure 15-2. downloaded individual packages. Relevant Errata Automatic email notifications — receive an email notification when an Errata Alert is issued for your system Scheduled Errata Updates — schedule delivery of Errata Updates Package installation — Schedule package installation on one or more systems with the click of a button Red Hat Update Agent — use the Red Hat Update Agent to download the latest software packages for your system (with optional package installation) Red Hat Network website — manage multiple systems. and schedule actions such as Errata Updates through a secure Web browser connection from any computer • • • • • To start using Red Hat Network. Additional accounts can be purchased.124 Chapter 15.com/ and entitle the system to a service offering. . 3. Log in to RHN at http://rhn. Execute the command up2date from a shell prompt. Everyone receives a free Red Hat Network account for one system.redhat.

read the Red Hat Network User Reference Guide available at http://www. Installation CD-ROMs Place the first Red Hat Linux CD-ROM in your CD-ROM drive. For more information about installing packages downloaded from our errata sites. Select Yes when asked if you want to run the autorun program from the CD.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages 125 For more detailed instructions. Red Hat.redhat. Bug Fix Alerts. It then prompts you for the root password so that you can install packages.com/apps/support/errata/. RPMs downloaded from other sites are not supported. Click on the Red Hat Linux version you are using to view a list of all available errata for Red Hat Linux. It also requires users to resolve software dependencies manually.Chapter 15. Refer to the following URL for more information about the applet: http://rhn.com/help/basic/applet.redhat.redhat. tests and approves the RPMs posted on this site.4 Downloaded Packages.html 15. If you enter the correct root password.3. Click on the name of the Errata Alert that you want to apply to your system. refer to Section 15. the Package Management Tool interface appears and allows you to select packages groups to install as well as individual packages within the groups. Instructions for updating the packages are on the individual Errata pages. Updating Errata packages from the Red Hat Linux Errata website is recommended for more experienced Red Hat Linux users. All Security Alerts. 15. and Enhancement Alerts (collective known as Errata Alerts) can also be downloaded from the Red Hat website at http://www. a convenient panel icon that displays visible alerts when there is an update for your Red Hat Linux system. Inc. Tip Red Hat Linux includes the Red Hat Network Notification Tool. A software dependency is when a package is dependent on other package being installed.2. Figure 15-3. Installing Software with the Package Management Tool . Errata List It is recommended that new users use Red Hat Network to download and install/upgrade packages.

Figure 15-5. 15. click the Update button to install or uninstall the selected packages. the package will be installed and you can immediately begin using the software from the installed package. Figure 15-4. remove the checkmark (see Figure 15-4). The Package Management Tool should open up and check the package for any dependencies you need to fulfill before installation. . you can install them by opening your file manager and double-clicking the package you want to install. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages The Package Management Tool marks what packages are already installed on your system with a checkmark. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information about the Package Management Tool. If all goes well. if there are dependencies.3 Installation CD-ROMs. You can add packages by clicking the checkbox next to each package. such as package or library files needed.4. Downloaded Packages If you have downloaded packages from an errata on the Red Hat website. However. Individual Package Selection After selecting packages. the Package Management Tool will alert you with suggested files and packages you need to install. To uninstall a package. RPM Package Dependencies The packages necessary to fulfill the dependency issues can be installed by following the steps in Section 15.126 Chapter 15.

At a shell prompt. 16.com/docs/.localdomain by default. When you install software. I think I have the right name. For more information. I get a message telling me it needs a localhost login and password. The root password is the system password you assigned during installation.rpm. When you get to that initial prompt. 16. You need to be the root user in order to install RPM files. refer to Section 1. this chapter will ease you step-by-step through some common tasks and get you on your way. your Red Hat Linux installation will call your machine localhost. Localhost Login and Password I have installed Red Hat Linux. From recovering forgotten passwords to troubleshooting package installation problems. If you are using your normal user account.1. If you are getting an error message similar to failed to open /var/lib/rpm/packages. If you did not create a user account. but I still get "command not found" when I type its name. Starting Applications I installed an application I downloaded from the Internet. such as creating new directories outside of your user home directory or making changes to your system configuration. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD or online at http://www.6 Creating a User Account. It is highly recommended that you create at least one user account for regular use of your Red Hat Linux system. it is asking you to log in to your system. Frequently Asked Questions This chapter answers some of the most common questions about using Red Hat Linux that you may ask as you become more familiar with it. After rebooting. you can log in using that user name and password. you should then be able to install the RPM file without further errors. also known as root. or received that information from a network.2. so why will it not start? .Chapter 16. then you can log in as the super user. For more information about using RPM and Package Management Tool. you will not have permission to make such changes by default. You can create a new user after logging in as root with the User Manager graphical tool or the useradd shell prompt utility. switch to the root user by running the following command: su After entering the root password when prompted. Error Messages During Installation of RPMs How do I install an RPM from a CD or the Internet? I keep getting an error message when I use rpm.redhat.3. What are these? Unless you specified a host name for your computer. and everything seemed to go fine. If you created a user account with the Setup Agent. you are often required to make system-wide changes which only root can make. 16. it is because you do not have proper permission to install RPM files.

Avoid modifying files such as the root user’s . similar to the one shown below. PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin: To the end of this statement. For example. Editing Your PATH If you frequently start programs that are not located in a directory that your user shell has been configured to search.128 Chapter 16. because of the potential security risks.bash_profile You will see a PATH statement.3. at a shell prompt. You can do this by adding the directory to your PATH environment variable. start the application using the full path to the executable file as shown below: /home/joe/seti/setiathome The reason you may need to type the full pathnames in order to start an application is because the executable was not placed in a directory where your user shell environment knew it could be found (such as /usr/local/bin).bash_profile by typing the following: gedit . add $HOME/seti as shown below: PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin/:$HOME/seti: Save the file and exit the text editor. You can open the file called . .bash_profile. Now.bash_profile take effect immediately by typing the following command: source . which creates a subdirectory in your home directory called seti/.bash_profile. Caution These instructions are intended only for user accounts. Frequently Asked Questions If you are trying to start an application from the shell prompt and it is not working. Start a text editor. 16.bash_profile By adding paths to your . such as gedit or vi. you will have to edit your PATH environment variable.1. To do this. You can then make the changes to . try typing out the full directory path before the name of the application’s executable (such as /usr/local/bin/my-executable). You can customize your settings so that you are not required to use the type the full path to the application each time./ in front of the command. You follow the directions for installing the software. you can place utilities and programs in your path and be able to execute them without having to type . imagine that you have downloaded the setiathome client application and want to try it out. you will have to edit your user shell configuration file to add the directory containing the executable you wish to run.

choose Main Menu => System Tools => Hardware Browser. Hardware Browser hard disk device listing Select Hard Drives from the panel and find your Windows partition from the Disk Information displayed. Accessing a Windows Partition I have a dual-boot system with Red Hat Linux and Windows 98. Figure 16-1. For example: mkdir /mnt/windows . a Windows partition). in two different ways. as this is the device that you mount to access your Windows data. To find this information. log in as root (type su and then enter the root password) at a shell prompt. Once you have determined where your Windows partition is located on your hard drive. however.Chapter 16.4. 16. Note the Device information for your Windows partition. Is there a way to access my Windows partition while I am running Linux? You can access another partition on your system (for example. To start the Hardware Browser. Windows partitions normally use the FAT or FAT32 file system type. Frequently Asked Questions 129 Tip For more information about using and configuring your shell prompt refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics. then you cannot mount and read from it as Red Hat Linux does not support NTFS file systems. Figure 16-1 shows Hardware Browser in action. you can use the Hardware Browser. This file system type can be mounted and read within Linux. Create a directory in which the Windows partition will be mounted by typing the following command. if your Windows partition uses NTFS. which lists detailed information about the hardware in your Red Hat Linux system. You should first determine where your Windows partition is located by determining what physical hard disk your Windows partition is located in (such as the primary master IDE drive or the the first SCSI drive).

you will need to mount it in the directory you just created. For other tips and tricks. As root.bash_history. surround the name of the directory or file with quotation marks. su to root. To navigate through directories or files with spaces. this file records the last 500 commands you typed at the shell prompt. you can search through the file for keywords using grep. Next. By default. type: history | grep man You will see a list of all the commands you typed which have the word man in them. You can glimpse the history of your commands by typing history at the shell prompt.5. To search for the command. To access the partition at a shell prompt. open the /etc/fstab in a text editor by typing (for example): gedit /etc/fstab Add the following on a new line (replacing /dev/hda1 with the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows vfat auto. Type less . type the following command at a shell prompt (where /dev/hda1 is the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows You may then logout of root user mode and access your Windows data by changing into the mounted Windows partition: cd /mnt/windows To automatically mount a Windows partition every time you boot your Red Hat Linux system.bash_history at the shell prompt and the results will display one page at a time. which configures all file systems and disk device mounting options. but the results will speed by too quickly for your to read ever line. Frequently Asked Questions Before you can access the partition. the /etc/fstab file is read. and I did not write it down. as in ls "Program Files". Finding Commands Quickly I was looking at a man page yesterday. To move forward a screen. press [q].bash_history to find a command can be tedious. and to quit. The next time the system is rebooted. Say you were reading the man page the day before. to move back a screen. . following the above example.130 Chapter 16. press the [b] key.bash_history is with a utility such as less. but I cannot remember the name of the command I was reading about. Another way to view . type the command cd /mnt/windows. press the [Space] bar. There are plenty of ways to your command history. but cannot recall its name.umask=0 0 0 Save the file and exit your text editor. At a shell prompt. and the Windows partition is automatically mounted in the directory /mnt/windows. 16. Paging through . Alternatively.6 Tips on Using Command History. How do I get the man page back? The command you used will most likely be stored in a file called . a powerful search utility. see Section 16. you must modify the /etc/fstab file.

You will then be able to see the output one screen. you will see a numbered list scroll by very quickly. 16. Tips on Using Command History What are some other ways I can use command history? If you type history. This way. bang": Typing !! (called "bang bang") executes the last command in the history. type the following command at the shell prompt: ls -al /etc | less To move forward a screen. you can press the up arrow to move back through previous commands in your history list (the down arrow will move you forward through the commands) until you find the command you want. press [Space] bar. to move back a screen. press [q]. [Up arrow] and [down arrow]: At the shell or GUI terminal prompt. "Bang string": Typing !string (as in !rpm) will execute a command with the most recent matching string from the history file. If you have configured a printer.6. Press [Enter] to execute the command. "Bang number": Typing !number (as in !302) will execute the command which is numbered 302 in the history file. showing you the previous 500 commands you have used. type the following to pipe the output of a command to the printer: ls -al /etc | lpr .6.Chapter 16. press the [b] key. To read the contents of /etc with less. You probably do not need to see all of the last 500 commands. Frequently Asked Questions 131 16. pipe the output to a utility such as less or more. just as if you had typed it on the command line. 16.1. How can I actually read the output? To prevent the output of ls from scrolling by too quickly. You can achieve the same results with more. only the previous 20 commands you typed will display (you can use any quantity as an argument of the history command). or "page" at at time. to quit.7. another paging utility. Printing ls Output You can also print directory listings by piping the output to a printer in the same way that you piped the output to your screen. Other Shortcuts Here are other command history shortcuts which may be useful to you: • • • • "Bang.1. Keep ls Output from Scrolling Whenever I type ls I can barely see the output of the directory because it scrolls by too quickly. 16.7. so the command history 20 might be useful.

You will be brought back to the edit mode screen.8. How do I log in now? You can log in using single-user mode and create a new root password. /etc/inittab. 3. then you can log in to root as you normally would. Changing Login from Console to X at Startup How do I change my login from the console to the graphical screen? Instead of logging in to your system at the console and typing the startx command to start the X Window System. Open a shell prompt and type the following: passwd username Replace username with your normal user name. You can then reboot by typing reboot at the prompt. Password Maintenance I forgot or want to change my user account password. When you are finished. which you will need to enter twice. the password will be changed. 2. Forgotten Password Help! I forgot my root password. After it finishes loading. Frequently Asked Questions 16. If you use the default boot loader. you can enter single user mode by performing the following: 1.4 ro root=/dev/hda2 Press the arrow key until this line is highlighted and press [e]. type [e] to enter into editing mode. At the boot loader menu. press [b] and GRUB will boot single-user Linux mode. You will be presented with a boot entry listing. Open a shell prompt. su to root by typing su .05# 5. To enter single-user mode.132 Chapter 16. reboot the computer. then add the word single to tell GRUB to boot into single-user Linux mode. reboot your computer. you will have a graphical login prompt. You can now use the new password to log in to your user account. by changing just one number in the runlevel section. You must edit one file. you can configure your system so that you can log in directly to X. 16.4.9. You can now change the root password by typing bash# passwd root You will be asked to re-type the password for verification. GRUB. Press the Spacebar once to add a blank space. Once you are finished.18-0.10. Look for the line that looks similar to the following: kernel /vmlinuz-2. From here. If you’re in your user account. Press [Enter] to make the editing change take effect. The next time you log in. 4. The passwd command will then ask for the new password. you will be presented with a shell prompt similar to the following: sh-2. 16.

Multiuser. you should change the number in the line Warning Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5. save and exit the file using the [Ctrl]-[x] keys. Frequently Asked Questions 133 Now. type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. Now.X11 # 6 . Type [Y] for yes.Single user mode # 2 .reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:3:initdefault: id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.Full multiuser mode # 4 .unused # 5 . To change from a console to a graphical login.halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # 1 . you will see a section of the file which looks like this: # Default runlevel. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 . and asking you to confirm your change. without NFS (The same as 3.Chapter 16. . if you do not have networking) # 3 . Your changed line should look like the following: id:5:initdefault: When you are satisfied with your change. Within the first screen. your next login after reboot will be from the graphical screen. The file /etc/inittab will open. You will see a message telling you that the file has been modified.

134 Chapter 16. Frequently Asked Questions .

The HelpCenter You can access the HelpCenter from the Main Menu by selecting Help. The opening screen of the HelpCenter browser appears like Figure A-1. KDE: The K Desktop Environment A. visit the official website at http://www. A. Finding Help You can access a comprehensive set of documentation about KDE through the HelpCenter.Appendix A. Using The Desktop Once you start KDE. right-click on the desktop and select the Help => K Desktop Handbook.org. Figure A-1.3. A. From this main page. it allows you to access your Red Hat Linux system and applications using your mouse and keyboard. and panels. If you would like to learn more about KDE. and working with the Konquerer file manager.2. and customizing the desktop to suit your needs. . This appendix covers the basics of using KDE: system navigation. working with files and applications.1. menus. To access HelpCenter from the desktop. Introducing KDE The K Desktop Environment (KDE) is a graphical desktop that uses common graphical objects such as icons.kde. you can view help documentation on topics such as using and configuring the desktop. working with the many applications included with KDE. windows. your default desktop will look similar to Figure A-2.

email client. You can have up to 16 desktops running at the same time in KDE.4. and other commonly used applications.136 Appendix A. your home directory. and a diskette icon. such as Delete. folders. You can change the appearance of buttons. You can also access the main menu and configure the desktop to suit your needs. the Start Here icon for applications and configuration tools. it contains the main menu icon and quick-launch icons for starting a Web browser. You can access any one of these resources by double-clicking on the associated icon. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-2. By default. The desktop itself is also highly customizable. A Typical KDE Desktop The KDE desktop displays application launchers. or file manager. or application launchers. and the desktop manager. A. Right-click on the trash can and select Empty Trash Bin to delete the items from your system permanently. When you right-click on these icons. Icons located on the desktop can be files. and so on. . You can drag and drop unwanted items such as files you no longer need to the Trash icon. window and frame decorations. and Copy. word processor. Click on an icon to open the associated resource. Rename. The panel taskbar shows your currently running applications. you see several options for working with these resources. The default KDE desktop displays icons for the trash can.and double-clicking mouse buttons and chording keystrokes to create time-saving shortcuts. The KDE desktop works similarly to other graphical desktop environments. device links. Configuration tools are also available which allow you to customize the way the desktop behaves at events such as single. status indicators. Move to Trash. panel. The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel. You can also add new icons for all types of applications and resources to the desktop. You can drag and drop files and application icons to any location on the desktop. The panel contains application launchers. Using The Panel The panel stretches across the bottom of the desktop. document windows. and backgrounds. file folders.

Click on Help for more information on these options. From the Main Menu.4.4. Figure A-4. Using The Main Menu The Main Menu is the central point for using KDE. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 137 Figure A-3. A. and customize your main menu. There are some applets that run on the panel by default. A. you can lock your screen. Clicking on the Main Menu icon on the panel displays a large master menu from which you can perform tasks such as launch applications.Appendix A.2. which will display a password-protected screensaver. Internet. time and date display. Click Help at any time to learn more about configuring your panel. Games. There are several types of applets performing functions such as system monitoring. Right-click on the panel and select Configure Panel to open the panel Settings. You can configure panel orientation and size. Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel. Applications and utilities can be added easily to the panel. The main menu also contains several submenus that organize applications and tools into several categories. The Panel The panel is highly configurable. Then select Application Button and make your choice from the menus. and configure your desktop. . Panel Settings Other tabs in Settings contain options to further customize your panel and taskbar. Office. set a panel hiding configuration (where the panel remains hidden until you hover over the panel area). and more.1. To add an application launcher to the panel. You can also run applications from a command line as well as logout of your KDE session. right-click on the panel and choose Add. including Graphics. and launching applications by typing commands in a text box. You can add and remove buttons that launch applications easily. This section covers them in detail. find files.

while you are writing a message in Evolution on desktop one. You can also change the number of desktops available to you by adjusting the slider in the Number of Desktops. drag the bar to the left. For example. 2. open applications. Right-click on the desktop. Virtual Desktop Configuration You can change the names of your desktops (from Desktop 1. drag the bar to the right. Figure A-5. uncheck the Common Background checkbox. For more desktops. Desktop 2. click the Background icon. Each desktop can hold icons. Click the Multiple Desktops icon (see Figure A-5). to customize each virtual desktop to have different backgrounds. for fewer desktops. The Appearance.138 A. You can change the number and names of desktops available in KDE by making these adjustments: 1. the OpenOffice. . and choose the color or image you want to make your background using the associated tabs. Working with Multiple Desktops Appendix A. you will see a brief menu of actions you can choose. and so on. KDE provides four desktops that you can use to display multiple applications without having to crowd all of them onto one desktop.2. Behavior.4. etc. Select Configure Desktop. For example. click the virtual desktop you want to change. and Background icons are where you can make various desktop configuration changes. and be individually customized.1. KDE: The K Desktop Environment By default.) by deleting the default names and typing a new name in each desktop’s corresponding text box. and Paths. 3. the KDE desktop configuration tool will open. you can have Mozilla browsing the Web on desktop two.org Writer word processor open on desktop three.

A. [Ctrl]-[F2] switches to desktop two. Desktop Background Configuration After you make any adjustments to your desktop configuration.2. Click OK to close the desktop configuration tool. Click on a tile to move to a different desktop.2. For example. Tip Another way to bring minimized or background windows to the front is to use the [Alt] and [Tab] keys. Applications on the Taskbar You can maximize running applications or bring them to the front of your working windows by clicking on the associated item on the taskbar. Buttons for your desktops appear on the panel in the Desktop Pager. click Apply to save the changes. When you have found the task you want to maximize and bring to the front. while tapping the [Tab] key. hold down the [Alt] key. To pick an item from the taskbar. hold down both the [Alt]-[Tab] key. release both keys and the application appears on the desktop. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 139 Figure A-6. both minimized and displayed.4. and so on. Figure A-7. Viewing The Taskbar The taskbar displays all running applications. . on all desktops. To scroll through the tasks.Appendix A. Tip You can use the keyboard combination of the [Ctrl] and Function keys to switch desktops. [Ctrl]-[F3] takes you to desktop three.

After exploring. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To further customize the panel for your particular needs. you can return to your home directory by clicking the Home button on the toolbar. To add a new launcher to the panel. The Konqueror File Manager . Konqueror will open up in a window on your desktop. A. surf the Web. To start Konqueror for file management.140 Appendix A. browse digital images. and so on).4. click on your home directory icon . change its size and color. where Application is the name of the application associated with the icon. You can move the icon anywhere you want on the panel by right-clicking the icon and choosing Move Application Button. click Hide automatically. or any one of the specific properties (Arrangement. Choose the Hiding tab. Click Apply then OK to close the Settings dialog. allowing you to adjust all panel settings. The Settings window will appear. Konqueror allows you to configure your KDE desktop. Managing Files Konqueror is the file manager and a Web browser for the KDE desktop. KDE: The K Desktop Environment A. Figure A-8. allowing you to navigate through your home directory and throughout your Red Hat Linux file system. configure your Red Hat Linux system.5. Menus. and more from one interface. This automatically adds an icon on the panel. right-click the panel and choose Add => Application Button and choose the application or resource you wish to add to the panel.4. play multimedia files.4. Configuring the KDE Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually. Hiding. A. you can include additional launcher icons to start applications without using the main menu or Start Here. To alter the default panel settings. and adjust the number of seconds to elapse before the panel is hidden. place it on any edge of your desktop. This section explains some of the ways Konqueror can help you work with and enjoy your Red Hat Linux system. right-click the panel and choose Configure Panel.3. The panel will remain hidden until you hover over the panel area to make it reappear. and change the way it behaves.

6. It can also preview sounds from digital audio files. network resources. and Web files. A. but with component technology used throughout KDE. Browsing the Web with Konqueror Konqueror not only allows you to browse your local and network file system. Working with the Navigation Panel The navigation panel lets you access your Web bookmarks. file system. The navigation panel makes Konqueror an efficient solution for users who want fast and easy access to all of their files and information. This panel appears on the left side of the Konqueror file browser window by default. PostScript/PDF files. Konqueror also displays thumbnail icons for text.1. A. images. To launch Konqueror choose Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => Konqueror Web Browser. which you can use to explore the World Wide Web. The navigation panel makes many of your sytem resources available to you in convenient tabbed icons. Figure A-9. Konqueror is also a full featured Web browser.5. . and has a built-in media player for playing multimedia files without having to open a separate application. Files and folders in the main window frame can be moved or copied to another folder or sent to the trash. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 141 You can navigate through the file system by clicking on folders within the main window frame or through the hierarchical file system viewer on the navigation panel as shown in Figure A-8. Figure A-9 shows the navigation panel. The Navigation Panel Another useful feature of Konqueror is the navigation panel. You can also delete files and folders by right-clicking on the item and choosing Delete.Appendix A. browsing history.

. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-10. To begin your Web session. and more.142 Appendix A. and OpenSSL). enter a URL in the Location field. This screen displays information on supported standards (such as Cascading Stylesheets. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Konqueror Handbook. This page shows you basic tips for using Konqueror so that you can begin to take advantage of the many features. Welcome to Konqueror When you first launch Konqueror. you will be presented with the Tips page. you will see the Specifications screen. If you click Continue at the end of the webpage. you will be presented with an Introduction screen. This screen offers basic instructions for browsing webpages. By clicking Continue from the Tips screen. For additional information on using Konqueror. plug-ins. featured protocols.

Using Konqueror as an image browser works similarly to Nautilus (see Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information). If you chose KDE as your default desktop environment. as shown in Figure A-12.7. The Konqueror Handbook A. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 143 Figure A-11. the browser displays the image in its native size.Appendix A. Figure A-12. When you double-click on a thumbnail icon. Using Konqueror to View Images You can also use the Konqueror file manager to view images. click on your home directory desktop icon to access the Konqueror file manager: . Image files automatically generate thumbnail image icons for you to preview within the file browser window. Viewing an Image in Konqueror .

To run the configuration tool.. then Other.kde. . Image viewing configuration on the Konqueror Toolbar You can also open the image with more advanced image viewers. Click on the GIMP icon and click OK.144 Appendix A. Dialog Box A. as well as with The GIMP. Composer. KDE: The K Desktop Environment To zoom in and out of an image. as seen in Figure A-14. The Open With. To launch the GIMP.. Network.. A pop-up menu will appear allowing you to open the application you wish to use. From the window menu. Appearance. Figure A-13. For additional information.. as shown in Figure A-13.org. This will re-display the image and allow you to rotate and zoom in on the image using the two magnifying glass icons or the magnification percentage drop-down menu on the toolbar. choose View => View Mode => Image Viewer Part. you first need to change the way Konqueror renders the image. and Folders. The Configure Mail Client window consists of the following sections: Identities. refer to the KMail user manual (Help => KMail Handbook) or visit KMail’s homepage at http://kmail. you must configure it so it can send and receive mail. Security.8. Before you can really use KMail. and click on Configure KMail. choose Graphics and scroll down the list of applications. Figure A-14. Have your email information from your service provider or administrator handy so that you can fill in the required information to begin using KMail. To begin sending and receiving messages you will have to change the settings in the Identities and Network tabs... click on the Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => KMail. choose Open With. KMail KMail is an email tool for KDE. Rightclick on the image. To open KMail. select Settings from the KMail toolbar. It has an intuitive graphical interface similar to Evolution that allows you to send and receive email using a graphical interface...

KMail Main Screen Once you have your email settings configured. you can begin sending and receiving email. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 145 Figure A-15. To compose a mail. click on the new message icon in the tool bar: Figure A-16. and more. KMail New Email Message Screen . emails ready to be sent. emails you have sent. The folders on the left side of the KMail screen allow you to view emails you have received.Appendix A.

assigning all digital music files to open in XMMS instead of the default player). This section allows you to configure system boot settings.146 Appendix A. Linux kernel configuration. available by selecting Main Menu => Control Center. A. From the Main Menu. website cookies. you can also configure accessibility features such as audible and visual cues and keyboard/mouse customization. Regional & Accessibility This section allows you to set country and language options to your particular locale. You will need your root password to configure most of these options. select Logout User.9. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to. The KDE Control Center. and more. plugins. from the menu. In either case click Logout and your session will end. You can customize background images and configure fonts. Logging Out of KDE There are two ways to log out of your KDE session. You can configure options such as cache sizes. For users with sight or hearing impairments. A. To log out from the desktop. where User is your account username. and enhanced browsing using keyword shortcuts. right-click on the desktop and. panel elements. Customizing KDE KDE allows you to configure the desktop and your system to suit your needs. System Administration This section is an advanced system configuration interface. It is strongly recommended that you leave these settings at their default values unless you understand the consequences of changing them. KDE Components This section lets you configure the Konqueror file manager and customize certain file operations. and window border appearance.10. Figure A-17. The following list explains some of the configuration options in detail. You can also associate files to applications that you prefer (for example. KDE Logout Screen . select Logout User where User is your account username. themes. Appearance & Themes This sections allows you to customize the visual aspect of your desktop environment. login management. Web Browsing This section allows you to configure the Konqueror Web browser. icons. lets you customize the look and behavior of the desktop. screensavers. You can also customize mouse and keyboard events which makes working with the desktop as efficient for your needs as possible. click Send in the toolbar: . proxy settings (if available).

cdrecord. Applications The following table shows some of the Red Hat Linux applications that are available to perform many common tasks. This is not a complete list of all applications available. KMid Sound Recorder (GNOME Sound). Mozilla Mail. X-CD-Roast Text Editor (gedit) Evolution Mozilla Instant Messenger (GAIM) xpdf Gnucash Fax Viewer (KFax) Audio Player (XMMS). Applications in between (parentheses) denotes the formal name of the application.Volume Monitor (VUMeter) Extras KWord Gnumeric.org Impress Dia The GIMP. Applications . links. MagicPoint Kchart. XFig Icon Editor (K Icon Editor) Image Viewer (Kuickshow). The GIMP KPilot.Appendix B. Category Word Processors Spreadsheets Presentations Charts and Diagrams Graphics Image Viewers Digital Cameras/Scanners PDAs CD Recording Text Editors Email Clients Web Browsers Chat/Instant Messaging PDF/PostScript Viewers Personal Finance Fax Sound Recommended Application OpenOffice. Paint Program (KPaint) GThumb Digital Camera Tool (gtKam). Evolution KOnCD vi. Scanning (XSane) Jpilot CD Creator. Chatzilla Ghostview Table B-1.org Calc OpenOffice. Emacs. Konquerer. mutt Galeon. The GIMP Scan and OCR Program (Kooka). CD Player (GNOME CD). Kivio. Kate Kmail. KDE Sound Mixer. lynx X-Chat. KSpread KPresenter. aumix. KDE CD Player.org Write OpenOffice.

Applications .148 Appendix B.

txt /home/thisdirectory ls clear exit date rm thisfile. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands Many Linux commands typed at a shell prompt are similar to the commands you would type in DOS. read its associated man page (for example. This appendix provides common commands used at the DOS prompt in Windows and their counterparts in Linux. some commands are identical.txt diff file1 file2 grep this word or phrase thisfile.txt thatfile.txt echo this message gedit thisfile. To learn more about each command.Appendix C. Command’s Purpose Copies files Moves files Lists files Clears screen Closes shell prompt Displays or sets date Deletes files "Echoes" output to the screen Edits files with simple text editor Compares the contents of files Finds a string of text in a file Formats a diskette MS-DOS copy move dir cls exit date del echo edit fc find format a: Linux cp mv ls clear exit date rm echo gedit(a) diff grep mke2fs or mformat(b) man(c) mkdir less(d) mv(e) Basic Linux Example cp thisfile. Note that these commands usually have a number of options.txt (if diskette is in A:) /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 (/dev/fd0 is the Linux equivalent of A:) man command mkdir directory less thisfile. type man ls at the shell prompt to read about the ls command).txt mv thisfile. In fact. Basic examples of how the command are used at the Linux shell prompt are also provided.txt Displays command help Creates a directory Views a file Renames a file command /? mkdir more ren .txt /home/thisdirectory mv thisfile.

with a relative path Displays the time Shows amount of RAM in use time mem cd pathname cd /directory/directory cd . other editors you can use in place of Gedit include Emacs and vi.150 Command’s Purpose Displays your location in the file system Appendix C. b. Similar Commands . if you want to rename a file in the same directory.. d. cd . as seen in this example. Table C-1. Gedit is a graphical text editor. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands MS-DOS chdir Linux pwd Basic Linux Example pwd Changes directories cd with a specified pathname path (absolute path) Changes directories cd . The more pager can also be used to page through a file one screen at a time. You can also use info for some commands.. This formats a disk for the DOS file system. "move" that file to the same directory with a new name.. c. date free date free Notes: a. e. The mv command can both move a file and.

the default CD-ROM mount point is /mnt/cdrom/. — For variable (or constantly changing) files. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide and the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. directory for users and programs. such as programs and supporting library files. the superuser.img image file and load needed device • /proc/ • /initrd/ — A directory modules during bootup. • /root/ • /mnt/ • /boot/ • /lost+found/ — • /lib/ — Contains many library files used by programs in /bin/ and /sbin/. • /dev/ • /etc/ • /var/ • /usr/ — Contains files and directories directly relating to users of the system. — A virtual file system (not actually stored on the disk) that contains system information used by certain programs. For additional directory information. Used by fsck to place orphaned files (files without names). This directory is used mainly by third-party developers for easy installation and uninstallation of their software packages. — Contains configuration files and directories. . — The home directory of root. • /sbin/ — Location of many system commands. The directory /usr/lib/ contains more library files for user applications. — This directory typically contains the mount points for file systems mounted after the system is booted. — Contains the kernel and other files used during system startup. System Directories This is a list of the primary Red Hat Linux system directories. • /bin/ — Used to store user commands.Appendix D. such as log files and the printer spool. Warning Do not delete the /initrd/ directory. — Stores device files. The directory /usr/sbin/ also contains many system commands. that is used to mount the initrd. You will be unable to boot your computer if you delete the directory and then reboot your Red Hat Linux system. — Directory where optional files and programs are stored. The directory /usr/bin/ also stores user commands. • /tmp/ — The temporary and write access. For example. such as shutdown. /tmp/ allows all users on a system read • /home/ • /opt/ — Default location of user home directories. Each directory is described briefly.

152 Appendix D. System Directories .

Click the middle mouse button to paste it. For example. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. For more command line and keyboard shortcuts. [Ctrl] + [a] = moves cursor to the beginning of a line. Type this at a shell prompt to refresh the screen if characters are unclear or appear corrupt. [Ctrl] + [u] = clears the current line. Type this command to clear all visible data from the shell prompt screen. history 20. press [Enter]. Point the cursor to the spot where you want it pasted. [Ctrl] + [l] = clears the terminal. Use this command when using a shell prompt. you can use [Alt] + [Tab] to switch among open tasks and applications. visit: http://sunsite. If you are working in a terminal. [Up] and [Down] Arrow = shows command history. Use the left mouse button to highlight the text. Use only when the normal shutdown procedure does not work. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Fn] = switches screens. you can click both the left and right mouse buttons simultaneously to perform a paste. [Ctrl]+[Alt] + one of the function keys displays an available screen. [Alt] + [Tab] = switches tasks in a graphical desktop environment. Kills your graphical desktop session and returns you to the login screen. If you have more than one application open at a time.dk/linux-newbie/lnag_commands. [Tab] = command autocomplete. [Ctrl] + [d] = logout of (and close) shell prompt.Appendix E. • • • • • • • • • • • • • . reset = refreshes the shell prompt screen. It will automatically complete the command or show all commands that match the characters you typed. Use this if the normal exit procedure does not work. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Delete] = shutdown and reboots your Red Hat Linux system. To display a shorter list of previously used commands. exit = logout. Type this at a shell prompt to logout of the current user or root account. press the [up] or [down] arrow to scroll through a history of commands you have typed from the current directory.html#shortcuts • • • [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Backspace] = kills your current X session. type history followed by a space and a number. When using a shell prompt. [Middle Mouse Button] = pastes highlighted text. By default. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. use this shortcut to clear the current line from the cursor all the way to the beginning of the line. history = shows history of commands. In a two mouse system. Type the first few characters of a command or filename and then press the [Tab] key. clear = clears the shell prompt screen. Type this at a shell prompt to see a numbered list of the previous 1000 commands you typed. When you see the command you want to use. Many more are available in addition to what is listed here. Use this quick shortcut instead of typing exit or logout. This shortcut does the same thing as typing clear at a command line. [F1] through [F6] are shell prompt screens and [F7] is the graphical desktop screen. Shuts down your current session and reboots the OS. [Ctrl] + [e] = moves cursor to end of a line. if you configured your mouse to emulate a third mouse button. Keyboard Shortcuts Here are a few keyboard shortcuts you can use to perform common tasks quickly.

Keyboard Shortcuts .154 Appendix E.

69 creating user accounts. 96 cron. 96 rm (See files. 26 additional resources. 147 starting from shell prompt. 131 command line options printing from. 105 numerical settings. 32 and CD Creator. 30 with X-CD-Roast. 90 CD-rewritable (CD-RW). 16 on the desktop panel. 105 numerical settings. 73 chmod. common options with. 31 CDs. 30 and mkisofs. 127 archiving files. 96 cd. 130 locate. 113 conventions document. 32 with CD Creator. playing. 108 clear. 30 and X-CD-Roast. 27 and cdrecord. 27 and cdrecord. 26 additional resources. ii copying and pasting text when using X. 140 adding to the panel. 90 pwd. 94 ls. 93 ls -al. 149 finding. 115 C cat. 113 commands (See shell prompt) cat. 32 and CD Creator. 14 panel in KDE. 7 B bunzip2. 115 burning CDs. 28 CD-writable (CD-R). deleting) rm -r (See directories.org Draw. 131 ls -a. v creating graphics with OpenOffice. 98 applets adding to KDE panel. using. 93 keeping output from scrolling. 103 tips. 92 tail. deleting) stringing together. 90 reset. 127 compressing files. 130 grep. 94 multiple. 108 clear. 26 additional resources. 28 bzip2. 93 ls. 90 chmod. 101 history. 101 common user questions. 137 applications and Red Hat Linux. 96 cd. 90 change directories. 30 and mkisofs. 30 and X-CD-Roast. 28 cdrecord. 101 cat. 104 su.Index A accounts creating. 60 . 96 command history. 101 head. 95 DOS. 104 print working directory (pwd). 27 with cdrecord. 30 with mkisofs. 7 appending standard output.

138 devices digital cameras. 35 documents. 112 compressing. 49 mutt. 112 floppy disks (See diskettes) E email clients. 121 deleting at a shell prompt. 24 mke2fs.org. 63 OpenOffice. 127 starting applications. 131 login problems. 135 desktops multiple KDE. 69 environment variables PATH. 93 managing from shell prompt. 113 with File Roller. 24 F FAQ. 144 Mozilla Mail. 111 file types. 18. 35 digital cameras. 120 diskettes.156 D date configuration. 112 managing from shell prompt. 23 DNS definition. 119 formats. 119 renaming at a shell prompt. 129 finding previous used commands. 131 keeping ls output from scrolling. 87 directories changing. 90 copying. 14 background changing. 89 moving. 119 deleting. 23 unmounting. 63 OpenOffice. 50 mutt. 119 creating touch. 25 mounting. 112 archiving. 128 errata updating with. 23 using. 72 text files. 23 formatting. 114 copying. 81 KDE. 45 Evolution. 113 file manager for KDE.org Writer. 50 . 121 descriptions. v FHS (See Filesystem Hierarchy Standard) file. 113 with File Roller. 112 files archived. 132 permissions for installing RPMs. 127 feedback contact information for this manual. 87 DHCP. v drawing OpenOffice. 21 dateconfig (See Time and Date Properties Tool) desktop (See graphical desktop) applets. 120 moving at a shell prompt.org Draw. 50 plain text. 119 types of. 70 dot files (See hidden files) drag and drop. 119 deleting. 89 moving. 48 Newsgroups. 114 compressed. 125 Evolution (See email clients) ext2 file system and floppy disks. 46 KMail. 112 Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. 130 history tips and tricks. 114 file system understanding. 119 copying at a shell prompt. 64 PDF. 111 File Roller. 151 listing contents. 127 accessing a Windows partition. 140 Nautilus. 16 file managers.

157
formatting diskettes, 24

I
images additional resources, 85 manipulation, 79 GIMP, 82 viewing, 79, 79 gThumb, 80 Konqueror, 143 Nautilus, 79 Internet configuring, 35 Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 introduction, i IP address, 35

G
games and amusements, 76 finding more online, 77 getting started logging in, 5 Setup Agent, 1 GIMP, 82 opening a file, 83 saving a file, 84 GNOME desktop (See graphical desktop) GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 graphical desktop, 13 applets, 16 background changing, 18, 81 customizing, 18 logging out of, 20 main menu, 14 Nautilus, 16 panel, 14 Start Here , 17 using, 13 workspace, 13 graphical login changing to, 132 graphics GIMP, 82 gThumb, 80 changing wallpaper with, 81 gunzip, 115 gzip, 115

K
KDE, 135 applets adding, 140 multiple desktops, 138 customizing, 146 desktop, 135 desktop icons, 136 desktops multiple, 138 switching, 139 documentation, 135 Konqueror navigation panel, 141 main menu, 137 panel, 136 applets, 137 switching tasks, 139 Taskbar, 139 website, 135 keyboard shortcuts, 153 KMail (See email clients) Konqueror (See Web browsers) KDE file manager, 140 navigation panel, 141 viewing images with, 143

H
Hardware Browser, 129 help with KDE finding, 135 hidden files, 93 history finding commands using, 130

158

L
less, 100 linux commands (See shell prompt) listing directories (See commands, ls) log in, 5 logging in, 5 graphical, 132 graphical login, 6 virtual console login, 6 logging out, 11 from the desktop, 20 KDE, 146 login problems using single-user mode, 132 ls, 93 printing output, 131 viewing output, 131

configuring, 21 ntpd, 21 ntpd, 21

O
online connecting with Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 OpenOffice.org, 63 Draw, 69 features, 63 Impress, 67 Writer, 64, 65 ownership and permissions, 105

P
pagers, 100 less, 100 panel configuring, 16 configuring the, 140 KDE, 136 adding applications, 137 customizing, 137 hiding, 137 on the graphical desktop, 14 partitions accessing Windows, 129 password forgotten, 132 passwords secure, 8 PATH, 128 editing, 127 pathnames relative and absolute, 90 PDF viewing, 72 xpdf, 72 peripherals digital cameras, 87 permissions numerical settings, 108 setting for new RPMs, 127 permissions and ownership, 105 pipes, 100 plain text (See text files) Point-to-Point Protocol, 35 PPP, 35 presentations OpenOffice.org Impress, 67 printer configuration adding

M
main menu in KDE, 137 on the desktop, 14 mke2fs, 25 mkisofs, 31 mouse how to use, v Mozilla (See Web browsers) Mozilla Mail (See email clients) music Ogg Vorbis, 73 Wave, 73 XMMS, 73 using, 74 mutt (See email clients)

N
Nautilus, 16 disabling text icons, 17 disabling thumbnails, 17 viewing images with, 79 Network Time Protocol (See NTP) new users creating accounts, 7 Newsgroups (See email clients) NTP

159
local printer, 53 cancel print job, 60 default printer, 56 delete existing printer, 56 driver options, 57 Assume Unknown Data is Text, 57 Convert Text to Postscript, 58 Effective Filter Locale, 58 GhostScript pre-filtering, 58 Media Source, 58 Page Size, 58 Prerender Postscript, 58 Send End-of-Transmission (EOT), 57 Send Form-Feed (FF), 57 edit driver, 57 edit existing printer, 56 GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 local printer, 53 managing print jobs, 58 modifying existing printers, 56 notification icon, 59 printing from the command line, 60 rename existing printer, 57 test page, 56 viewing print spool, 59 viewing print spool, command line, 60 printing from command line, 95 pwd, 90

S
Setup Agent, 1 shell, 89 history of, 89 shell prompt, 7 basic commands, 89 chmod, 106 single-user mode, 132 software installing, 123 upgrading, 123 sound card configuring, 74 Sound Card Configuration Tool, 74 spreadsheets OpenOffice.org Calc, 65 standard input redirecting, 99 standard output appending, 98 redirecting, 96 Start Here, 17 changing desktop background with, 18 startup messages dmesg | more, 100 startx, 6 su, 92 superuser (See commands, su) switching desktops KDE, 139 switching tasks KDE, 139 system directories descriptions, 151

R
Red Hat Network, 123 Red Hat Update Agent, 123 redhat-config-date (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redhat-config-time (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redirecting standard input, 99 redirection, 96 reset, 96 RHN (See Red Hat Network) root, 111 and root login, 111 logging in as, 5 RPM, 125 installing packages, 123 upgrading packages, 123 RPMs error message while installing, 127 installing with Gnome-RPM, 127

T
tab completion, 103 Taskbar KDE, 139 terminal (See shell prompt) terms introductory, 3 text files, 70 editing, 70 from a shell prompt, 71 The Graphical Desktop, 6 time configuration, 21 synchronize with NTP server, 21 time zone configuration, 22 timetool (See Time and Date Properties Tool) Trash icon

141 Mozilla. 100 V vi . 129 World Wide Web browsers. 18 Web browsers. 96 less. 39 using. 115 user account creating. 39 Mozilla. 136 troubleshooting sound card. 39 Konqueror. 71 W wallpaper changing. 5 utilities cat. 76 xpdf. 39 X X Configuration Tool.160 KDE. 76 U unzip. 72 . 7 importance of. 74 video card. 39 Windows accessing on a separate partition add line to /etc/fstab.

1 format. tip. Writer/Maintainer of custom DocBook stylesheets and scripts Edward C. and warning). Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. They may be freely redistributed with the Red Hat documentation. The Red Hat Linux Product Documentation Team consists of the following people: Sandra A. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Tammy Fox — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. caution. Bailey — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer. The HTML and PDF formats are produced using custom DSSSL stylesheets and custom jade wrapper scripts. Moore — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide. The DocBook SGML files are written in Emacs with the help of PSGML mode. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. Garrett LeSage created the admonition graphics (note. important.Colophon The Red Hat Linux manuals are written in DocBook SGML v4. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide Johnray Fuller — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer . Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer John Ha — Primary Writer/Maintainer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide.

162 .

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