Red Hat Linux 9

Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide

Red Hat Linux 9: Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc.
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rhl-gsg(EN)-9-Print-RHI (2003-02-20T01:05) Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc. This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, V1.0 or later (the latest version is presently available at http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/). Distribution of substantively modified versions of this document is prohibited without the explicit permission of the copyright holder. Distribution of the work or derivative of the work in any standard (paper) book form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder. Red Hat, Red Hat Network, the Red Hat "Shadow Man" logo, RPM, Maximum RPM, the RPM logo, Linux Library, PowerTools, Linux Undercover, RHmember, RHmember More, Rough Cuts, Rawhide and all Red Hat-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in the United States and other countries. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. Motif and UNIX are registered trademarks of The Open Group. Intel and Pentium are a registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. Itanium and Celeron are trademarks of Intel Corporation. AMD, AMD Athlon, AMD Duron, and AMD K6 are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Netscape is a registered trademark of Netscape Communications Corporation in the United States and other countries. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. SSH and Secure Shell are trademarks of SSH Communications Security, Inc. FireWire is a trademark of Apple Computer Corporation. All other trademarks and copyrights referred to are the property of their respective owners. The GPG fingerprint of the security@redhat.com key is: CA 20 86 86 2B D6 9D FC 65 F6 EC C4 21 91 80 CD DB 42 A6 0E

Table of Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... i 1. Changes to This Manual ........................................................................................................ i 2. Document Conventions......................................................................................................... ii 3. Copying and Pasting Text With X........................................................................................ iv 4. Using the Mouse ................................................................................................................... v 5. We Need Feedback! .............................................................................................................. v 6. Sign Up for Support .............................................................................................................. v 1. Getting Started ................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1. Setup Agent....................................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Introductory Terms............................................................................................................. 3 1.3. Logging In.......................................................................................................................... 5 1.3.1. Graphical Login .................................................................................................. 5 1.3.2. Virtual Console Login......................................................................................... 6 1.4. Graphical Interface............................................................................................................. 6 1.5. Opening a Shell Prompt ..................................................................................................... 7 1.6. Creating a User Account.................................................................................................... 7 1.7. Documentation and Help ................................................................................................... 8 1.7.1. Manual Pages ...................................................................................................... 9 1.7.2. Red Hat Linux Documentation ......................................................................... 10 1.8. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 11 1.8.1. Graphical Logout .............................................................................................. 11 1.8.2. Virtual Console Logout..................................................................................... 11 1.9. Shutting Down your Computer ........................................................................................ 11 1.9.1. Graphical Shutdown.......................................................................................... 11 1.9.2. Virtual Console Shutdown ................................................................................ 12 2. Using the Graphical Desktop ....................................................................................................... 13 2.1. Using the Desktop............................................................................................................ 13 2.2. Using the Panel ................................................................................................................ 14 2.2.1. Using the Main Menu ...................................................................................... 14 2.2.2. Using Applets.................................................................................................... 14 2.2.3. Using the Notification Area .............................................................................. 15 2.2.4. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel............................................................. 16 2.2.5. Configuring the Desktop Panel ......................................................................... 16 2.3. Using Nautilus ................................................................................................................ 16 2.4. Start Here ......................................................................................................................... 17 2.4.1. Customizing the Desktop.................................................................................. 18 2.4.2. Customizing your System ................................................................................. 19 2.5. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 20 3. Configuring the Date and Time ................................................................................................... 21 3.1. Time and Date Properties................................................................................................. 21 3.2. Time Zone Configuration................................................................................................. 21 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs .............................................................................................................. 23 4.1. Using Diskettes ................................................................................................................ 23 4.1.1. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette.............................................................. 23 4.1.2. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette ................................................... 24 4.1.3. Formatting a Diskette........................................................................................ 24 4.2. CD-ROMs ........................................................................................................................ 25 4.2.1. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager ....................................................... 26 4.2.2. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt ............................................................ 26 4.3. CD-Rs and CD-RWs ........................................................................................................ 26 4.3.1. Using CD Creator............................................................................................ 27 4.3.2. Using X-CD-Roast........................................................................................... 28

.................................... 73 10...... Mozilla.................................. Finding Games Online ....................................................................... 30 4........................................................................................org Calc .............................................................................. Installed Documentation .......................................................................4........... 73 10.................................................2........2...................1................................ and General Amusement.. 39 6...................7........................................................................................ OpenOffice........................................1........................................ Printing a Test Page..........................................7...2........................... Web Browsing..................................................... Working with Documents.................................................... Additional Resources ..7...............................................................5.......... 60 8.....1...................................................3........ Plain Text Email Clients ..... 57 8.........5.............................. Troubleshooting Your Video Card .................. Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts ..2....................................... 41 6......................................................3..... 74 10... 39 6................... Queue Type .................. 45 7................................................4................................................. Troubleshooting Your Sound Card ............................................ 56 8. Mozilla Mail......................................................3.......................... OpenOffice...........3............3.................................................1............1......... Useful Websites ...........................5..........5.......................................................................... 57 8.................................................5................................................5............................................................................... Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools ........................ If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work.................. 71 9....................................................... The Printer Configuration Tool ....................................1....................................... Installed Documentation . Queue Name .. 57 8..................1.............1................................................................ OpenOffice..................................................... 74 10...................................2......................... 55 8...........................2.....3.................. 53 8...........2..........................................................5...1....................................................................................... 63 9...............................................................................................................4....... 61 9......................1................. Additional Resources ..........2.... 32 4. Evolution.......................................................................................................2......... Games ............. 71 10............................................................................. 54 8.......4.......................................... Playing Digital Audio Files .........org Suite............................................................ 77 ........ 39 6..................................................................................................... OpenOffice........1.............. Printer Configuration ...3...1..................... Getting Online ........................... 69 9. 57 8.......2............................ 43 7............................... Managing Print Jobs ................... Shell Prompt Text Editors .... 49 7......1.. The OpenOffice................................................................................6.............................................................................. 50 8..................4....... Modifying Existing Printers.................2.. 76 10..................................................... Driver Options......... 58 8....................... 41 6............................... Viewing PDFs .............................................................................................3.1... 33 5.........1. 50 7. 32 4...3.......................................................... OpenOffice............................ Galeon .............. Editing Text Files ............................................................1................................................3... Confirming Printer Configuration ....... 35 6......................1.................. Playing Audio CDs ...... 69 9......................................................................1......... Mozilla and Newsgroups ........................... 53 8............. 65 9................................................... Using Mutt ............................................ Email Applications................................................................ Printer Driver..................................... 64 9............................................org Impress...... Audio............................................................................... Adding a Local Printer.....1.................4..................4........... 67 9..........6................ Using XMMS ........................................1...........................2.............. 63 9......................... 47 7........1.......... 73 10..4................org Draw........ Useful Websites .............. 63 9............... 75 10.............................................. 45 7.....................org Features......................... Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing............................... 75 10.3....2.1..... Using Mozilla..........................................................................................1...................... Mozilla Composer............................................ 55 8.............................................................................................. Video................. 53 8............3....................... 60 8..org Writer ...

.........................2....3................................................................ Using Redirection .................. 82 11...........3.............................................. Installed Documentation ...................................... 102 13.....14..................... Useful Websites ..................................................... 98 13.....11...........9.....................2........................................................................................... More Commands for Reading Text Files..............................................................3.11.................................................... 95 13............................. 104 13.........2.........3............2...4...... GIMP Basics ...2............ 79 11.............. Loading a File ... Programming and Scripting Files ..... 101 13............. File Compression and Archiving ...........3..... View Directory Contents with ls. 86 12..3....................................1.... 111 14................. 119 14......................................................3........................................ 90 13.. Printing From The Command Line................ 104 13........................ Determining Your Current Directory with pwd ... 90 13...................3............ 112 14..................... 111 14.1....3................................. 103 13..................10. 85 11..................2............... 84 11........... Shell Prompt Basics .......................................... Compressed and Archived Files ....14...........................5.. 108 14............ Viewing Images.................................... Pipes and Pagers .................1............... Locating Files and Directories .......................... 100 13.................... Managing Files and Directories .. 82 11..........4................................... The grep Command.................... 93 13............... 115 14.................2...3............................................ 79 11............ 101 13................. Working with Digital Cameras ........................................................ 101 13............................................................. 83 11...................3..............................9...... Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt ........................................... 101 13...................................2................... 96 13.............................. 89 13.................................................................................................................................................................... 117 14............................... 112 14................................................ Identifying and Working with File Types ...... Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt............ Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt..................... Clearing and Resetting the Terminal........ System Files ...... 85 11......5........ Using Nautilus to View Images................................................................................................11...........................1............ The chmod Command.......................... 87 13..................................................................2.. 106 13.....................................................14...................................11..................................................... 89 13......... Changing Permissions With Numbers ............9.................................1.................... File Formats ....................................11......... 114 14.............................................................................1........................................................................................................... 102 13...................6............................ The more Command ........2.......................... 79 11.......................................................................11...................... 99 13.................4.....7....... 113 14........................... 89 13.................................... Saving a File ........................... Redirecting Standard Input ..................................................................... The History of the Shell....................................................... Wildcards and Regular Expressions................................................................................. Using File Roller................. 85 11....13. Creating Files ................................................................................................................................. The head Command .....2............................................................................................................. Why Use a Shell Prompt...........................................3..................... Using gtKam .. Working with Images....... Command History and Tab Completion ................... Additional Resources .............................. 119 ..........................................2.....................4..........1..... 112 14........4.. Using Multiple Commands ............1................................................ Manipulating Images with the GIMP....... Changing Directories with cd ................................... I/O Redirection and Pipes ....................... 112 14.....1.......1.............1.........3.....4............................1......................................1..............10.......2..............................................................3......................... 99 13...................................................... A Larger Picture of the File System ......................................2......1........... The tail Command........ 94 13...11.................1.............12......................... Using gThumb ...................3...............................9................................................................................................................................... 87 12................................................ 84 11.....2......... Related Books .........................................2....................................1....................2.................. 96 13.............................2....... Ownership and Permissions........................2.................................. Appending Standard Output ...... Manipulating Files with cat... 113 14... 95 13..... GIMP Options ..........................8........................................................ 80 11....................................

7...................... 143 A.......................................... 131 16...... 136 A.................. Starting Applications ......................................... Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel ..................................... 127 16............................... 131 16.......... Downloaded Packages .............................................................2....................................1.................... 130 16.............................................................. 147 C..........8.......................1....................................................................................................... 125 15.............................................3........................... Installation CD-ROMs ......................................................5.............................. KMail ...........6.............................................................................................6..................................................................... Using The Desktop........ Using The Main Menu............................................................................................................ Moving Files ...4....... System Directories............................................ Introducing KDE.....................................................................3.......4...............4..................................................2.................................................................................................................................................. 127 16..................................................... 146 A............................................................................................ 123 15........................................... 137 A...............................4.... 130 16...... Red Hat Network ............ 140 A...... The Navigation Panel......................................................... 127 16.......... 151 E.......................................................................... 153 Index................ Editing Your PATH ................................ Managing Files................................... Deleting Files and Directories .................... Finding Commands Quickly ......................... Frequently Asked Questions ........................10.......................................... 120 14... 135 A.............1.................. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands ................... Accessing a Windows Partition .............4................ Tips on Using Command History ............................... 155 Colophon............................... 127 16.. Browsing the Web with Konqueror ......... 128 16............................................................................................................................................................................ Forgotten Password................5.................................. 135 A......................................... 139 A................... 141 A............................... Logging Out of KDE.............. 126 16.................................................9...........4........ Using The Panel . Printing ls Output................................... 135 A.................................. Errata List....................................7............................. Using Applets................... 123 15................ Finding Help ...........3........................................ 161 ...........................1.................. Keyboard Shortcuts .......4..................................... Customizing KDE ....................4.... 129 16.................................................... 131 16........2...................4.... 121 15...................... Applications ....1.......................2..................................1...............................10....3............................................. 125 15................................................................4..............................................7..................... Copying Files ... Keep ls Output from Scrolling ..............................................................................1....................................1.......2...................................................................... 141 A............................................................. 132 A...................................8...... Password Maintenance...........4........................................ 140 A..............3. 146 B.............. KDE: The K Desktop Environment .................................. Localhost Login and Password .....3.......... 119 14.......................................................................................................................9........6.................. Configuring the KDE Panel ..................................... 137 A......................................................................................................... Using Konqueror to View Images ............. 135 A.......................................... 144 A..................... Other Shortcuts ..................... 149 D................................................. 132 16.... Error Messages During Installation of RPMs...........................................................................................................4................................................. 131 16........ Changing Login from Console to X at Startup ...........14.................5............................ Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages.................

and performs differently from other operating systems you may have used. Keep in mind that Linux looks. This manual is designed to help new and intermediate Linux users navigate and perform common tasks. you should have read the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide and successfully installed Red Hat Linux.redhat. They can be found on the Red Hat Linux CD #1 and online at: http://www. you may need information on more advanced topics. You will find useful tips. This manual is task-oriented. and versatile alternative. configuring a printer. .Introduction Welcome to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide! By now. and getting online. Forget about the conventions of other operating systems and. the tasks covered in this manual become progressively more advanced. you should read the Red Hat Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to our documentation being finalized. such as customizing a desktop.com/docs/ 1. Once the basics are covered. the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. First. Most users choose to work within either the GNOME or KDE graphical desktop environments (other desktop environments are also available). You can find this information in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. feels.com/docs/. and screen shots interspersed throughout. interesting. Topics discussed include: • • • • • Using the graphical desktop environment Managing files and directories Working with documents Using the Web and email Working with a digital camera After conquering the basics of your Red Hat Linux system. the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer.redhat. and the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. Changes to this manual include: Working with Digital Cameras This new chapter discusses using a digital camera with gtKam. HTML and PDF versions of the Red Hat Linux manuals are available on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD and online at http://www. Note Although this manual reflects the most current information possible. with an open mind. The Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide focuses primarily on how to perform tasks in these two environments. warnings. you will learn the basics of using Red Hat Linux. hints. approach Red Hat Linux as a new. Changes to This Manual This manual has been expanded to include new features in Red Hat Linux 9 as well as topics requested by our readers.

This highlighting is systematic. you will see that certain words are represented in different fonts. Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program. This style should indicate that a particular file or directory exists by that name on your Red Hat Linux system. and how to connect to a network time server to get accurate time and date information for your Red Hat Linux system has been moved from the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide to this manual. Examples: The . The types of words that are represented this way include the following: command Linux commands (and other operating system commands. including how to change your desktop background. when used) are represented this way. This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on the command line and press [Enter] to invoke a command.ii Configuring Date and Time Introduction A chapter on configuring your system time. directory names. application This style indicates that the program is an end-user application (as opposed to system software). and RPM package names are represented this way. named testfile. Document Conventions When you read this manual. For example: Use Mozilla to browse the Web. In these cases. and more. and weights. Sometimes a command contains words that would be displayed in a different style on their own (such as filenames). so the entire phrase will be displayed as a command. The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and filesystems. Diskettes and CD-ROMs This chapter now includes information about backing up files to CD-R and CD-RW media using CD Creator in Nautilus. 2. Working with Documents This chapter includes information on editing text files in a graphical environment (with gEdit) and at a shell prompt (with vi). For example: Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file. paths. different words are represented in the same style to indicate their inclusion in a specific category. typefaces. Using the Graphical Desktop This chapter has been modified to reflect the new desktop environment and the various ways you can use and configure it. . they are considered to be part of the command. sizes. in the current working directory. filename Filenames.bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases for your own use. your time zone. manage your printer.

computer output When you see text in this style. If you click on the word on the GUI screen. prompt A prompt. will be shown in this style. Your terminal will display the list of files in the directory that start with that letter. Examples: $ # [stephen@maturin stephen]$ . or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window will be shown in this style. For example: Use the ls command to display the contents of a directory: $ ls Desktop Mail about. For example: iii To use [Tab] completion. it indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu. it indicates text displayed by the computer on the command line. the contents of the directory) is shown in this style.html backupfiles logs mail paulwesterberg. For example: Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed.png reports The output returned in response to the command (in this case. top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window When you see a word in this style. [key]-[combination] A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. word. button on a GUI screen or window This style indicates that the text will be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen.Introduction [key] A key on the keyboard is shown in this style. which is a computer’s way of signifying that it is ready for you to input something. Example: Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require a password before stopping. text found on a GUI interface A title. and interactive prompts for your input during scripts or programs shown this way. For example: The [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[Backspace] key combination will exit your graphical session and return you to the graphical login screen or the console. When you see text shown in this style. they will be shown like the following example: Go to Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => Programming => Emacs to start the Emacs text editor. If you need to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu. error messages. it is being used to identify a particular GUI screen or an element on a GUI screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or field). you will see the New Tab option that allows you to open multiple shell prompts in the same window. type in a character and then press the [Tab] key. You will see responses to commands you typed in. For example: Under File on a GNOME terminal. the rest of the menu should appear.

important. you will need to type in the text command at the boot: prompt. we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of information. is displayed in this style. In order of how critical the information is to your system. . Caution Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you need to use the root account for system administration tasks. In the following example. or into a text box on a GUI screen. a server installation will remove all existing partitions on all installed hard drives. Tip The directory /usr/share/doc contains additional documentation for packages installed on your system. Additionally. In other words. Important If you modify the DHCP configuration file. a rose is not a ROSE is not a rOsE. the changes will not take effect until you restart the DHCP daemon.iv Introduction leopard login: user input Text that the user has to type. or a warning. Warning If you choose not to partition manually. caution. For example: Note Remember that Linux is case sensitive. text is displayed in this style: To boot your system into the text based installation program. either on the command line. these items will be marked as note. Do not choose this installation class unless you are sure you have no data you need to save. tip.

try to be as specific as possible when describing it. If you need to use the middle or right mouse button. that will be explicitly stated. go to http://www.com/bugzilla/) against the component rhl-gsg. if you are instructed to click with the mouse on something. Copying and Pasting Text With X Copying and pasting text is easy using your mouse and the X Window System. and white card in your Red Hat Linux box. If you have a two-button mouse. release the mouse button to drop the item.Introduction v 3.) The phrase "drag and drop" may be familiar to you. Inc. Sign Up for Support If you have an edition of Red Hat Linux 9. depending upon the Red Hat Linux product you purchased: • • • Red Hat support — Get help with your installation questions from Red Hat. drag the item by moving the mouse to a new location. In this document. If you have found an error. To paste the text somewhere. Go to http://rhn. While continuing to hold down the mouse button.’s support team. 6. . get the latest news and product information directly from Red Hat.redhat. When submitting a bug report. please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily. Using the Mouse Red Hat Linux is designed to use a three-button mouse. You will find your Product ID on a black. To copy text. If you’re using three-button emulation. We Need Feedback! If you spot a typographical error in the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. click the middle mouse button in the spot where the text should be placed. or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better.redhat. If you’re instructed to drag and drop an item on your GUI desktop. To sign up.redhat. click on something and hold the mouse button down. pressing both mouse buttons at the same time equates to pressing the missing third (middle) button.com for more details. You will be entitled to any or all of the following benefits. Under the Brim: The Red Hat E-Newsletter — Every month. (This will be reversed if you’ve configured your mouse to be used by a left handed person. please remember to sign up for the benefits you are entitled to as a Red Hat customer.com/apps/activate/. we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla (http://bugzilla. When you’ve reached the desired location. you should have selected three-button emulation during the installation process. red. Red Hat Network — Easily update your packages and receive security notices that are customized for your system. simply click and drag your mouse over the text to highlight it. that means click the left mouse button. 4. be sure to mention the manual’s identifier: rhl-gsg(EN)-9-Print-RHI (2003-02-20T01:05) If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation. 5.

vi Introduction To read more about technical support for Red Hat Linux. refer to the Getting Technical Support Appendix in the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide. Good luck. and thank you for choosing Red Hat Linux! The Red Hat Documentation Team .

The Setup Agent lets you enter a username. This creates a user account that you can use to log into your Red Hat Linux system and which has its own home directory on the system to store files. an optional full name for the account. register your machine with the Red Hat Network. . Setup Agent The Setup Agent first prompts you to create a user account that you should use on a routine basis. so that you can get started using your Red Hat Linux system quickly. 1. and more. Setup Agent The first time you start your Red Hat Linux system.1. you can set your system time and date. install software. and a password (which you must enter twice). It is not recommended to log in to your root account for common computing tasks. The Setup Agent guides you through the configuration of your Red Hat Linux system. Using this tool.Chapter 1. as you may damage your system or unintentionally delete a file. the Setup Agent is presented. Figure 1-1. Red Hat Linux provides tools and applications to help you get the most out of your computing environment. Setup Agent allows you to configure your environment at the beginning. This chapter guides you through some basic tasks that you can perform on your Red Hat Linux system. whether you are working or playing. Getting Started From booting up to shutting down. add users to your system.

User Account The Setup Agent allows you to manually set your machine’s date and time.2 Chapter 1. Getting Started Figure 1-2. You may also synchronize your date and time automatically with a network time server — a computer that sends accurate date and time settings to your system through a network connection. which adjusts the clock on your computer’s BIOS (Basic Input Output System). use the calendar interface. I do not want to register my system skips the registration. month. I would like to register my system with Red Hat Network. minutes. Once you have set your time and date. Selecting No. refer to the Red Hat Network documentation at http://www. Date and Time Configuration To register your system with Red Hat Network and receive automatic updates of your Red Hat Linux system. click Forward to continue. For more information about Red Hat Network and registering your machine.redhat.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/. choose Yes. To set your time in hours. To set the day. and year on your system. Check the box labeled Enable Network Time Protocol and use the drop-down menu to select the time server you want to use. Figure 1-3. . This will start the Red Hat Update Agent — a utility that guides you step-by-step through the registration of your machine with Red Hat Network. and seconds. use the provided text boxes.

Note If you are installing a package from the Red Hat Linux Installation CDs. Figure 1-5... you must insert CD 1. Introductory Terms When you learn about a new operating system. Press Forward to exit the Setup Agent. Getting Started 3 Figure 1-4. choose the package(s) or component you want to install. software from third-party providers. button. click the Install. click the Install. or documentation from the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD. Insert the CD containing the software or documentation you want to install.. and follow the instructions. you are ready to log in and start using Red Hat Linux. you can do so at the Additional CDs screen. Red Hat Network Registration Client To install Red Hat Linux RPM packages that you did not install during installation. This section defines a few basic terms you should learn..Chapter 1. if prompted . button. you should also learn new terminology. and. Installing Additional Software Now that your system is configured. 1.2. change the CD. You will see these terms often throughout all Red Hat Linux documentation including the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide: .

type man su at a shell prompt (or type info su for the info page). Launcher icons usually refer to application shortcuts. Command line: The space at the shell prompt where commands are typed. to read the man page for the su command. The shell interprets commands entered by the user and passes them on to the operating system. and panels which allow a user to initiate actions such as starting applications and opening files using a mouse and keyboard. usually located across the bottom of your desktop (such as Figure 1-6). shortcut or system resource (such as a diskette drive). Graphical User Interface (GUI): A general term for interactive windows. menus. A Shell Prompt . RPM: RPM stands for RPM Package manager and is how Red Hat builds and delivers its software files. which can reduce the chance of damaging your Red Hat Linux installation or applications permanently. Panels can also be customized to suit your needs.4 Chapter 1. • • • Figure 1-7. Icons are small images representing an application. The desktop is where your user Home and Start Here icons are located. folder. and pictures to add a personal touch. press [q]. Man page and Info page: Man (short for manual) and Info pages give detailed information about a command or file (man pages tend to be brief and provide less explanation than Info pages). For example. colors. User accounts are created so that typical user tasks can be done without using the root account. Getting Started Command: An instruction given to the computer. The Desktop Panel Root: Root is an administrative user account created during installation and has complete access to the system. such as changing administrative passwords and running system configuration tools. You must be logged in as root to accomplish certain system administration tasks. An RPM is a software package file you can install on your Red Hat Linux computer. icons. most often with the keyboard or mouse. Graphical Desktop: The most visible area of a GUI. You can customize your desktop to have special backgrounds. • • • • • • • Figure 1-6. To close man or Info pages. Shell prompt: A command line interface between the user and the operating system (Figure 1-7). Panel: A desktop toolbar. The panel contains the Main Menu button and shortcut icons to start commonly used programs.

If you type the wrong user name or password. 1. because the root account is allowed to do anything on the system. Caution Because your Red Hat Linux system creates the root account during installation. a graphical login screen is displayed as shown in Figure 1-8. your machine will probably be called localhost.command makes you root within the root account shell. you can skip ahead to Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop.1. which is primarily used in a network setting. If you did not create a user account using the Setup Agent. unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname. When you log in. maintain security. and more. This is a dangerous idea. 1. you will not be allowed access to your system. Unlike some other operating systems. . By default.6 Creating a User Account to learn how to set up a user account. you are working in a GUI rather than a console environment. You may be tempted to forego creating and using a user account during or after installation. Again. Getting Started 5 • su and su -: The command su gives you access to the root account or other accounts on your system. it is highly recommended that you log in as that user instead of root to prevent accidental damage to your Red Hat Linux installation.3. If you have already created and logged in to a user account. After you create a user account. If you created only the root account. Use caution when you are logged in as root. Logging In The next step to using your Red Hat Linux system is to log in. When you type su to switch to your root account while still inside your user account shell. your Red Hat Linux system uses accounts to manage privileges. If you are "in X" or "running X".3. Not all accounts are created equal: some accounts have fewer rights to access files or services than others. both the graphical and shell prompt methods of logging in and using your Red Hat Linux system are discussed for your reference. X or X Window System: These terms refer to the graphical user interface environments. You can easily damage your system by accidentally deleting or modifying sensitive system files. some new users are tempted to use only this account for all of their activities. which means that typing root refers to a different account than Root. Logging in with the su . you must log in as root. but it is not recommended. Note Red Hat Linux applications and files are case sensitive. or system administrator. you are introducing yourself to the system (also called authentication). Graphical Login When your system has booted. root refers to the root user (also known as the superuser). refer to Section 1. you have access to important system files that you can change (or damage if you are not careful). • Although the emphasis throughout this book is on navigation and productivity using the graphical desktop environment.Chapter 1.

your machine will probably be called localhost. press [Enter]. 1. To log in as root from the console. type your username at the login prompt. you will find a graphical interface known as a desktop similar to Figure 1-9. which is primarily used in a network setting. press [Enter].4. type your username at the login prompt. type root at the login prompt. Virtual Console Login During installation. To log in as a normal user. press [Enter]. To log in as a normal user. type root at the login prompt.18-14 on an i686 localhost login: Unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname. The Graphical Login Screen To log in as root from the graphical login screen. Getting Started Figure 1-8. if you selected an installation type other than Workstation or Personal Desktop and chose text as your login type.localdomain. Once you start the X Window System. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt. press [Enter].2. . and press [Enter]. you will see a login prompt similar to the following after booting your system: Red Hat Linux release 9 Kernel 2. After logging in.6 Chapter 1.4. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt. and press [Enter]. Graphical Interface When you installed Red Hat Linux you had the opportunity to install a graphical environment. then type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt and press [Enter]. 1. and press [Enter]. Logging in from the graphical login screen automatically starts the graphical desktop for you. type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt.3. you can type the command startx to start the graphical desktop.

you were given the opportunity to create one or more user accounts using the Setup Agent. Getting Started 7 Figure 1-9. You can open a shell prompt by selecting Main Menu => System Tools => Terminal. If you are not logged in as root. it is sometimes useful and faster to perform tasks from a shell prompt. You can also start a shell prompt by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing New Terminal from the menu. you will be prompted for your root password. Refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics for further details. Opening a Shell Prompt The desktop offers access to a shell prompt. click the System Settings icon. There are two ways to create new and/or additional user accounts: using the graphical User Manager application or from a shell prompt. The Graphical Desktop 1. . You can also select Main Menu => System Settings => Users & Groups from the panel.5. You should avoid working in the root account for daily tasks. To create a user account graphically using the User Manager: 1. 2. type exit at the prompt. click the X button on the upper right corner of the shell prompt window. The window shown in Figure 1-10 will appear. 3. an application that allows you to type commands instead of using a graphical interface for all computing activities. While the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide primarily focuses on performing tasks using the graphical interface and graphical tools.Chapter 1. and then click the Users & Groups icon. 1. You can also start the User Manager by typing redhat-config-users at a shell prompt. Creating a User Account When you first started your Red Hat Linux system after installation.6. or press [Ctrl]-[D] at the prompt. Click Add User. If you did not create at least one account (not including the root account) you should do so now. Click the Start Here icon on the desktop. In the new window that opens. To exit a shell prompt.

Type passwd followed by a space and the username again (for example. User account names can be anything from the user’s name. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details about additional options. such as jsmith for John Smith. The Red Hat User Manager 4. Type useradd followed by a space and the username for the new account you are creating at the command line (for example. signaling that the user account creation is complete. consider a variation of a word. or birthplace to something more creative. documents that detail usage of important applications and files. In the Create New User dialog box.8 Chapter 1. Important You should take precautions when you choose a password. 4. as well as numbers and characters. You can use both uppercase and lowercase letters. Avoid easy selections. If you want to pick an easy-to-remember but somewhat unique password. Getting Started Figure 1-10. enter a username (this can be an abbreviation or nickname). useradd jsmith). Often. you can accept the defaults for the other configuration options. 5. At the Retype new password: prompt. 5. At the New password: prompt enter a password for the new user and press [Enter]. If you are not logged in as root. 3. For most users. The name of this user’s home directory and the name of the login shell should appear by default.7. Your password should be at least six characters. passwd jsmith).and enter the root password. enter the same password to confirm your selection. the full name of the user for whom this account is being created. usernames are variations on the user’s name. such as qwerty or password. Documentation and Help There are several resources available to get the information you need to use and configure your Red Hat Linux system. initials. type the command su . Along with the Red Hat Linux documentation there are manual pages. and a password (which you will enter a second time for verification). Open a shell prompt. Press [Enter]. 6. such as a1rPl4nE for airplane. INFO pages which break information about an . The password is the key to your account. To create a user account from a shell prompt: 1. 1. Click OK. so it should be both unique and easy for you to remember. 2. The new user will appear in the user list.

such as what options are declared and what types of input (such as files or values) the executable supports. All instances of the keyword will be highlighted throughout the man page. utilities. Man Pages are structured in such a way that users can quickly scan the page for pertinent information. See Also shows related terms. files. as all of these resources are either already installed on your Red Hat Linux system or can be easily installed. The DESCRIPTION field shows available options and values associated with a file or executable. For example. and help files that are included in the main menubar of graphical applications. To exit the man page. type the following: man ls The NAME field shows the executable’s name and a brief explanation of what function the executable performs. Using man Man Pages can be accessed via shell prompt by typing the command man and the name of the executable. Figure 1-11.Chapter 1. allowing you to quickly read the keyword in context. You can choose any method of accessing documentation that best suits your needs. and shell prompt commands usually have corresponding manual pages (also called man pages) that show the reader available options and values of file or executable. . 1. 1. Manual Pages Applications. The SYNOPSIS field shows the common usage of the executable. Getting Started 9 application down by context-sensitive menus. which is important when dealing with commands that they have never previously encountered.1.1. Reading a Man Page with the Shell Prompt To navigate the man page you can use the [Page Down] and [Page Up] keys or use the [Spacebar] to move down one page and [B] to move up. To search a man page for keywords type [/] and then a keyword or phrase and press [Enter].1. and programs.7. type [Q]. to access the man page for the ls command.7.

PDF.tar. If you have downloaded individual documentation RPM packages from the Red Hat website at http://www. you can access them at any time by clicking Main Menu => Documentation. 1.gz) are also available at http://www.com/docs/.7. Package Management Tool Displaying Documentation Available for Installation After you have installed the documentation packages you want.3. inserting the Documentation CD in your CD-ROM drive should automatically start the Package Management Tool and allow you to install any of the Red Hat Linux documentation. you can print a man page by typing the following command at a shell prompt: man command| col -b | lpr The example above combines separates commands into one unique function. Once you have logged in to your user account. Getting Started Printing man pages is a useful way to archive commonly used commands. Printing a Man Page Chapter 1. The man Man Page Just like other commands. Open a shell prompt.redhat. and type the following at the command line: su . perhaps in bound form for quick reference.1. and compressed tarball format (. 1. Type man man at the shell prompt for more information.10 1.com/docs/ you can install these manuals from a shell prompt. RPM. The lpr command sends the formatted content to the printer.2. remember to take a look at the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD. which formats the contents to fit within a printed page.redhat.1.7.7. man has its own man page. Follow the instructions and choose the documentation you would like to install.2. Figure 1-12. All of the Red Hat Linux manuals are on this CD. If you have a printer available and configured for use with Red Hat Linux (refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information). Individual downloads of our documentation in HTML. man command will output the contents of the command man page to col. Red Hat Linux Documentation If you have the Red Hat Linux boxed set.

You are now logged in as root. When the confirmation dialog appears as shown in Figure 1-13. 1.8. as you may lose unsaved data or damage your system. so you would type the following to install it on your system: rpm -ivh /mnt/cdrom/rhl-gsg-en-9.8. This logs you out of the root account and back to your user account. the file name for the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide will look something like rhl-gsg-en-9.rpm Press [Enter]. it is important to properly shut down Red Hat Linux. To install all of the Red Hat Linux manuals. To install only certain manuals. replace rhl-*.9.noarch. Shutting Down your Computer Before turning off your computer. Type exit at the command line and press [Enter]. and you logged in at the console. Logging Out 1. check the Save current setup option. You will be asked for your root password. For example. . as well as any programs which are running. select Main Menu => Log Out. Virtual Console Logout If you are not using the X Window System. To save the configuration of your desktop. Never turn your computer off without shutting down first. Enter the password at the prompt and press [Enter]. Figure 1-13. Now go to Main Menu => Documentation and select the manual you want to read. 1. Getting Started 11 Press [Enter].rpm with the full file name of the manual that you want to install. change to the directory that contains the RPM files and type the following: rpm -ivh rhl-*.Chapter 1.1.2. select the Logout option and click the Yes button.noarch. Logout Confirmation 1.8.rpm Press [Enter]. type exit or [Ctrl]-[D] to log out of the console session. Graphical Logout To log out your graphical desktop session.rpm.

you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: System halted. Getting Started 1. If your computer does not.8 Logging Out. you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: Power down. If your computer does not. 1. select Shutdown and click OK to confirm. . Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux. Virtual Console Shutdown To shutdown your computer at a shell prompt.9. From the graphical desktop logout screen shown in Figure 1-13. log out of your session as described in Section 1.1. Graphical Shutdown If you are in the graphical desktop. type the following command: halt Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux.2.12 Chapter 1.9.

You can drag and drop files and application icons to areas that are easily accessible. and shortcuts to removable devices such as CD-ROM and diskettes when they have been mounted. This chapter covers the fundamentals of the desktop and how you can configure it for your needs. Both new and experienced users will be able to take full advantage of their Red Hat Linux systems using the graphical desktop. desktop icons.1. Figure 2-1. The icons elsewhere on the desktop can be shortcuts to file folders. Using the Desktop Your first view of the graphical desktop will look something like Figure 2-1. and small applications called applets that let you control sound volume. and menus. You can add new . switch workspaces. The panel contains application launcher icons. To open a folder or launch an application. They can also be found on the desktop and then clicking the Applications The desktop works in the manner you might expect it to when working with other operating systems. The Graphical Desktop The graphical desktop gives you access to the applications and system settings on your computer. double-click on its icon. and displays the status of your system. 2. The menu systems can be found by clicking on the Main Menu button by double-clicking on the Start Here icon icon. files. The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel. . Using the Graphical Desktop Red Hat Linux includes a powerful graphical desktop environment where you can easily access your applications. You will notice that it offers three main tools to make use of the applications on your system: panel icons. application launchers.Chapter 2. and system resources. a notification area for notification icons.

you can also access additional applications within each sub-menu. The panel also holds the Main Menu. The notification area holds alert icons such as the one for Red Hat Network so that you can be quickly alerted to critical messages. From the Main Menu. which contains shortcuts for all of your applications. panel. These applets are fairly important and are covered in the following list. Workspace Switcher . Workspace Switcher The graphical desktop gives you the ability to use multiple workspaces so you do not have to have all of your running applications crowding one viewable desktop area. The Panel 2. run applications from a command line. in addition to the recommended applications. 2. find files. Notice that. Using the Graphical Desktop icons for files and applications to the desktop. Figure 2-2.2.2.1. Applets let you monitor various aspects of your system. Click on one of the squares with your mouse to move to that desktop.14 Chapter 2. The Workspace Switcher represents each workspace (or desktop) in small squares and show the applications running on them. and file manager. or [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[left-arrow] to switch between desktops. you can start most applications included in Red Hat Linux. Using the Panel The desktop panel is the bar that stretches across the bottom of the screen and holds icons and small applications which makes using your system easier. you can also log out. You can change the appearance of most of the tools and applications and change system settings with provided configuration tools. Using the Main Menu You can click on the Main Menu button access the applications on your system. Figure 2-3. 2. These sub-menus give you access to a full range of applications on your system. to expand it into a large set of menus that allow you to From here. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[down-arrow]. Applets embedded on the panel allow you to run specific tasks or monitor your system or services while remaining out of your way. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[right-arrow].2. Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel. There are a few applets that run on your panel by default. You can also use the keyboard shortcut [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[up-arrow].2. Some applets perform useful tasks while others are designed to be entertaining. and lock your screen (which runs a password protected screen saver).

Figure 2-7. Figure 2-4. The applet shows you different images that indicate whether your system is up to date or needs upgrades. Using the Graphical Desktop Taskbar 15 Next to the Workspace Switcher is the Taskbar. a list of available updates will be displayed. you can bring it back by clicking on its title in the Taskbar. This is very helpful if you decide to minimize an application as it will seem to disappear from the desktop. and cancel jobs by right-clicking on the job and selecting Cancel. it will launch the registration component. The Printer Notification Icon . If you are not registered with Red Hat Network. Click on the icon to view running print jobs. the Red Hat Network Notification Tool provides you with an easy way to make sure your system is up-to-date with current errata and bug fixes from Red Hat. To update your system.Chapter 2. click the button to launch the Red Hat Update Agent. The Taskbar 2. Authentication Icon Printer Notification Icon The Printer Notification Icon allows you to manage your print jobs.3. It disappears when the authentication times out. If you click on the icon. Once it disappears. Red Hat Network Notification Tool The Authentication Icon The key icon that is sometimes displayed in the Notification Area is a security notification that displays whenever you have gained root authentication for your system (such as running a graphical system configuration tool). Figure 2-5.2. Right-click on the applet icon for a list of options from which to choose. Figure 2-6. Using the Notification Area Red Hat Network Notification Tool Part of the Notification Area. The Taskbar is an applet which shows you the titles of running applications on any one virtual desktop.

3. Using Nautilus The graphical desktop includes a file manager called Nautilus that gives you a graphical display of your system and personal files. In essence. configure your Red Hat Linux system. and more all from one integrated interface. The Weather Report Applet on the Panel To add a launcher icon to the panel. and even choose an icon for the application. To add the it back to your panel. however. browse your photo collection. 2. 2. the Weather Report applet has been added to show the current local weather and temperature. Configuring the Desktop Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually... You can set the size of the panel.16 Chapter 2. This will launch a dialog box that allows you to enter the name of the application. access your network resources. . Using the Graphical Desktop Warning If you cannot see any of the notification icons. If you choose to autohide the panel.4.2. Click OK and the new launcher icon will appear on the panel. right-click in an unused area of the panel and select Properties.5. then the notification area was removed from the desktop panel. To add an applet to the panel. right-click on the panel and choose Add to Panel => Utility => Notification Area. Nautilus is designed to be much more than a visual listing of files. it will appear on your panel. select Add to Panel. In Figure 2-8. its position on the desktop. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To make the panel fit your needs. When you select an applet. 2. it will not appear on the desktop until you move your mouse pointer over the panel area (called hovering). and choose from the various types of applets.2. and change the way it behaves. Nautilus becomes a shell for your entire desktop experience. the location and name of the command that starts the application (such as /usr/bin/foo). Tip Another quick and easy way to add a launcher to the panel is to right-click on an unused area of the panel and choose Add to Panel => Launcher from menu. Figure 2-8. This will automatically add a launcher icon based on the properties of the item in the Main Menu. Then select an application that appears in the menu. To alter the default panel settings. right-click in an unused area on the panel. and whether you want the panel to be automatically hidden (Autohide) when not in use. you may want to add more applets and launcher icons. place it on any edge of your desktop.. It allows you to configure your desktop. change its size and color. right-click in an unused area on the panel and select Add to Panel => Launcher.

The browser window contains folders and files which you can drag with your mouse to move and copy into new locations. the Start Here window provides a central location for using and customizing your system.Chapter 2. press the [Ctrl] key while dragging and dropping the file. then select Never in the drop down for Show Thumbnails. server configuration tools. By default. Using the Graphical Desktop 17 Working in Nautilus is efficient and provides an alternative to searching through the various submenus connected to the Main Menu or using a shell prompt to navigate the file system. desktop preferences. 2. select Edit => Preferences. click the Home button. Disabling this (and other) previewing feature increases the speed of Nautilus. To copy the file to another directory. For text files. From your favorite applications to system and configuration tools. you see a scaled-down (or thumbnail) version of the image. The following sections explain how to use the Nautilus to enhance your desktop experience.4. and system settings. dragging a file from one directory to another moves the file. You can open another Nautilus window by selecting File => New Window. To turn off this feature. You can access the Start Here screen at any time by double-clicking on the desktop icon labeled Start Here. this means you see a portion of the actual text in the icon. The Start Here screen includes icons that allow you to access your favorite applications. Start Here Figure 2-9. The Start Here Window Start Here was designed to hold all of the tools and applications you need to access when using your system. image files in your home directory will be seen as thumbnails. To return to your home directory. you can navigate through your home directory or the rest of the file system. Once you have another Nautilus window. To start Nautilus as a file manager. . Main Menu items. By default. you can drag and drop files to different directories. double-click on your home directory icon: Once Nautilus appears. For images. Select the Preview tab.

The following lists some of the options and tools in each area. 2. 2. you can configure it. Using the Graphical Desktop Tip You can add your favorite locations to the Bookmarks. which presents you with a wide selection of configuration options.18 Chapter 2.1 Changing your Desktop Background. For example. Navigate to the location you want to bookmark.1. For example. You can choose from several background images included with Red Hat Linux in the /usr/share/backgrounds/ directory. right-click on the desktop and choose Change Desktop Background from the menu. to play a sound when you log in to your desktop. Sound In this section you can configure the system sounds associated with various functions. To start the Background Preferences tool. you can select the Preferences icon to configure your desktop.4. Customizing the Desktop From the Start Here screen. you can configure a shortcut to move from your current Workspace to Workspace 2 by pressing [Ctrl]-[F2]. and then select Bookmarks => Add Bookmark. and finally select Background. Figure 2-10.1. To learn more about configuring your desktop background.4. Changing your Desktop Background One way to dramatically alter the appearance of your graphical desktop is to change the background using the Background Preferences tool. select Preferences. You can also double-click the Start Here icon. Background You can configure your background with new colors or a new image.4.1. The Background Preferences Tool . refer to Section 2. Keyboard Shortcuts You can configure shortcuts — pressing a combination of keystrokes on the keyboard — to perform actions within an application or on your desktop. or you can use your own image.1.

The Desktop with a New Background If you want to create a background with your own custom colors and no images. which is useful if you use a small image or if you use a tile (or pattern) image from /usr/share/backgrounds/tiles/ or from your own image collection.4. Figure 2-11. . Customizing your System The Start Here screen in Nautilus contains additional configuration tools that help you with your new Red Hat Linux system and the server applications included. The following lists some of the tools included in System Settings and what you can do with them. Date & Time This tool allows you to set the date and time of your machine. There are several additional options for displaying your background image. You can also drag an image into the window from your own image directory. The System Settings icon includes tools that help you set up your system for personal everyday use. choose the No Picture option and adjust your colors using the Background Style options.Chapter 2. leaving the default background colors to fill in any remaining desktop space. You will be able to set your time zone information as well. To fill the desktop with an image without tiling it. 2. The Wallpaper option displays multiple instances of your image across the desktop. Refer to Chapter 3 Configuring the Date and Time for details on using this tool. Click Close to save and exit the Background Preferences tool. Choose your own Top Color and Bottom Color and the color gradient (or the blending of colors). Figure 2-11 shows a background image of flowers and plants that is stretched to fill the entire desktop.2. Using the Graphical Desktop 19 The Background Preferences tool allows you to load a new background from a directory of provided images (/usr/share/backgrounds/images/). The Centered option places your image in the center of the desktop. use the Scaled or Stretched options.

depending on which install type you specified during installation.6 Creating a User Account for details. Figure 2-12. Refer to Section 10. 2. You may also find server configuration tools in the Start Here area.20 Soundcard Detection Chapter 2. Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details. . You must have those server applications installed before these tools appear in this section. select the Log Out menu item from the Main Menu. The Desktop Log Out Confirmation To quit the graphical desktop. Refer to Section 1. Using the Graphical Desktop The Sound Card Configuration Tool tool probes your machine for available sound devices. Users & Groups The User Manager tool allows you to add and remove users from your system. you are presented with the choice of logging out of GNOME (leaving the system running). Logging Out When you have finished working and want to quit GNOME. or halting the system completely. The printer may be connected to your machine or available on a network. A few examples of the tools found in this area are the HTTP Configuration Tool and the Bind Configuration Tool. restarting the machine. This will bring up a dialog which presents you with the options listed above.3 Troubleshooting Your Sound Card for more details on configuring your sound hardware. Printing The Printer Configuration Tool allows you to add a new printer to your system.5. These tools help you configure services and applications you are using on the local machine to serve other machines. The server configuration tools are found by clicking on the System Settings icon and then the Server Settings icon. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details.

3. the NTP daemon settings. Configuring the Date and Time The Time and Date Properties Tool allows the user to change the system date and time. You can choose one of the predefined servers or type a server name in the pulldown menu. The application allows you to configure a NTP daemon to synchronize your system clock with a remote server. To change the time. to configure the time zone used by the system. Figure 3-1. You must be running the X Window System and have root privileges. and click on the day of the week to change the day of the week. and the time zone settings and then exit the program. click the Enable Network Time Protocol button. . After you click OK. Time and Date Properties As shown in Figure 3-1. in an XTerm or a GNOME terminal). Minute. To start the application from the desktop go to the Main Menu Button => System Settings => Date & Time or type the command redhat-config-date at a shell prompt (for example. This will enable the Server pulldown menu. Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. Your system will not start synchronizing with the NTP server until you click OK. use the arrows to the left and right of the month to change the month. the configuration will be saved and the NTP daemon will be started (or restarted if it is already running). Time and Date Properties To change the date.1. The Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon synchronizes the system clock with a remote time server or time source (such as a satellite). Use the arrows to the left and right of the year to change the year. and Second in the Time section. To enable this feature. Clicking the OK button will apply any changes that you have made to the date and time. the first tabbed window that appears is for configuring the system date and time and the NTP daemon (ntpd). use the up and down arrow buttons beside the Hour. Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. and to setup the Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon to synchronize the system clock with a time server.Chapter 3.

Time Zone Configuration To configure the system time zone. also known as Greenwich mean time (GMT).22 Chapter 3. A red X will appear and the time zone selection will change in the list below the map. Configuring the Date and Time 3. To use the map. Other time zones are determined by adding or subtracting from the UTC time. . Figure 3-2. select the System clock uses UTC option. Click OK to apply the changes and exit the program.2. Timezone Properties If your system clock is set to use UTC. click the Time Zone tab. click on the city that represents the desired time zone. The time zone can be changed by either using the interactive map or by choosing the desired time zone from the list below the map. UTC stands for the universal time zone.

Diskettes and CD-ROMs Using diskettes and CD-ROMs with Red Hat Linux requires some understanding about removable media. save. how to format diskettes. close any applications that may be using files on the diskette or exploring the diskette’s contents (such as Nautilus or Konqueror). insert it into the diskette drive and type mount /mnt/floppy/ at a shell prompt. 4. and at a shell prompt type the following command : umount /mnt/floppy/ . diskettes are a great solution to transfer files from one computer to the other. Alternatively. and how to read and copy data from a CD-ROM. This chapter discusses how to read and write files to and from diskettes. For example.1. You can even explore the diskette’s contents in Nautilus (as shown in Figure 4-1) or Konqueror. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette A diskette must first be mounted before it can be used. 4. you can also mount a diskette by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing Disks => Floppy. The diskette drive activity light should blink as the diskette’s file system is mounted to the /mnt/floppy directory. To mount a diskette.Chapter 4. To do this. Using Diskettes Diskettes are one of the oldest removable media solutions available for the personal computer (PC).1. Figure 4-1.1. You can open. and copy files to/from it as you would normally do to your hard drive. Viewing files on a Diskette with Nautilus When you are done using the diskette. You can access the contents of the diskette by changing into that directory with the cd /mnt/floppy/ command. Diskettes are ideal as a portable storage solution for small files that need to be physically moved around. Now that the diskette has been mounted it is available to be copied from or written to. if two PCs are not on the same network. This chapter also covers using CD-writable and CD-rewritable drives. This mounts the diskette and adds a desktop icon which you can double-click to explore the diskette contents. you should unmount it before ejecting it from the drive.

3.44MB diskette). You can also elect to quick format the diskette if it was previously formatted as ext2.1 Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette. Copy files using the following command (substituting filename with the name of the file you wish to copy): cp filename /mnt/floppy You can then unmount the diskette and eject it from the drive. Warning Formatting a diskette will erase all of its contents.3. The default settings are sufficient for most users and needs. you need to format the diskette using the ext2 file system.24 Chapter 4. however. you can format your diskette with an MS-DOS file system type if necessary.3.1. Formatting a Diskette To use a diskette specifically with Red Hat Linux. ext2 is one of the file systems supported by Red Hat Linux. you can unmount the diskette by right-clicking on the Unmount Volume from the menu. choose Main Menu => System Tools => Floppy Formatter. and is the default method used for formatting diskettes. Then mount it in Linux as described in Section 4.1.1.5" 1. .1.1 Using gfloppy). This can be done with the Windows OS or with gfloppy (see Section 4. 4. You can now safely eject the diskette from the drive. you can manipulate its contents in the same ways that you manipulate directories and files on your hard drive. The new file on the diskette should now be accessible from your Windows machine. Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette. 4. Be sure to backup any files that you need before performing any of the following operations on your diskettes. You can also choose the density of your diskette (if you are not using the usual high density 3. the gfloppy interface is small and has few options. Using gfloppy To start gfloppy. Diskettes and CD-ROMs icon and choosing If you are using GNOME. As shown in Figure 4-2.1. 4. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette To copy files from a Linux machine to an MS-DOS formatted diskette so that a Windows machine can read it you should format your diskette with an MS-DOS (FAT) file system. From a shell prompt.2.1. type /usr/bin/gfloppy.

gfloppy Status Box 4. and so on. your second /dev/fd1. it is ready to be used with your Red Hat Linux system. gfloppy Insert a diskette and change the settings in gfloppy to suit your needs. Using mke2fs The mke2fs command is used to create a Linux ext2 file system on a device such as a hard drive partition or (in this case) a diskette.2. your primary diskette drive is /dev/fd0.3. If your computer has more than one diskette drive.1. Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette. The mke2fs utility has a number of options. Once complete. Figure 4-3. mke2fs essentially formats the device and creates an empty. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 25 Figure 4-2. showing you the status of formatting and verification (see Figure 4-3). /dev/fd0 refers to the first diskette drive. The status box will appear on top of the main window. The other options are covered in the mke2fs man page. The -c option makes the mke2fs command check the device for bad blocks before creating the file system. Insert your diskette into the drive and issue the following command at a shell prompt: /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 On Linux systems. .Chapter 4. you can eject the diskette and close gfloppy. Linux-compatible device which can then be used for storing files and data. then click Format.

Insert a CD into your CD-ROM drive.2. Most of the software that can be purchased from retail outlets come in the form of CD-ROMs. Right-click on the icon to view all of the available choices. Contents of a CD-ROM in Nautilus A CD desktop icon also appears.3. Figure 4-4 shows the contents of a CD-ROM within the Nautilus file manager.26 Chapter 4. choose Eject from the menu. CD-Rs and CD-RWs CD-writable (CD-R) drives have grown in popularity as an inexpensive way to backup and archive several megabytes of data. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt You can also manually mount and unmount your CD-ROMs from a shell prompt.1. open a shell prompt.2. After working with your CD. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 4. CD-ROMs The CD-ROM format is a popular medium to deliver typically large software applications as well as multimedia games and presentations. and even multimedia (audio/video and . you must unmount it before you can eject it from your CD-ROM drive. 4. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager By default.2. including applications. and type the following command: mount /mnt/cdrom The CD-ROM should now be mounted and available for use with your file manager. For example. to unmount and eject the CD-ROM. Close any applications or file managers that are using the CD-ROM and type the following command at a shell prompt: umount /mnt/cdrom You can now safely press the eject button on your CD-ROM drive to retrieve your CD. CDs are automatically mounted and the file manager is displayed allowing you to explore the contents of the CD. 4. Figure 4-4. You can access your CD-ROM by clicking the home icon on the desktop and typing /mnt/cdrom in the location bar. This section shows you how to use CD-ROMs on your Red Hat Linux system. 4.2. personal files. which you can use to unmount and eject your CD-ROM after use.

To select multiple files.1. Figure 4-6. and drag the files and folders to the CD Creator window. name the CD. You can also type burn: in the Location bar to start CD Creator.3. press and hold the left mouse button. To access the CD Creator feature in Nautilus. press and hold the [Ctrl] key. When you are ready to write the files to your CD-R(W). Using CD Creator If you want to perform a quick file or directory backup to a CD-R or CD-RW. CD Creator allows you to drag and drop files from a Nautilus window to the CD Creator interface. and click on the files and folders. there is a tool included in the Nautilus file manager called CD Creator. 4. The CD Creator Interface in Nautilus Open a new Nautilus window and select the files or directories you want to write to CD-R(W). You can also double click your home directory icon from the desktop and choose Go => CD Creator from the window menus. which displays a dialog box where you can select the writing speed.Chapter 4. The CD Creator Write Dialog Box . click the Write to CD button in the CD Creator window. Then release the [Ctrl] key. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 27 still image) presentations. Red Hat Linux includes several tools for using CD-Rs and CD-rewritable (CD-RW) drives. insert a blank CD-R(W) into your drive and the CD Creator window will automatically display. Figure 4-5. and choose other options.

Diskettes and CD-ROMs Click the Write files to CD button to start burning. . To start it at a shell prompt. Figure 4-8.3. type /usr/bin/xcdroast. A status window displays the writing progress. as shown in Figure 4-7.28 Chapter 4. To start X-CD-Roast choose Main Menu => System Tools => CD Writer.iso or . Since it is generally recommended to periodically backup personal files. All CD image (. such as CD Writer Speed and CD Writer FIFO-Buffer Size.2. Using X-CD-Roast X-CD-Roast is a graphical application for duplicating and creating (also known as mastering) CDROMs. You can configure the path where you wish to store CD images in the HD Settings tab under Path. You must specify a path on your hard drive’s file system that has at least 700 Megabytes (MB) of free space available. CD-ROM drive. Figure 4-8 illustrates the Setup screen and its configuration options. X-CD-Roast first scans your device busses and find your CDR(W) drive. 4. the CD-R(W) should automatically eject from your drive when it is finished. X-CD-Roast Setup Screen Check your CD-R(W) manufacturer documentation to set some of the CD Settings options. and more. Figure 4-7.img) files need to be stored in a central location accessible to X-CD-Roast. The CD Creator Write Status Window By default. X-CD-Roast automates the process of burning CD-Rs and CD-RWs and is highly configurable to many CD mastering or duplicating needs. the CD Creator can help you do so quickly. It then allows you to configure settings for CD-writer. Note that your CD-R(W) drive brand may be different from the drive shown.

4. Click the Write CD button to start the burning process. Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CD-ROMs To duplicate an existing CD-ROM for backup purposes. so no further configuration is necessary. the defaults are set correctly to create data CD-ROMs. as several of the options have long. Figure 4-9 shows the Write CD dialog box. There are other options within the Master Tracks dialog that allows you to configure advanced settings. . as well as whether you wish to copy the CD-ROM on-the-fly or create an image file first before burning (which is recommended to prevent write or read errors from occurring during the duplication process). you can delete unwanted tracks with Delete Tracks.2. descriptive pop-up tips that informs you of the associated function in detail. You can set the speed at which you read a CD-ROM as well as find out some information about the CD-ROM track such as its type and size. You can access these tooltips by leaving your mouse pointer on a button or drop-down menu for at least two seconds.2. Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CDs 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 29 X-CD-Roast is well-documented within the interface itself.1. however.Chapter 4. to burn your tracks onto CD-R(W) media.3. If you are copying tracks from an audio CD. You can read all of the tracks on a CD — all CD-ROM information. you can preview each track with Play Audio-Tracks. Figure 4-9.3. Figure 4-10 shows a session that is preparing the entire /home directory for backup. Using X-CD-Roast to Create a CD It is always recommended to backup personal data and information often in case of hardware failure or file system corruption. Since X-CD-Roast reads all tracks of a CD-ROM by default. X-CD-Roast allows you to backup files on your hard drive partition using Create CD. is stored on tracks — by clicking Read CD. where you can configure the speed at which you read and write the tracks to CD-R(W). including data and audio.2. Finally. This facility allows you to add files and directories into a CD session using Master Tracks. click the Duplicate CD button in the main panel. choose Write CD.

30 Chapter 4. move the ISO file to the path specified during setup. Red Hat Linux is freely available as ISO images that you can download and write to the CD-R(W). To write an ISO image file to a CD-R(W) with X-CD-Roast. These utilities have several advanced options that are beyond the scope of . This saves a few steps but can sometimes cause read-write errors. then click Create CD. and click the Write Tracks tab to return to the main writing dialog. There are other file types that can be burned as images. It is recommended that you use the multi-step method instead of the on-the-fly methods. Tip You can also create and write the image to the CD-R(W) in one step by clicking Master and write onthe-fly in the Create session image tab. highlight the ISO image file you wish to burn and click Add. click Write Tracks from the panel on the left. 4. After you have added all files and directories you want to write to the CD-R(W). There are also other ISO image files available on FTP and websites. In the Layout Tracks tab. Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast Large files that end in . The image displays in the Tracks to write box on the left side. Using X-CD-Roast to Back-up Hard Drive Files Highlight the files and directories that you wish to add to the session and click Add. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Figure 4-10.img and . In the Layout tracks tab.2. For example.3. then Accept track layout. such as . Click Accept track layout. click the Create session/image tab to create the . This automatically loads the Write Tracks tab.3.raw. then click Master to image file to create the image.3. and click Add. highlight the image file you created in the box on the right. You must first click Calculate size.3. Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools If you want to use a shell prompt to write images to CD-R or CD-RWs. there are two utilities available: mkisofs and cdrecord.iso are known as ISO9660 (or ISO) image files. where you can click Write Tracks to burn the image to the CD-R(W).img file. Click Write tracks to write the image to the CDR(W). To write your tracks to the CD-R(W). but ISO images are the most common CD image format. 4.

Sets a Volume ID — a name that is assigned to it if the image is burned.2. . Generates Joliet naming records... For more information on using mkisofs. which is useful for viewing the status of the image as it is being made. Using mkisofs The mkisofs utility creates ISO9660 image files that can be written to a CD-R(W).3. mkisofs Options 4. but exclude the subdirectory /home/joeuser/junk/ because it contains unnecessary files. -x /home/joe/trash -x /home/joe/delete . however..3. To use cdrecord. For more information about using cdrecord.3.iso -x /home/joeuser/junk/ -J -R -A -V -v /home/joeuser/ The image is created in the same directory that you ran the command. -V -v -x Table 4-1. You want to create an ISO image called backup.2 Using cdrecord . Excludes any directory immediately following this option. Generates Rock Ridge (RR) naming records to preserve filename length and casing.3. including speed. for basic image creation and writing. especially for UNIX/Linux environments. Sets verbose execution. this option can be repeated (for example.iso and write it to CD-R(W) so that you can use it on your Red Hat Linux PC at work and your Windows laptop for trips. 4.2. Suppose you wish to backup a directory called /home/joeuser/. refer to the additional resources in Section 4. Table 4-1 explains each command line option. the command line based CD recording utility.3 Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast. and data settings.. and mixed-mode (a combination of audio. video. refer to Section 4.4 Additional Resources. You can now use the ISO image file with either X-CD-Roast as described in Section 4. and the disc is mounted in Solaris and Windows environments. Sets an Application ID — a text string that will be written into the volume header of the image which can be useful to determine what applications are on the CD. and/or data) CD-ROMs using options to configure several aspects of the write process. device. It is most useful for archival and file backup purposes. Using cdrecord The cdrecord utility writes audio. The images created by mkisofs can include all types of files. you must first establish the device address of your CD-R(W) device by running the following command as root at a shell prompt: .3. useful if the CD is used in Windows environments. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 31 this guide.).Chapter 4.3. This can be done with mkisofs by running the following command: mkisofs -o backup.1. or using cdrecord.3. these tools save some time over the graphical alternatives such as X-CD-Roast. Option -o -J -R -A Function Specifies an output file name of the ISO image. data.

Offers all options and commands in detail.0c’ Removable CD-ROM 0. You can use cdrecord to blank CD-RW discs for reuse by typing the following: cdrecord --dev=0.0 3) ’HP ’ ’CD-Writer+ 9200 ’ ’1. including some warnings about creating certain types of ISO images.0 1) * 0.7.1.32 Chapter 4.4.6.3. and sets write output (verbose [-v]).0 2) * 0.0.0 backup. Refer to the following resources for more information about the applications in this chapter 4.0 4) * 0. which is useful for tracking the status of the write process.0 0) * 0.3.iso The command sets the write speed (4). Diskettes and CD-ROMs cdrecord -scanbus This command shows all CD-R(W) devices on your computer. the device address (0.0 7) * To write the backup file image created with mkisofs in the previous section.version (where version is the version of cdrecord installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information. It is important to remember the device address of the device used to write your CD. The following is an example output from running cdrecord -scanbus.0 5) * 0.0 --blank=fast 4. Additional Resources This chapter briefly covers several applications.version (where version is the version of mkisofs installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/mkisofs. The -eject argument ejects the CDROM after the write process is complete.1’ scsibus0: 0. audio and mixed-mode CD-ROMs. Cdrecord 1.5. such as Red Hat Linux ISO images.4. The same command can also be used for burning ISO image files downloaded from the Internet. Offers all options and commands in detail.4. including some example commands for creating common ISO image files.0 6) * 0. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/cdrecord. switch to the root user and type the following at a shell prompt: cdrecord -v -eject speed=4 dev=0. including some example commands for common CD-R(W) burning tasks.0).3.1.8 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Jorg Schilling Using libscg version ’schily-0.2.     . • mkisofs man page — Comprehensive detail of the utility. Installed Documentation • cdrecord man page — Discusses how to burn data.3.

Chapter 4.org/dvdrtools/ — The official website of the dvdrtools project. Useful Websites • • • http://www.version / (where version § ¦ ¥ ¥ • /usr/share/doc/xcdroast. which includes the dvdrecord utility for writing DVD-R(+W) discs. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 33 dvdrecord installed on your system) — For users who have DVD-R(+W) devices. this set of documentation helps you get started mastering DVD-ROMs for data backup and multimedia presentation. http://freshmeat.version (where version is the version of X-CD-Roast installed on your system) — Contains useful command-line options and usage information for this graphical CD-R(W) mastering application.net/projects/cdrecord/ — The cdrecord project page on Freshmeat is regularly updated with the newest releases.4. http://www.xcdroast. news. § ¦ • /usr/share/doc/dvdrecord. 4. ¤ ¤ is the version of . and user commentary.2.fsf.org/ — The Official website of the X-CD-Roast project.freesoftware.

Diskettes and CD-ROMs .34 Chapter 4.

To use Internet Configuration Wizard. More information about the Network Administration Tool can be found in the chapter entitled Network Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.2. To start the application. A gateway address. DNS servers act as a road map for the Internet. each computer connected to the Internet must have an IP address. There are many types of Internet connections. in order to use the Internet. DNS tracks IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. type the command internet-druid In both cases you will have to enter your root password to continue. check with your ISP for any specific instructions that they provide. you must be running the X Window System and have root privileges. Getting Online Exploring the Internet has become a popular activity. People use the Internet for everything from information to finances to getting medical prescriptions on the Web. you must have a connection to it.2xx. Your own ISP may have specific connection requirements for their service which differ from the instructions in this chapter. including: • • • • • ISDN Connection Modem Connection Wireless Connection xDSL Connection Ethernet Connections Red Hat Linux includes the Internet Configuration Wizard. which can be used to create an Internet connection. DNS entries: DNS means Domain Name System. However.2x. Your login name and password for your account if you are using an xDSL or modem connection. You may receive one or more DNS entries from your Internet provider when you sign up. Some ISPs may require you to configure a master address (called the gateway) that authenticates your computer and allows it to connect to the Internet. You can then configure the connection that you created at any time using the Network Administration Tool.Chapter 5. use one of the following methods: • • In the graphical desktop environment. When you use the Internet. Before connecting. . At a shell prompt. which is a unique set of numbers like 2xx. go to the Main Menu => System Tools => Internet Configuration Wizard. including the following information: • • • • The phone number that your modem must dial to connect to your ISP if you are using a modem. the DNS tells your machine where to send its traffic.

select Ethernet Connection. start Internet Configuration Wizard. Some DSL providers require you to configure a PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) connection with an Ethernet card. Digital data is modulated into analog signals and sent over phone lines. start Internet Configuration Wizard.36 Chapter 5. Most cable Internet providers require you to install an Ethernet card in your computer that connects to the cable modem. and follow the steps in the wizard. the cable modem connects to the coaxial cable. IDSL. and follow the steps in the wizard. Then. To configure this type of connection. select ISDN Connection. . If you must supply a username and password to connect. Cable Modem Connection A cable modem connection uses the same coaxial cable that your TV cable travels on to transmit data. To configure this type of connection. To configure this type of connection. xDSL Connection An xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) connection uses high-speed transmissions through telephone lines. This special phone line must be installed by a phone company. To configure this type of connection. select Modem Connection. and follow the steps in the wizard. select Ethernet Connection. start Internet Configuration Wizard. high-quality digital telecommunication lines as opposed to an analog modem connection. start the Internet Configuration Wizard. Some DSL providers require you to configure your system to obtain an IP address through DHCP with an Ethernet card. Getting Online Figure 5-1. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. Modem Connection A modem connection uses a modem to establish a connection to the Internet. you are probably using PPPoE. Ask your DSL provider which method you should use. and SDSL. To configure this type of connection. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. Internet Configuration Wizard ISDN Connection An ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) connection uses high-speed. select xDSL Connection. start Internet Configuration Wizard. The Ethernet card is usually required to be configured for DHCP. There are different types of DSL such as ADSL. Internet Configuration Wizard uses the term xDSL to mean all types of DSL connections.

Chapter 5. Getting Online Wireless Connection

37

If you are connecting your Red Hat Linux computer to a wireless access point (WAP) or peerto-peer (also called ad-hoc) network with a wireless (802.11x) network card, then you will need to configure your wireless device. Choose the Wireless Connection, then select the device from the list provided. You can then configure the device for DHCP or fixed IP addresses In the pop-up device configuration window. The Internet Configuration Wizard is a utility that guides you step-by-step through the process of establishing your Internet connection. Once your connection is up and running, you can then configure it to suit your needs or particular connection. For more detailed instructions, refer to the Network Configuration chapter in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.

38

Chapter 5. Getting Online

Chapter 6. Web Browsing
Once you have configured your Internet connection (see Chapter 5 Getting Online), you are ready to get online. Red Hat Linux comes with several Web browsers, graphical applications that use your Internet connection to access the World Wide Web: news, research, shopping, banking, and more. This chapter briefly explains how to surf the Web using Mozilla and Galeon. For information about using the Konqueror Web browser, refer to Section A.6 Browsing the Web with Konqueror.

6.1. Mozilla
Part of the mozilla.org organization’s wide range of Open Source Internet application developments, Mozilla is a powerful, integrated, and standards-compliant Web browser, email client, news reader, and more. The Web browsing component displays Web content such as webpages and images. Mozilla also uses plug-ins for interactive multimedia such as streaming video and Web animation. This section shows you how to use the Mozilla Web browser to explore the Internet. To start Mozilla click the Mozilla Web Browser launcher on the panel or choose Main Menu => Internet => Mozilla Web Browser.

Figure 6-1. Mozilla Main Browser Window

6.1.1. Using Mozilla
Mozilla functions like any Web browser that you may have used before. It has the standard navigational toolbars, buttons, and menus.

Type in a keyword or phrase into the address field and click the Search button. and IRC Chat. The Personal Toolbar is useful for keeping and categorizing webpages so that you do not have to type the address every time you want to access the page. To add a site to your Personal Toolbar. The Mozilla Navigational Bar There is also a sidebar on the left that contains additional options. click and hold the left mouse button on the small icon next to the URL in the address field and drag it directly to the Personal Toolbar or into a folder icon. Composer. The Mozilla SideBar At the bottom left corner of the browser window. The search results appears in the main browsing area. bookmarks. Mozilla supports keyword searching via the address field as well. chat. Address Book. and a What’s Related option that displays webpages similar in topic to the page currently displayed in the main browsing area. Figure 6-2. there are the following small icons: Navigator.40 Chapter 6. and other aspects of the Internet besides the Web. which you can customize with your own bookmarks or quickly go back to your homepage. For information on using the Mozilla Mail email client. news. These are separate applications integrated into the Mozilla suite and are useful for experiencing email. Finally. refer to Chapter 7 Email Applications. there is the Personal Toolbar. You can access Personal Toolbar folders by clicking the icon and choosing the website from the drop-down menu. Figure 6-3. . Mail. Web Browsing The navigation bar has an address field with which you can type a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) — the name or address of a website — into the address field at the top of the browser window. such as integrated search functionality.

Web Browsing 41 Mozilla also allows you to browse multiple websites within one browser window using navigational tabs. It is only a Web browser and does not feature email.1. newsgroups. Mozilla Composer You can use Mozilla Composer to create webpages. or click on the Composer icon in the lower left part of the screen: .2. For additional information on using Mozilla. a working installation of Mozilla is required. . click on the Contents tab and expand the Creating Webpages menu by clicking on the arrow next to it. Instead of using two or more separate windows to read multiple webpages. Figure 6-4. You do not need to know HTML to use this tool. Galeon Galeon is a Web browser that is based on Mozilla. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Help Contents. To close a tab. 6.Chapter 6. To open Composer. To use Galeon. This can be useful if you want to browse the Web without the need to email or chat with others. A list of topics will appear and clicking on any of these will provide you with information for creating and editing webpages using Mozilla Composer. right-click on the tab and choose Close Tab from the menu or click the X at the right of the tab bar to close the tab currently displayed. or anything other than Web browsing and searching. Galeon also has some extra features that are not included in Mozilla. you can open a tab by clicking File => New => Navigation Tab or by pressing [Ctrl] and [T] at the same time. Galeon uses Mozilla’s HTML and image renderer and plug-in system to display Web and multimedia content. Mozilla Composer 6. When the help screen opens. This will open the new tab and allow you to switch between tabs by clicking on them. The Mozilla help files provide information on creating webpages with Composer. go to Window => Composer on the Mozilla main menu.2. Go to Help on the main menu and select Help Contents.

respectively. Figure 6-5. . as well as Reload and Stop buttons to refresh a webpage and stop it from loading. you have the option of importing bookmarks and preferences from Mozilla or other Web applications you may have installed on your system. go to Main Menu => Internet => More Internet => Galeon. Once you have finished your configuration of Galeon. You can also configure Galeon’ personal toolbar with bookmarks. Configuring Galeon During the initial configuration. integrated search features. The first time you launch Galeon. Back. Online with Galeon Using Galeon is much like using Mozilla. and even browser navigation shortcuts. and Home buttons. Web Browsing To launch Galeon. There are navigational buttons for moving from one visited webpage to another using the Forward. Figure 6-6. it will take you through the configuration process.42 Chapter 6. the main browser will appear.

To launch a new Tab. which is accessible by choosing Settings => Preferences from the browser’s main menu. Galeon also has a navigational tab feature that can help you avoid having your desktop cluttered with browser windows. Keyboard shortcuts can help you efficiently browse the Web. use the [Ctrl]-[T] key combination or select New Tab from the File menu. and you can switch between them by clicking on the each tab.Chapter 6. Keyboard Shortcuts Description Open a new tab for browsing multiple websites within one browser window Open a new browser window Close all browser windows and exits the application Move the cursor to the browser’s address field Print the current displayed webpage or document Move forward by one link or page Move backward by one link or page Reload the current page Open the browsing history Find a keyword or string within a page . Web Browsing 43 Like Mozilla. 6. Multiple pages can be stored in a single Galeon window. click the X button within the tab. you can choose to view the Galeon FAQ and Galeon manual. To close a tab. or right-click the tab and choose Close Tab from the drop-down menu.3. click Help on the top menu bar. Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts Table 6-1 shows some common keyboard shortcuts available in both Mozilla and Galeon. Shortcut [Ctrl]-[T] [Ctrl]-[N] [Ctrl]-[Q] [Ctrl]-[L] [Ctrl]-[P] [Ctrl]-[right arrow] [Ctrl]-[left arrow] [Ctrl]-[R] [Ctrl]-[H] [Ctrl]-[F] Table 6-1. The tabbed browsing mode can be configured in the Tabs page of the Preferences Window. From there. For additional information or help with Galeon.

44 Chapter 6. Web Browsing .

whereas POP mail is downloaded to your email client directly and does not stay on the server. Unless properly configured.Chapter 7. Server type for sending email (SMTP) The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol for sending email messages between servers. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your email application. This chapter will briefly discuss the following email clients: • • • Evolution Mozilla Mail Text-based email clients Before you launch an email client. short for Internet Message Access Protocol. Since all email clients perform the same basic tasks (send and receive email). Server type for receiving email (POP or IMAP) In order to receive mail. Most ISP email servers use the POP protocol. Red Hat Linux includes several email applications. .net. is a protocol for retrieving email messages from your ISP’s email server. is usually in the form of mail. you should have some information from your Internet Service Provider (ISP) handy so that you can configure the client properly. the messages can then be retrieved with an email client using either POP or IMAP. and text-based clients like mutt. receive. you can choose one with the features that best suits your particular needs. Most email systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate how to use some of the popular email applications included in Red Hat Linux. If you have any questions regarding what information you need. although some can use the newer IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol). IMAP differs from POP in that email from IMAP servers are stored on the server and stays there even as you download and read your mail. you will not be able to make full use of the email clients discussed in this chapter. This POP or IMAP address. Email Applications Email is a very popular way of communicating with others over the Internet. you must know what type of server your network administrator or ISP is using. SMTP is also used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. contact your ISP or network administrator. IMAP. and read email. short for Post Office Protocol. is used to send email from a mail server to your email client’s inbox. You can use email with an email client. All of the email client applications are designed to suit certain types of users. including graphical email clients like Evolution and Mozilla Mail. an application that understands the various email transmission standards and allows you to send. POP.net. The following lists a few important things you may need to know: Your email address The email address you will use to send and receive mail. so. This is usually in the form of yourname@yourisp. choose the one that is most convenient and easy to use. the place where incoming email is stored.someisp.

click on the Inbox icon. To launch Evolution from the desktop panel. It provides all of the standard email client features. Figure 7-1. which allows you to configure your email connection. Figure 7-2. Follow the on-screen instructions and fill in the information you collected from your ISP or administrator in the text boxes provided. Evolution Main Screen To see what is in your inbox or to send an email. Evolution Evolution is more than just an email client. It additionally features a flexible calendar/scheduler which allows users to create and confirm group meetings and special events online. click Finish.1. . and is the default email client for Red Hat Linux.46 Chapter 7. Email Applications 7. go to Main Menu => Internet => Email. and you will be presented with the Main Screen as shown in Figure 7-2. Evolution is a full-featured personal and workgroup information management tool for Linux and UNIX-based systems. Evolution Welcome Screen The first time you start Evolution you will be presented with the Welcome Screen (Figure 7-1). When you are done. including powerful mailbox management. user-defined filters. and quick searches.

select New Message from the toolbar. Email Applications 47 Figure 7-3. Evolution Inbox Screen To compose a mail. this chapter focusses exclusively on its email capabilities. . click Send on the toolbar. Figure 7-4.Chapter 7. Evolution New Email Message Screen Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to. If you would like to learn more about using some of the other features of Evolution. like calendering/scheduling and group messaging. While Evolution does so much more than read and send email. click Help from the main toolbar and choose the component you want to learn more about.

select Main Menu => Extras Internet => Mozilla Mail. To open Mozilla Mail while in Mozilla. Mozilla Mail and News Figure 7-6. Mozilla Mail This section briefly covers the basic steps for sending and receiving email with Mozilla. If you need further information about using Mozilla Mail. To start Mozilla Mail. click on the mail icon near the lower left corner of the Mozilla screen. Mozilla Mail New Email Message Screen .48 Chapter 7. the Mozilla Help contents are located under Help on the main menu. Figure 7-5. Email Applications 7.2.

you can go back to the main mail screen and go to File => Send unsent messages. enter the name of your news server (if you do not know the name of your news server. Select Newsgroup account and then click Next.1. Posting to a newsgroup is just like writing . Right-click on this account name and select Subscribe. To join a newsgroup. A dialog box appears. Email Applications 49 To send an email. click on the mail folder you created for yourself to see a list of messages waiting for you. Select the newsgroup you want to access and a dialog box appears with information about downloading and reading existing messages. and more. You can even post and download pictures and files to Newsgroups (although your ISP may restrict Newsgroups to text-based postings only). If you choose to send later. The newsgroup account you created will appear in the sidebar of the Mozilla mail screen. you can just lurk.2. On the last few screens.Chapter 7. To read email. contact your Internet service provider or network administrator for this information). Now. Then. you can determine the name that this account will be referred to and review your settings. click on OK. You do not have to post messages if you do not want to. The New Account Setup screen will appear. Figure 7-7. There are a great many newsgroups on the Web with topics ranging from politics to computer games to random strange thoughts. click on the message you want to read. On the following screen. 7. Click on your mail account name in the sidebar and select Create a new account from the options that appear on the right of the screen. which is a Newsgroup term for reading without posting messages. listing all the newsgroups available. you first need to set up a newsgroup account. Mozilla and Newsgroups Newsgroups are Internet discussion groups with specific topics. Newsgroup Account Setup Enter your name and email address on the next screen and click Next. Once you read a message. you can delete it. save it to a separate folder. click on the arrow next to the newsgroup account name and the list of groups you are subscribed to will appear beneath. When you are done. The discussions are in threaded format (which means all topics and responses to the topic are sorted and organized for convenient reading) and subscribing to a group is very easy. Select the groups you are interested in reading and click Subscribe. click on the Send button or go to File => Send Now or Send Later.

right-click on the group name and select Unsubscribe. To turn those hints back on. The term plain text refers to textual data in ASCII format. Plain text (also called clear text) is the most portable format because it is supported by nearly every email application on various types of machines. 7. mutt allows the user to control nearly all of the functions that mutt uses to send.3. This initial menu is called the index. except that the newsgroup name appears in the To field rather than an email address. e. If you cannot remember the command you want to use. Most of the options are invoked using the set or unset commands. the layout is very controllable. it takes time to understand the features and what they can do for you.50 Chapter 7. ~/. All configuration options can be changed at any time by typing a [:] followed by the relevant command. This chapter will discuss the mutt plain text email client.3.muttrc or ~/. On the other hand. all this makes for a visually appealing message when it gets to the recipient. . 7. The number of options that mutt has available to it are truly astounding. textures. and pictures or backgrounds can be added. As is true with all powerful software. plain text email is just that — plain text. When you launch mutt. This configuration file must exist in your home directory. Plain text emails are simple. gives mutt its flexibility and configurability. and there are no special fonts.mutt/muttrc. you can save them in a file which is loaded every time the program starts up. the first thing you see is a screen with a list of email messages. Using Mutt Mutt is a small but very powerful text-based mail client for UNIX operating systems. it has to be named either ~/. They is nothing fancy. receive. The advantage of HTML formatted email is that they can contain graphics and interactive links to Web sites. You do not have to type all your preferred configuration commands each time you run mutt. there is always tab-completion to help you. type :set help. there are no pictures embedded in the email. set folder = ~/Mail.muttrc. It is also this file that might give new users problems.g. Plain Text Email Clients Most modern email clients allow the user to select whether they want to send their emails in plain text or in HTML. For example :unset help turns off the handy keyboard command hints at the top of the screen. Mutt’s configuration file. Email Applications an email. To unsubscribe from a newsgroup.1. with either boolean or string values. The particular font can be specified. and read your mail.

Chapter 7. refer to the man pages for muttrc and mutt (type man muttrc or man mutt at the shell prompt). use the [R] key to reply to a message or the [M] key to create a new one. In the index or pager views.x . change the encoding. After editing your email. mutt Main Screen These messages are in a default mail folder. Mutt displays the compose menu. The mutt manual is installed in /usr/share/doc/mutt-1. . where x is the version number of mutt installed on your system. Use the [K] and [J] keys on your keyboard to move the highlighted cursor up and down the list of messages.2. often called the mailspool. To learn more about mutt. that you can think of as your inbox. where you can customize your message headers. Mutt will prompt for the To: address and the Subject: line. A text editor (defined by your $EDITOR environmental variable in the configuration file) will then launch allowing you to compose your message. add file attachments or simply press the [Y] key to send your email on its way. Type your message. Email Applications 51 Figure 7-8. save your file and exit the editor. You may also find the mutt manual to be very helpful.

52 Chapter 7. Email Applications .

Printer Configuration Most computer users either own a printer at home or use one at work.1. Red Hat Linux provides drivers for most printer models. For remote printer setup and more advanced printer configuration issues. Adding a Printer In the window shown in Figure 8-2. which can contain spaces. turn on the printer. Figure 8-1. enter a unique name for the printer in the Name text field.Chapter 8. The printer name cannot contain spaces and must begin with a letter. refer to the chapter called Printer Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. 8. thus the drivers and software on the printer manufacturer’s CD-ROM and diskettes are not needed. click the New button in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to display the window in Figure 8-1. The Printer Configuration Tool Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility for configuring local and remote printers without the need to install additional drivers and applications. Printers have become a very popular PC peripheral due to their increasing quality and decreasing prices. dashes (-). Click Forward to proceed. all you need to do is attach the printer to your Red Hat Linux system. numbers. 8. . enter a short description for the printer. such as one attached through a parallel port or USB port on your computer. The printer name may contain letters. This chapter shows you how to set up and test a printer directly connected to your Red Hat Linux system.2. Adding a Local Printer To add a local printer. and configure it with the useful tools provided by Red Hat Linux. The Printer Configuration Tool uses a step-by-step process that can help you configure a printer faster than editing configuration files manually. and underscores (_). Optionally. With few exceptions. Printer hardware manufacturers distribute CD-ROMs or diskettes with their printers. as most operating systems require these CD-ROMs because they contain printer drivers — software that communicates with both the printer and the operating system.

Figure 8-3. If no devices appear in the list. and select the device. Go to Section 8.3. Figure 8-3 appears. Adding a Local Printer The next step is to select the type of printer. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing After selecting the queue type of the printer. select the model from the list. If it was not auto-detected. the next step is to select the printer model. Select Locally-connected from the Select a queue type menu. Select the name of the printer manufacturer from the pulldown menu.3 Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing to continue. 8. Selecting a Queue Name After clicking Forward. The device is usually /dev/lp0 for a parallel printer or /dev/usb/lp0 for a USB printer. . Select the printer model from the list. You will see a window similar to Figure 8-4.54 Chapter 8. click Rescan devices to rescan the computer or click Custom device to specify it manually. The printers are divided by manufacturers. Printer Configuration Figure 8-2. Click Forward to continue. The printer models are updated each time a different manufacturer is selected.

Tip You can select a different print driver after adding a printer by starting the Printer Configuration Tool. selecting a different print driver. LPD. The print driver processes the data that you want to print into a format the printer can understand. SMB.5 Modifying Existing Printers for details.1. and then applying the changes. Refer to Section 8. Refer to Section 8. To make sure the data is not filtered more than once. 8.Chapter 8. clicking Edit. Click the Apply button in the main window to save your changes and restart the printer daemon. You can also configure options such as paper size if you edit the print queue after adding it. Selecting a Printer Model The recommended print driver is selected based on the printer model selected. or NCP). Printer Configuration 55 Figure 8-4.4 Printing a Test Page for details. If you select an additional print driver on your local computer. print a test page to try out this new configuration. and printing a test page. you must review your driver options and select Prerender Postscript. you need a print driver to process the data that is sent to the printer.3. If you need to print characters beyond the basic ASCII set (including those used for languages such as Japanese). clicking the Driver tab. the remote print server might not have a print driver configured. the data is filtered multiple times and is converted to a format that the printer can not understand. first try selecting Generic as the manufacturer and Raw Print Queue or Postscript Printer as the printer model. print a test page to ensure the configuration is correct. the remote print server usually has its own print driver. . Since a local printer is attached directly to your computer. After applying the changes. Click Apply to add the print queue if the settings are correct. Try selecting a print driver according to the manufacturer and model of the remote printer. If the test fails. Confirming Printer Configuration The last step is to confirm your printer configuration. If you are configuring a remote printer (IPP. selecting the printer from the list. After applying the changes. Click Back to modify the printer configuration. applying the changes.

the settings can be edited by selecting the printer from the printer list and clicking the Edit button.4. you should print a test page to make sure the printer is functioning properly. . Make any necessary changes. To set the default printer. To print a test page. The printer is removed from the printer list. The tabbed window shown in Figure 8-6 is displayed. Printer Configuration 8. The window contains the current values for the selected printer. and click OK. Modifying Existing Printers To delete an existing printer. then select the appropriate test page from the Test pulldown menu. you should print a test page to test the different configuration.56 Chapter 8.5. Printing a Test Page After you have configured your printer. Click Apply in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. If you change the print driver or modify the driver options. select the printer and click the Delete button on the toolbar. Figure 8-5. Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. The default printer icon appears in the Default column of the default printer in the list. Test Page Options 8. select the printer that you want to try out from the printer list. select the printer from the printer list and click the Default button on the toolbar. After adding the printer(s).

If it is changed.3. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon.Chapter 8. • . Printer Driver The Printer driver tab shows which print driver is currently being used. Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. change the value in the Queue name tab. The name of the printer should change in the printer list. 8. 8. 8. After making modifications.2.1.5.5. Common options include: • Send Form-Feed (FF) should be selected if the last page of the print job is not ejected from the printer (for example. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. Refer to the appropriate section on adding a printer for a description of the options. Editing a Printer 8. The queue type of the printer can be changed or just the settings.4. Some printers require both Send Form-Feed (FF) and Send Endof-Transmission (EOT) to eject the last page. Queue Name To rename a printer or change its short description. Printer Configuration 57 Figure 8-6. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system.5. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system.5. Refer to Send Form-Feed (FF) above. different options are displayed. try selecting Send End-ofTransmission (EOT) instead. Driver Options The Driver Options tab displays advanced printer options. Options vary for each print driver. the form feed light flashes). Queue Type The Queue type tab shows the queue type that was selected when adding the printer and its settings. click OK to return to the main window. Click OK to return to the main window. click OK to return to the main window. Send End-of-Transmission (EOT) should be selected if sending a form-feed does not work. Depending on which queue type is chosen. If this does not work.

This option converts it to PostScript level 1. . the print job is added to the print spool queue. Media Source defaults to Printer default. For example. This option is only available if the PostScript driver is used with the CUPS printing system. Convert Text to Postscript is selected by default. Also select this option if the printer can not handle PostScript level 3. accept the default of C. the hostname of the system that sent the request. Extra time is required to perform this action. or Convert to PS level 2 in case the printer can not handle certain PostScript levels. US Legal. A3. the print driver assumes that any data that it can not recognize is text and attempts to print it as text. Printer Configuration Assume Unknown Data is Text should be selected if the print driver does not recognize some of the data sent to it. Effective Filter Locale defaults to C. If the printer does not support the fonts you are trying to print. • • • • To modify the driver options. If Japanese characters are being printed. If this option is selected along with the Convert Text to Postscript option. If you are running a graphical desktop environment. • • • GhostScript pre-filtering — allows you to select No pre-filtering. Prerender Postscript should be selected if characters beyond the basic ASCII set are being sent to the printer but they are not printing correctly (such as Japanese characters). If the printer can print plain text. Only select this option if there are problems printing. and more. such as the status of the request.6. the job number. Otherwise. select ja_JP. Convert to PS level 1. If the CUPS printing system is used. click OK to return to the main window. the username of the person who sent the request. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. such as printing text file from Emacs or printing an image from The GIMP. and A4. this is not an option because text is always converted to PostScript. Managing Print Jobs When you send a print job to the printer daemon. Change this option to use paper from a different tray. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. The print spool queue is a list of print jobs that have been sent to the printer and information about each print request. The options include US Letter. This option prerenders non-standard PostScript fonts so that they are printed correctly. If this option is selected. try unselecting this when printing plain text documents to decrease the time it takes to print. click the Printer Manager icon on the panel to start the GNOME Print Manager as shown in Figure 8-7. Page Size allows the paper size to be selected. the print driver assumes the unknown data is text and then converts it to PostScript. try selecting this option. 8. Do not choose it unless problems printing the correct fonts exist. select this option to print Japanese fonts to a non-Japanese printer.58 Chapter 8.

Chapter 8. a printer notification icon might appears in the Panel Notification Area of the desktop panel as shown in Figure 8-9. Double-click on a configured printer to view the print spool queue as shown in Figure 8-8. To change the printer settings. If there are active print jobs in the print spool. List of Print Jobs To cancel a specific print job listed in the GNOME Print Manager. Figure 8-9. The Printer Configuration Tool is then started. right-click on the icon for the printer and select Properties. . browse to the location of the file and drag and drop it on to the Print Manager icon on the Panel. Because it probes for active print jobs every five seconds. The window shown in Figure 8-10 is displayed. GNOME Print Manager It can also be started by selecting Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => System Tools => Print Manager. Also located on the Panel is a Print Manager icon. To print a file from Nautilus. the icon might not be displayed for short print jobs. select it from the list and select Edit => Cancel Documents from the pulldown menu. Click OK to start printing the file. Figure 8-8. Printer Configuration 59 Figure 8-7. Printer Notification Icon Clicking on the printer notification icon starts the GNOME Print Manager to display a list of current print jobs.

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Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

Figure 8-10. Print Verification Window To view the list of print jobs in the print spool from a shell prompt, type the command lpq. The last few lines will look similar to the following:
Rank Owner/ID active user@localhost+902 Class A Job Files 902 sample.txt Size Time 2050 01:20:46

Example 8-1. Example of lpq output If you want to cancel a print job, find the job number of the request with the command lpq and then use the command lprm job number . For example, lprm 902 would cancel the print job in Example 8-1. You must have proper permissions to cancel a print job. You can not cancel print jobs that were started by other users unless you are logged in as root on the machine to which the printer is attached. You can also print a file directly from a shell prompt. For example, the command lpr sample.txt will print the text file sample.txt. The print filter determines what type of file it is and converts it a format the printer can understand.

8.7. Additional Resources
To learn more about printing on Red Hat Linux, refer to the following resources.

8.7.1. Installed Documentation
• man printcap —

The manual page for the /etc/printcap printer configuration file.

• map lpr — The manual page for the lpr command that allows you to print files from the command

line.

• man lpd

— The manual page for the LPRng printer daemon.

Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

61

• man lprm

— The manual page for the command line utility to remove print jobs from the LPRng spool queue. — The manual page for the command line utility to print multiple pages on one sheet — The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon. The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon configuration file. The manual page for the class configuration file for CUPS.

• man mpage

of paper.

• man cupsd

• man cupsd.conf —

• man classes.conf —

8.7.2. Useful Websites
• •

http://www.linuxprinting.org — GNU/Linux Printing contains a large amount of information about printing in Linux. http://www.cups.org/ — Documentation, FAQs, and newsgroups about CUPS.

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Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

and wizards for creating basic professional documents and presentations quickly. budgets. slide shows . .sdd Document Types Formal letters. The applications that comprise a productivity suite are integrated — which means that you can.sxc.htm/.org Features The OpenOffice. . . or opening a document from an email attachment. .jpg. and presentation utilities. 9. address books. business forms. Application OpenOffice. and at home. and artwork. at school.htm/. school papers. If you have ever worked with or received .xls. write a document with an embedded chart created by the spreadsheet application as well as a slide from a graphical presentation application. forms. and allows you to . simple databases Business and academic presentations. . . including files which are commonly associated with Microsoft Office.bmp. organizational charts . . resumes. Integration of the software that make up a productivity suite helps you to give impact to your presentations. for example.html . writing a formal letter. newsletters. . . which incorporates several complementary applications into one integrated package. .org suite. Web presentations.org.org suite has many file compatibility features.gif. visual form of document formatting is called what you see is what you get (or WYSIWYG) editing.sxd. clip art.html .rtf. spreadsheets.csv. The OpenOffice. . line drawings.1.org Calc OpenOffice. graphs. Usually.sxi. or printed collateral. This real-time. business presentations.ppt. . Whether you are preparing for a business or school presentation.dbf. including .org Features As you can see. Working with Documents Red Hat Linux includes several tools for managing all of your documents. The OpenOffice. tables. you know they are commonly associated with the Microsoft Office suite. .1. It allows you complete control over the layout and content of your documents and lets you see the results as you edit it. Using OpenOffice. Table 9-1 shows the many different types of files you can use and tasks you can accomplish with the OpenOffice.doc. and . the OpenOffice.1. .Chapter 9. OpenOffice.sdc. productivity suites are graphical and include such applications as word processors. Red Hat Linux includes a powerful business productivity suite called OpenOffice.org Suite Productivity suites are collections of applications designed to save time and assist users at work. lectures.org Impress OpenOffice.sdw. spreadsheets.org Draw File Compatibility .xls files.sda.org is much faster and easier than learning complex tags and code to format your documents and presentations. OpenOffice. and create files in several formats.txt. reports Spreadsheets. 9. personnel directories. Red Hat Linux has a tool that suits your needs. lectures. image formats. export files to several Illustrations.org suite contains several applications for creating and editing documents.sxd. .org suite is able to read.png Table 9-1.slk. charts.doc or . . It includes templates.sxw.org Writer OpenOffice. edit.

or right margins). for files that you need to distribute to Microsoft Office users.org Writer is a powerful word processor that features WYSIWYG formatting — what you see in the OpenOffice. a pop-up Tip is displayed with a brief explanation of the button’s functionality.org Writer in action: Figure 9-1. OpenOffice.2. as well as buttons for creating new documents (which will open up a new window with a blank document for you to add content). You can settings. choose Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. However. design. The main interface is the document editing area (the white space in the middle of the window) where you can add and edit text. A word processor is like a text editor but has several additional features that allow you to format.org Writer Writing documents using OpenOffice. You can immediately begin typing text into the document editing area at any time using the default . There are also buttons for opening. OpenOffice.org applications. which opens the pop-up file browser.1. Figure 9-1 shows OpenOffice. 9. there is a toolbar with buttons for checking your spelling. toggling the automatic highlighting of misspelled words. If you hover the mouse cursor over a toolbar button. Working with Documents accomplish several tasks for academic.org Writer from your desktop panel. Along the left side of the window. and other convenient editing functions. or if you are . There is also a text box that enables you to specify the exact location of a document on your machine and load the document into the editing area. The default file type is appropriate for files that you are working on exclusively with OpenOffice. keyword and phrase searching. or home use.org suite. to start it from a shell prompt.org Writer To start OpenOffice. saving.64 Chapter 9. type oowriter.org Writer. OpenOffice. To save your text. You can display more detailed Tips by clicking the Help menu and choosing Extended Tips. At the top of the window are various functions collected into toolbars that let you choose your fonts. and more. click the Save button choose the file format from the File type drop down menu at the bottom of the browser window. center. and print your documents without the need to memorize complex formatting tags or codes. justification (aligning the text of your document to the left. The following sections shows you how to use the OpenOffice.org Writer window is exactly what you get if you printed the document or if you gave the document file to someone else for them to view. letter sizes.org is similar to other word processing applications you may have used before. and printing documents. business.

charts. Adding an Image to Your Document Once you have created your document. illustrations. You can perform calculations on groups of cells (such as adding or subtracting a column of cells) or create charts based on the quantities contained in a group of cells. or mathematical formula. and manipulating data. Working with Documents 65 editing a file that was sent as an email attachment with the .org Calc. While OpenOffice.org Calc from a shell prompt. you can save the file as a Microsoft Word file type that others will be able to open it in Microsoft Word. Figure 9-3 shows OpenOffice. . formats which can be read by almost every computer with a Web browser (such as Mozilla) or PDF viewer application (such as xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader).org Writer is useful for general document editing. you can also add objects such as images. creating business charts.Chapter 9. To start OpenOffice. you can save it in any format that you wish. Note that you can also export your document to HTML or PDF format. You can even incorporate spreadsheet data into your documents for a professional touch. such as a quantity. OpenOffice.org Calc From large enterprises to home offices. select Insert => Graphics => From File. professionals in every industry use spreadsheets for keeping records. Consult Table 9-1 for available file formats. 9. Figure 9-2.doc extension.org Calc is a software spreadsheet application that allows you to enter and manipulate data cells organized in columns and rows. To add an image to the document. and tables to your document to complement your text or give impact to your documents.org Calc from the desktop panel.org Calc in action. and choose the image from the pop-up file browser. The image will appear where you placed your cursor and can be made larger or smaller by clicking on the resizing borders around the image. type oocalc. select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. label.3. OpenOffice. A cell is a container for individual pieces of data.1. To start OpenOffice. Figure 9-2 shows an image added to a document.

In the Chart window. then click Insert => Chart. OpenOffice. and =subtotal()for preparing receipts). you can create a personal budget by entering data descriptions (such as rent. refer to the documentation by selecting Help => Contents.. and utilities) into column A and the quantities of those data descriptions in column B. the data ranges you chose will be shown in the text box for you to customize further if desired. If you need to create charts or graphs for class or business presentations.org Calc has several preset functions and calculations (such as =SUM() for addition/multiplication. The graph will be displayed anchored within the spreadsheet window. Then you can run a formula on column B to come up with a total.org has several chart and graph templates available. OpenOffice. Choose the style you want.org Calc allows you to enter the data either in the cell itself by double clicking the cell and typing your information or by using the Input Line (the text box on the toolbar). For detailed information about creating functions for calculating your numerical data in OpenOffice. You can move it anywhere on the screen for printing.org Writer documents or OpenOffice. Working with Documents Figure 9-3. . and click Create.org Calc OpenOffice.org Calc allows you to enter and manipulate personal or business data.org Calc. groceries. Click Next to display the many different charts and graphs you can create using your data. OpenOffice.org Impress presentations.. Highlight the areas you would like to chart..66 Chapter 9. For example. =quotient() for division. or you can save the graph as an object that you can then embed in OpenOffice. OpenOffice.

Creating Charts with OpenOffice. webpages. type ooimpress.org Calc.org Impress Visual aids can give your presentations an added impact that catches your audience’s attention and keeps them interested.Chapter 9.org Impress in action. Figure 9-5 shows OpenOffice.org Calc in several file formats. 9. OpenOffice. outlines. OpenOffice.org Impress features a step-by-step automated presentation wizard called AutoPilot that allows you to create presentations from a collection of default style templates. To start OpenOffice.4. To start OpenOffice.org Impress.xls formats. Working with Documents 67 Figure 9-4. You can even import charts and graphs created by OpenOffice. and presentations.org Impress from a shell prompt. Additionally. refer to the help page located in Help => Contents from the file menus. For more information about using OpenOffice. you can export rendered charts and graphs to several image file formats and integrate them with document files.sxc as well as Microsoft Office compatible .org Impress from the graphical desktop.org Calc into a slide. including the native . select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. . You can make slides with itemized lists. OpenOffice.org Calc You can save spreadsheets created with OpenOffice. or images.1.org Impress is a graphical tool that can help you make a more convincing presentation.

Your presentation can be saved in several file formats. Working with Documents Figure 9-5.sxi).ppt). and any animated visual effects you want to apply to the slides if you run presentations from your computer. You can also print your presentation to plain or transparent paper formats by clicking File => Print from the file menu. slides. You can also preview your presentation at any point by selecting Slide Show => Slide Show from the file menus. in the floating toolbar. . You can choose the style of your slides. you will be presented with the AutoPilot. OpenOffice. You can have as many slides in your presentation as you need. click Insert Slide.org Impress AutoPilot Wizard Once you have chosen your preferences with AutoPilot tool.org Impress.. the medium with which you will present your slides (plain paper. the Microsoft PowerPoint format (mypresentation. You can save in the native OpenOffice. OpenOffice.68 Chapter 9. transparent paper for overhead projectors..org Impress format (for example. and a pop-up window will appear allowing you to choose the layout of the new slide. which you can exit by cycling through every slide until you reach the end or by pressing the [Esc] key at any point in the slide show. Figure 9-6. You can select a pre-formatted slide from the list or start with a blank slide and customize the layout yourself. or a display monitor). you can choose the type of slide you want to create. The presentation will be presented in full screen. or StarImpress format (mypresentation.sdd). mypresentation. To add new slides to your presentation.org Impress When you first start OpenOffice.

org Draw. You can additionally insert text into your illustrations.org Draw also allows you to open and import images and modify them with the tools provided. type oodraw. 69 9. basic shapes such as squares and circles. click Help => Contents from the file menus. click Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. you can use OpenOffice. OpenOffice.org Draw If you are familiar with illustration and graphics applications such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information). To start OpenOffice. Using your mouse as a you would a pen or a paintbrush. OpenOffice. .Chapter 9.png.org Draw. and more. Working with Documents To learn more about OpenOffice.1.org Draw allows you to make illustrations and save them in several formats that you can add to printed documents. refer to the documentation located at Help => Contents from the file menus. There are toolbars for creating straight and curved lines. Figure 9-7 Shows OpenOffice. For more information on using OpenOffice. You can create images and fill them with the color of your choice using the Area Style/Filling drop-down menu on the main toolbar. To start OpenOffice.5. When you complete your illustration or image modifications. Refer to Table 9-1 for the complete list of compatible image file formats. Figure 9-7.org Draw from a shell prompt.org Draw If you want to create graphics for your documents and presentations.org Draw from the desktop panel. OpenOffice. you will find that OpenOffice. you can save the file in one of several native file formats or export your work to several popular formats such as .org Draw in action.org Draw has some of the same basic functions. or attach to emails.org Impress.org Draw. place on websites. 3D objects such as cones and cubes.jpg or . OpenOffice.

You can also cut and paste text to and from other graphical desktop applications. create new text files. Editing Text Files Red Hat Linux includes several text editors. Plain text files are files that contain text without any font or style formatting applied to it. click Open. such as system logs and configuration files. edit. and save plain text files. use the arrow keys to navigate through the text file line-by-line. or. gedit is a graphical text editor. Tip gedit allows you to open multiple text files in one window using separate tabs for each file. You can begin using gedit immediately or click the Open button to locate the plain text file you want to edit. Press the [Page Up] and [Page Down] keys to advance the document a page at a time. If you have a file already open and want to copy text from another file. and print files. choose the file you want . applications that allow you to view and modify plain text files. You can also start gedit by typing gedit at a shell prompt. It can open.70 Chapter 9. click Main Menu => Accessories => Text Editor. You can navigate the text file by clicking and holding the scroll bar on the right edge of the window and moving your mouse cursor up and down. Note gedit can only be used in a graphical desktop environment. Working with Documents 9. The file will load into the main editing area as shown in Figure 9-8. gedit Once gedit is running.2. you are presented with a blank editing area. To start gedit. gedit has a clear and understandable interface that uses tabs so that you can open more than one file at the same time without opening more than one gedit window. Figure 9-8.

1. For more information about gedit. vi is a simple application that opens within the shell prompt and allows you to view. and vi reverts to Normal mode.. You can also choose File => Save As. More information about using vi can be found by typing man vi at a shell prompt. Shell Prompt Text Editors If you are not using a graphical desktop and want to read and modify a text or configuration file.Chapter 9. press [Esc]. a pop-up window will prompt you to name the file and save it in the directory of your choice. which exits without saving changes. or by choosing File => Save from the file menus. 9. To open a file with vi type vi filename at a shell prompt. press [:] (which is the vi command mode) and press [q] then [Enter]. To exit vi. press [i] (for Insert mode). you are editing a configuration file and you want to test your changes without losing your original configuration. you can save it by pressing the Save button in the toolbar. and the file will open in a new tab within the gedit window. search. To start vi.2. If you accidentally made changes to a file and you want to exit vi without saving the changes. © ¨ . You can navigate between each file by clicking on the the tab associated with the particular filename. Working with Documents 71 to access.. If you have made changes to the text file that you want to save. which is convenient if. If you are writing a new text file. type [:] and then type [q] followed by [!]. to save an existing file under a new name or in a different location. for example. To add text. Red Hat Linux includes the vi (pronounced vee-eye) text editor. Figure 9-9. meaning that you can view and run built-in commands on the file but you cannot add text to it. choose Help => Contents from the file menus to access the gedit manual. Once you have modified or written your text file. To exit insert mode. which will allow you to make any modifications you need to. If you are editing an existing file. then any changes you make will automatically appear in the file the next time you open it. and modify text files. type vi at a shell prompt. vi By default. press [:] and type [w] then [q] to write your changes to the file and exit the application. vi opens a file in Normal mode.

at a shell prompt type man xpdf. Right-click in the xpdf screen to display a list of options. To view a PDF you must have a PDF reader. The xpdf man page provides useful information on the xpdf options. Viewing PDFs A PDF (Portable Document Format) file is an electronic image of a document. you can download it free of charge at http://www. making it possible to send formatted documents and have them appear on the recipient’s monitor or printer as they were intended. 2. xpdf To view a PDF with xpdf: 1. Select the PDF file you want to view and click Open. 3. go to Main Menu => Graphics => PDF Viewer. .3. print. Working with Documents 9. In your desktop environment. An open source application called xpdf is included with Red Hat Linux. While it is not included with Red Hat Linux. 4. Figure 9-10. You can also launch xpdf by typing xpdf at a shell prompt.72 Chapter 9. To view the xpdf man page. Another popular PDF viewer is Adobe Acrobat Reader. PDF captures formatting information from a variety of desktop publishing applications. The xpdf toolbar at the bottom has navigational tools that let you move backward and forward through the PDF document. and find tools.com/.adobe. Select Open to display the file browser. as well as standard zoom.

Audio. you can also use the Track List drop down menu to select a track from the available listing. If the interface does not appear. Playing Digital Audio Files Digital audio has become very popular in recent years. Playing Audio CDs To play an audio CD.2. Red Hat Linux includes the powerful X Multimedia System (XMMS). CD Player Interface The CD Player interface acts similar to a standard CD player. Users enjoy the technology because the sound quality is excellent compared to analog tape or records. You can also change the way the application functions by clicking on the Open Preferences button. Red Hat Linux provides many packages to assist you in having some fun with your computer.1. From games and toys to multimedia applications. The CD Player application should appear automatically and begin playing the first audio track. CD Player Preferences 10.Chapter 10. and stop functions. and the files are compact (audio files can easily be transferred across the Internet). Figure 10-1. . 10. and General Amusement This chapter presents you with the lighter side of Red Hat Linux. Video. Here you can set themes for the player as well as set the behavior of the CD-ROM drive when you open or quit the CD Player application. pause. You can edit the track listings for your CDs by clicking the Open track editor button. place the CD in your CD-ROM drive. Press the Next track and Previous Track buttons to skip forward or backward one track. Figure 10-2. a cross-platform multimedia player which allows you to play several digital audio file formats. There is even a sliding bar that allows you to adjust the volume. with play. To take advantage of this technology. click Main Menu => Sound & Video => CD Player to launch the CD Player application.

1. you do not hear sound and know that you do have a sound card installed. XMMS can be extended via plugins to play a number of other digital multimedia formats. Using XMMS To play an audio file with XMMS. click the Open button window. by genre or artist).74 Chapter 10. and General Amusement Figure 10-3. To adjust the volume click the volume slider (the long slider above the Open button) to the left to lower the volume or to the right to increase it like a CD player. and choose a file from the Load File(s) Figure 10-4. Notice that XMMS begins to play your audio files immediately. you can run the Sound Card Configuration Tool utility. go to Main Menu => Sound & Video => XMMS. By default XMMS can play Ogg Vorbis. pause. Additionally. XMMS Interface XMMS can be used for more than just playing digital audio files.ogg are Ogg Vorbis files. RIFF wave. The Load File(s) Window In Figure 10-4. 10. The files that end in . Video. 10. To launch XMMS. . and skip (backward and forward) your audio files. To launch XMMS from a shell prompt. To learn more about using XMMS and its many options. type the command xmms. You can use XMMS to add audio files into a list and then save it as a playlist. you see that there are several files to choose from. Audio. There are also buttons to stop.3. for some reason. Highlight the file you wish to play (if you have multiple files. Troubleshooting Your Sound Card If. refer to the man page by typing man xmms at a shell prompt. the . and most module formats. click and hold the mouse button and drag it over all of the files you want to open) and click OK.pls file is an audio playlist file. This can be convenient if you have several audio files and you want to categorize them (for example.2. a popular new audio file format.

conf file as discussed below (this strategy is not recommended for most new users) or refer to the documentation that came with your sound card for more information. If you can hear the sample. Video.com/ to see if your card is supported. If the utility detects a plug and play sound card. you can manually edit your /etc/modules.3. Figure 10-5.1. although they are not quite as simple as running the Sound Card Configuration Tool. Sound Card Configuration Tool 10. and General Amusement 75 To use the Sound Card Configuration Tool. refer to the Linux Sound HOWTO at the Linux Documentation Project webpage: http://www.tldp.3.1. If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work If the Sound Card Configuration Tool does not work (if the sample does not play and you still do not have audio sounds). For example: alias sound sb alias midi opl3 options opl3 io=0x388 options sb io=0x220 irq=7 dma=0. there are alternatives.1. You can then click the Play test sound button to play a sound sample. If you are having trouble configuring your sound card. Note Most sound cards are supported by Red Hat Linux. it will automatically try to configure the correct settings for your card.redhat. You can edit your modules. Audio. 10. but there are some sound cards that are not completely compatible or may not work at all. The Sound Card Configuration Tool utility probes your system for sound cards.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/ . Manual Sound Card Configuration If your sound card is not a plug and play card.conf file to include the sound card module that it should use.Chapter 10. choose Main Menu => System Settings => Soundcard Detection. check the Hardware Compatibility List at http://hardware.1 mpu_io=0x300 For information on configuring sound manually. A small text box pops up prompting you for your root password. select OK and your sound card configuration is complete.

However. button next to the Monitor Type entry. A pop-up window prompts you for your root password... You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your monitor for the correct model and vertical/horizontal frequency settings. Audio..5. You can also start from a shell prompt by typing the command redhat-config-xfree86. A pop-up window will display a list of video card models. you can use the X Configuration Tool utility. then click the Configure. Figure 10-6. which then prompt you to input your root password. Troubleshooting Your Video Card Video card configuration is handled during the Red Hat Linux installation (refer to the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide for more information).76 Chapter 10.backup in case you need it to switch back to a previous configuration. Games Playing games under Red Hat Linux is a fun way to pass the time. Follow the instructions that appear on the screen. To run the X Configuration Tool. When you have finished reconfiguring your video card and monitor. Whether you enjoy card games like . redhat-config-xfree86 attempts to start a minimal X session to allow you to continue your configuration. button next to the Video Card entry. click the Advanced tab. If you are working from a shell prompt and X is not working.4. or if you need to reconfigure your settings. 10. X Configuration Tool attempts to automatically configure your video card and monitor settings for you. and General Amusement 10. You should do this. click Main Menu => System Settings => Display. Note The X Configuration Tool backs up your system’s original video configuration file to /etc/X11/XF86Config. then click the Configure.. you should be able to start an X session and enjoy your graphical desktop environment. if you did not choose to configure a video card at that time. click the Advanced tab. Figure 10-6 shows the Advanced tab for configuring your video device manually. Choose your model and click OK. You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your video card for the correct model and settings by clicking the Probe Videocard button. for example. Choose your model and click OK. X Configuration Tool To configure your monitor manually. A pop-up window will display a list of monitor models. The games included in Red Hat Linux appeal to quite a large number of video game enthusiasts. To configure your video card manually. Video. if you install a new video card.

linuxgames.6.linuxgaming. In this game you point your mouse at matching marbles until they start to spin. For more information. such as http://www. To start a game. arcade games like Tux Racer.google. board games like Chess.tuxgames. Figure 10-7 shows a fun game for kids of all ages called Same GNOME. Same GNOME — Match the Marbles Game 10. The object of the game is to make all the marbles disappear. Figure 10-7. . you can find it in Red Hat Linux.com/. You can also browse the Internet for linux games using a search engine.com — A store where you can buy games just for Linux.com/ — a Linux gaming news site. http://www. http://www.org/ — the Linux gaming repository. Audio. or space shooting games like Chromium and Maelstrom. http://happypenguin. Video. and General Amusement 77 Aisle Riot (a solitaire card game).net — A website that covers Linux-compatible games in depth. here are a few suggestions: • • • • http://www. click Main Menu => Games and select the game of your choice. Finding Games Online There are many more games available within Red Hat Linux and online. then. you can click them to make them disappear.Chapter 10.

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Chapter 10. Audio, Video, and General Amusement

Chapter 11. Working with Images
Digital images have grown in popularity with the development of the graphical Internet and the increasing quality of digital cameras. There are several types of image files, some of which are created using sophisticated illustration software packages, while others are made from digital sources such as a scanner or camera. You may have downloaded some of these image files from the Web or received them in an email. You may also want to create your own images to send to others. You can view and modify the most common types of image files using the many applications included in Red Hat Linux.

11.1. Viewing Images
This section discusses some of the common tools for viewing image files. Certain tools included in Red Hat Linux are specialized applications with several functions that enhance your image viewing experience; while others are general-purpose file managers that have integrated image viewing functionality.

11.1.1. Using Nautilus to View Images
Nautilus is a general-purpose file manager and browser for your graphical desktop environment. Nautilus has many functions beyond simple image viewing; however, for this section, we will use it for basic image browsing. For more information about Nautilus, see Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop. Nautilus is known for its ease-of-use and it handles images with the same ease as it does for other file types. To begin browsing your image collection with Nautilus, double-click your home desktop icon: You will be presented with a view of all files and folders within your home directory. Double-click the image (or the folder containing the image) and Nautilus will open the file or folder within its browser window. Figure 11-1 shows that Nautilus automatically creates thumbnails of any images in your folders:

Figure 11-1. Contents of a Folder in Nautilus

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Chapter 11. Working with Images

Double-click on any thumbnail icon to view the image in its native size. The image will load within the browser window. To increase or decrease the size of the viewed image in Nautilus, click on the zoom buttons next to the Location: field as shown in Figure 11-2:

Figure 11-2. The Zoom Function in Nautilus Click the + button to increase the size of the image or - to decrease it.

11.1.2. Using gThumb
gThumb is a powerful image viewer for graphical desktop users that supports several image file formats, including:
• • • • • • • • •

JPG/JPEG GIF PGM XPM PNG PCX TIF/TIFF PPM BMP

gThumb is useful for viewing individual image files as well as browsing collections of files in folders. It supports zoom in and zoom out functions, as well as thumbnail sized preview icons of all image files within a directory. It also supports several advanced options not found in Nautilus. gThumb can be started from your desktop panel. Choose Main Menu => Graphics => gThumb Image Viewer or type gthumb at a shell prompt to start the application. gThumb will browse your user home directory by default. If you have any images in this directory, the gallery panel will automatically generate thumbnails for you to highlight and view in the main display area.

Chapter 11. Changing your Desktop Wallpaper with gThumb To change your desktop wallpaper with gThumb. 11. Click the Slide Show button on the toolbar and you will start a full-screen slide show where gThumb displays images in full screen. type the path to the the directory where your images are located and highlight the first image in the main gallery panel. By default. Double-click an image preview thumbnail to view it within the main gallery area. gThumb Displaying a Folder of Images The interface of gThumb is straightforward. which resizes the image from its native resolution to fit your screen size. Right-clicking on an image in the display area opens a pop-up menu of file management options such as renaming. Working with Images 81 Figure 11-3. right-click on an image.2.1. copying. and be printed on your configured printer. each image in the slide show is presented for 4 seconds. .1. You can also set an image as your desktop wallpaper within the pop-up menu. Configuring gThumb gThumb allows you to customize several settings by choosing Edit => Preferences. In the text field below the toolbar. and write descriptions about the images. right-click anywhere in the main gallery area and choose Set Image as Wallpaper => Restore.2. To restore your desktop wallpaper to its default. You can center the image on the page. which fills your desktop with multiple instances of the image. collect multiple files into a catalog for easier access if they are located in different directories. The image can be zoomed in and out. You can combine functions within gThumb and create a dynamic presentation effect for groups of images within a directory. moving. and converting an image from one file format to another. You can stop the slide show at any time by pressing [Esc] or by moving your mouse cursor and clicking the Restore Normal View pop-up button that appears on the top left corner of the screen. You can also scale and stretch the image. and then choose the orientation of the image. The gThumb interface also has a text field for you to enter a particular path to your image directories. You can also tile the image. The toolbar allows you to fit the image to the display window. choose Set Image as Wallpaper.2. set to full screen (which covers your entire screen with the image).1. which sets the image at its native resolution on the desktop and fills the rest of the space with the default desktop color if the image is smaller than your desktop resolution. 11.

change thumbnail preview sizes. customize a default image directory on startup. or you can start the GIMP from the desktop by choosing Main Menu => Graphics => The GIMP. Manipulating Images with the GIMP The GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) is a powerful tool that can be used to create. computer-generated images. From a shell prompt. manipulate. GIMP Basics To use the GIMP. The GThumb Preferences Dialog Box To find out more about using and configuring gThumb. alter. scanned images. 11. and change the interval between cycled images during a slide show. Figure 11-5 shows a typical GIMP session in action. you start the GIMP using the command gimp.2. This section offers a quick overview of the GIMP and refers you to comprehensive references for learning more about it. Figure 11-4. . and more.2. 11. you will need to know some of the basics. choose Help => Contents from the main menu. and enhance digital image files — photographs.82 Chapter 11. Working with Images The preferences pop-up menu lets advanced users change several of the default gThumb behaviors.1. You can choose the layout of the application window.

2. select File => Open.Chapter 11. You will see the Load Image dialog.2. The GIMP in Action 11. as shown in Figure 11-6. Figure 11-6. Loading a File To load an existing file. Working with Images 83 Figure 11-5. The Load Image Dialog .

Once you have selected a file. and . You can also double-click on a file name to open it. . . alternatively. When you reach a desired quantity and are ready to render the image. An Image modified with a GIMP Filter The Toolbox also has several easily accessible functions. The easiest way to work with images is to right-click the image. The file you select appears in the Selection field near the bottom of the dialog. rotation. . The GIMP then renders the image with the new effect applied. When you are saving an image. Using the Toolbox. the GIMP provides more than one method to accomplish tasks.2. imagine you have a picture that you would like to modify to make it look as if it were clipped from a newspaper. Figure 11-7 shows an example of an image after the Newsprint filter has been applied: Figure 11-7. You can navigate up and down the file system tree by double-clicking on the Directories list on the left.4. then selecting a file to open from the Files list on the right. Saving a File To save an image file. a Generate Preview button is displayed. If you type the first letter (or more) of a file name into the Selection field and press the [Tab] key. and filter application. click on the OK button to open it.84 Chapter 11. including . If you want to see a thumbnail of the image. erase regions of an image... Select the quantity of lines per inch using the sliders. which displays a set of menus containing most of the GIMP’s many capabilities. right click on the image and choose File => Save (or Save as).gif.png. You will see the Save Image dialog if you choose Save as or if you choose Save and the file has not been saved before. GIMP Options Like many applications. Working with Images The Load Image dialog displays your working directory — the directory you were in when the GIMP was launched. 11.. File name completion is supported by the GIMP.3. click on the Generate Preview button. 11. or even fill selected regions with the color of your choice. right-click on the image and select Filters => Distorts => Newsprint. The Save Image dialog looks almost exactly like the Load Image dialog and navigation of the file system tree and choosing files works in the same way. you can add text to images.jpg. A thumbnail preview is displayed in the dialog. The GIMP supports a wide variety of image formats. To do this.bmp. For example. click OK. you must choose an image format. the view will change to only those subdirectories and/or files beginning with that letter or letters. including image sizing.2.

11. . You can read the manual page by typing man gimp at a shell or terminal prompt.sourceforge. Figure 11-8 shows our photo with exciting new text: Figure 11-8. Using the Text Tool on an Image As you can see. Click OK and your text is displayed as a floating section on the image. 11. from the GIMP toolbar menu... Working with Images 85 button and click on your image. The GIMP manual page contains some of the more advanced command line options and environment variables associated with it. 11. Refer to the following resources if you are interested in learning more about the applications in this chapter.Chapter 11. refer to the documentation in Help => Contents in the gThumb main menu.net — The official GThumb home page. do not worry.3.3. This For example. and it takes some time to master all of its functions.1. accessible right from your PC. The GIMP also has a help browser accessible by choosing Help => Help. if you wish to add text to a file.2. there is so much more you can do with them. select the loads the Text Tool dialog box. You can always undo your mistakes by right-clicking on the image and choosing Edit => Undo. If you make a mistake. • • For more information about using gThumb. the GIMP is a powerful image editing tool.3. Useful Websites The Web has several sites of interest if you are looking for more detailed information about an application covered in this chapter: • http://gthumb. You can then move the text to the position you wish using the Move Layers tool. Try exploring some of the options yourself. Additional Resources While this chapter covers several applications briefly. where you can choose a font and type some text in the provided text box. Installed Documentation Some applications discussed have online documentation included with the package.

http://gimp-savvy. GIMP Essential Reference by Alex Harford. GIMP: The Official Handbook by Karin Kylander and Olof S. try your favorite bookstore.gimp. et al.com/~meo/gimp/faq-user.rru. New Riders Publishing GIMP for Linux Bible by Stephanie Cottrell Bryant.org/manual/ — The online GIMP User Manual.html — A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) list for questions commonly asked about the GIMP by GIMP users (as opposed to developers).86 http://www. Kylander. 11.3.com/ — The companion website to the book Grokking the GIMP. New Riders Publishing Sams Teach Yourself GIMP in 24 Hours by Joshua and Ramona Pruitt.gimp. Chapter 11.gimp. Related Books If you need in-depth information about the many capabilities of the GIMP. Working with Images • • • • • http://www. Inc. Sams . Hammel.org/gimp/ — The GIMP website of tigert (Tuomas Kuosmanen). Inc. The following books were available at the time of this writing: • • • • • • The Artists’ Guide to the GIMP by Michael J.org/ — The official GIMP website. http://manual. Hungry Minds. Frank Kasper and Associates. Coriolis Group Grokking the GIMP by Carey Bunks.3. by Carey Bunks. The entire book is also available on the site for download http://tigert.

So. To start gtKam. Adding a Camera in gtKam Once you have added your camera. You can also download the images to your computer and modify it with image manipulation programs such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information about image manipulation tools). From the menu. . Figure 12-1. Click Apply to accept the changes and OK to close the dialog box. and delete images directly.Chapter 12. choose Camera => Add Camera. choose Main Menu => Graphics => Digital Camera Tool. If you want to save all of the stored images. choose Select => All. Working with Digital Cameras Digital cameras have recently grown in popularity because of their increasing image quality and easy interaction with desktop PCs. it is likely that Red Hat Linux will support it. 12. and modify your digital photographs. From this panel. Red Hat Linux supports several brands of digital cameras and has applications that help you access. it will be shown as an icon on the left panel of the main gtKam window. gtKam is a graphical application that allows you to interface with your digital camera.. gtKam works directly with your digital camera. Select the directory that commonly stores your images and the stored images will immediately load as thumbnail images in the main panel. Using gtKam Red Hat Linux supports over 100 digital camera models. then save the images to disk. You can also start gtKam by typing gtkam at a shell prompt.. Before you begin using gtKam. Directories shown below the icon may differ depending on your brand of camera. whether your camera uses USB or serial ports to communicate with your computer. view. which you can then save to disk by choosing File => Save Selected Photos. the settings will be saved with each additional use. allowing you to open. You only have to configure gtKam for your camera once. you need to configure it to work with your digital camera. From the pop-up dialog.1. click on the images you want. view. Digital cameras create high-quality images that allow you to send to others over the Internet or print on a color printer. you can choose your camera from the drop-down list or let gtKam automatically find your camera by clicking Detect. save..

sourceforge.88 Chapter 12.net/proj/gtkam/ . Viewing Images with gtKam For more information about using gtKam. refer to the gtKam page at the gPhoto website: http://gphoto. Working with Digital Cameras Figure 12-2.

other shells have been developed. they wanted to create a way for people to interact with their new system. Operating systems at that time came with command interpreters. In less time than it might take to open a file manager. Bourne. and then create. This lead to the development of the Bourne shell (known as sh). Shell Prompt Basics 13. many Red Hat Linux functions can be completed faster from the shell prompt than from a graphical user interface (GUI). Experienced users can write shell scripts to expand their capabilities even further. created by S. something that offered better features than the command interpreters available at that time. Since the creation of the Bourne shell.R. or modify files from a GUI. Figure 13-1.2. a task can be finished with just a few commands at a shell prompt. The History of the Shell When AT&T software engineers Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson were designing UNIX™. and then the shell tells the OS what to do. Why Use a Shell Prompt Graphical environments for Linux have come a long way in the past few years. perform simple administration tasks. A shell prompt looks similar to other command-line interfaces with which you might be familiar. and other shell prompt basics. locate a directory.1. the shell interprets these commands. 13. . You can be perfectly productive in the X Window System and only have to open a shell prompt to complete a few tasks. which could take commands from the user and interpret them so that computers could use them. A Shell Prompt This section explains how to navigate the file system. Users type commands at a shell prompt. delete. such as the C shell (csh) and the Korn shell (ksh). However. manipulate files. But Ritchie and Thompson wanted something more.Chapter 13.

Your system responded by printing the full path of the current directory in the shell prompt window. which is in the /home directory. The command pwd stands for print working directory.3. 13. use the cd command. the Bash prompt in Red Hat Linux shows just your current directory. moving to any other directory requires a pathname. and can be printed to the shell prompt or can be redirected to other programs or to other output devices such as printers. Shell Prompt Basics When the Free Software Foundation sought a royalty-free shell. The Command pwd Shows You Where You Are To determine the exact location of the current directory at a shell prompt and type the command pwd. When the system responds to requests for information. or bash. you asked your Linux system to display your current location. To change directories. Determining Your Current Directory with pwd Once you start looking through directories. the response is called standard output. You can learn more about bash by reading the bash man page (type man bash at a shell prompt). The result was the Bourne Again Shell. You will find that using pwd is very helpful as you learn to navigate your Red Hat Linux system. When you typed pwd. developers began to work on the language behind the Bourne shell as well as some of the popular features from other shells available at the time. Changing Directories with cd Changing directories is easy as long as you know where you are (your current directory) and how that relates to where you want to go. it is easy to get lost or forget the name of your current directory. . not the entire path. Although your Red Hat Linux system includes several different shells. You will see something such as: /home/sam This example shows that you are in the user sam’s directory.90 Chapter 13. 13. Figure 13-2. Typing this command by itself will always return you to your home directory. By default. bash is the default shell for interactive users.4.

For example: cd /etc/X11 Absolute paths start from the root directory (/) and move down to the directory you specify.. you need to move up in the directory tree. which can be convenient if you are changing to a subdirectory within your current directory. will present you with an error message explaining that there is no such directory. using an absolute path would get you to the /etc/X11 directory more quickly. relative paths look down from your current directory.. you should be in the directory X11. wherever that may be. go to the X11 directory Conversely. Use the following exercise to test what you have learned so far regarding absolute and relative paths. which requires you to know and type the complete path. command. Otherwise. The following directory tree illustrates how cd operates. use the cd . . Take a look at your last cd command./. tells your system to go up to the directory immediately above the one in which you are currently working. Executing the command cd directory1 while you are in directory3. type the relative path: cd . From your home directory. It tells Linux to start at the top of the directory tree (/) and change to directory1. / /directory1 /directory1/directory2 /directory1/directory2/directory3 If you are currently in directory3 and you want to switch to directory1. A path is absolute if the first character is a /. Absolute paths start at the top of the file system with / (referred to as root) and then look down for the requested directory. To move up to directory1. which is where you will find configuration files and directories related to the X Window System./etc/X11 After using the full command in the example..Chapter 13. Finally. Using absolute paths allows you to change to a directory from the / directory. directory) 3. type: cd /directory1 This is an example of an absolute path. Using relative paths allows you to change to a directory relative to the directory you are currently in. Then go up to that directory’s parent (which is the root. Shell Prompt Basics 91 You can use absolute or relative pathnames./.. This is because there is no directory1 below directory3.. Go up one level to your login directory’s parent directory (probably /home) 2. Then go down to the etc directory 4. To go up two directories. it is a relative path. The command cd . or /. You told your system to: 1.

though. Typing su . When you type su by itself and press [Enter]. it is as if you had logged in as root originally. If you are not sure. see what happens when you change to root’s login directory (the superuser account). or superuser. this absolute path would take you straight to subdirfoo. you become root (also called the superuser) while still inside your login shell (your user’s home directory).14 Ownership and Permissions. To change to the root login and root directory. Shell Prompt Basics Note Always make sure you know which working directory you are in before you state the relative path to the directory or file you want to get to. if otheruser has granted you permission regardless of which directory you are in. you must be the root user to access this directory takes you to the home directory./dir3/dir2 this relative path would take you up two directories. when you state the absolute path to another directory or file. Type: cd /root If you are not logged in as root. then to dir3. Denying access to the root and other users’ accounts (or login directories) is one way your Linux system prevents accidental or malicious tampering. type pwd and your current working directory will be displayed./. account created at installation... then to the dir2 directory. where user login directories are usually stored moves you up one directory takes you to otheruser’s login directory. Command cd cd ~ cd / cd /root Function returns you to your login directory also returns you to your login directory takes you to the entire system’s root directory takes you to the home directory of the root.. su Tip The command su means substitute users and it allows you to log in as another user temporarily. you are denied permission to access that directory. cd Options Now that you are starting to understand how to change directories.makes you become root with root’s login shell. use the su command.92 Chapter 13. which can be your guide for moving up and down directories using relative pathnames. cd ~otheruser cd /dir1/subdirfoo cd . Table 13-1. You do not have to worry about your position in the file system. a subdirectory of dir1 cd /home cd . . See Section 13.

its size. and you will return to your user account. just add the long option (-l) to the ls -a command.Chapter 13. permissions. type exit at the prompt. it is time to learn how to view the contents of these directories. so keep them hidden to help avoid some screen clutter when viewing directories at the shell prompt. View Directory Contents with ls Now that you know how to change directories. shells. ownership. at the prompt type man ls | col -b | lpr. Many options are available with the ls command. 13. by adding more than one option. . The ls command. the root account designation at the front of the prompt and "#" at the end. When you are searching for something in a directory. When you are done working as root. This command shows the file creation date. does not show all the files in the directory. you can display the contents of your current directory. The reason they are hidden is to help prevent any accidental tampering by the user. you are not usually looking for these configuration files. Tip To see all the options of the ls command. when it was created and more. but you can view still more information. Using the ls command. and more. If you want to print the man page. by itself. Now you will see files that begin with dots. Some files are hidden files (also called dot files) and can only be seen with an additional option specified to the ls command. If you want to see the size of a file or directory. and more. ls with the -a Option Hidden files are mostly configuration files which set preferences in programs. Type the command ls -a. you can read the man page by typing man ls at a shell prompt. window managers. superuser status.5. you will see the changes in your command prompt to show your new. Figure 13-3. Shell Prompt Basics 93 As soon as you give the root password. Viewing all the files using the ls -a command can give you plenty of detail.

Adds a symbol to the end of each listing. • -a — all. you can view the full list by reading the ls man page (man ls). owner.6. including the hidden files (. and so on. to see what is in the /etc/ directory from your home directory. if you want to search for all files with the word finger in the name. and * to indicate an executable file. a file called pointerfinger. Sorts files by their sizes. For example. Remember.. size.txt. — file type. For example. type: locate finger The locate command uses a database to locate files and directories that have the word finger in the file or directory name. you will see every file or directory whose name contains the search criterion. read the locate man page (type man locate at a shell prompt).txt. This option lists the contents of all directories below the current directory recursively. group. and . respectively. type: ls -al /etc Figure 13-4. — size. Lists details about contents. Lists the contents of the directory from back to front. • -l — long. creation date. — recursive. Shell Prompt Basics You do not have to be in the directory whose contents you want to view to use the ls command. To learn more about locate. Locating Files and Directories There will be times when you know a file or directory exists but you will not know where to find it. The . including • -F • -r • -R • -S 13. These symbols include / to indicate a directory. @ to indicate a symbolic link to another file. . Lists all the files in the directory. — reverse. permissions (modes). whether the file is a link to somewhere else on the system and where its link points.94 Chapter 13.filename). The search results could include a file called finger. With locate. a directory named fingerthumbnails. at the top of your list refer to the parent directory and the current directory. Sample ls Output for the /etc Directory The following is a short list of some options commonly used with ls. Search for a file or directory with the locate command.

type lpq at the command line. Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information about setting up your printer. and monthly jobs that are usually controlled by cron. 389 is the job number. type man cron at the shell prompt. cron is a small program that runs in the background.txt prints the foo. Shell Prompt Basics 95 The locate command works very quickly. Switching between operating systems and shutting down your machine at the end of the day can interfere with the automatic database update run by cron. Tip Cron is a daemon that executes tasks at regularly scheduled intervals. Type lpq. to control daily. After a few minutes. it does not assume that the machine is running continuously. as long as the database is up to date. To read the cron man page. type lprm 389 and press [Enter]. That database is automatically updated on a nightly basis through a cron job.txt file.txt In this example. Unlike cron. 13. assuming you have a properly configured printer connected to your system. Note You can run anacron to have your system execute commands periodically. For example. The lpr command. and you will see information similar to this: active root 389 foo. cancel. log in as root (type su at a shell prompt and then your root password) and type the command updatedb.Chapter 13. Refer to the man page on anacron (type man anacron at the command line) and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information. weekly. To view the jobs waiting in the print queue. and view print jobs from the command line. it can be used on machines that are not running 24 hours a day.txt print job. To update the database manually.7. sends that specified file to the print queue. To cancel the foo. with a frequency specified in days. which is used to catalog file locations. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information on cron. You can cancel jobs in the queue by typing lprm followed by the print job number displayed when you use the lpq command. performing various tasks (such as updating the locate database) at regularly scheduled intervals. The cron task periodically updates the slocate database. the slocate database that is used by the locate command will be current. Hence. lpr foo. followed by a filename. . This section explains how to print. Printing From The Command Line Printing is not an involved process whether you click on a button in a GUI or type commands from the command line.

If the file is fairly long. use the symbol. Placing after the cat command (or after any utility or application that writes to standard output) directs its output to the filename following the symbol. For example. The cat Command To redirect the output of cat to a file. Manipulating Files with cat Red Hat Linux has a utility which can help you keep short lists. You can always exit from the terminal window and open a new one. You can then use the up and down arrow keys to move backward and forward through the pages. type cat filename. but there is a quicker and easier way to clear the contents displayed in the terminal. type reset to return the terminal window to its default values. In such cases. Try typing the command clear at the shell prompt. Using Redirection Redirection means causing the shell to change what it considers to be standard input or where the standard output should be going. To redirect standard output. use the cat filename. Clearing and Resetting the Terminal After even one ls command in a shell prompt. see Section 13. The following example shows cat repeating every line that is entered: Figure 13-5.1. 13. type the following at a shell prompt (pressing the [Enter] key takes you to the next blank line):   .txt). Shell Prompt Basics 13. For more on using pipes to combine two separate functions. gather lists together. short for concatenate. The command cat will also display the contents of an entire file on the screen (for example. you may accidentally open a program file or some other non-text file in a terminal window. and even show you information about your system. which means to combine files. the terminal window you are working in can begin to look crowded. 13. Sometimes. Once you close the file. The utility is called cat. you could find that the text you are typing does not match the output on the monitor.9. it will quickly scroll past you on the screen. using cat by itself outputs whatever you input to the screen as if it were repeating the line you just typed. Using the pipe (|) and the less command together displays the file one page at a time.10 Pipes and Pagers.9. The clear command does just what it implies: it clears the terminal window.8. To prevent this.96 Chapter 13.txt | less command.

unless you want to replace it. You can find the file in the directory you were in when you started cat (type ls if you want to see it listed). type: cat sneakers. That is because the standard output from cat was redirected.txt . Redirecting Output to a File Press [Enter] to go to an empty line and use the [Ctrl]-[D] keys to quit cat.txt. you can then use cat to read the file. on an empty line.txt (you will find an example in Figure 13-7).txt  cat sneakers. At the prompt. Next. use cat to join home.txt and redirect the output of both files to a brand new file called saturday.txt with sneakers. Use output redirection again for another file and call it home.Chapter 13.txt saturday. use the [Ctrl]-[D] key combination again to quit cat.txt. type the command cat > home. Do you notice anything different in Figure 13-6? There are no repeated entries. For this example.txt home. followed by: bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! Now. because you can easily overwrite an existing file! Make sure the name of the file you are creating does not match the name of a pre-existing file.txt. As you learned earlier. That redirection was to a brand new file you made called sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics 97 Figure 13-6.txt Caution Be careful when you redirect the output to a file. then [Enter]. Type the following:  cat sneakers.

you tell your shell to send the information somewhere other than standard output.txt. Take two files which have already been created (sneakers. 13.txt now. cat saturday. rather than replacing the contents .txt. type: cat sneakers. Compare the results of the files sneakers.9.2.txt sneakers.98 Chapter 13.txt ended.txt where sneakers.txt   However. Joining Files and Redirecting Output You can see that cat has added home. By appending the output. rather than creating a new file. and you will see that they are identical.txt. Similar to when you used the symbol. then saturday.txt at the end of the file: Now check the file using the command cat sneakers. You want to add the information in home.txt. you save yourself time (and a bit of disk clutter) by using existing files.txt. The best explanation is a demonstration. you are adding information to a file. Appending Standard Output You can use output redirection to add new information to the end of an existing file. To make your comparison.txt) and join them by using the append output symbol.   cat home.txt and saturday.txt to the file sneakers. when you use of a file entirely.txt to the information already in sneakers.  . so type: home.txt and home.txt (as shown in Figure 13-8). The final output shows the contents of buy some sneakers then go to the coffee shop then buy some coffee bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! The command you typed appended the output from the file home. Shell Prompt Basics Figure 13-7.txt The contents of both files will be displayed — first sneakers.

txt was read by cat. Because you used the less-than symbol ( ) to separate the cat command from the file. Use a file you have already created to demonstrate this idea. Redirecting Standard Input   cat sneakers. the output of Figure 13-9.9. Redirecting Standard Input Not only can you redirect standard output. Type: sneakers.3.Chapter 13. . you can perform the same type of redirection with standard input. Stringing Commands and Comparing Files 13.txt  When you use the redirect standard input symbol read as input for a command. Shell Prompt Basics 99 Figure 13-8. you are telling the shell that you want a file to be .

For example: /Linux Tip To read startup messages more closely. you can use the arrow keys to navigate with less. Pipes can also be used to print only certain lines from a file. Shell Prompt Basics 13. but what if the contents of a directory scroll by too quickly for you to view them? View the contents of the /etc/ directory with the command: ls -al /etc How do you get a closer look at the output before it moves off the screen? One way is to pipe the output to a utility called less. to quit.1. ls -al /etc | more . There are plenty of options available with ls. Use the vertical bar (|) to pipe the commands. a pager utility that allows you to view information one page (or screen) at a time.11. press [Q].100 Chapter 13. pipes connect the standard output of one command to the standard input of another command. To move forward a screen.10. at a shell prompt. press [Space]. Alternatively. 13. You will be able to read the file one screen at a time. Use the arrow keys to navigate the file.3 The grep Command). type dmesg | less. List the contents of the /etc directory using ls and more. to search for output. press [B].txt file that mentions the word "coffee" (read more about grep in Section 13. to move back a screen. Type: grep coffee sneakers. The more Command The main difference between more and less is that less allows backward and forward movement using the arrow keys. To search the output of a text file using less. while more uses the [Spacebar] and the [B] key for forward and backward navigation. ls -al /etc | less Now you can view the contents of /etc one screen at a time.10. press [/] and type the search term. Consider the ls command that was discussed earlier.txt | lpr This command prints every line in the sneakers. Pipes and Pagers In Linux. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file.

but because it is limited to the first several lines.Chapter 13.11. You can change the number of lines displayed by specifying a number option as shown in the following command: 13. The command is: head can be a useful command. By default.11. This can be useful for viewing the last 10 lines of a log file for important system messages. type the following at a shell prompt as the root user: tail -f /var/log/messages  head -20  head filename filename . you will not see how long the file actually is. you can only read the first ten lines of a file. to actively watch /var/log/messages.2. Using tail. Piping Output of ls to more To search the output of a text file using more. For example.11. tail automatically print new messages from an open file to the screen in real-time. Press [q] to exit. You can also use tail to watch log files as they are updated. you can view the last ten lines of a file. Using the -f option. The head Command You can use the head command to look at the beginning of a file. 13. For example: /foo Use the [Spacebar] to move forward through the pages. The tail Command The reverse of head is tail. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file. 13. Shell Prompt Basics 101 Figure 13-10. Here are a few more. More Commands for Reading Text Files You have already been introduced to several basic shell prompt commands for reading files in text editors.1.

Among grep’s options is -i. That means that searching for Coffee is different than searching for coffee.5.txt. you can open and read the file with less or vi (vi bash.txt.txt." so type: ls sneak*. Just fill out what you know. We know the file is called "sneak____. then have those results either saved as a file or sent to a printer. Tip Unless otherwise specified. be aware that it is quite long. just type: grep coffee sneakers. You can. The grep Command The grep command is useful for finding specific character strings in a file. use grep to search for particular contents of a file. grep searches are case sensitive.txt). Wildcards are special symbols that you can substitute for letters.txt and there is the name of the file: sneakers. then substitute the remainder with a wildcard. Then. for example. and symbols that make finding particular directories and files easier than examining long directory listings to find what you are searching for. you can perform actions on a file or files without knowing the complete filename.txt You would see every line in that file where the word "coffee" is found. Shell Prompt Basics 13. Read the grep man page for more about this command. Wildcards and Regular Expressions What if you forget the name of the file you are looking for? Using wildcards or regular expressions.txt ! . which allows for a case-insensitive search through a file.3. Tip To read more about wildcards and regular expressions.txt | lpr 13.11. if you want to find every reference made to "coffee" in the file sneakers. To print the information about references to "coffee" in sneakers.11. For example.102 Chapter 13. for example.11. 13.4. If you want to print the file. you would type: grep coffee sneakers. I/O Redirection and Pipes You can use pipes and output redirection when you want to store and/or print information to read at a later time.txt. numbers. Remember that you can save the file to a text file by typing man bash | col -b bash. take a look at the bash man page (man bash).

1 Using Redirection. if there were such a filename. The first time. just happens to be part of a filename. ? is useful for matching a single character. When an asterisk.txt Nothing happens. of course. We now see the contents of sneakers. because there is no sneakrs. using ? can help locate a file matching a search pattern. however.txt as a result. you would get sneakers.txt. at the shell prompt.txt. Shell Prompt Basics 103 You will probably use the asterisk (*) most frequently when you are searching. Regular expressions are more complex than the straightforward asterisk or question mark. that is when regular expressions can be useful. for example. In this case.txt was called sneak*.txt.txt. It helps to narrow your search as much as possible. then use the left-arrow key to get to the point where we missed the "e. so if you were searching for sneaker?.txt. No problem." Insert the letter and press [Enter] again. So even by typing: ls *.txt file.txt or: ls sn* You would find sneakers. .9. Like the asterisk. sneakers. Try it by taking a look again at sneakers. One way to narrow a search is to use the question mark symbol (?). One solution is to use the command line history. One minor typing error can ruin lines of a series of commands. you can specify that you do not want to search out everything by using the asterisk. and/or sneakerz.txt Here is a brief list of wildcards and regular expressions: • * • ? — Matches all characters — Matches one character in a string — Matches the * character — Matches the ? character — Matches the ) character • \* • \? • \) 13. If the file is called sneak*.Chapter 13. Command History and Tab Completion It does not take long before the thought of typing the same command over and over becomes unappealing. you can find plenty of your previously typed commands. but you are instead looking for a file with an asterisk in the name.12. Use the up-arrow key to bring back the command. The asterisk will search out everything that matches the pattern you are looking for. type: cat sneakrs.txt (created in Section 13.txt and any other files whose name ends with . By scrolling with the [Up Arrow] and [Down Arrow] keys. type: sneak\*. as might be the case if the file Using the backslash (\). though.txt or begin with sn.

more. For example. or a beep (if sound is enabled on your system). to quit. To read it with the more command. less.13. mv foobar-1. Suppose you have downloaded a new file called foobar-1. up to 500 commands can be stored in the bash command line history file. to move back a screen. press [q]. The line which reads.3-2.bash_history To move forward a screen. cat. but remember a portion of the command. command. At the shell prompt. type: history | grep sneak Another time-saving tool is known as command completion. or pathname and then press the [Tab] key. 13. The only requirement is that you separate the commands with a semicolon.3 The grep Command . You have used the command. then at the shell prompt.104 Chapter 13. We can read it in a number of ways: by using vi. if you forget the command updatedb. a powerful search utility (see Section 13. . The command line history is actually kept in a file. and others. Be aware that the file can be long. You can combine both the creation of the rpms/ directory and the moving of your downloaded file into the directory by typing the following at a shell prompt: mkdir rpms/.i386. Tip To find a command in your history file without having to keep hitting the arrow keys or page through the history file.rpm. HISTFILESIZE=500 shows the number of commands that bash will store. and you think it might be in your history file. including updatedb and uptime. If you get a beep. use grep. If you type part of a file. and you want to put it in a new subdirectory within your home directory called rpms/. your command is completed for you. you can su to root.rpm rpms/ Running the combination of commands creates the directory and moves the file in one line. bash will present you with either the remaining portion of the file/path. press [Space]. just press [Tab] again to obtain a list of the files/paths that match what has been typed so far.bash_history in your login directory. but the subdirectory has not been created. Tip By typing the env command at a shell prompt. from your home directory type: more . Using Multiple Commands Linux allows you to enter multiple commands at one time. By typing the partial command upd and pressing [Tab] again. Shell Prompt Basics By default.i386.11. press the [Tab] key twice and you will see a list of possible completions.3-2. press [b]. called . Here is how you can quickly find a previously used command: say you are searching for a command that is similar to cat sneak-something. type up. we can see the environment variable that controls the size of the command line history.

Figure 13-11.9. For example: -rw-rw-r-- . There is a lot of detail provided here. write to the file. Shell Prompt Basics 105 13. since it is easy to make mistakes and alter important configuration files as the superuser. write to. and to which group the owner belongs (sam).txt with the ls command using the -l option (see Figure 13-11). The remaining nine slots are actually three sets of permissions for three different categories of users. as you learned earlier.txt (see Section 13. Remember that. You created the file belongs to you. it has ten slots. Linux. by default. or execute a file. and executing are the three main settings in permissions. sneakers. The first slot represents the type of file. and file name. The first column shows current permissions. you received the following message: cd /root bash: /root: Permission denied That was one demonstration of Linux’s security features. as well as who created the file (sam). or (if it is an application instead of a text file) who can execute the file. and file permissions are one way the system protects against malicious tampering. so sneakers.txt Other information to the right of the group includes file size. Since users are placed into a group when their accounts are created. is a multi-user system. you can also specify whether certain groups can read.14. like UNIX. That means you can specify who is allowed to read the file. when you tried to change to root’s login directory. This is because whoever knows the root password has complete access. But switching to the superuser is not always convenient or recommended. Take a closer look at sneakers. date and time of file creation. the name of your group is the same as your login name. Ownership and Permissions Earlier in this chapter.Chapter 13.txt All files and directories are "owned" by the person who created them. One way to gain entry when you are denied permission is to su to root. writing.1 Using Redirection) in your login directory. Permissions for sneakers. Reading. You can see who can read (r) and write to (w) the file.

Anyone outside of the group can only read the file (r--).txt with the chmod command. Whenever you allow anyone else to read. This example shows how to change the permissions on sneakers. it means that particular permission has not been granted.14. sam) has permission to read and write to the file.txt The file’s owner (in this case. so neither the owner or the group has permission to execute it.1. As a rule. you will see one of the following: • r • w • x — file can be read — file can be written to — file can be executed (if it is a program) When you see a dash in owner. Look again at the first column of sneakers. altered.txt and identify its permissions." meaning other users on the system. Shell Prompt Basics Those three sets are the owner of the file. It is not a program. 13. with its initial permissions settings: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. That means you will have to change the "others" section of the file permissions. sam. and save it.106 Chapter 13. Caution Remember that file permissions are a security feature. (rw-) | | type owner (rw-) | group (r--) 1 sam sam | others The first item. you should only grant read and write permissions to those who truly need them. you want to allow everyone to write to the file. and "others. write notes in it.txt If you are the owner of the file or are logged into the root account you can change any permissions for the owner. Right now. The chmod Command Use the chmod command to change permissions. The original file looks like this. as well. or others. and others. the group in which the file belongs. so they can read it. or deleted. in each of the following three sets. group. has permission to read and write to sneakers. the owner and group can read and write to the file. ls -l sneakers. .txt. group. you are increasing the risk of files being tampered with. and execute files. which specifies the file type. In the following example. write to. can show one of the following: • d — a directory — a regular file (rather than directory or link) — a symbolic link to another program or file elsewhere on the system • -(dash) • l Beyond the first item. The group.txt -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.

Chapter 13.txt Now. you are telling the system to remove read and write permissions for the group and for others from the file sneakers. . and o) Permissions r — read access w — write access x — execute access Actions + — adds the permission . g. Shell Prompt Basics Take a look at the file first. To check the results.— removes the permission = — makes it the only permission Want to test your permissions skills? Remove all permissions from sneakers. list the file’s details again. the file looks like this: -rw-rw-rw1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. Here is a list of what the shorthand represents: Identities u — the user who owns the file (that is.txt use the chmod command to take away both the read and write permissions.txt — for everyone. everyone can read and write to the file. type the following: chmod o+w sneakers. type: ls -l sneakers.txt Now. The result will look like this: -rw------1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. At the shell prompt. Now.txt Think of these settings as a kind of shorthand when you want to change permissions with chmod.txt The o+w command tells the system you want to give others write permission to the file sneakers.txt. because all you really have to do is remember a few symbols and letters with the chmod command.txt. chmod go-rw sneakers. the owner) g — the group to which the user belongs o — others (not the owner or the owner’s group) a — everyone or all (u. To remove read and write permissions from sneakers.txt By typing go-rw.txt 107 The previous command displays this file information: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.

If you do not allow others to have execute permission to tigger. which should return the following: cat: sneakers.txt Use the command cat sneakers.14. Shell Prompt Basics chmod a-rwx sneakers. the file owner. if you check your work with ls -l you will see that only others will be denied access to the 13.txt: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. you can always change its permissions back with the following command: chmod u+rw sneakers.txt Now. Because you can not really "execute" a directory as you would an application. when you add or remove execute permission for a directory. see if you can read the file with the command cat sneakers. But since the file belongs to you.txt: Permission denied Removing all permissions. Changing Permissions With Numbers Remember the reference to the shorthand method of chmod? Here is another way to change permissions. For example. it will not matter who has read or write access. successfully locked the file. No one will be able to get into the directory unless they know the exact file name. Here is what happens now when you try to cd to into tigger: bash: tigger: Permission denied Next.2. restore your own and your group’s access: chmod ug+x tigger tigger directory. you are really allowing (or denying) permission to search through that directory.txt .txt. Here are some common examples of settings that can be used with chmod: • g+w — adds write access for the group — removes all permissions for others — allows the file owner to execute the file — allows everyone to read and write to the file — allows the owner and group to read the file — allows only the group to read and execute (not write) • o-rwx • u+x • a+rw • ug+r • g=rx By adding the -R option. you can change permissions for entire directory trees. Go back to the original permissions for sneakers. Now.108 Chapter 13. although it may seem a little complex at first. can read the file again. type: chmod a-x tigger to remove everyone’s execute permissions.txt to verify that you. including your own.

and four (644). and execute permission.txt. write. so in general. would become six. the total is used to set specific permissions. To implement these new settings.txt Warning Setting permissions to 666 will allow everyone to read and write to a file or directory. remove the access by subtracting two (2) from that set of numbers.Chapter 13. These permissions could allow tampering with sensitive files. add the value of w (2) to the second set of permissions. four. If you want to change sneakers.txt The output should be: -rw-r--r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. The numerical values. read only. the group and others have (700) — Only the owner has read. Here is a list of some common settings. numerical values and their meanings: • -rw------• -rw-r--r-- (600) — Only the owner has read and write permissions.txt so those in your group will not have write access. neither the group nor others have write permission to sneakers. chmod 664 sneakers. and execute permissions. and the total for others is four. The permissions setting is read as 664. it is not a good idea to use these settings.txt. but can still read the file. type: chmod 644 sneakers. 4 (read) + 2 (write) = 6. To return the group’s write access for the file. then. For sneakers. Setting permissions to 777 allows everyone read.txt Now. (644) — Only the owner has read and write permissions.txt Now verify the changes by listing the file. • -rwx------ . the total for the group is six. you would have a value of 6. if you want read and write permissions. write. Type: ls -l sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics Each permission setting can be represented by a numerical value: • • • • 109 r=4 w=2 x=1 -=0 When these values are added together. here are the numerical permissions settings: (rw-) | 4+2+0 (rw-) | 4+2+0 (r--) | 4+0+0 The total for the user is six. For example.

. this permissions setting can be hazardous. the group and others have only read and execute.(666) • -rwxrwxrwx Here are some common settings for directories: • drwx-----• drwxr-xr-x (700) — Only the user can read.110 Chapter 13. write.) (777) — Everyone can read. the group and others have only execute. write. — Everyone can read and write to the file. (Again. and execute permissions.) • -rw-rw-rw. (755) — Everyone can read the directory. write in this directory. users and groups have read and execute permissions. (711) — The owner has read. and execute. and execute permissions. Shell Prompt Basics • -rwxr-xr-x • -rwx--x--x (755) — The owner has read. write. (Be careful with these permissions.

be sure to know which root is being discussed. which is represented as a single forward slash (/). For example. modifications. Note Due to system security. or execute a file. the # " . This is normal behavior and is used to prevent non-privileged users from modifying or deleting important system files. the root account’s home directory (/root) and the root directory for the entire file system (/). For example. or be the "parent" of. A Larger Picture of the File System Every operating system has a method of storing data in files and directories so that it can keep track of additions. who has permission to do anything).1. There is the root account (the superuser. delete.Chapter 14. Tip Red Hat Linux uses the term root in several different ways. which might be confusing to new users. unless you are root. Managing Files and Directories Your desktop file manager is a powerful and important tool for managing files and directories using the graphical desktop. for the redhat-config-date software package is located in /usr/share/doc/redhat-config-date. or storing temporary files. Users that do not have superuser access might find the following directories useful for finding their home directories. This chapter also discusses compression tools to create archives of your files for backup or to conveniently send to others. you probably do not have permission to write to the files and directories outside of your home directory. If you do not have the permission to open. There would not be a tree without a root. you will not be able to gain access to all system-level files and directories. Unless you are a system administrator or have root (superuser) access. /home is the default location for users’ home directories. For example. and other changes. No matter how far away the directories branch. and the same is true for the Linux file system.version-number . you will receive an error message saying your access is denied. You might think of the file system as a tree-like structure and directories as branches. In Linux. When you are speaking to someone and using the term root. 14. Certain directories are reserved for specific purposes. documentation • /usr/share/doc — Location of documentation for installed packages. directories within it (called subdirectories) which hold files and may contain subdirectories of their own. a user with the username foo has the home directory /home/foo. reading documentation. These directories may contain. every file is stored in a directory. • /home — Default location for users’ home directories. This chapter discusses various shell prompt commands that can be used to manage files and directories on your Red Hat Linux system. Directories can also contain directories. these subdirectories can also contain files and other subdirectories. everything is connected to the root directory.

You can also visit the FHS website at http://www.txt. refer to the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. Here is a brief listing of file extensions and their meanings: 14. Most compressed files for Linux use the gzip compression.html/. The FHS guidelines help to standardize the way system programs and files are stored on all Linux systems. A file’s extension is the last part of a file’s name after the final dot (in the file sneakers. gzip. so finding a .tbz • . A system process removes old files from this directory on a periodic basis.3 File Compression and Archiving. refer to Section 14.com/fhs.2.tgz • .zip — a file compressed with ZIP compression. Files stored here are not permanent. PDF stands for Portable Document Format — a PNG image file (short for Portable Network Graphic) — a plain ASCII text file — an audio file — an image file • . 14. and tar files. you may see certain file types that you do not recognize because of their unfamiliar extension. For information on working with bzip2. "txt" is that file’s extension). Managing Files and Directories • /tmp — The reserved directory for all users to store temporary files. also known as a tar file — a tarred and bzipped file — a tarred and gzipped file. commonly found in MS-DOS applications.gz — a file compressed with bzip2 — a file archived with tar (short for tape archive).tar • .ps — a PostScript file. Your Red Hat Linux system is compatible with many other Linux distributions because of the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS).bz2 • .txt • . Identifying and Working with File Types If you are new to Linux.htm • .1.png • . File Formats • .pdf • .gif • .112 Chapter 14. To learn more about the FHS.pathname.2.2. — a file compressed with gzip • .wav • .au — an audio file — a GIF image file — an HTML file — a JPEG image file — an electronic image of a document.zip archive for Linux files is rare. Do not write any files or directories that you want to keep here.jpg • . 14.xpm . formatted for printing • .2. Compressed and Archived Files • .

read the man page by typing man file.3.tcl But file extensions are not always used. or used consistently. 14.3.Chapter 14. For example. you can tell what type of file it is by typing: file saturday In the example. — a lock file. The archive file is not compressed — it uses the same amount of disk space as all the individual files and directories combined. determines whether a program or device is in use — a Red Hat Package Manager file used to install software 14.c — a C program language source code file — a C++ program language source code file — a C or C++ program language header file — a program object file — a Perl script — a Python script — a library file — a shell script — a TCL script • .4.py • . Using the file command.cfg extension.cpp • .2. as well.sh • . So what happens when a file does not have an extension. System Files • . telling you it is a text file. Managing Files and Directories 113 14.pl • . the command file saturday will display ASCII text. or the file does not seem to be what the extension says it is supposed to be? That is when the file command can be helpful. It is important to understand the distinction between an archive file and a compressed file. see Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics. Configuration files sometimes use the . you find a file called saturday without an extension. It is also sometimes useful to compress files into one file so that they use less disk space and download faster via the Internet. or less commands.lock • . For more information on helpful commands for reading files.2. easily transferred to another directory. or even transferred to a different computer.so • . An archive file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file. A .o • . more. or by using a text editor such as gedit or vi. Programming and Scripting Files • .h • .rpm — a configuration file. Tip To learn more about file. File Compression and Archiving Sometimes it is useful to store a group of files in one file so that they can be backed up. Any file that is designated as a text file should be readable by using the cat.conf • .

To start File Roller click Main Menu => Accessories => File Roller. you can double-click the file you wish to unarchive or decompress to start File Roller. File . and archive files and directories. 14.tar. Figure 14-1 shows File Roller in action. A file menu will pop up.1. you can compress files that you do not use very often or files that you want to save but do not use anymore.114 Chapter 14. Figure 14-1. You can even create an archive file and then compress it to save disk space. if you have a file called foo. Tip If you are using a file manager (such as Nautilus). but a compressed file can be an archive file.1. Using File Roller Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility called File Roller that can compress. The File Roller browser window will appear with the decompressed/unarchived file in a folder for you to extract or browse. File Roller supports common UNIX and Linux file compression and archiving formats and has a simple interface and extensive help documentation if you need it. Decompressing and Unarchiving with File Roller To unarchive and/or decompress a file click the Open toolbar button. Managing Files and Directories compressed file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file and stored in a way that uses less disk space than all the individual files and directories combined.gz located in your home directory. allowing you to choose the archive you wish to work with. File Roller in Action 14. If you do not have enough disk space on your computer. For example.3. which you can navigate by double-clicking the folder icon. It is also integrated into the desktop environment and graphical file manager to make working with archived files easier.1. Note An archive file is not compressed. You can also start File Roller from a shell prompt by typing file-roller. decompress. The file will appear in the main File Roller browser window as a folder.3. highlight the file and click OK.

3. To add files to your new archive. To create a new archive.gz) format from the drop-down menu and type the name of the archive file you want to create. Click OK and your new archive is now ready to be filled with files and directories. click Add. you may choose a Tar Compressed wity gzip (tar. which is convenient if you are looking for a particular file in the archive. or zip. Managing Files and Directories 115 Roller preserves all directory and subdirectory structures. A file browser will pop up.2. If you need to transfer files between Linux and other operating system such . and clicking OK. Figure 14-2.1.Chapter 14. or send multiple files or a directory of files to another user. File Roller allows you to create archives of your files and directories. The gzip compression tool can also be found on most UNIXlike operating systems. In Red Hat Linux you can compress files with the compression tools gzip. click New on the toolbar.2.3. The bzip2 compression tool is recommended because it provides the most compression and is found on most UNIX-like operating systems. You can extract individual files or entire archives by clicking the Extract button. Refer to the File Roller manual (available by clicking Help => Manual) for more information. and click Close to close the archive. Click OK when you are finished. Creating an Archive with File Roller Tip There is much more you can do with File Roller than is explained here. For example. uncompressed files. bzip2. Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt Compressed files use less disk space and download faster than large. 14. choosing the directory you would like to save the unarchived files. which will pop up a browser window (Figure 14-2) that you can navigate to find the file or directory you want to be in the archive. 14. allowing you to specify an archive name and the compression technique. Creating Archives with File Roller If you need to free some hard drive space.

bz2 is deleted and replaced with filename.bz2 The filename.bz2. Tip For more information. Files compressed with gzip are uncompressed with gunzip. files compressed with gzip are given the extension .gz. and files compressed with zip are uncompressed with unzip.2.zip.3. 14. type the following command at a shell prompt: gzip filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename. Compression Tools By convention.bz2 file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. file2.2. files compressed with bzip2 are given the extension . and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename.gz . type man bzip2 and man bunzip2 at a shell prompt to read the man pages for bzip2 and bunzip2. You can use bzip2 to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: bzip2 filename. you should use zip because it is more compatible with the compression utilities on Windows.gz. Gzip and Gunzip To use gzip to compress a file.116 Chapter 14. and files compressed with zip are given the extension .bz2 . 14.3. Compression Tool gzip bzip2 zip File Extension . file3.2. type the following command: bunzip2 filename.bz2.1. files compressed with bzip2 are uncompressed with bunzip2. Managing Files and Directories as MS Windows. To expand the compressed file.bz2.zip Uncompression Tool gunzip bunzip2 unzip Table 14-1. . Bzip2 and Bunzip2 To use bzip2 to compress a file. type the following command at a shell prompt: bzip2 filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename.

filename. Tip For more information. 14. .gz is deleted and replaced with filename. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename.zip filesdir In this example. type man gzip and man gunzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for gzip and gunzip. Managing Files and Directories To expand the compressed file. To extract the contents of a zip file. The -r option specifies that you want to include all files contained in the filesdir directory recursively. type the following command: unzip filename.gz file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. file2. Zip and Unzip To compress a file with zip.3. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename. file3.zip file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. Tip For more information. type man zip and man unzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for zip and unzip.gz. file2. file3.zip represents the file you are creating and filesdir represents the directory you want to put in the new zip file.Chapter 14. You can use gzip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: gzip -r filename. type the following command: gunzip filename.zip.gz 117 The filename.zip You can use zip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: zip -r filename. type the following command: zip -r filename.3.2.

The above command creates an archive file and then compresses it as the file filename.3. This is a good way to create backups and archives. then extracting the archive file will result in the creation of the directory foo/ in your current working directory with the file bar.txt inside of it. — show the list of files in the tar file. use the -j option: tar -cjvf filename. If you uncompress the filename.bz2 extension. For example. Some of the options used with the tar are: • -c • -f — create a new archive. • -t • -v • -x • -z • -j To create a tar file. if the tarfile contains a file called bar.tar directory/file In this example.tar in the current directory.tbz file tar files compressed with bzip2 are conventionally given the extension . — show the progress of the files being archived. unarchive the specified file. sometimes users archive their files using the tar. the tar command does not compress the files by default.tar represents the file you are creating and directory/file represents the directory and file you want to put in the archived file. the filename. but it places copies of its unarchived contents in the current working directory. — extract files from an archive. — compress the tar file with gzip. type: tar -xvf filename. To create a tarred and bzipped compressed file.tar This command does not remove the tar file. however.tar /home/mine/work /home/mine/school The above command places all the files in the work and the school subdirectories of /home/mine in a new file called filename.tbz file is removed and replaced with filename. Managing Files and Directories 14. To list the contents of a tar file. You can tar multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: tar -cvf filename.txt within a directory called foo/.118 Chapter 14. preserving any directory structure that the archive file used.tbz. You can also expand and unarchive a bzip tar file in one command: . use the filename specified for the creation of the tar file.tar. when used with the -x option. Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt A tar file is a collection of several files and/or directories in one file. type: tar -tvf filename. — compress the tar file with bzip2.3. — when used with the -c option. Remember. type: tar -cvf filename. filename.tbz file with the bunzip2 command.tar To extract the contents of a tar file.tbz.

They can also be manipulated using a shell prompt. (The file filename. You can expand a gzip tar file in one command: tar -xzvf filename. ) ( 0) ( cp source destination ' % & $ touch filename sam 0 Apr 10 17:09 newfile .4. 14.tgz. such as Nautilus or Konqueror. Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt Files can be manipulated using one of the graphical file managers. This command creates the archive file filename.2. or deleting multiple files and directories faster.4.tbz To create a tarred and gzipped compressed file. 14. use the -z option: tar -czvf filename.tar. Replace filename with the name of your choice.tar is not saved. typing the command ls -l newfile at the shell prompt returns the following output: -rw-rw-r-1 sam 14. This section explains how to manipulate files at the shell prompt.5 Wildcards and Regular Expressions. For example. which will create an empty file that you can use to add text or data. as explained in Section 13.tgz file with the gunzip command. To copy a file. to make the process of copying. You can also use wildcards.4. To create a file with touch. there is a variety of ways to manipulate files and directories.tgz.Chapter 14.) If you uncompress the filename. the filename.1. type the following command. type the following at a shell prompt. you can see that the file contains zero (0) bytes of information because it is an empty file.11.tar and then compresses it as the file filename. moving. which is often faster. Managing Files and Directories 119 tar -xjvf filename.tgz file tar files compressed with gzip are conventionally given the extension .tgz Tip Type the command man tar for more information about the tar command. If you run a directory listing. Copying Files Like so many other Linux features. Creating Files You can create new files either with applications (such as text editors) or by using the command touch.tgz file is removed and replaced with filename.

press [Y] and then [Enter]. because like the -i option for cp.txt in the tigger directory. Prompts you to confirm if the file is going to overwrite a file in your destination. press [N] and [Enter]. If you do not want to overwrite the file. • -v Now that you have the file sneakers. Among the options you can use with cp are the following: • -i • -r — interactive. use the mv command. Managing Files and Directories destination with the So.txt tigger/ You can use both relative and absolute pathnames with cp. see the mv man page (type man mv). — verbose. Common options for mv include the following: • -i — interactive. This is a good option. — recursive. For more about mv. Our home directory is the parent of the directory tigger. Tip To learn more about relative and absolute pathnames. 14.4 Changing Directories with cd . be very careful about using it until you become more comfortable with your system. this option is dangerous. — verbose. This will prompt you if the file you have selected will overwrite an existing file in the destination directory. subdirectories and all. and name of the directory where you want the file to go. move to your home directory and type: cp sneakers. • -v If you want to move a file out of your home directory and into another existing directory.txt to the directory tigger/ in your home directory. Rather than just copying all the specified files and directories. you will be given the chance to make sure you want to replace an existing file. tigger is one directory down from our home directory. cp -i sneakers. This is a handy option because it can help prevent you from making mistakes. type the following (you will need to be in your home directory): mv sneakers.120 Chapter 14. Unless you know what you are doing.txt’? To overwrite the file that is already there. Read the cp man page (type man cp at the shell prompt) for a full list of the options available with cp. use cp -i to copy the file again to the same location.3. to copy the file sneakers. Overrides the interactive mode and moves without prompting. Moving Files To move files. 2 1 .txt tigger 2 1 Replace source with the name of the file you want to copy. Shows the progress of the files as they are being moved. this will copy the whole directory tree. refer to Section 13.txt tigger cp: overwrite ’tigger/sneakers. • -f — force. Shows the progress of the files as they are being copied.4.

unless you know exactly what you are doing. type: rm piglet. This might not be a good idea. — force. you must specify the -r option.4. but only if the directory is empty. you would type: rm pig* The above command will remove all files in the directory which start with the letters pig. — verbose. because you can easily delete files you did not intend to throw away.txt rm: remove ’piglet. Managing Files and Directories Alternatively. it is gone permanently and cannot be retrieved. Now you need to learn how to delete files and directories. This option can stop you from deleting a file by mistake.Chapter 14. For example: rm piglet. for example).txt /home/newuser/tigger 121 14.txt You can use rmdir to remove a directory (rmdir foo. — recursive. To remove directories with rm.txt Warning Once a file or directory is removed with the rm command. Prompts you to confirm the deletion. You can also remove multiple files using the rm command. Options for removing files and directories include: • -i • -f — interactive. • -v • -r To delete the file piglet. but be careful.txt’? You can also delete files using the wildcard *.4. See the rm man page for more information.txt with the rm command. Overrides interactive mode and removes the file(s) without prompting. Use the -i (interactive) option to give you a second chance to think about whether or not you really want to delete the file. and you created the directory tigger using mkdir. Shows the progress of the files as they are being removed.txt /home/newuser/sneakers. Deleting files and directories with the rm command is a straightforward process. Deleting Files and Directories You learned about creating files with the touch command. To remove a file using a wildcard. Will delete a directory and all files and subdirectories it contains. For example. the same command using absolute pathnames looks like mv sneakers. rm -i piglet. if you want to recursively remove the directory tigger you would type: .txt sneakers.

122 Chapter 14. you can type: rm -rf tigger A safer alternative to using rm for removing directories is the rmdir command. you are in trouble. so a directory which has files in it will not be deleted. such as forcing a recursive deletion. Read the rmdir man page (man rmdir) to find out more about this command. you will not be allowed to use recursive deletions. Warning The rm command can delete your entire file system! If you are logged in as root and you type the simple command rm -rf /. this command will recursively remove everything on your system. With this command. Managing Files and Directories rm -r tigger If you want to combine options. .

Each Red Hat Network account comes with: • Errata Alerts — learn when Security Alerts. Bug Fix Alerts. This chapter explains three ways to update your system: using Red Hat Network. 15. and Enhancement Alerts (collectively known as Errata Alerts) can be downloaded directly from Red Hat using the Red Hat Update Agent standalone application or through the RHN website available at http://rhn. Red Hat Network Red Hat Network is an Internet solution for managing one or more Red Hat Linux systems. A package is just a file that contains a software program.com/. By default. known as RPM packages. RHN does it all. Red Hat Network installs the packages as well.1. All Security Alerts. Figure 15-1. and Enhancement Alerts are issued for all the systems in your network through the Basic interface . Bug Fix Alerts. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Red Hat Linux consists of various software applications and utilities. and using the Red Hat Linux Installation CD-ROMs.redhat. Users do not have to search the Web for updated packages or security alerts. using the online Errata List. Users do not have to learn how to use RPM or worry about resolving software package dependencies.Chapter 15. Your RHN Red Hat Network saves users time because they receive email when updated packages are released.

Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Figure 15-2. . Log in to RHN at http://rhn. Additional accounts can be purchased. Everyone receives a free Red Hat Network account for one system.redhat. Create a System Profile using one of the following methods: • • • Registering the system with RHN during the Setup Agent the first time your system boots after installation. Select Main Menu Button => System Tools => Red Hat Network on your desktop. Start scheduling updates through the RHN website or download and install Errata Updates with the Red Hat Update Agent. 3. downloaded individual packages. follow these three basic steps: 1.com/ and entitle the system to a service offering. 2. and schedule actions such as Errata Updates through a secure Web browser connection from any computer • • • • • To start using Red Hat Network. Execute the command up2date from a shell prompt. Relevant Errata Automatic email notifications — receive an email notification when an Errata Alert is issued for your system Scheduled Errata Updates — schedule delivery of Errata Updates Package installation — Schedule package installation on one or more systems with the click of a button Red Hat Update Agent — use the Red Hat Update Agent to download the latest software packages for your system (with optional package installation) Red Hat Network website — manage multiple systems.124 Chapter 15.

Errata List It is recommended that new users use Red Hat Network to download and install/upgrade packages. 15. tests and approves the RPMs posted on this site. Refer to the following URL for more information about the applet: http://rhn.2. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages 125 For more detailed instructions. Inc. Red Hat. refer to Section 15.Chapter 15. read the Red Hat Network User Reference Guide available at http://www. and Enhancement Alerts (collective known as Errata Alerts) can also be downloaded from the Red Hat website at http://www. It then prompts you for the root password so that you can install packages. All Security Alerts.redhat. If you enter the correct root password. RPMs downloaded from other sites are not supported. Click on the name of the Errata Alert that you want to apply to your system. It also requires users to resolve software dependencies manually. Bug Fix Alerts.redhat. Installation CD-ROMs Place the first Red Hat Linux CD-ROM in your CD-ROM drive. Select Yes when asked if you want to run the autorun program from the CD. the Package Management Tool interface appears and allows you to select packages groups to install as well as individual packages within the groups. a convenient panel icon that displays visible alerts when there is an update for your Red Hat Linux system. Tip Red Hat Linux includes the Red Hat Network Notification Tool.4 Downloaded Packages.3.com/apps/support/errata/. Instructions for updating the packages are on the individual Errata pages.html 15. Figure 15-3. Installing Software with the Package Management Tool . For more information about installing packages downloaded from our errata sites.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/. A software dependency is when a package is dependent on other package being installed.com/help/basic/applet.redhat. Click on the Red Hat Linux version you are using to view a list of all available errata for Red Hat Linux. Updating Errata packages from the Red Hat Linux Errata website is recommended for more experienced Red Hat Linux users.

RPM Package Dependencies The packages necessary to fulfill the dependency issues can be installed by following the steps in Section 15. You can add packages by clicking the checkbox next to each package. If all goes well. Figure 15-4. Figure 15-5. . 15. Individual Package Selection After selecting packages. the package will be installed and you can immediately begin using the software from the installed package. remove the checkmark (see Figure 15-4). you can install them by opening your file manager and double-clicking the package you want to install. Downloaded Packages If you have downloaded packages from an errata on the Red Hat website. click the Update button to install or uninstall the selected packages. However. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages The Package Management Tool marks what packages are already installed on your system with a checkmark. if there are dependencies. such as package or library files needed. The Package Management Tool should open up and check the package for any dependencies you need to fulfill before installation. the Package Management Tool will alert you with suggested files and packages you need to install.3 Installation CD-ROMs. To uninstall a package.126 Chapter 15. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information about the Package Management Tool.4.

When you install software. it is because you do not have proper permission to install RPM files. From recovering forgotten passwords to troubleshooting package installation problems. I get a message telling me it needs a localhost login and password.Chapter 16.1. I think I have the right name. If you are using your normal user account. What are these? Unless you specified a host name for your computer. If you did not create a user account. If you are getting an error message similar to failed to open /var/lib/rpm/packages. When you get to that initial prompt. For more information about using RPM and Package Management Tool. It is highly recommended that you create at least one user account for regular use of your Red Hat Linux system. switch to the root user by running the following command: su After entering the root password when prompted.3. also known as root. Error Messages During Installation of RPMs How do I install an RPM from a CD or the Internet? I keep getting an error message when I use rpm. After rebooting. At a shell prompt. so why will it not start? . but I still get "command not found" when I type its name. 16. Starting Applications I installed an application I downloaded from the Internet. You need to be the root user in order to install RPM files. Localhost Login and Password I have installed Red Hat Linux. your Red Hat Linux installation will call your machine localhost. Frequently Asked Questions This chapter answers some of the most common questions about using Red Hat Linux that you may ask as you become more familiar with it. For more information. such as creating new directories outside of your user home directory or making changes to your system configuration.localdomain by default. this chapter will ease you step-by-step through some common tasks and get you on your way.com/docs/. you are often required to make system-wide changes which only root can make.6 Creating a User Account. you will not have permission to make such changes by default. If you created a user account with the Setup Agent. you should then be able to install the RPM file without further errors. then you can log in as the super user. or received that information from a network. it is asking you to log in to your system. 16.redhat. You can create a new user after logging in as root with the User Manager graphical tool or the useradd shell prompt utility.2. you can log in using that user name and password. and everything seemed to go fine.rpm. The root password is the system password you assigned during installation. 16. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD or online at http://www. refer to Section 1.

similar to the one shown below.128 Chapter 16. Frequently Asked Questions If you are trying to start an application from the shell prompt and it is not working. add $HOME/seti as shown below: PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin/:$HOME/seti: Save the file and exit the text editor. Editing Your PATH If you frequently start programs that are not located in a directory that your user shell has been configured to search. start the application using the full path to the executable file as shown below: /home/joe/seti/setiathome The reason you may need to type the full pathnames in order to start an application is because the executable was not placed in a directory where your user shell environment knew it could be found (such as /usr/local/bin). Avoid modifying files such as the root user’s ./ in front of the command.bash_profile.bash_profile You will see a PATH statement. You can open the file called . . You can do this by adding the directory to your PATH environment variable. You follow the directions for installing the software. you will have to edit your PATH environment variable. because of the potential security risks. To do this. which creates a subdirectory in your home directory called seti/.3.bash_profile take effect immediately by typing the following command: source . PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin: To the end of this statement.bash_profile.bash_profile By adding paths to your . Caution These instructions are intended only for user accounts. you will have to edit your user shell configuration file to add the directory containing the executable you wish to run. you can place utilities and programs in your path and be able to execute them without having to type .1. at a shell prompt.bash_profile by typing the following: gedit . You can customize your settings so that you are not required to use the type the full path to the application each time. You can then make the changes to . try typing out the full directory path before the name of the application’s executable (such as /usr/local/bin/my-executable). For example. Now. imagine that you have downloaded the setiathome client application and want to try it out. Start a text editor. 16. such as gedit or vi.

Is there a way to access my Windows partition while I am running Linux? You can access another partition on your system (for example. Once you have determined where your Windows partition is located on your hard drive. if your Windows partition uses NTFS. Windows partitions normally use the FAT or FAT32 file system type. log in as root (type su and then enter the root password) at a shell prompt. You should first determine where your Windows partition is located by determining what physical hard disk your Windows partition is located in (such as the primary master IDE drive or the the first SCSI drive).4. Frequently Asked Questions 129 Tip For more information about using and configuring your shell prompt refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics. in two different ways. This file system type can be mounted and read within Linux. as this is the device that you mount to access your Windows data. Figure 16-1 shows Hardware Browser in action. 16. choose Main Menu => System Tools => Hardware Browser. then you cannot mount and read from it as Red Hat Linux does not support NTFS file systems. which lists detailed information about the hardware in your Red Hat Linux system. you can use the Hardware Browser. however. Create a directory in which the Windows partition will be mounted by typing the following command. To start the Hardware Browser. For example: mkdir /mnt/windows . Note the Device information for your Windows partition.Chapter 16. Figure 16-1. To find this information. a Windows partition). Hardware Browser hard disk device listing Select Hard Drives from the panel and find your Windows partition from the Disk Information displayed. Accessing a Windows Partition I have a dual-boot system with Red Hat Linux and Windows 98.

. To search for the command. Finding Commands Quickly I was looking at a man page yesterday.umask=0 0 0 Save the file and exit your text editor. 16. As root. For other tips and tricks.bash_history to find a command can be tedious. There are plenty of ways to your command history. press the [b] key. and the Windows partition is automatically mounted in the directory /mnt/windows. su to root. a powerful search utility.130 Chapter 16. To navigate through directories or files with spaces. surround the name of the directory or file with quotation marks.bash_history at the shell prompt and the results will display one page at a time. Paging through .bash_history is with a utility such as less. Frequently Asked Questions Before you can access the partition. but cannot recall its name. Say you were reading the man page the day before. but I cannot remember the name of the command I was reading about.5. following the above example. which configures all file systems and disk device mounting options. to move back a screen. and I did not write it down. You can glimpse the history of your commands by typing history at the shell prompt. see Section 16. To access the partition at a shell prompt. you will need to mount it in the directory you just created. but the results will speed by too quickly for your to read ever line. and to quit. Another way to view . the /etc/fstab file is read. press the [Space] bar.bash_history. Next. Type less . At a shell prompt. type: history | grep man You will see a list of all the commands you typed which have the word man in them. type the command cd /mnt/windows. type the following command at a shell prompt (where /dev/hda1 is the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows You may then logout of root user mode and access your Windows data by changing into the mounted Windows partition: cd /mnt/windows To automatically mount a Windows partition every time you boot your Red Hat Linux system. as in ls "Program Files". press [q]. this file records the last 500 commands you typed at the shell prompt. you can search through the file for keywords using grep. open the /etc/fstab in a text editor by typing (for example): gedit /etc/fstab Add the following on a new line (replacing /dev/hda1 with the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows vfat auto. By default.6 Tips on Using Command History. The next time the system is rebooted. How do I get the man page back? The command you used will most likely be stored in a file called . you must modify the /etc/fstab file. Alternatively. To move forward a screen.

Chapter 16.7. Printing ls Output You can also print directory listings by piping the output to a printer in the same way that you piped the output to your screen.1. "Bang number": Typing !number (as in !302) will execute the command which is numbered 302 in the history file. to quit. Tips on Using Command History What are some other ways I can use command history? If you type history. You can achieve the same results with more. This way. press [Space] bar. Other Shortcuts Here are other command history shortcuts which may be useful to you: • • • • "Bang. you can press the up arrow to move back through previous commands in your history list (the down arrow will move you forward through the commands) until you find the command you want. bang": Typing !! (called "bang bang") executes the last command in the history.6.7. Press [Enter] to execute the command. How can I actually read the output? To prevent the output of ls from scrolling by too quickly. press [q]. showing you the previous 500 commands you have used. another paging utility. or "page" at at time. 16. You probably do not need to see all of the last 500 commands. 16. only the previous 20 commands you typed will display (you can use any quantity as an argument of the history command).1. type the following to pipe the output of a command to the printer: ls -al /etc | lpr . you will see a numbered list scroll by very quickly. To read the contents of /etc with less.6. to move back a screen. 16. If you have configured a printer. You will then be able to see the output one screen. [Up arrow] and [down arrow]: At the shell or GUI terminal prompt. so the command history 20 might be useful. Keep ls Output from Scrolling Whenever I type ls I can barely see the output of the directory because it scrolls by too quickly. pipe the output to a utility such as less or more. "Bang string": Typing !string (as in !rpm) will execute a command with the most recent matching string from the history file. just as if you had typed it on the command line. type the following command at the shell prompt: ls -al /etc | less To move forward a screen. press the [b] key. Frequently Asked Questions 131 16.

reboot the computer. Press [Enter] to make the editing change take effect. From here. When you are finished. Once you are finished. 4. The next time you log in. type [e] to enter into editing mode. su to root by typing su . If you use the default boot loader. 16. You can now change the root password by typing bash# passwd root You will be asked to re-type the password for verification. Forgotten Password Help! I forgot my root password. Changing Login from Console to X at Startup How do I change my login from the console to the graphical screen? Instead of logging in to your system at the console and typing the startx command to start the X Window System. At the boot loader menu. The passwd command will then ask for the new password.132 Chapter 16. you will be presented with a shell prompt similar to the following: sh-2. Open a shell prompt. which you will need to enter twice.8. by changing just one number in the runlevel section. /etc/inittab. You can now use the new password to log in to your user account. Open a shell prompt and type the following: passwd username Replace username with your normal user name.4 ro root=/dev/hda2 Press the arrow key until this line is highlighted and press [e].4. then add the word single to tell GRUB to boot into single-user Linux mode. After it finishes loading. reboot your computer. GRUB. Press the Spacebar once to add a blank space. You will be brought back to the edit mode screen. then you can log in to root as you normally would. You can then reboot by typing reboot at the prompt. Frequently Asked Questions 16. Password Maintenance I forgot or want to change my user account password. 16. 3.9. How do I log in now? You can log in using single-user mode and create a new root password. You must edit one file. 2.10. the password will be changed. You will be presented with a boot entry listing. you will have a graphical login prompt. you can enter single user mode by performing the following: 1. If you’re in your user account. you can configure your system so that you can log in directly to X. To enter single-user mode. Look for the line that looks similar to the following: kernel /vmlinuz-2.05# 5.18-0. press [b] and GRUB will boot single-user Linux mode.

To change from a console to a graphical login. if you do not have networking) # 3 . you should change the number in the line Warning Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.Multiuser.reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:3:initdefault: id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5. The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 . Within the first screen. . The file /etc/inittab will open. save and exit the file using the [Ctrl]-[x] keys.X11 # 6 .unused # 5 . and asking you to confirm your change. your next login after reboot will be from the graphical screen. Frequently Asked Questions 133 Now.Single user mode # 2 . type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit.Full multiuser mode # 4 . you will see a section of the file which looks like this: # Default runlevel. Now. You will see a message telling you that the file has been modified. without NFS (The same as 3.Chapter 16.halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # 1 . Type [Y] for yes. Your changed line should look like the following: id:5:initdefault: When you are satisfied with your change.

Frequently Asked Questions .134 Chapter 16.

If you would like to learn more about KDE.3. Figure A-1. and working with the Konquerer file manager.Appendix A.2. and panels. and customizing the desktop to suit your needs. Using The Desktop Once you start KDE. windows. you can view help documentation on topics such as using and configuring the desktop. right-click on the desktop and select the Help => K Desktop Handbook. A.org.1. A. From this main page. working with files and applications. This appendix covers the basics of using KDE: system navigation. visit the official website at http://www. The HelpCenter You can access the HelpCenter from the Main Menu by selecting Help. To access HelpCenter from the desktop. your default desktop will look similar to Figure A-2. menus. it allows you to access your Red Hat Linux system and applications using your mouse and keyboard. KDE: The K Desktop Environment A. working with the many applications included with KDE. .kde. Finding Help You can access a comprehensive set of documentation about KDE through the HelpCenter. The opening screen of the HelpCenter browser appears like Figure A-1. Introducing KDE The K Desktop Environment (KDE) is a graphical desktop that uses common graphical objects such as icons.

The panel taskbar shows your currently running applications. The default KDE desktop displays icons for the trash can. file folders. When you right-click on these icons. such as Delete. and Copy. the Start Here icon for applications and configuration tools. You can drag and drop files and application icons to any location on the desktop. or application launchers. word processor. Move to Trash.4. The KDE desktop works similarly to other graphical desktop environments. document windows. device links. . The panel contains application launchers. your home directory. and a diskette icon. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-2. You can access any one of these resources by double-clicking on the associated icon. and so on. You can have up to 16 desktops running at the same time in KDE. and backgrounds. it contains the main menu icon and quick-launch icons for starting a Web browser. panel. A. Click on an icon to open the associated resource. You can also access the main menu and configure the desktop to suit your needs. Configuration tools are also available which allow you to customize the way the desktop behaves at events such as single. You can drag and drop unwanted items such as files you no longer need to the Trash icon. You can also add new icons for all types of applications and resources to the desktop. status indicators. Rename. The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel. A Typical KDE Desktop The KDE desktop displays application launchers. You can change the appearance of buttons. or file manager. Right-click on the trash can and select Empty Trash Bin to delete the items from your system permanently. and the desktop manager. The desktop itself is also highly customizable. window and frame decorations.and double-clicking mouse buttons and chording keystrokes to create time-saving shortcuts. and other commonly used applications. email client.136 Appendix A. By default. folders. Icons located on the desktop can be files. you see several options for working with these resources. Using The Panel The panel stretches across the bottom of the desktop.

Appendix A. Figure A-4. . The main menu also contains several submenus that organize applications and tools into several categories. and customize your main menu. Games.4. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 137 Figure A-3. Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel. The Panel The panel is highly configurable. Click Help at any time to learn more about configuring your panel. You can configure panel orientation and size. To add an application launcher to the panel. There are several types of applets performing functions such as system monitoring. find files. There are some applets that run on the panel by default.1. right-click on the panel and choose Add. Click on Help for more information on these options. Clicking on the Main Menu icon on the panel displays a large master menu from which you can perform tasks such as launch applications. and launching applications by typing commands in a text box. including Graphics. Using The Main Menu The Main Menu is the central point for using KDE. From the Main Menu. A. Applications and utilities can be added easily to the panel. which will display a password-protected screensaver.2. you can lock your screen. Right-click on the panel and select Configure Panel to open the panel Settings. and more. Then select Application Button and make your choice from the menus. Office. time and date display.4. You can add and remove buttons that launch applications easily. set a panel hiding configuration (where the panel remains hidden until you hover over the panel area). A. Panel Settings Other tabs in Settings contain options to further customize your panel and taskbar. This section covers them in detail. You can also run applications from a command line as well as logout of your KDE session. and configure your desktop. Internet.

drag the bar to the left.) by deleting the default names and typing a new name in each desktop’s corresponding text box. Behavior.138 A. and choose the color or image you want to make your background using the associated tabs. For example. KDE provides four desktops that you can use to display multiple applications without having to crowd all of them onto one desktop.2. and so on. open applications. Right-click on the desktop. the KDE desktop configuration tool will open. you can have Mozilla browsing the Web on desktop two. to customize each virtual desktop to have different backgrounds. drag the bar to the right. click the Background icon. For example. For more desktops. click the virtual desktop you want to change. You can also change the number of desktops available to you by adjusting the slider in the Number of Desktops. uncheck the Common Background checkbox. and Paths. The Appearance. Each desktop can hold icons. for fewer desktops. . Figure A-5. the OpenOffice. Virtual Desktop Configuration You can change the names of your desktops (from Desktop 1. etc.1.org Writer word processor open on desktop three. and be individually customized. KDE: The K Desktop Environment By default. while you are writing a message in Evolution on desktop one. Working with Multiple Desktops Appendix A. you will see a brief menu of actions you can choose. 3. 2.4. Desktop 2. and Background icons are where you can make various desktop configuration changes. Select Configure Desktop. Click the Multiple Desktops icon (see Figure A-5). You can change the number and names of desktops available in KDE by making these adjustments: 1.

[Ctrl]-[F2] switches to desktop two. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 139 Figure A-6. and so on. release both keys and the application appears on the desktop. When you have found the task you want to maximize and bring to the front.2. Click OK to close the desktop configuration tool. Buttons for your desktops appear on the panel in the Desktop Pager. To pick an item from the taskbar.2. . [Ctrl]-[F3] takes you to desktop three. both minimized and displayed. click Apply to save the changes. To scroll through the tasks. hold down the [Alt] key. Applications on the Taskbar You can maximize running applications or bring them to the front of your working windows by clicking on the associated item on the taskbar. A. For example. on all desktops. while tapping the [Tab] key. Click on a tile to move to a different desktop. Tip Another way to bring minimized or background windows to the front is to use the [Alt] and [Tab] keys.Appendix A. hold down both the [Alt]-[Tab] key.4. Viewing The Taskbar The taskbar displays all running applications. Desktop Background Configuration After you make any adjustments to your desktop configuration. Figure A-7. Tip You can use the keyboard combination of the [Ctrl] and Function keys to switch desktops.

and adjust the number of seconds to elapse before the panel is hidden. place it on any edge of your desktop. The Settings window will appear. allowing you to navigate through your home directory and throughout your Red Hat Linux file system. allowing you to adjust all panel settings. surf the Web. Figure A-8. Menus. click Hide automatically. Konqueror will open up in a window on your desktop. This automatically adds an icon on the panel. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To further customize the panel for your particular needs. Konqueror allows you to configure your KDE desktop. right-click the panel and choose Add => Application Button and choose the application or resource you wish to add to the panel. play multimedia files. Click Apply then OK to close the Settings dialog. where Application is the name of the application associated with the icon. and more from one interface. you can include additional launcher icons to start applications without using the main menu or Start Here. configure your Red Hat Linux system.4. or any one of the specific properties (Arrangement. A. This section explains some of the ways Konqueror can help you work with and enjoy your Red Hat Linux system. browse digital images.4. To alter the default panel settings. right-click the panel and choose Configure Panel. Configuring the KDE Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually. Hiding. A. The panel will remain hidden until you hover over the panel area to make it reappear. click on your home directory icon . To add a new launcher to the panel. Managing Files Konqueror is the file manager and a Web browser for the KDE desktop. You can move the icon anywhere you want on the panel by right-clicking the icon and choosing Move Application Button. and change the way it behaves. To start Konqueror for file management.4. KDE: The K Desktop Environment A. After exploring. change its size and color.5. The Konqueror File Manager . and so on).140 Appendix A.3. you can return to your home directory by clicking the Home button on the toolbar. Choose the Hiding tab.

A. file system. Konqueror also displays thumbnail icons for text. A. PostScript/PDF files. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 141 You can navigate through the file system by clicking on folders within the main window frame or through the hierarchical file system viewer on the navigation panel as shown in Figure A-8.Appendix A. Konqueror is also a full featured Web browser. It can also preview sounds from digital audio files. network resources. Browsing the Web with Konqueror Konqueror not only allows you to browse your local and network file system. Files and folders in the main window frame can be moved or copied to another folder or sent to the trash. images. . Figure A-9. Figure A-9 shows the navigation panel. This panel appears on the left side of the Konqueror file browser window by default. Working with the Navigation Panel The navigation panel lets you access your Web bookmarks. browsing history. but with component technology used throughout KDE. The Navigation Panel Another useful feature of Konqueror is the navigation panel. The navigation panel makes many of your sytem resources available to you in convenient tabbed icons. and Web files.5. which you can use to explore the World Wide Web. and has a built-in media player for playing multimedia files without having to open a separate application. The navigation panel makes Konqueror an efficient solution for users who want fast and easy access to all of their files and information. You can also delete files and folders by right-clicking on the item and choosing Delete. To launch Konqueror choose Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => Konqueror Web Browser.6.1.

you will see the Specifications screen. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Konqueror Handbook. and OpenSSL). featured protocols.142 Appendix A. plug-ins. you will be presented with an Introduction screen. For additional information on using Konqueror. To begin your Web session. and more. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-10. This screen offers basic instructions for browsing webpages. This screen displays information on supported standards (such as Cascading Stylesheets. By clicking Continue from the Tips screen. . you will be presented with the Tips page. This page shows you basic tips for using Konqueror so that you can begin to take advantage of the many features. enter a URL in the Location field. Welcome to Konqueror When you first launch Konqueror. If you click Continue at the end of the webpage.

Appendix A. click on your home directory desktop icon to access the Konqueror file manager: .7. the browser displays the image in its native size. The Konqueror Handbook A. Using Konqueror as an image browser works similarly to Nautilus (see Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information). Using Konqueror to View Images You can also use the Konqueror file manager to view images. Image files automatically generate thumbnail image icons for you to preview within the file browser window. as shown in Figure A-12. When you double-click on a thumbnail icon. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 143 Figure A-11. Figure A-12. Viewing an Image in Konqueror . If you chose KDE as your default desktop environment.

Image viewing configuration on the Konqueror Toolbar You can also open the image with more advanced image viewers. A pop-up menu will appear allowing you to open the application you wish to use. For additional information. To launch the GIMP.. choose View => View Mode => Image Viewer Part.. . you first need to change the way Konqueror renders the image. Figure A-14.. Dialog Box A. The Configure Mail Client window consists of the following sections: Identities. Figure A-13. click on the Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => KMail.8.kde. KMail KMail is an email tool for KDE. choose Open With. To open KMail.144 Appendix A. It has an intuitive graphical interface similar to Evolution that allows you to send and receive email using a graphical interface. Click on the GIMP icon and click OK. To begin sending and receiving messages you will have to change the settings in the Identities and Network tabs. The Open With. select Settings from the KMail toolbar. Before you can really use KMail.org.. as well as with The GIMP. as seen in Figure A-14. Rightclick on the image.. Have your email information from your service provider or administrator handy so that you can fill in the required information to begin using KMail. as shown in Figure A-13. refer to the KMail user manual (Help => KMail Handbook) or visit KMail’s homepage at http://kmail. KDE: The K Desktop Environment To zoom in and out of an image. choose Graphics and scroll down the list of applications. Appearance. This will re-display the image and allow you to rotate and zoom in on the image using the two magnifying glass icons or the magnification percentage drop-down menu on the toolbar. then Other... To run the configuration tool. and click on Configure KMail. Composer. Security. Network. you must configure it so it can send and receive mail.. and Folders. From the window menu.

KMail Main Screen Once you have your email settings configured. you can begin sending and receiving email. click on the new message icon in the tool bar: Figure A-16. To compose a mail. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 145 Figure A-15. KMail New Email Message Screen . and more. emails you have sent. emails ready to be sent. The folders on the left side of the KMail screen allow you to view emails you have received.Appendix A.

System Administration This section is an advanced system configuration interface. select Logout User. You can also customize mouse and keyboard events which makes working with the desktop as efficient for your needs as possible. Appearance & Themes This sections allows you to customize the visual aspect of your desktop environment. Logging Out of KDE There are two ways to log out of your KDE session. KDE Logout Screen . This section allows you to configure system boot settings. Linux kernel configuration. You can customize background images and configure fonts. In either case click Logout and your session will end. The following list explains some of the configuration options in detail.10. From the Main Menu. login management. You can also associate files to applications that you prefer (for example. themes. You can configure options such as cache sizes. right-click on the desktop and. The KDE Control Center. A. lets you customize the look and behavior of the desktop. you can also configure accessibility features such as audible and visual cues and keyboard/mouse customization. screensavers. proxy settings (if available). Regional & Accessibility This section allows you to set country and language options to your particular locale.146 Appendix A. and window border appearance. Web Browsing This section allows you to configure the Konqueror Web browser. icons. For users with sight or hearing impairments. and more. from the menu. click Send in the toolbar: . and enhanced browsing using keyword shortcuts. plugins. Figure A-17. To log out from the desktop. KDE Components This section lets you configure the Konqueror file manager and customize certain file operations. Customizing KDE KDE allows you to configure the desktop and your system to suit your needs. available by selecting Main Menu => Control Center. select Logout User where User is your account username. A. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to. It is strongly recommended that you leave these settings at their default values unless you understand the consequences of changing them. where User is your account username. panel elements. website cookies. assigning all digital music files to open in XMMS instead of the default player).9. You will need your root password to configure most of these options.

org Write OpenOffice.org Impress Dia The GIMP. Kate Kmail. KDE CD Player. CD Player (GNOME CD). KSpread KPresenter.org Calc OpenOffice. links. Emacs.Appendix B. This is not a complete list of all applications available. Applications . Applications The following table shows some of the Red Hat Linux applications that are available to perform many common tasks. XFig Icon Editor (K Icon Editor) Image Viewer (Kuickshow). KMid Sound Recorder (GNOME Sound). mutt Galeon. Konquerer. The GIMP Scan and OCR Program (Kooka). Applications in between (parentheses) denotes the formal name of the application. Scanning (XSane) Jpilot CD Creator. Evolution KOnCD vi. The GIMP KPilot. lynx X-Chat. cdrecord.Volume Monitor (VUMeter) Extras KWord Gnumeric. Chatzilla Ghostview Table B-1. Category Word Processors Spreadsheets Presentations Charts and Diagrams Graphics Image Viewers Digital Cameras/Scanners PDAs CD Recording Text Editors Email Clients Web Browsers Chat/Instant Messaging PDF/PostScript Viewers Personal Finance Fax Sound Recommended Application OpenOffice. MagicPoint Kchart. Mozilla Mail. aumix. Paint Program (KPaint) GThumb Digital Camera Tool (gtKam). X-CD-Roast Text Editor (gedit) Evolution Mozilla Instant Messenger (GAIM) xpdf Gnucash Fax Viewer (KFax) Audio Player (XMMS). Kivio. KDE Sound Mixer.

148 Appendix B. Applications .

txt Displays command help Creates a directory Views a file Renames a file command /? mkdir more ren .txt thatfile.txt (if diskette is in A:) /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 (/dev/fd0 is the Linux equivalent of A:) man command mkdir directory less thisfile. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands Many Linux commands typed at a shell prompt are similar to the commands you would type in DOS.txt diff file1 file2 grep this word or phrase thisfile. Note that these commands usually have a number of options. some commands are identical.Appendix C. Basic examples of how the command are used at the Linux shell prompt are also provided. type man ls at the shell prompt to read about the ls command). This appendix provides common commands used at the DOS prompt in Windows and their counterparts in Linux. In fact.txt mv thisfile. To learn more about each command.txt /home/thisdirectory ls clear exit date rm thisfile. Command’s Purpose Copies files Moves files Lists files Clears screen Closes shell prompt Displays or sets date Deletes files "Echoes" output to the screen Edits files with simple text editor Compares the contents of files Finds a string of text in a file Formats a diskette MS-DOS copy move dir cls exit date del echo edit fc find format a: Linux cp mv ls clear exit date rm echo gedit(a) diff grep mke2fs or mformat(b) man(c) mkdir less(d) mv(e) Basic Linux Example cp thisfile. read its associated man page (for example.txt /home/thisdirectory mv thisfile.txt echo this message gedit thisfile.

with a relative path Displays the time Shows amount of RAM in use time mem cd pathname cd /directory/directory cd . b. Similar Commands . date free date free Notes: a. cd . The mv command can both move a file and... if you want to rename a file in the same directory. Table C-1..150 Command’s Purpose Displays your location in the file system Appendix C. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands MS-DOS chdir Linux pwd Basic Linux Example pwd Changes directories cd with a specified pathname path (absolute path) Changes directories cd . as seen in this example. Gedit is a graphical text editor. "move" that file to the same directory with a new name. d. c. You can also use info for some commands. The more pager can also be used to page through a file one screen at a time. other editors you can use in place of Gedit include Emacs and vi. e. This formats a disk for the DOS file system.

— The home directory of root. /tmp/ allows all users on a system read • /home/ • /opt/ — Default location of user home directories. — Contains configuration files and directories. • /root/ • /mnt/ • /boot/ • /lost+found/ — • /lib/ — Contains many library files used by programs in /bin/ and /sbin/. such as programs and supporting library files. such as shutdown. The directory /usr/sbin/ also contains many system commands. — Stores device files. • /bin/ — Used to store user commands. — This directory typically contains the mount points for file systems mounted after the system is booted. Warning Do not delete the /initrd/ directory. The directory /usr/bin/ also stores user commands. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide and the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. Used by fsck to place orphaned files (files without names). You will be unable to boot your computer if you delete the directory and then reboot your Red Hat Linux system. such as log files and the printer spool. The directory /usr/lib/ contains more library files for user applications. the superuser. System Directories This is a list of the primary Red Hat Linux system directories. Each directory is described briefly. — For variable (or constantly changing) files. For example. — A virtual file system (not actually stored on the disk) that contains system information used by certain programs. . — Contains the kernel and other files used during system startup. • /dev/ • /etc/ • /var/ • /usr/ — Contains files and directories directly relating to users of the system. the default CD-ROM mount point is /mnt/cdrom/. directory for users and programs.Appendix D. • /sbin/ — Location of many system commands.img image file and load needed device • /proc/ • /initrd/ — A directory modules during bootup. This directory is used mainly by third-party developers for easy installation and uninstallation of their software packages. that is used to mount the initrd. For additional directory information. • /tmp/ — The temporary and write access. — Directory where optional files and programs are stored.

System Directories .152 Appendix D.

[Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Fn] = switches screens. Use the left mouse button to highlight the text.Appendix E. press the [up] or [down] arrow to scroll through a history of commands you have typed from the current directory. Click the middle mouse button to paste it. Shuts down your current session and reboots the OS. Type this at a shell prompt to see a numbered list of the previous 1000 commands you typed. Type the first few characters of a command or filename and then press the [Tab] key. Kills your graphical desktop session and returns you to the login screen. [Ctrl] + [d] = logout of (and close) shell prompt. Type this command to clear all visible data from the shell prompt screen. If you are working in a terminal. To display a shorter list of previously used commands. By default. [F1] through [F6] are shell prompt screens and [F7] is the graphical desktop screen. Type this at a shell prompt to refresh the screen if characters are unclear or appear corrupt. use this shortcut to clear the current line from the cursor all the way to the beginning of the line. type history followed by a space and a number. • • • • • • • • • • • • • . reset = refreshes the shell prompt screen. Use this quick shortcut instead of typing exit or logout. For more command line and keyboard shortcuts. you can click both the left and right mouse buttons simultaneously to perform a paste. [Alt] + [Tab] = switches tasks in a graphical desktop environment. Use this command when using a shell prompt. history 20. Use only when the normal shutdown procedure does not work. [Up] and [Down] Arrow = shows command history. [Ctrl]+[Alt] + one of the function keys displays an available screen. If you have more than one application open at a time. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Delete] = shutdown and reboots your Red Hat Linux system.dk/linux-newbie/lnag_commands.html#shortcuts • • • [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Backspace] = kills your current X session. [Ctrl] + [e] = moves cursor to end of a line. clear = clears the shell prompt screen. if you configured your mouse to emulate a third mouse button. It will automatically complete the command or show all commands that match the characters you typed. Keyboard Shortcuts Here are a few keyboard shortcuts you can use to perform common tasks quickly. When you see the command you want to use. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. When using a shell prompt. [Tab] = command autocomplete. Point the cursor to the spot where you want it pasted. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. [Ctrl] + [u] = clears the current line. history = shows history of commands. exit = logout. This shortcut does the same thing as typing clear at a command line. Type this at a shell prompt to logout of the current user or root account. Use this if the normal exit procedure does not work. [Middle Mouse Button] = pastes highlighted text. visit: http://sunsite. In a two mouse system. For example. press [Enter]. you can use [Alt] + [Tab] to switch among open tasks and applications. Many more are available in addition to what is listed here. [Ctrl] + [l] = clears the terminal. [Ctrl] + [a] = moves cursor to the beginning of a line.

154 Appendix E. Keyboard Shortcuts .

95 DOS. 16 on the desktop panel. 26 additional resources. 30 with mkisofs. 96 cd. 113 commands (See shell prompt) cat. 105 numerical settings. 14 panel in KDE. 147 starting from shell prompt. 32 and CD Creator. 30 and mkisofs. 7 B bunzip2. 31 CDs. 94 multiple. 26 additional resources.org Draw. 27 and cdrecord. 60 . 90 pwd. 90 CD-rewritable (CD-RW). 127 compressing files. 30 and X-CD-Roast. 90 change directories. 28 bzip2. 93 ls. 103 tips. 130 grep. 131 ls -a. common options with. 90 reset. 32 with CD Creator. 149 finding. deleting) stringing together. deleting) rm -r (See directories. 127 archiving files. 131 command line options printing from. 26 additional resources. 93 ls -al. 27 and cdrecord. 113 conventions document. 90 chmod. 92 tail. 7 appending standard output. ii copying and pasting text when using X. v creating graphics with OpenOffice. 96 command history. 115 C cat. 101 cat. 137 applications and Red Hat Linux. 32 and CD Creator. 115 burning CDs. 28 CD-writable (CD-R). 98 applets adding to KDE panel. 28 cdrecord. 30 and X-CD-Roast. 27 with cdrecord. 30 with X-CD-Roast. 104 print working directory (pwd). 105 numerical settings. playing. 93 keeping output from scrolling. 140 adding to the panel. 130 locate.Index A accounts creating. 94 ls. 73 chmod. 101 head. 96 cron. 96 rm (See files. 101 history. using. 104 su. 69 creating user accounts. 96 cd. 101 common user questions. 30 and mkisofs. 108 clear. 108 clear.

121 deleting at a shell prompt. 119 deleting. 119 copying at a shell prompt. 23 DNS definition. 72 text files. 130 history tips and tricks. 119 deleting. 112 files archived. 64 PDF. 127 starting applications. 69 environment variables PATH. 14 background changing. 119 types of. 45 Evolution. 111 File Roller. 50 plain text. 131 login problems. 23 formatting. v FHS (See Filesystem Hierarchy Standard) file. 132 permissions for installing RPMs. 113 with File Roller. 35 digital cameras. 63 OpenOffice. 112 managing from shell prompt. 120 diskettes. 23 using. 119 renaming at a shell prompt. 121 descriptions. 114 file system understanding. 144 Mozilla Mail. 24 mke2fs. 125 Evolution (See email clients) ext2 file system and floppy disks. v drawing OpenOffice. 48 Newsgroups. 128 errata updating with.156 D date configuration. 113 file manager for KDE. 81 KDE. 16 file managers. 21 dateconfig (See Time and Date Properties Tool) desktop (See graphical desktop) applets. 114 copying.org Writer. 23 unmounting. 112 archiving. 135 desktops multiple KDE. 151 listing contents. 120 moving at a shell prompt. 89 moving. 49 mutt. 112 compressing. 113 with File Roller. 90 copying. 112 Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. 138 devices digital cameras. 131 keeping ls output from scrolling. 111 file types. 24 F FAQ. 112 floppy disks (See diskettes) E email clients. 63 OpenOffice. 114 compressed. 50 .org Draw. 25 mounting. 129 finding previous used commands. 87 directories changing. 93 managing from shell prompt. 127 accessing a Windows partition. 50 mutt. 119 formats. 89 moving. 87 DHCP. 119 creating touch.org. 35 documents. 46 KMail. 140 Nautilus. 18. 127 feedback contact information for this manual. 70 dot files (See hidden files) drag and drop.

157
formatting diskettes, 24

I
images additional resources, 85 manipulation, 79 GIMP, 82 viewing, 79, 79 gThumb, 80 Konqueror, 143 Nautilus, 79 Internet configuring, 35 Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 introduction, i IP address, 35

G
games and amusements, 76 finding more online, 77 getting started logging in, 5 Setup Agent, 1 GIMP, 82 opening a file, 83 saving a file, 84 GNOME desktop (See graphical desktop) GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 graphical desktop, 13 applets, 16 background changing, 18, 81 customizing, 18 logging out of, 20 main menu, 14 Nautilus, 16 panel, 14 Start Here , 17 using, 13 workspace, 13 graphical login changing to, 132 graphics GIMP, 82 gThumb, 80 changing wallpaper with, 81 gunzip, 115 gzip, 115

K
KDE, 135 applets adding, 140 multiple desktops, 138 customizing, 146 desktop, 135 desktop icons, 136 desktops multiple, 138 switching, 139 documentation, 135 Konqueror navigation panel, 141 main menu, 137 panel, 136 applets, 137 switching tasks, 139 Taskbar, 139 website, 135 keyboard shortcuts, 153 KMail (See email clients) Konqueror (See Web browsers) KDE file manager, 140 navigation panel, 141 viewing images with, 143

H
Hardware Browser, 129 help with KDE finding, 135 hidden files, 93 history finding commands using, 130

158

L
less, 100 linux commands (See shell prompt) listing directories (See commands, ls) log in, 5 logging in, 5 graphical, 132 graphical login, 6 virtual console login, 6 logging out, 11 from the desktop, 20 KDE, 146 login problems using single-user mode, 132 ls, 93 printing output, 131 viewing output, 131

configuring, 21 ntpd, 21 ntpd, 21

O
online connecting with Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 OpenOffice.org, 63 Draw, 69 features, 63 Impress, 67 Writer, 64, 65 ownership and permissions, 105

P
pagers, 100 less, 100 panel configuring, 16 configuring the, 140 KDE, 136 adding applications, 137 customizing, 137 hiding, 137 on the graphical desktop, 14 partitions accessing Windows, 129 password forgotten, 132 passwords secure, 8 PATH, 128 editing, 127 pathnames relative and absolute, 90 PDF viewing, 72 xpdf, 72 peripherals digital cameras, 87 permissions numerical settings, 108 setting for new RPMs, 127 permissions and ownership, 105 pipes, 100 plain text (See text files) Point-to-Point Protocol, 35 PPP, 35 presentations OpenOffice.org Impress, 67 printer configuration adding

M
main menu in KDE, 137 on the desktop, 14 mke2fs, 25 mkisofs, 31 mouse how to use, v Mozilla (See Web browsers) Mozilla Mail (See email clients) music Ogg Vorbis, 73 Wave, 73 XMMS, 73 using, 74 mutt (See email clients)

N
Nautilus, 16 disabling text icons, 17 disabling thumbnails, 17 viewing images with, 79 Network Time Protocol (See NTP) new users creating accounts, 7 Newsgroups (See email clients) NTP

159
local printer, 53 cancel print job, 60 default printer, 56 delete existing printer, 56 driver options, 57 Assume Unknown Data is Text, 57 Convert Text to Postscript, 58 Effective Filter Locale, 58 GhostScript pre-filtering, 58 Media Source, 58 Page Size, 58 Prerender Postscript, 58 Send End-of-Transmission (EOT), 57 Send Form-Feed (FF), 57 edit driver, 57 edit existing printer, 56 GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 local printer, 53 managing print jobs, 58 modifying existing printers, 56 notification icon, 59 printing from the command line, 60 rename existing printer, 57 test page, 56 viewing print spool, 59 viewing print spool, command line, 60 printing from command line, 95 pwd, 90

S
Setup Agent, 1 shell, 89 history of, 89 shell prompt, 7 basic commands, 89 chmod, 106 single-user mode, 132 software installing, 123 upgrading, 123 sound card configuring, 74 Sound Card Configuration Tool, 74 spreadsheets OpenOffice.org Calc, 65 standard input redirecting, 99 standard output appending, 98 redirecting, 96 Start Here, 17 changing desktop background with, 18 startup messages dmesg | more, 100 startx, 6 su, 92 superuser (See commands, su) switching desktops KDE, 139 switching tasks KDE, 139 system directories descriptions, 151

R
Red Hat Network, 123 Red Hat Update Agent, 123 redhat-config-date (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redhat-config-time (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redirecting standard input, 99 redirection, 96 reset, 96 RHN (See Red Hat Network) root, 111 and root login, 111 logging in as, 5 RPM, 125 installing packages, 123 upgrading packages, 123 RPMs error message while installing, 127 installing with Gnome-RPM, 127

T
tab completion, 103 Taskbar KDE, 139 terminal (See shell prompt) terms introductory, 3 text files, 70 editing, 70 from a shell prompt, 71 The Graphical Desktop, 6 time configuration, 21 synchronize with NTP server, 21 time zone configuration, 22 timetool (See Time and Date Properties Tool) Trash icon

136 troubleshooting sound card. 39 using. 74 video card. 39 Mozilla. 18 Web browsers. 76 U unzip. 39 Windows accessing on a separate partition add line to /etc/fstab. 7 importance of. 39 X X Configuration Tool. 76 xpdf. 141 Mozilla. 96 less. 5 utilities cat. 39 Konqueror. 71 W wallpaper changing. 115 user account creating. 72 . 100 V vi . 129 World Wide Web browsers.160 KDE.

Colophon The Red Hat Linux manuals are written in DocBook SGML v4. Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. and warning). tip. The HTML and PDF formats are produced using custom DSSSL stylesheets and custom jade wrapper scripts. Bailey — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer.1 format. caution. Moore — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide. Writer/Maintainer of custom DocBook stylesheets and scripts Edward C. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide Johnray Fuller — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. important. The DocBook SGML files are written in Emacs with the help of PSGML mode. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer John Ha — Primary Writer/Maintainer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Tammy Fox — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. Garrett LeSage created the admonition graphics (note. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer . They may be freely redistributed with the Red Hat documentation. The Red Hat Linux Product Documentation Team consists of the following people: Sandra A. Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide.

162 .