Red Hat Linux 9

Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide

Red Hat Linux 9: Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc.
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rhl-gsg(EN)-9-Print-RHI (2003-02-20T01:05) Copyright © 2003 by Red Hat, Inc. This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, V1.0 or later (the latest version is presently available at http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/). Distribution of substantively modified versions of this document is prohibited without the explicit permission of the copyright holder. Distribution of the work or derivative of the work in any standard (paper) book form for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder. Red Hat, Red Hat Network, the Red Hat "Shadow Man" logo, RPM, Maximum RPM, the RPM logo, Linux Library, PowerTools, Linux Undercover, RHmember, RHmember More, Rough Cuts, Rawhide and all Red Hat-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in the United States and other countries. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. Motif and UNIX are registered trademarks of The Open Group. Intel and Pentium are a registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. Itanium and Celeron are trademarks of Intel Corporation. AMD, AMD Athlon, AMD Duron, and AMD K6 are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Netscape is a registered trademark of Netscape Communications Corporation in the United States and other countries. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. SSH and Secure Shell are trademarks of SSH Communications Security, Inc. FireWire is a trademark of Apple Computer Corporation. All other trademarks and copyrights referred to are the property of their respective owners. The GPG fingerprint of the security@redhat.com key is: CA 20 86 86 2B D6 9D FC 65 F6 EC C4 21 91 80 CD DB 42 A6 0E

Table of Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... i 1. Changes to This Manual ........................................................................................................ i 2. Document Conventions......................................................................................................... ii 3. Copying and Pasting Text With X........................................................................................ iv 4. Using the Mouse ................................................................................................................... v 5. We Need Feedback! .............................................................................................................. v 6. Sign Up for Support .............................................................................................................. v 1. Getting Started ................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1. Setup Agent....................................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Introductory Terms............................................................................................................. 3 1.3. Logging In.......................................................................................................................... 5 1.3.1. Graphical Login .................................................................................................. 5 1.3.2. Virtual Console Login......................................................................................... 6 1.4. Graphical Interface............................................................................................................. 6 1.5. Opening a Shell Prompt ..................................................................................................... 7 1.6. Creating a User Account.................................................................................................... 7 1.7. Documentation and Help ................................................................................................... 8 1.7.1. Manual Pages ...................................................................................................... 9 1.7.2. Red Hat Linux Documentation ......................................................................... 10 1.8. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 11 1.8.1. Graphical Logout .............................................................................................. 11 1.8.2. Virtual Console Logout..................................................................................... 11 1.9. Shutting Down your Computer ........................................................................................ 11 1.9.1. Graphical Shutdown.......................................................................................... 11 1.9.2. Virtual Console Shutdown ................................................................................ 12 2. Using the Graphical Desktop ....................................................................................................... 13 2.1. Using the Desktop............................................................................................................ 13 2.2. Using the Panel ................................................................................................................ 14 2.2.1. Using the Main Menu ...................................................................................... 14 2.2.2. Using Applets.................................................................................................... 14 2.2.3. Using the Notification Area .............................................................................. 15 2.2.4. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel............................................................. 16 2.2.5. Configuring the Desktop Panel ......................................................................... 16 2.3. Using Nautilus ................................................................................................................ 16 2.4. Start Here ......................................................................................................................... 17 2.4.1. Customizing the Desktop.................................................................................. 18 2.4.2. Customizing your System ................................................................................. 19 2.5. Logging Out ..................................................................................................................... 20 3. Configuring the Date and Time ................................................................................................... 21 3.1. Time and Date Properties................................................................................................. 21 3.2. Time Zone Configuration................................................................................................. 21 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs .............................................................................................................. 23 4.1. Using Diskettes ................................................................................................................ 23 4.1.1. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette.............................................................. 23 4.1.2. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette ................................................... 24 4.1.3. Formatting a Diskette........................................................................................ 24 4.2. CD-ROMs ........................................................................................................................ 25 4.2.1. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager ....................................................... 26 4.2.2. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt ............................................................ 26 4.3. CD-Rs and CD-RWs ........................................................................................................ 26 4.3.1. Using CD Creator............................................................................................ 27 4.3.2. Using X-CD-Roast........................................................................................... 28

41 6................................................. 65 9............... Mozilla and Newsgroups ......................1..........4.............................. 53 8...............................3................................................................................. 69 9......................................7.......................................... Installed Documentation .................................. 35 6...............................................3......... Editing Text Files ................... 39 6.....1...................3..................................................4.1............1..............6...........................................................org Suite............. Finding Games Online ......3..................... 30 4.....4...........4......... Viewing PDFs .1.......org Calc ..... 73 10..................................................1....................................................................4............ 53 8....1... 61 9...........2.................................................................................1................... Troubleshooting Your Sound Card ......... 76 10.... 32 4..............3............................................. Modifying Existing Printers.............................. Working with Documents............................... Printer Configuration ........................................................................ Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing........1........................................2.................................. 56 8........................................................................................... 41 6.............................................................................. Printer Driver. 57 8........ 75 10.. OpenOffice............................................................................................................1................... 60 8.............. Mozilla Composer.............1............................. Playing Digital Audio Files .......................................................................... Mozilla............................................................................. 63 9.........................5.......... Confirming Printer Configuration .......... 57 8......3................6............................................................................. Playing Audio CDs .............4.................................................................. Useful Websites .................5..............................7.... Games .................... 58 8................. Audio................................................................................ 71 10..............................................................org Features.......... 43 7......................................................1.........................................................................................2........................... 50 7...........2......................... OpenOffice...................................................... 57 8................ Additional Resources .......................3........................................... Evolution.... 64 9............................. 39 6..........4......... Troubleshooting Your Video Card .......................................... OpenOffice...... and General Amusement............................. 73 10........................... Email Applications.................... 49 7.3..............5..................3...................................................................................................................... 77 .................................................... Shell Prompt Text Editors ................................................... 32 4..............................5................... 71 9............................................ Web Browsing............................................ Plain Text Email Clients ................2...........................5...............org Impress. Using Mutt ................org Draw..... 54 8........................................2.............................................. 57 8................................ The Printer Configuration Tool ........5......................... Installed Documentation .....4...........1.................... Queue Type ........................................................2...................... Queue Name ............................................. 73 10.............................. 53 8...... 63 9...................... Galeon ...3..................... 50 8........7...........................................................3............................. 69 9.................................................................. The OpenOffice........................ Useful Websites ...............................2......................... Using XMMS ....................................................................................................................... 74 10............ 55 8.......................................................... Video............... 33 5.1......................................................... Managing Print Jobs ........................................... 67 9....................1................ Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools ............1....1..........................................................2................. Driver Options... 45 7........ 47 7..................................................1.................................................................. Adding a Local Printer. OpenOffice.......5.....1..................................................................................................... 60 8................................................. If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work...........1............................ 74 10................................. 45 7........ Printing a Test Page......................................2.........................................2............3......... Additional Resources ...................... Using Mozilla..1..............1............2..................... OpenOffice....... 75 10... Getting Online ..................... 55 8................................................ Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts ........... 39 6..........................1........... Mozilla Mail....................2..................................................... 63 9................org Writer ........................

............................2........................................................... 93 13........ Useful Websites ...............5.................... 94 13................11.......... 112 14.........................3...... 90 13.......................................... 102 13................1.............2....... Appending Standard Output ............................... 106 13........ Identifying and Working with File Types .............................. 114 14..........................................................2....11................................................................... 101 13................. File Compression and Archiving ................... 80 11............................................................. Compressed and Archived Files ................................................................................................................................ Using File Roller.. System Files .................. View Directory Contents with ls..................... 101 13.... Changing Permissions With Numbers ......................................................................... 85 11. The History of the Shell.............. 99 13........................................ 112 14..... 100 13.........2................................................. The chmod Command................. Using gThumb ...............2...............6............ 104 13................. 111 14......... 95 13.......4...................... 111 14.............. Command History and Tab Completion ... Using Redirection .................2..................2............................. Changing Directories with cd . Using Nautilus to View Images...1.....1........................ GIMP Options ................. 119 ............. Loading a File ............. 115 14......................................9........................ 117 14.....................11...10....... A Larger Picture of the File System ...................12.. Manipulating Images with the GIMP...............................................................................................11................................................ 85 11................................ Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt .....9................................ Why Use a Shell Prompt.....................4...................1.........3. File Formats .........................1................................................... I/O Redirection and Pipes ................. 112 14..............................9... 82 11.......... Ownership and Permissions.....14........... 79 11................................11........1.................1....... Printing From The Command Line... Creating Files ...................................1............................... 104 13............................................................ Working with Digital Cameras ...................................11................................................ Installed Documentation ..........2... The grep Command...................................................3................. Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt.. Shell Prompt Basics ..... Wildcards and Regular Expressions................................................. 112 14..................1.......................................................... Locating Files and Directories ......................... 103 13...... 82 11....................................................1......................................................1......................................... Working with Images............................................................................... 86 12...3...........2................................... Clearing and Resetting the Terminal...................... 90 13............................................................................................ Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt......................................................................11............................... Related Books ............................................... Viewing Images..............2....3.................13................................ 89 13......................................9.................. 79 11..3...........................................1..... The more Command .2......................3..................................................8................................................. 84 11.............1..... 89 13............................................................................. 98 13.............................14.7... Redirecting Standard Input ............................ 99 13............... 87 13.......... 101 13................... The head Command ......................2....................... 102 13.......................................4......................................... 89 13........................ Using gtKam ....................................................4..........................1...........................3..............................................................3..5.14........................................................ 113 14.................. Managing Files and Directories ........................................ 79 11...............2......................................................................1.3..........3.................. Additional Resources ................................4..........................2........................3...................................................................................... Manipulating Files with cat........... GIMP Basics ...........................3............... More Commands for Reading Text Files............... 96 13..........................2...........2.......3......1............................. 95 13........... 87 12....................................................................... Determining Your Current Directory with pwd .................................................... 96 13.................................................... Using Multiple Commands ........ 83 11........................... Pipes and Pagers ........... 101 13................. 85 11.................. 108 14......10.................................... Saving a File ..................... 113 14.......3.................................................2..............................................4... 84 11................................... Programming and Scripting Files ............................................................................ The tail Command................... 119 14..............2...............2..............

......... 131 16...............................4................9.....................6.... 119 14............................................................................................................ Browsing the Web with Konqueror ................................................................................................... KMail ......... 132 A....................... Applications .......................................................................... 129 16................................................ 132 16...2.................1..... 146 B................................................ 137 A...................... Configuring the KDE Panel ................................................4..6................. Accessing a Windows Partition .............................................................................................. Using The Panel .............. 123 15............................................. 151 E...7........ 140 A............................7..............................................................................3.........3............................. Moving Files ..............................................................1..............1.......... 140 A........................................................... 137 A.................................................................................................... 135 A........................................................... Error Messages During Installation of RPMs...... 127 16.. Tips on Using Command History .....................4................... Using Applets.......................................................................... 127 16..7...............................8................................... 131 16...................................... 146 A............... Using The Main Menu....................................................... Localhost Login and Password ..................... Forgotten Password................................................ 139 A................................................2........ 125 15... 141 A........4................................................................................................ 135 A...........................................................................................................................10..................................................... 128 16.. 153 Index.........................3...........................................3....1......................... Password Maintenance...............................5...................................................... 123 15........ Using The Desktop........14...................... 127 16............................................................................ Other Shortcuts ................................................................................................ Errata List...... Introducing KDE............. 127 16............................ Frequently Asked Questions ..........................................9.... 130 16........................................................................................... 135 A......................................... Printing ls Output........... Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel .... KDE: The K Desktop Environment ................................................................... Logging Out of KDE...................................4............................................................................. Installation CD-ROMs .... The Navigation Panel.... Deleting Files and Directories .. Keyboard Shortcuts ...................... Starting Applications ...5.6..................... 121 15........................................................................... 130 16.......4... 143 A.......................................4................................................... 131 16...... Managing Files............... 149 D..................................................... Copying Files ............ 125 15.............................................................................4...............................2................ 131 16............................. 126 16....................................... 135 A......................................5..................1............................. 144 A..............3.................... A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands .......4. Finding Commands Quickly ...................................... Red Hat Network ......................................................................2....1....8...1.............................. 147 C...........................2................ 155 Colophon................................................................................................................ 161 ...................................... 120 14.............................1......... 136 A....... Customizing KDE ............. Downloaded Packages ............10...4.4........................................................................................................................3................................................................................... Editing Your PATH ............................................... Finding Help ..4....................................... Changing Login from Console to X at Startup . Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages................................................... Using Konqueror to View Images .... 141 A...................... Keep ls Output from Scrolling ... System Directories..........................................................................................

and getting online. with an open mind. First. you should read the Red Hat Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to our documentation being finalized. Once the basics are covered. You will find useful tips. Forget about the conventions of other operating systems and.redhat. HTML and PDF versions of the Red Hat Linux manuals are available on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD and online at http://www. the tasks covered in this manual become progressively more advanced. hints. The Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide focuses primarily on how to perform tasks in these two environments. This manual is designed to help new and intermediate Linux users navigate and perform common tasks. You can find this information in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. and the Red Hat Linux Security Guide.com/docs/ 1. They can be found on the Red Hat Linux CD #1 and online at: http://www. Changes to This Manual This manual has been expanded to include new features in Red Hat Linux 9 as well as topics requested by our readers. and versatile alternative. Changes to this manual include: Working with Digital Cameras This new chapter discusses using a digital camera with gtKam.Introduction Welcome to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide! By now. and screen shots interspersed throughout. approach Red Hat Linux as a new. configuring a printer. Note Although this manual reflects the most current information possible. Keep in mind that Linux looks.com/docs/. . the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer. This manual is task-oriented. you will learn the basics of using Red Hat Linux. the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. and performs differently from other operating systems you may have used. warnings. interesting. Most users choose to work within either the GNOME or KDE graphical desktop environments (other desktop environments are also available). you should have read the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide and successfully installed Red Hat Linux. such as customizing a desktop. Topics discussed include: • • • • • Using the graphical desktop environment Managing files and directories Working with documents Using the Web and email Working with a digital camera After conquering the basics of your Red Hat Linux system. you may need information on more advanced topics.redhat. feels.

named testfile. filename Filenames. so the entire phrase will be displayed as a command.bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases for your own use. and weights. different words are represented in the same style to indicate their inclusion in a specific category. directory names. In these cases. Document Conventions When you read this manual. typefaces. Working with Documents This chapter includes information on editing text files in a graphical environment (with gEdit) and at a shell prompt (with vi). Diskettes and CD-ROMs This chapter now includes information about backing up files to CD-R and CD-RW media using CD Creator in Nautilus. Sometimes a command contains words that would be displayed in a different style on their own (such as filenames). and more. Examples: The . 2. they are considered to be part of the command. For example: Use Mozilla to browse the Web. and how to connect to a network time server to get accurate time and date information for your Red Hat Linux system has been moved from the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide to this manual. This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on the command line and press [Enter] to invoke a command. sizes. Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program. including how to change your desktop background. This style should indicate that a particular file or directory exists by that name on your Red Hat Linux system. when used) are represented this way. For example: Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file. The types of words that are represented this way include the following: command Linux commands (and other operating system commands. your time zone. manage your printer. and RPM package names are represented this way. Using the Graphical Desktop This chapter has been modified to reflect the new desktop environment and the various ways you can use and configure it. paths. you will see that certain words are represented in different fonts. This highlighting is systematic. . in the current working directory. application This style indicates that the program is an end-user application (as opposed to system software).ii Configuring Date and Time Introduction A chapter on configuring your system time. The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and filesystems.

Introduction [key] A key on the keyboard is shown in this style. text found on a GUI interface A title. For example: iii To use [Tab] completion. prompt A prompt. and interactive prompts for your input during scripts or programs shown this way. type in a character and then press the [Tab] key. Examples: $ # [stephen@maturin stephen]$ . which is a computer’s way of signifying that it is ready for you to input something. word. you will see the New Tab option that allows you to open multiple shell prompts in the same window. top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window When you see a word in this style. For example: Under File on a GNOME terminal. Your terminal will display the list of files in the directory that start with that letter.png reports The output returned in response to the command (in this case. it is being used to identify a particular GUI screen or an element on a GUI screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or field). button on a GUI screen or window This style indicates that the text will be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen. You will see responses to commands you typed in. For example: The [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[Backspace] key combination will exit your graphical session and return you to the graphical login screen or the console. error messages. For example: Use the ls command to display the contents of a directory: $ ls Desktop Mail about. it indicates text displayed by the computer on the command line. Example: Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require a password before stopping. [key]-[combination] A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. the rest of the menu should appear. For example: Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed. or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window will be shown in this style. will be shown in this style. it indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu. they will be shown like the following example: Go to Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => Programming => Emacs to start the Emacs text editor. computer output When you see text in this style. If you click on the word on the GUI screen. If you need to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu. the contents of the directory) is shown in this style. When you see text shown in this style.html backupfiles logs mail paulwesterberg.

Warning If you choose not to partition manually. text is displayed in this style: To boot your system into the text based installation program. Caution Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you need to use the root account for system administration tasks. or into a text box on a GUI screen. the changes will not take effect until you restart the DHCP daemon. a rose is not a ROSE is not a rOsE. either on the command line. we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of information. tip. or a warning. is displayed in this style. . Important If you modify the DHCP configuration file. Tip The directory /usr/share/doc contains additional documentation for packages installed on your system. a server installation will remove all existing partitions on all installed hard drives.iv Introduction leopard login: user input Text that the user has to type. Do not choose this installation class unless you are sure you have no data you need to save. In the following example. you will need to type in the text command at the boot: prompt. these items will be marked as note. In order of how critical the information is to your system. For example: Note Remember that Linux is case sensitive. In other words. caution. Additionally. important.

simply click and drag your mouse over the text to highlight it. When submitting a bug report. try to be as specific as possible when describing it. pressing both mouse buttons at the same time equates to pressing the missing third (middle) button. 5. Inc. drag the item by moving the mouse to a new location. Go to http://rhn. or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better. that will be explicitly stated. (This will be reversed if you’ve configured your mouse to be used by a left handed person. Sign Up for Support If you have an edition of Red Hat Linux 9. To copy text. get the latest news and product information directly from Red Hat.redhat. be sure to mention the manual’s identifier: rhl-gsg(EN)-9-Print-RHI (2003-02-20T01:05) If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation.com for more details. If you need to use the middle or right mouse button. if you are instructed to click with the mouse on something. depending upon the Red Hat Linux product you purchased: • • • Red Hat support — Get help with your installation questions from Red Hat. If you’re using three-button emulation. If you have found an error. Using the Mouse Red Hat Linux is designed to use a three-button mouse. that means click the left mouse button. In this document.com/apps/activate/.redhat.’s support team. We Need Feedback! If you spot a typographical error in the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. When you’ve reached the desired location. . Red Hat Network — Easily update your packages and receive security notices that are customized for your system. red. go to http://www. you should have selected three-button emulation during the installation process. 4. If you have a two-button mouse. click the middle mouse button in the spot where the text should be placed. release the mouse button to drop the item.redhat. Copying and Pasting Text With X Copying and pasting text is easy using your mouse and the X Window System. please remember to sign up for the benefits you are entitled to as a Red Hat customer. To sign up. You will be entitled to any or all of the following benefits. If you’re instructed to drag and drop an item on your GUI desktop.) The phrase "drag and drop" may be familiar to you. You will find your Product ID on a black. To paste the text somewhere.com/bugzilla/) against the component rhl-gsg. While continuing to hold down the mouse button. please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily. and white card in your Red Hat Linux box. click on something and hold the mouse button down. Under the Brim: The Red Hat E-Newsletter — Every month.Introduction v 3. 6. we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla (http://bugzilla.

Good luck. and thank you for choosing Red Hat Linux! The Red Hat Documentation Team .vi Introduction To read more about technical support for Red Hat Linux. refer to the Getting Technical Support Appendix in the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide.

Using this tool. the Setup Agent is presented. and more. install software. whether you are working or playing. Getting Started From booting up to shutting down.1. you can set your system time and date. Setup Agent The Setup Agent first prompts you to create a user account that you should use on a routine basis. This creates a user account that you can use to log into your Red Hat Linux system and which has its own home directory on the system to store files. Figure 1-1. . It is not recommended to log in to your root account for common computing tasks. register your machine with the Red Hat Network. and a password (which you must enter twice). This chapter guides you through some basic tasks that you can perform on your Red Hat Linux system. Red Hat Linux provides tools and applications to help you get the most out of your computing environment. an optional full name for the account. Setup Agent allows you to configure your environment at the beginning. so that you can get started using your Red Hat Linux system quickly.Chapter 1. 1. add users to your system. The Setup Agent lets you enter a username. as you may damage your system or unintentionally delete a file. Setup Agent The first time you start your Red Hat Linux system. The Setup Agent guides you through the configuration of your Red Hat Linux system.

minutes. Once you have set your time and date. I do not want to register my system skips the registration. User Account The Setup Agent allows you to manually set your machine’s date and time. For more information about Red Hat Network and registering your machine.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/.redhat. click Forward to continue. This will start the Red Hat Update Agent — a utility that guides you step-by-step through the registration of your machine with Red Hat Network. choose Yes.2 Chapter 1. Getting Started Figure 1-2. use the provided text boxes. and year on your system. Date and Time Configuration To register your system with Red Hat Network and receive automatic updates of your Red Hat Linux system. I would like to register my system with Red Hat Network. refer to the Red Hat Network documentation at http://www. use the calendar interface. You may also synchronize your date and time automatically with a network time server — a computer that sends accurate date and time settings to your system through a network connection. To set the day. . and seconds. Check the box labeled Enable Network Time Protocol and use the drop-down menu to select the time server you want to use. To set your time in hours. Selecting No. month. Figure 1-3. which adjusts the clock on your computer’s BIOS (Basic Input Output System).

you should also learn new terminology. 1.. you are ready to log in and start using Red Hat Linux. choose the package(s) or component you want to install. Introductory Terms When you learn about a new operating system. You will see these terms often throughout all Red Hat Linux documentation including the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide: . change the CD.Chapter 1. Note If you are installing a package from the Red Hat Linux Installation CDs.. This section defines a few basic terms you should learn. button. you must insert CD 1. Press Forward to exit the Setup Agent. software from third-party providers. click the Install. if prompted . and follow the instructions. click the Install. you can do so at the Additional CDs screen.2.. or documentation from the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD. Installing Additional Software Now that your system is configured. Red Hat Network Registration Client To install Red Hat Linux RPM packages that you did not install during installation. and. Getting Started 3 Figure 1-4. button. Figure 1-5. Insert the CD containing the software or documentation you want to install..

folder. RPM: RPM stands for RPM Package manager and is how Red Hat builds and delivers its software files. Icons are small images representing an application.4 Chapter 1. shortcut or system resource (such as a diskette drive). Launcher icons usually refer to application shortcuts. • • • • • • • Figure 1-6. The shell interprets commands entered by the user and passes them on to the operating system. Panels can also be customized to suit your needs. press [q]. Graphical Desktop: The most visible area of a GUI. Getting Started Command: An instruction given to the computer. colors. and panels which allow a user to initiate actions such as starting applications and opening files using a mouse and keyboard. Man page and Info page: Man (short for manual) and Info pages give detailed information about a command or file (man pages tend to be brief and provide less explanation than Info pages). type man su at a shell prompt (or type info su for the info page). An RPM is a software package file you can install on your Red Hat Linux computer. The desktop is where your user Home and Start Here icons are located. icons. For example. usually located across the bottom of your desktop (such as Figure 1-6). Panel: A desktop toolbar. • • • Figure 1-7. such as changing administrative passwords and running system configuration tools. The Desktop Panel Root: Root is an administrative user account created during installation and has complete access to the system. The panel contains the Main Menu button and shortcut icons to start commonly used programs. User accounts are created so that typical user tasks can be done without using the root account. Graphical User Interface (GUI): A general term for interactive windows. Shell prompt: A command line interface between the user and the operating system (Figure 1-7). and pictures to add a personal touch. which can reduce the chance of damaging your Red Hat Linux installation or applications permanently. You must be logged in as root to accomplish certain system administration tasks. You can customize your desktop to have special backgrounds. Command line: The space at the shell prompt where commands are typed. most often with the keyboard or mouse. A Shell Prompt . menus. to read the man page for the su command. To close man or Info pages.

you will not be allowed access to your system. This is a dangerous idea. refer to Section 1. you can skip ahead to Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop. You can easily damage your system by accidentally deleting or modifying sensitive system files.1. Unlike some other operating systems.command makes you root within the root account shell. Note Red Hat Linux applications and files are case sensitive.6 Creating a User Account to learn how to set up a user account. Again. If you created only the root account. you have access to important system files that you can change (or damage if you are not careful). Getting Started 5 • su and su -: The command su gives you access to the root account or other accounts on your system. it is highly recommended that you log in as that user instead of root to prevent accidental damage to your Red Hat Linux installation. but it is not recommended. you must log in as root. If you are "in X" or "running X". maintain security.3. Graphical Login When your system has booted. • Although the emphasis throughout this book is on navigation and productivity using the graphical desktop environment. Not all accounts are created equal: some accounts have fewer rights to access files or services than others. or system administrator. and more. . some new users are tempted to use only this account for all of their activities. By default. root refers to the root user (also known as the superuser).3. your Red Hat Linux system uses accounts to manage privileges. you are working in a GUI rather than a console environment. your machine will probably be called localhost. You may be tempted to forego creating and using a user account during or after installation. Caution Because your Red Hat Linux system creates the root account during installation. Use caution when you are logged in as root. 1. which is primarily used in a network setting. After you create a user account. both the graphical and shell prompt methods of logging in and using your Red Hat Linux system are discussed for your reference. unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname. When you type su to switch to your root account while still inside your user account shell. Logging in with the su . a graphical login screen is displayed as shown in Figure 1-8. which means that typing root refers to a different account than Root. If you did not create a user account using the Setup Agent. If you have already created and logged in to a user account. you are introducing yourself to the system (also called authentication).Chapter 1. because the root account is allowed to do anything on the system. 1. X or X Window System: These terms refer to the graphical user interface environments. Logging In The next step to using your Red Hat Linux system is to log in. If you type the wrong user name or password. When you log in.

4. The Graphical Login Screen To log in as root from the graphical login screen. . you will see a login prompt similar to the following after booting your system: Red Hat Linux release 9 Kernel 2. Once you start the X Window System. 1. press [Enter]. if you selected an installation type other than Workstation or Personal Desktop and chose text as your login type. press [Enter]. Logging in from the graphical login screen automatically starts the graphical desktop for you.18-14 on an i686 localhost login: Unless you have chosen to give your machine its own hostname. type root at the login prompt. your machine will probably be called localhost.6 Chapter 1. type your username at the login prompt. and press [Enter]. Getting Started Figure 1-8. Virtual Console Login During installation. type root at the login prompt. 1. To log in as a normal user. To log in as a normal user.localdomain. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt. Graphical Interface When you installed Red Hat Linux you had the opportunity to install a graphical environment. you will find a graphical interface known as a desktop similar to Figure 1-9. After logging in. press [Enter]. and press [Enter]. then type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt and press [Enter].2. which is primarily used in a network setting.4. you can type the command startx to start the graphical desktop.3. To log in as root from the console. type the root password that you chose during installation at the password prompt. press [Enter]. and press [Enter]. type your username at the login prompt. type your password that you selected when creating the user at the password prompt.

You can open a shell prompt by selecting Main Menu => System Tools => Terminal. If you are not logged in as root. you will be prompted for your root password.Chapter 1. you were given the opportunity to create one or more user accounts using the Setup Agent. To exit a shell prompt. 2. click the X button on the upper right corner of the shell prompt window. type exit at the prompt. 1. Opening a Shell Prompt The desktop offers access to a shell prompt. it is sometimes useful and faster to perform tasks from a shell prompt. Click Add User. If you did not create at least one account (not including the root account) you should do so now. There are two ways to create new and/or additional user accounts: using the graphical User Manager application or from a shell prompt. . You can also start the User Manager by typing redhat-config-users at a shell prompt. You can also start a shell prompt by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing New Terminal from the menu. 3.6. Refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics for further details. The window shown in Figure 1-10 will appear. In the new window that opens. click the System Settings icon. Creating a User Account When you first started your Red Hat Linux system after installation. While the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide primarily focuses on performing tasks using the graphical interface and graphical tools. or press [Ctrl]-[D] at the prompt. To create a user account graphically using the User Manager: 1. Click the Start Here icon on the desktop. The Graphical Desktop 1. and then click the Users & Groups icon. You can also select Main Menu => System Settings => Users & Groups from the panel.5. an application that allows you to type commands instead of using a graphical interface for all computing activities. Getting Started 7 Figure 1-9. You should avoid working in the root account for daily tasks.

as well as numbers and characters. consider a variation of a word. User account names can be anything from the user’s name. so it should be both unique and easy for you to remember. At the Retype new password: prompt. Often. Open a shell prompt. In the Create New User dialog box. you can accept the defaults for the other configuration options. If you are not logged in as root. The new user will appear in the user list. such as a1rPl4nE for airplane. initials. enter a username (this can be an abbreviation or nickname). You can use both uppercase and lowercase letters.7. Along with the Red Hat Linux documentation there are manual pages. signaling that the user account creation is complete. 5. 2. 1. Type passwd followed by a space and the username again (for example. Avoid easy selections. useradd jsmith). The Red Hat User Manager 4. 6. 3. The password is the key to your account. and a password (which you will enter a second time for verification). or birthplace to something more creative. the full name of the user for whom this account is being created. Click OK. documents that detail usage of important applications and files. Press [Enter].8 Chapter 1.and enter the root password. passwd jsmith). Getting Started Figure 1-10. If you want to pick an easy-to-remember but somewhat unique password. type the command su . Important You should take precautions when you choose a password. usernames are variations on the user’s name. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details about additional options. such as qwerty or password. INFO pages which break information about an . enter the same password to confirm your selection. 5. The name of this user’s home directory and the name of the login shell should appear by default. Documentation and Help There are several resources available to get the information you need to use and configure your Red Hat Linux system. To create a user account from a shell prompt: 1. 4. For most users. Type useradd followed by a space and the username for the new account you are creating at the command line (for example. such as jsmith for John Smith. At the New password: prompt enter a password for the new user and press [Enter]. Your password should be at least six characters.

which is important when dealing with commands that they have never previously encountered.7. and programs.1. All instances of the keyword will be highlighted throughout the man page. The SYNOPSIS field shows the common usage of the executable. files. and help files that are included in the main menubar of graphical applications. as all of these resources are either already installed on your Red Hat Linux system or can be easily installed. type [Q]. 1.7. Manual Pages Applications. You can choose any method of accessing documentation that best suits your needs. See Also shows related terms. Using man Man Pages can be accessed via shell prompt by typing the command man and the name of the executable. to access the man page for the ls command. type the following: man ls The NAME field shows the executable’s name and a brief explanation of what function the executable performs. For example. The DESCRIPTION field shows available options and values associated with a file or executable. Figure 1-11. . Man Pages are structured in such a way that users can quickly scan the page for pertinent information. such as what options are declared and what types of input (such as files or values) the executable supports. To exit the man page.1. Reading a Man Page with the Shell Prompt To navigate the man page you can use the [Page Down] and [Page Up] keys or use the [Spacebar] to move down one page and [B] to move up. To search a man page for keywords type [/] and then a keyword or phrase and press [Enter]. Getting Started 9 application down by context-sensitive menus. 1. utilities. and shell prompt commands usually have corresponding manual pages (also called man pages) that show the reader available options and values of file or executable.1.Chapter 1. allowing you to quickly read the keyword in context.

you can print a man page by typing the following command at a shell prompt: man command| col -b | lpr The example above combines separates commands into one unique function.2. The man Man Page Just like other commands. perhaps in bound form for quick reference. Follow the instructions and choose the documentation you would like to install.1.redhat. All of the Red Hat Linux manuals are on this CD. man has its own man page.gz) are also available at http://www. 1. remember to take a look at the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD. Individual downloads of our documentation in HTML. Package Management Tool Displaying Documentation Available for Installation After you have installed the documentation packages you want. Getting Started Printing man pages is a useful way to archive commonly used commands.redhat.com/docs/ you can install these manuals from a shell prompt. Printing a Man Page Chapter 1. you can access them at any time by clicking Main Menu => Documentation.3.7. Type man man at the shell prompt for more information.7. Open a shell prompt.7. inserting the Documentation CD in your CD-ROM drive should automatically start the Package Management Tool and allow you to install any of the Red Hat Linux documentation. Figure 1-12. 1.tar.2. and type the following at the command line: su . Red Hat Linux Documentation If you have the Red Hat Linux boxed set. and compressed tarball format (.10 1. If you have downloaded individual documentation RPM packages from the Red Hat website at http://www. PDF. RPM.1. The lpr command sends the formatted content to the printer.com/docs/. If you have a printer available and configured for use with Red Hat Linux (refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information). Once you have logged in to your user account. man command will output the contents of the command man page to col. which formats the contents to fit within a printed page.

.1. Logout Confirmation 1. To install only certain manuals.noarch. Shutting Down your Computer Before turning off your computer.rpm with the full file name of the manual that you want to install.rpm.Chapter 1. Type exit at the command line and press [Enter]. select Main Menu => Log Out. select the Logout option and click the Yes button. You will be asked for your root password. You are now logged in as root.rpm Press [Enter].8. Enter the password at the prompt and press [Enter]. 1. as well as any programs which are running. it is important to properly shut down Red Hat Linux. Logging Out 1. When the confirmation dialog appears as shown in Figure 1-13. For example. so you would type the following to install it on your system: rpm -ivh /mnt/cdrom/rhl-gsg-en-9. Figure 1-13. and you logged in at the console. the file name for the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide will look something like rhl-gsg-en-9. check the Save current setup option. Never turn your computer off without shutting down first. Virtual Console Logout If you are not using the X Window System. 1.8. change to the directory that contains the RPM files and type the following: rpm -ivh rhl-*. Now go to Main Menu => Documentation and select the manual you want to read. To save the configuration of your desktop. To install all of the Red Hat Linux manuals. Getting Started 11 Press [Enter].noarch.9. Graphical Logout To log out your graphical desktop session.2. as you may lose unsaved data or damage your system. replace rhl-*. This logs you out of the root account and back to your user account.rpm Press [Enter]. type exit or [Ctrl]-[D] to log out of the console session.8.

Getting Started 1. Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux. From the graphical desktop logout screen shown in Figure 1-13.8 Logging Out. you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: System halted. type the following command: halt Some computers automatically turn the power off after shutting down Red Hat Linux.9.1. If your computer does not.2. .9. If your computer does not. log out of your session as described in Section 1. you can safely turn off the power to your computer after you see the message: Power down. 1. select Shutdown and click OK to confirm. Virtual Console Shutdown To shutdown your computer at a shell prompt. Graphical Shutdown If you are in the graphical desktop.12 Chapter 1.

a notification area for notification icons. and displays the status of your system. The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel. This chapter covers the fundamentals of the desktop and how you can configure it for your needs. Using the Graphical Desktop Red Hat Linux includes a powerful graphical desktop environment where you can easily access your applications. desktop icons. Both new and experienced users will be able to take full advantage of their Red Hat Linux systems using the graphical desktop. double-click on its icon. The Graphical Desktop The graphical desktop gives you access to the applications and system settings on your computer. They can also be found on the desktop and then clicking the Applications The desktop works in the manner you might expect it to when working with other operating systems. The panel contains application launcher icons. . and system resources. 2. Using the Desktop Your first view of the graphical desktop will look something like Figure 2-1. and shortcuts to removable devices such as CD-ROM and diskettes when they have been mounted. To open a folder or launch an application. switch workspaces. You can drag and drop files and application icons to areas that are easily accessible. The menu systems can be found by clicking on the Main Menu button by double-clicking on the Start Here icon icon. files. Figure 2-1. You will notice that it offers three main tools to make use of the applications on your system: panel icons. application launchers. The icons elsewhere on the desktop can be shortcuts to file folders.1.Chapter 2. and menus. You can add new . and small applications called applets that let you control sound volume.

to expand it into a large set of menus that allow you to From here. The notification area holds alert icons such as the one for Red Hat Network so that you can be quickly alerted to critical messages. There are a few applets that run on your panel by default. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[down-arrow].14 Chapter 2. 2. you can also access additional applications within each sub-menu. These applets are fairly important and are covered in the following list. [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[right-arrow]. Workspace Switcher The graphical desktop gives you the ability to use multiple workspaces so you do not have to have all of your running applications crowding one viewable desktop area. you can also log out. 2. find files. Notice that. From the Main Menu. Workspace Switcher . which contains shortcuts for all of your applications. you can start most applications included in Red Hat Linux. You can change the appearance of most of the tools and applications and change system settings with provided configuration tools. The Panel 2.2.1. Using the Graphical Desktop icons for files and applications to the desktop. Click on one of the squares with your mouse to move to that desktop. Using the Main Menu You can click on the Main Menu button access the applications on your system. Using the Panel The desktop panel is the bar that stretches across the bottom of the screen and holds icons and small applications which makes using your system easier. Figure 2-3. Applets let you monitor various aspects of your system. You can also use the keyboard shortcut [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[up-arrow]. Some applets perform useful tasks while others are designed to be entertaining. These sub-menus give you access to a full range of applications on your system. and file manager. The Workspace Switcher represents each workspace (or desktop) in small squares and show the applications running on them.2. run applications from a command line. panel. in addition to the recommended applications. or [Ctrl]-[Alt]-[left-arrow] to switch between desktops. Figure 2-2. Applets embedded on the panel allow you to run specific tasks or monitor your system or services while remaining out of your way. The panel also holds the Main Menu.2.2. Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel. and lock your screen (which runs a password protected screen saver).

you can bring it back by clicking on its title in the Taskbar.2. Figure 2-6. click the button to launch the Red Hat Update Agent. If you are not registered with Red Hat Network. To update your system. If you click on the icon. Using the Graphical Desktop Taskbar 15 Next to the Workspace Switcher is the Taskbar. Right-click on the applet icon for a list of options from which to choose. The applet shows you different images that indicate whether your system is up to date or needs upgrades. Using the Notification Area Red Hat Network Notification Tool Part of the Notification Area. Authentication Icon Printer Notification Icon The Printer Notification Icon allows you to manage your print jobs.3. It disappears when the authentication times out. Figure 2-4. Figure 2-5. The Printer Notification Icon . Click on the icon to view running print jobs. Once it disappears. a list of available updates will be displayed. it will launch the registration component. The Taskbar is an applet which shows you the titles of running applications on any one virtual desktop. Red Hat Network Notification Tool The Authentication Icon The key icon that is sometimes displayed in the Notification Area is a security notification that displays whenever you have gained root authentication for your system (such as running a graphical system configuration tool). This is very helpful if you decide to minimize an application as it will seem to disappear from the desktop. Figure 2-7. and cancel jobs by right-clicking on the job and selecting Cancel.Chapter 2. the Red Hat Network Notification Tool provides you with an easy way to make sure your system is up-to-date with current errata and bug fixes from Red Hat. The Taskbar 2.

In essence. 2.16 Chapter 2. select Add to Panel. Click OK and the new launcher icon will appear on the panel. configure your Red Hat Linux system. change its size and color. If you choose to autohide the panel. Using Nautilus The graphical desktop includes a file manager called Nautilus that gives you a graphical display of your system and personal files. and change the way it behaves.4. Nautilus becomes a shell for your entire desktop experience. . The Weather Report Applet on the Panel To add a launcher icon to the panel. it will not appear on the desktop until you move your mouse pointer over the panel area (called hovering). the Weather Report applet has been added to show the current local weather and temperature.2.3. you may want to add more applets and launcher icons. 2. It allows you to configure your desktop.. browse your photo collection. Tip Another quick and easy way to add a launcher to the panel is to right-click on an unused area of the panel and choose Add to Panel => Launcher from menu. 2. right-click in an unused area on the panel and select Add to Panel => Launcher. Figure 2-8.2. To add the it back to your panel. You can set the size of the panel. Using the Graphical Desktop Warning If you cannot see any of the notification icons. To add an applet to the panel. and choose from the various types of applets. access your network resources. place it on any edge of your desktop. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To make the panel fit your needs. and more all from one integrated interface.5. right-click in an unused area on the panel. In Figure 2-8. right-click on the panel and choose Add to Panel => Utility => Notification Area. This will launch a dialog box that allows you to enter the name of the application. then the notification area was removed from the desktop panel. its position on the desktop. This will automatically add a launcher icon based on the properties of the item in the Main Menu. Configuring the Desktop Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually. and whether you want the panel to be automatically hidden (Autohide) when not in use. Nautilus is designed to be much more than a visual listing of files. When you select an applet.. To alter the default panel settings. right-click in an unused area of the panel and select Properties. it will appear on your panel.. however. Then select an application that appears in the menu. the location and name of the command that starts the application (such as /usr/bin/foo). and even choose an icon for the application.

server configuration tools. image files in your home directory will be seen as thumbnails. For images.4. the Start Here window provides a central location for using and customizing your system. Start Here Figure 2-9. double-click on your home directory icon: Once Nautilus appears. desktop preferences. dragging a file from one directory to another moves the file. From your favorite applications to system and configuration tools. Main Menu items. Select the Preview tab. 2. To turn off this feature. Using the Graphical Desktop 17 Working in Nautilus is efficient and provides an alternative to searching through the various submenus connected to the Main Menu or using a shell prompt to navigate the file system. and system settings.Chapter 2. The Start Here screen includes icons that allow you to access your favorite applications. You can access the Start Here screen at any time by double-clicking on the desktop icon labeled Start Here. To start Nautilus as a file manager. The Start Here Window Start Here was designed to hold all of the tools and applications you need to access when using your system. By default. you can navigate through your home directory or the rest of the file system. click the Home button. By default. Disabling this (and other) previewing feature increases the speed of Nautilus. you can drag and drop files to different directories. The browser window contains folders and files which you can drag with your mouse to move and copy into new locations. . For text files. The following sections explain how to use the Nautilus to enhance your desktop experience. then select Never in the drop down for Show Thumbnails. To copy the file to another directory. Once you have another Nautilus window. you see a scaled-down (or thumbnail) version of the image. You can open another Nautilus window by selecting File => New Window. select Edit => Preferences. To return to your home directory. this means you see a portion of the actual text in the icon. press the [Ctrl] key while dragging and dropping the file.

Using the Graphical Desktop Tip You can add your favorite locations to the Bookmarks. 2.1. to play a sound when you log in to your desktop. right-click on the desktop and choose Change Desktop Background from the menu. The Background Preferences Tool . refer to Section 2. you can configure it.4. Keyboard Shortcuts You can configure shortcuts — pressing a combination of keystrokes on the keyboard — to perform actions within an application or on your desktop. you can select the Preferences icon to configure your desktop. you can configure a shortcut to move from your current Workspace to Workspace 2 by pressing [Ctrl]-[F2].4.4. select Preferences. Figure 2-10.1. You can choose from several background images included with Red Hat Linux in the /usr/share/backgrounds/ directory. To start the Background Preferences tool. Navigate to the location you want to bookmark.18 Chapter 2. which presents you with a wide selection of configuration options. 2. Changing your Desktop Background One way to dramatically alter the appearance of your graphical desktop is to change the background using the Background Preferences tool. and then select Bookmarks => Add Bookmark. To learn more about configuring your desktop background. Customizing the Desktop From the Start Here screen. or you can use your own image.1 Changing your Desktop Background.1. The following lists some of the options and tools in each area. Background You can configure your background with new colors or a new image. Sound In this section you can configure the system sounds associated with various functions. and finally select Background.1. You can also double-click the Start Here icon. For example. For example.

leaving the default background colors to fill in any remaining desktop space.4. The Wallpaper option displays multiple instances of your image across the desktop. Customizing your System The Start Here screen in Nautilus contains additional configuration tools that help you with your new Red Hat Linux system and the server applications included.Chapter 2. Figure 2-11. You will be able to set your time zone information as well. choose the No Picture option and adjust your colors using the Background Style options. The Desktop with a New Background If you want to create a background with your own custom colors and no images. use the Scaled or Stretched options. 2. The Centered option places your image in the center of the desktop. Figure 2-11 shows a background image of flowers and plants that is stretched to fill the entire desktop. The following lists some of the tools included in System Settings and what you can do with them. The System Settings icon includes tools that help you set up your system for personal everyday use. . Using the Graphical Desktop 19 The Background Preferences tool allows you to load a new background from a directory of provided images (/usr/share/backgrounds/images/). Refer to Chapter 3 Configuring the Date and Time for details on using this tool.2. Choose your own Top Color and Bottom Color and the color gradient (or the blending of colors). Date & Time This tool allows you to set the date and time of your machine. You can also drag an image into the window from your own image directory. Click Close to save and exit the Background Preferences tool. To fill the desktop with an image without tiling it. which is useful if you use a small image or if you use a tile (or pattern) image from /usr/share/backgrounds/tiles/ or from your own image collection. There are several additional options for displaying your background image.

A few examples of the tools found in this area are the HTTP Configuration Tool and the Bind Configuration Tool. select the Log Out menu item from the Main Menu. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details. Users & Groups The User Manager tool allows you to add and remove users from your system. depending on which install type you specified during installation. The printer may be connected to your machine or available on a network. The server configuration tools are found by clicking on the System Settings icon and then the Server Settings icon. Using the Graphical Desktop The Sound Card Configuration Tool tool probes your machine for available sound devices. or halting the system completely. This will bring up a dialog which presents you with the options listed above. 2.3 Troubleshooting Your Sound Card for more details on configuring your sound hardware. You may also find server configuration tools in the Start Here area. you are presented with the choice of logging out of GNOME (leaving the system running).6 Creating a User Account for details. Refer to Section 1.20 Soundcard Detection Chapter 2. Refer to Section 10. . Printing The Printer Configuration Tool allows you to add a new printer to your system. Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for details. You must have those server applications installed before these tools appear in this section. These tools help you configure services and applications you are using on the local machine to serve other machines. restarting the machine. Figure 2-12. The Desktop Log Out Confirmation To quit the graphical desktop. Logging Out When you have finished working and want to quit GNOME.5.

use the arrows to the left and right of the month to change the month. You must be running the X Window System and have root privileges. and to setup the Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon to synchronize the system clock with a time server.Chapter 3. Time and Date Properties As shown in Figure 3-1. . Figure 3-1. This will enable the Server pulldown menu. Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. and the time zone settings and then exit the program. To start the application from the desktop go to the Main Menu Button => System Settings => Date & Time or type the command redhat-config-date at a shell prompt (for example. click the Enable Network Time Protocol button. in an XTerm or a GNOME terminal). To change the time. Configuring the Date and Time The Time and Date Properties Tool allows the user to change the system date and time. the configuration will be saved and the NTP daemon will be started (or restarted if it is already running). Minute. After you click OK. to configure the time zone used by the system. Your system will not start synchronizing with the NTP server until you click OK. The Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon synchronizes the system clock with a remote time server or time source (such as a satellite). The application allows you to configure a NTP daemon to synchronize your system clock with a remote server. Use the arrows to the left and right of the year to change the year. To enable this feature. the NTP daemon settings. Clicking the OK button will apply any changes that you have made to the date and time. use the up and down arrow buttons beside the Hour.1. and click on the day of the week to change the day of the week. Changes will not take place until you click the OK button. and Second in the Time section. the first tabbed window that appears is for configuring the system date and time and the NTP daemon (ntpd). You can choose one of the predefined servers or type a server name in the pulldown menu. Time and Date Properties To change the date. 3.

Click OK to apply the changes and exit the program. Other time zones are determined by adding or subtracting from the UTC time. UTC stands for the universal time zone. The time zone can be changed by either using the interactive map or by choosing the desired time zone from the list below the map. click on the city that represents the desired time zone. .2. A red X will appear and the time zone selection will change in the list below the map. select the System clock uses UTC option. Timezone Properties If your system clock is set to use UTC.22 Chapter 3. click the Time Zone tab. Time Zone Configuration To configure the system time zone. Configuring the Date and Time 3. also known as Greenwich mean time (GMT). Figure 3-2. To use the map.

Diskettes are ideal as a portable storage solution for small files that need to be physically moved around. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Using diskettes and CD-ROMs with Red Hat Linux requires some understanding about removable media. Now that the diskette has been mounted it is available to be copied from or written to. insert it into the diskette drive and type mount /mnt/floppy/ at a shell prompt. For example. 4. Using Diskettes Diskettes are one of the oldest removable media solutions available for the personal computer (PC). The diskette drive activity light should blink as the diskette’s file system is mounted to the /mnt/floppy directory.Chapter 4. Alternatively. if two PCs are not on the same network.1. 4. you can also mount a diskette by right-clicking on the desktop and choosing Disks => Floppy. You can even explore the diskette’s contents in Nautilus (as shown in Figure 4-1) or Konqueror. and copy files to/from it as you would normally do to your hard drive.1. diskettes are a great solution to transfer files from one computer to the other. To do this. You can access the contents of the diskette by changing into that directory with the cd /mnt/floppy/ command. This chapter discusses how to read and write files to and from diskettes. This mounts the diskette and adds a desktop icon which you can double-click to explore the diskette contents. This chapter also covers using CD-writable and CD-rewritable drives. how to format diskettes. You can open. Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette A diskette must first be mounted before it can be used. To mount a diskette. and at a shell prompt type the following command : umount /mnt/floppy/ . Viewing files on a Diskette with Nautilus When you are done using the diskette. you should unmount it before ejecting it from the drive. close any applications that may be using files on the diskette or exploring the diskette’s contents (such as Nautilus or Konqueror). Figure 4-1. save. and how to read and copy data from a CD-ROM.1.

type /usr/bin/gfloppy. Putting Linux Files on an MS-DOS Diskette To copy files from a Linux machine to an MS-DOS formatted diskette so that a Windows machine can read it you should format your diskette with an MS-DOS (FAT) file system. 4. Copy files using the following command (substituting filename with the name of the file you wish to copy): cp filename /mnt/floppy You can then unmount the diskette and eject it from the drive. You can also choose the density of your diskette (if you are not using the usual high density 3. You can also elect to quick format the diskette if it was previously formatted as ext2.1. 4. This can be done with the Windows OS or with gfloppy (see Section 4.1.1 Mounting and Unmounting a Diskette.5" 1.1 Using gfloppy).3. you can manipulate its contents in the same ways that you manipulate directories and files on your hard drive. Be sure to backup any files that you need before performing any of the following operations on your diskettes. Formatting a Diskette To use a diskette specifically with Red Hat Linux.2. choose Main Menu => System Tools => Floppy Formatter. 4. and is the default method used for formatting diskettes.1.44MB diskette). Warning Formatting a diskette will erase all of its contents. Using gfloppy To start gfloppy. You can now safely eject the diskette from the drive.1. the gfloppy interface is small and has few options. you can format your diskette with an MS-DOS file system type if necessary. From a shell prompt.3.1.24 Chapter 4. As shown in Figure 4-2. The new file on the diskette should now be accessible from your Windows machine.1. Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette. Diskettes and CD-ROMs icon and choosing If you are using GNOME. Then mount it in Linux as described in Section 4. The default settings are sufficient for most users and needs.3. however. you can unmount the diskette by right-clicking on the Unmount Volume from the menu. . ext2 is one of the file systems supported by Red Hat Linux. you need to format the diskette using the ext2 file system.

mke2fs essentially formats the device and creates an empty. showing you the status of formatting and verification (see Figure 4-3). then click Format.3. The mke2fs utility has a number of options.Chapter 4. The other options are covered in the mke2fs man page. The -c option makes the mke2fs command check the device for bad blocks before creating the file system. Once complete. you can eject the diskette and close gfloppy. Figure 4-3. Using mke2fs The mke2fs command is used to create a Linux ext2 file system on a device such as a hard drive partition or (in this case) a diskette. /dev/fd0 refers to the first diskette drive.2. gfloppy Insert a diskette and change the settings in gfloppy to suit your needs. it is ready to be used with your Red Hat Linux system. Insert your diskette into the drive and issue the following command at a shell prompt: /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 On Linux systems. your second /dev/fd1. your primary diskette drive is /dev/fd0. The status box will appear on top of the main window. and so on. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 25 Figure 4-2. Linux-compatible device which can then be used for storing files and data. . If your computer has more than one diskette drive.1. Once you have created an ext2 file system on the diskette. gfloppy Status Box 4.

26 Chapter 4.2. Insert a CD into your CD-ROM drive.1.2. 4. Contents of a CD-ROM in Nautilus A CD desktop icon also appears.3. CDs are automatically mounted and the file manager is displayed allowing you to explore the contents of the CD. which you can use to unmount and eject your CD-ROM after use.2. personal files. 4. including applications. Close any applications or file managers that are using the CD-ROM and type the following command at a shell prompt: umount /mnt/cdrom You can now safely press the eject button on your CD-ROM drive to retrieve your CD. CD-Rs and CD-RWs CD-writable (CD-R) drives have grown in popularity as an inexpensive way to backup and archive several megabytes of data. and type the following command: mount /mnt/cdrom The CD-ROM should now be mounted and available for use with your file manager. Most of the software that can be purchased from retail outlets come in the form of CD-ROMs. After working with your CD. You can access your CD-ROM by clicking the home icon on the desktop and typing /mnt/cdrom in the location bar. Right-click on the icon to view all of the available choices. Figure 4-4. CD-ROMs The CD-ROM format is a popular medium to deliver typically large software applications as well as multimedia games and presentations. 4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 4.2. This section shows you how to use CD-ROMs on your Red Hat Linux system. choose Eject from the menu. Using CD-ROMs From a Shell Prompt You can also manually mount and unmount your CD-ROMs from a shell prompt. to unmount and eject the CD-ROM. Using CD-ROMs with Your File Manager By default. For example. Figure 4-4 shows the contents of a CD-ROM within the Nautilus file manager. open a shell prompt. you must unmount it before you can eject it from your CD-ROM drive. and even multimedia (audio/video and .

When you are ready to write the files to your CD-R(W). The CD Creator Interface in Nautilus Open a new Nautilus window and select the files or directories you want to write to CD-R(W). The CD Creator Write Dialog Box . Then release the [Ctrl] key. You can also double click your home directory icon from the desktop and choose Go => CD Creator from the window menus. there is a tool included in the Nautilus file manager called CD Creator.Chapter 4. To access the CD Creator feature in Nautilus.1. and drag the files and folders to the CD Creator window. and choose other options. You can also type burn: in the Location bar to start CD Creator. insert a blank CD-R(W) into your drive and the CD Creator window will automatically display. which displays a dialog box where you can select the writing speed. press and hold the left mouse button. To select multiple files.3. Red Hat Linux includes several tools for using CD-Rs and CD-rewritable (CD-RW) drives. Using CD Creator If you want to perform a quick file or directory backup to a CD-R or CD-RW. Figure 4-5. click the Write to CD button in the CD Creator window. press and hold the [Ctrl] key. Figure 4-6. name the CD. and click on the files and folders. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 27 still image) presentations. CD Creator allows you to drag and drop files from a Nautilus window to the CD Creator interface. 4.

img) files need to be stored in a central location accessible to X-CD-Roast. To start X-CD-Roast choose Main Menu => System Tools => CD Writer. Using X-CD-Roast X-CD-Roast is a graphical application for duplicating and creating (also known as mastering) CDROMs. A status window displays the writing progress. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Click the Write files to CD button to start burning. and more. X-CD-Roast automates the process of burning CD-Rs and CD-RWs and is highly configurable to many CD mastering or duplicating needs.iso or . Note that your CD-R(W) drive brand may be different from the drive shown. You can configure the path where you wish to store CD images in the HD Settings tab under Path. such as CD Writer Speed and CD Writer FIFO-Buffer Size.2. You must specify a path on your hard drive’s file system that has at least 700 Megabytes (MB) of free space available. Figure 4-8. X-CD-Roast Setup Screen Check your CD-R(W) manufacturer documentation to set some of the CD Settings options. To start it at a shell prompt. the CD-R(W) should automatically eject from your drive when it is finished. Since it is generally recommended to periodically backup personal files. It then allows you to configure settings for CD-writer. CD-ROM drive. 4. as shown in Figure 4-7. X-CD-Roast first scans your device busses and find your CDR(W) drive.3.28 Chapter 4. the CD Creator can help you do so quickly. Figure 4-8 illustrates the Setup screen and its configuration options. The CD Creator Write Status Window By default. . All CD image (. Figure 4-7. type /usr/bin/xcdroast.

choose Write CD.1.2. Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CDs 4. so no further configuration is necessary. If you are copying tracks from an audio CD. X-CD-Roast allows you to backup files on your hard drive partition using Create CD. Since X-CD-Roast reads all tracks of a CD-ROM by default.2. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 29 X-CD-Roast is well-documented within the interface itself. You can access these tooltips by leaving your mouse pointer on a button or drop-down menu for at least two seconds. Using X-CD-Roast to Duplicate CD-ROMs To duplicate an existing CD-ROM for backup purposes. as several of the options have long. you can delete unwanted tracks with Delete Tracks. . Figure 4-10 shows a session that is preparing the entire /home directory for backup. click the Duplicate CD button in the main panel. You can set the speed at which you read a CD-ROM as well as find out some information about the CD-ROM track such as its type and size. This facility allows you to add files and directories into a CD session using Master Tracks. descriptive pop-up tips that informs you of the associated function in detail.Chapter 4. you can preview each track with Play Audio-Tracks. where you can configure the speed at which you read and write the tracks to CD-R(W). including data and audio. is stored on tracks — by clicking Read CD. You can read all of the tracks on a CD — all CD-ROM information.3. however.2. Click the Write CD button to start the burning process. to burn your tracks onto CD-R(W) media. There are other options within the Master Tracks dialog that allows you to configure advanced settings. Finally. Figure 4-9 shows the Write CD dialog box.3. Figure 4-9. 4. as well as whether you wish to copy the CD-ROM on-the-fly or create an image file first before burning (which is recommended to prevent write or read errors from occurring during the duplication process). the defaults are set correctly to create data CD-ROMs. Using X-CD-Roast to Create a CD It is always recommended to backup personal data and information often in case of hardware failure or file system corruption.

To write your tracks to the CD-R(W).3. Click Accept track layout. move the ISO file to the path specified during setup. 4. Click Write tracks to write the image to the CDR(W). Red Hat Linux is freely available as ISO images that you can download and write to the CD-R(W). The image displays in the Tracks to write box on the left side.img file. In the Layout tracks tab. There are other file types that can be burned as images. then click Master to image file to create the image. There are also other ISO image files available on FTP and websites.2. 4. It is recommended that you use the multi-step method instead of the on-the-fly methods. highlight the ISO image file you wish to burn and click Add. For example.3. then click Create CD. then Accept track layout. Using CD-Rs and CD-RWs with Command Line Tools If you want to use a shell prompt to write images to CD-R or CD-RWs. highlight the image file you created in the box on the right. After you have added all files and directories you want to write to the CD-R(W).3. These utilities have several advanced options that are beyond the scope of .raw. click Write Tracks from the panel on the left. You must first click Calculate size. where you can click Write Tracks to burn the image to the CD-R(W). click the Create session/image tab to create the . and click the Write Tracks tab to return to the main writing dialog. but ISO images are the most common CD image format. In the Layout Tracks tab. and click Add.3. To write an ISO image file to a CD-R(W) with X-CD-Roast. Diskettes and CD-ROMs Figure 4-10. Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast Large files that end in . Tip You can also create and write the image to the CD-R(W) in one step by clicking Master and write onthe-fly in the Create session image tab. such as . Using X-CD-Roast to Back-up Hard Drive Files Highlight the files and directories that you wish to add to the session and click Add.iso are known as ISO9660 (or ISO) image files.img and . This saves a few steps but can sometimes cause read-write errors.30 Chapter 4. This automatically loads the Write Tracks tab. there are two utilities available: mkisofs and cdrecord.

4. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 31 this guide. Sets a Volume ID — a name that is assigned to it if the image is burned.. Suppose you wish to backup a directory called /home/joeuser/. To use cdrecord. which is useful for viewing the status of the image as it is being made. video. Excludes any directory immediately following this option. data.3. Sets an Application ID — a text string that will be written into the volume header of the image which can be useful to determine what applications are on the CD. and/or data) CD-ROMs using options to configure several aspects of the write process.3.2 Using cdrecord . including speed.3. For more information about using cdrecord. but exclude the subdirectory /home/joeuser/junk/ because it contains unnecessary files.. device.). the command line based CD recording utility. The images created by mkisofs can include all types of files. this option can be repeated (for example.1. for basic image creation and writing.2. especially for UNIX/Linux environments. It is most useful for archival and file backup purposes. You want to create an ISO image called backup. and mixed-mode (a combination of audio.. or using cdrecord.4 Additional Resources. Generates Rock Ridge (RR) naming records to preserve filename length and casing. . This can be done with mkisofs by running the following command: mkisofs -o backup. You can now use the ISO image file with either X-CD-Roast as described in Section 4.3. For more information on using mkisofs. mkisofs Options 4. -x /home/joe/trash -x /home/joe/delete .3 Writing ISOs with X-CD-Roast. useful if the CD is used in Windows environments. Table 4-1 explains each command line option.3.2. refer to Section 4. -V -v -x Table 4-1. and the disc is mounted in Solaris and Windows environments. refer to the additional resources in Section 4.iso -x /home/joeuser/junk/ -J -R -A -V -v /home/joeuser/ The image is created in the same directory that you ran the command. Sets verbose execution.. Using mkisofs The mkisofs utility creates ISO9660 image files that can be written to a CD-R(W).3.Chapter 4.iso and write it to CD-R(W) so that you can use it on your Red Hat Linux PC at work and your Windows laptop for trips. Generates Joliet naming records. these tools save some time over the graphical alternatives such as X-CD-Roast. Using cdrecord The cdrecord utility writes audio.3. you must first establish the device address of your CD-R(W) device by running the following command as root at a shell prompt: . however. and data settings. Option -o -J -R -A Function Specifies an output file name of the ISO image.

0 7) * To write the backup file image created with mkisofs in the previous section. Offers all options and commands in detail.3. The following is an example output from running cdrecord -scanbus.5. and sets write output (verbose [-v]).7.3. Installed Documentation • cdrecord man page — Discusses how to burn data.0 2) * 0. Cdrecord 1.0 backup.0 4) * 0.0.version (where version is the version of cdrecord installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information. the device address (0. such as Red Hat Linux ISO images.version (where version is the version of mkisofs installed on your system) — Several documentation files are included with general usage and licensing information.8 (i686-pc-linux-gnu) Copyright (C) 1995-2000 Jorg Schilling Using libscg version ’schily-0.3.     . You can use cdrecord to blank CD-RW discs for reuse by typing the following: cdrecord --dev=0.0 3) ’HP ’ ’CD-Writer+ 9200 ’ ’1.iso The command sets the write speed (4).0c’ Removable CD-ROM 0.0 1) * 0. including some example commands for creating common ISO image files. including some warnings about creating certain types of ISO images.0 --blank=fast 4. Offers all options and commands in detail.4. • mkisofs man page — Comprehensive detail of the utility.1. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/cdrecord.1.0 0) * 0. Additional Resources This chapter briefly covers several applications. which is useful for tracking the status of the write process.32 Chapter 4.1’ scsibus0: 0. Diskettes and CD-ROMs cdrecord -scanbus This command shows all CD-R(W) devices on your computer.4. Refer to the following resources for more information about the applications in this chapter 4. It is important to remember the device address of the device used to write your CD.0 6) * 0.4. audio and mixed-mode CD-ROMs. The -eject argument ejects the CDROM after the write process is complete. £ ¢ ¡ • /usr/share/doc/mkisofs.0 5) * 0. including some example commands for common CD-R(W) burning tasks. switch to the root user and type the following at a shell prompt: cdrecord -v -eject speed=4 dev=0.6.0).2. The same command can also be used for burning ISO image files downloaded from the Internet.3.

which includes the dvdrecord utility for writing DVD-R(+W) discs. 4.org/ — The Official website of the X-CD-Roast project. http://freshmeat. http://www.2.fsf. news.freesoftware. ¤ ¤ is the version of .net/projects/cdrecord/ — The cdrecord project page on Freshmeat is regularly updated with the newest releases. and user commentary. § ¦ • /usr/share/doc/dvdrecord. Diskettes and CD-ROMs 33 dvdrecord installed on your system) — For users who have DVD-R(+W) devices.4. Useful Websites • • • http://www. this set of documentation helps you get started mastering DVD-ROMs for data backup and multimedia presentation.Chapter 4.version / (where version § ¦ ¥ ¥ • /usr/share/doc/xcdroast.xcdroast.version (where version is the version of X-CD-Roast installed on your system) — Contains useful command-line options and usage information for this graphical CD-R(W) mastering application.org/dvdrtools/ — The official website of the dvdrtools project.

Diskettes and CD-ROMs .34 Chapter 4.

People use the Internet for everything from information to finances to getting medical prescriptions on the Web. Getting Online Exploring the Internet has become a popular activity. To use Internet Configuration Wizard. including the following information: • • • • The phone number that your modem must dial to connect to your ISP if you are using a modem. When you use the Internet. At a shell prompt. check with your ISP for any specific instructions that they provide. However. You can then configure the connection that you created at any time using the Network Administration Tool.2x. To start the application. DNS entries: DNS means Domain Name System. Your login name and password for your account if you are using an xDSL or modem connection.Chapter 5. A gateway address. More information about the Network Administration Tool can be found in the chapter entitled Network Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.2. There are many types of Internet connections. . which is a unique set of numbers like 2xx. each computer connected to the Internet must have an IP address. DNS servers act as a road map for the Internet. in order to use the Internet. type the command internet-druid In both cases you will have to enter your root password to continue. the DNS tells your machine where to send its traffic. you must have a connection to it.2xx. use one of the following methods: • • In the graphical desktop environment. which can be used to create an Internet connection. You may receive one or more DNS entries from your Internet provider when you sign up. Some ISPs may require you to configure a master address (called the gateway) that authenticates your computer and allows it to connect to the Internet. DNS tracks IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. Your own ISP may have specific connection requirements for their service which differ from the instructions in this chapter. Before connecting. including: • • • • • ISDN Connection Modem Connection Wireless Connection xDSL Connection Ethernet Connections Red Hat Linux includes the Internet Configuration Wizard. go to the Main Menu => System Tools => Internet Configuration Wizard. you must be running the X Window System and have root privileges.

To configure this type of connection.36 Chapter 5. To configure this type of connection. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. select Ethernet Connection. Getting Online Figure 5-1. xDSL Connection An xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) connection uses high-speed transmissions through telephone lines. the cable modem connects to the coaxial cable. . If you must supply a username and password to connect. Internet Configuration Wizard ISDN Connection An ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) connection uses high-speed. start Internet Configuration Wizard. and follow the steps in the wizard. select Modem Connection. Some DSL providers require you to configure your system to obtain an IP address through DHCP with an Ethernet card. start Internet Configuration Wizard. start the Internet Configuration Wizard. The Ethernet card is usually required to be configured for DHCP. Digital data is modulated into analog signals and sent over phone lines. you are probably using PPPoE. and SDSL. and follow the steps in the wizard. Internet Configuration Wizard uses the term xDSL to mean all types of DSL connections. To configure this type of connection. Cable Modem Connection A cable modem connection uses the same coaxial cable that your TV cable travels on to transmit data. This special phone line must be installed by a phone company. IDSL. and follow the steps in the wizard. Then. Most cable Internet providers require you to install an Ethernet card in your computer that connects to the cable modem. start Internet Configuration Wizard. Some DSL providers require you to configure a PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) connection with an Ethernet card. Ask your DSL provider which method you should use. and select DHCP on the Configure Network Settings screen. high-quality digital telecommunication lines as opposed to an analog modem connection. To configure this type of connection. select Ethernet Connection. To configure this type of connection. select ISDN Connection. There are different types of DSL such as ADSL. select xDSL Connection. Modem Connection A modem connection uses a modem to establish a connection to the Internet. start Internet Configuration Wizard.

Chapter 5. Getting Online Wireless Connection

37

If you are connecting your Red Hat Linux computer to a wireless access point (WAP) or peerto-peer (also called ad-hoc) network with a wireless (802.11x) network card, then you will need to configure your wireless device. Choose the Wireless Connection, then select the device from the list provided. You can then configure the device for DHCP or fixed IP addresses In the pop-up device configuration window. The Internet Configuration Wizard is a utility that guides you step-by-step through the process of establishing your Internet connection. Once your connection is up and running, you can then configure it to suit your needs or particular connection. For more detailed instructions, refer to the Network Configuration chapter in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide.

38

Chapter 5. Getting Online

Chapter 6. Web Browsing
Once you have configured your Internet connection (see Chapter 5 Getting Online), you are ready to get online. Red Hat Linux comes with several Web browsers, graphical applications that use your Internet connection to access the World Wide Web: news, research, shopping, banking, and more. This chapter briefly explains how to surf the Web using Mozilla and Galeon. For information about using the Konqueror Web browser, refer to Section A.6 Browsing the Web with Konqueror.

6.1. Mozilla
Part of the mozilla.org organization’s wide range of Open Source Internet application developments, Mozilla is a powerful, integrated, and standards-compliant Web browser, email client, news reader, and more. The Web browsing component displays Web content such as webpages and images. Mozilla also uses plug-ins for interactive multimedia such as streaming video and Web animation. This section shows you how to use the Mozilla Web browser to explore the Internet. To start Mozilla click the Mozilla Web Browser launcher on the panel or choose Main Menu => Internet => Mozilla Web Browser.

Figure 6-1. Mozilla Main Browser Window

6.1.1. Using Mozilla
Mozilla functions like any Web browser that you may have used before. It has the standard navigational toolbars, buttons, and menus.

You can access Personal Toolbar folders by clicking the icon and choosing the website from the drop-down menu. which you can customize with your own bookmarks or quickly go back to your homepage. chat. To add a site to your Personal Toolbar. The Mozilla SideBar At the bottom left corner of the browser window. Finally. and IRC Chat.40 Chapter 6. Mozilla supports keyword searching via the address field as well. and a What’s Related option that displays webpages similar in topic to the page currently displayed in the main browsing area. Figure 6-3. and other aspects of the Internet besides the Web. such as integrated search functionality. . bookmarks. The search results appears in the main browsing area. there is the Personal Toolbar. Web Browsing The navigation bar has an address field with which you can type a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) — the name or address of a website — into the address field at the top of the browser window. Mail. click and hold the left mouse button on the small icon next to the URL in the address field and drag it directly to the Personal Toolbar or into a folder icon. Figure 6-2. The Mozilla Navigational Bar There is also a sidebar on the left that contains additional options. Composer. Type in a keyword or phrase into the address field and click the Search button. These are separate applications integrated into the Mozilla suite and are useful for experiencing email. For information on using the Mozilla Mail email client. Address Book. refer to Chapter 7 Email Applications. news. The Personal Toolbar is useful for keeping and categorizing webpages so that you do not have to type the address every time you want to access the page. there are the following small icons: Navigator.

It is only a Web browser and does not feature email. When the help screen opens. For additional information on using Mozilla. Mozilla Composer You can use Mozilla Composer to create webpages. you can open a tab by clicking File => New => Navigation Tab or by pressing [Ctrl] and [T] at the same time. . Galeon uses Mozilla’s HTML and image renderer and plug-in system to display Web and multimedia content. newsgroups. This can be useful if you want to browse the Web without the need to email or chat with others. The Mozilla help files provide information on creating webpages with Composer. or anything other than Web browsing and searching. Web Browsing 41 Mozilla also allows you to browse multiple websites within one browser window using navigational tabs. A list of topics will appear and clicking on any of these will provide you with information for creating and editing webpages using Mozilla Composer. This will open the new tab and allow you to switch between tabs by clicking on them.2. go to Window => Composer on the Mozilla main menu. Galeon also has some extra features that are not included in Mozilla. Instead of using two or more separate windows to read multiple webpages.Chapter 6. To close a tab. To open Composer. Go to Help on the main menu and select Help Contents. Figure 6-4. a working installation of Mozilla is required. To use Galeon.1. click on the Contents tab and expand the Creating Webpages menu by clicking on the arrow next to it. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Help Contents. 6.2. You do not need to know HTML to use this tool. Mozilla Composer 6. or click on the Composer icon in the lower left part of the screen: . right-click on the tab and choose Close Tab from the menu or click the X at the right of the tab bar to close the tab currently displayed. Galeon Galeon is a Web browser that is based on Mozilla.

you have the option of importing bookmarks and preferences from Mozilla or other Web applications you may have installed on your system. Figure 6-5. Figure 6-6. Back. and Home buttons. as well as Reload and Stop buttons to refresh a webpage and stop it from loading. There are navigational buttons for moving from one visited webpage to another using the Forward. Once you have finished your configuration of Galeon. . go to Main Menu => Internet => More Internet => Galeon. it will take you through the configuration process. The first time you launch Galeon. and even browser navigation shortcuts. Web Browsing To launch Galeon.42 Chapter 6. Configuring Galeon During the initial configuration. integrated search features. Online with Galeon Using Galeon is much like using Mozilla. the main browser will appear. You can also configure Galeon’ personal toolbar with bookmarks. respectively.

or right-click the tab and choose Close Tab from the drop-down menu. Shortcut [Ctrl]-[T] [Ctrl]-[N] [Ctrl]-[Q] [Ctrl]-[L] [Ctrl]-[P] [Ctrl]-[right arrow] [Ctrl]-[left arrow] [Ctrl]-[R] [Ctrl]-[H] [Ctrl]-[F] Table 6-1. The tabbed browsing mode can be configured in the Tabs page of the Preferences Window. click the X button within the tab. you can choose to view the Galeon FAQ and Galeon manual. 6. To launch a new Tab. and you can switch between them by clicking on the each tab. From there.Chapter 6. Keyboard shortcuts can help you efficiently browse the Web. Web Browser Keyboard Shortcuts Table 6-1 shows some common keyboard shortcuts available in both Mozilla and Galeon.3. use the [Ctrl]-[T] key combination or select New Tab from the File menu. Multiple pages can be stored in a single Galeon window. Keyboard Shortcuts Description Open a new tab for browsing multiple websites within one browser window Open a new browser window Close all browser windows and exits the application Move the cursor to the browser’s address field Print the current displayed webpage or document Move forward by one link or page Move backward by one link or page Reload the current page Open the browsing history Find a keyword or string within a page . Web Browsing 43 Like Mozilla. To close a tab. Galeon also has a navigational tab feature that can help you avoid having your desktop cluttered with browser windows. which is accessible by choosing Settings => Preferences from the browser’s main menu. click Help on the top menu bar. For additional information or help with Galeon.

Web Browsing .44 Chapter 6.

Red Hat Linux includes several email applications. the place where incoming email is stored. All of the email client applications are designed to suit certain types of users. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate how to use some of the popular email applications included in Red Hat Linux. and read email. contact your ISP or network administrator. so. you should have some information from your Internet Service Provider (ISP) handy so that you can configure the client properly. Unless properly configured. POP. short for Post Office Protocol. you can choose one with the features that best suits your particular needs. although some can use the newer IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol). If you have any questions regarding what information you need.net. Most ISP email servers use the POP protocol. Since all email clients perform the same basic tasks (send and receive email). Email Applications Email is a very popular way of communicating with others over the Internet. Server type for receiving email (POP or IMAP) In order to receive mail. This is usually in the form of yourname@yourisp. is a protocol for retrieving email messages from your ISP’s email server. including graphical email clients like Evolution and Mozilla Mail.net. whereas POP mail is downloaded to your email client directly and does not stay on the server. is used to send email from a mail server to your email client’s inbox. SMTP is also used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. This POP or IMAP address. the messages can then be retrieved with an email client using either POP or IMAP.someisp.Chapter 7. you must know what type of server your network administrator or ISP is using. . choose the one that is most convenient and easy to use. IMAP differs from POP in that email from IMAP servers are stored on the server and stays there even as you download and read your mail. The following lists a few important things you may need to know: Your email address The email address you will use to send and receive mail. and text-based clients like mutt. short for Internet Message Access Protocol. an application that understands the various email transmission standards and allows you to send. Most email systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another. is usually in the form of mail. Server type for sending email (SMTP) The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol for sending email messages between servers. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your email application. You can use email with an email client. IMAP. you will not be able to make full use of the email clients discussed in this chapter. receive. This chapter will briefly discuss the following email clients: • • • Evolution Mozilla Mail Text-based email clients Before you launch an email client.

When you are done. user-defined filters. . Evolution Evolution is more than just an email client.1. To launch Evolution from the desktop panel. including powerful mailbox management. It provides all of the standard email client features. and you will be presented with the Main Screen as shown in Figure 7-2. Evolution Welcome Screen The first time you start Evolution you will be presented with the Welcome Screen (Figure 7-1). It additionally features a flexible calendar/scheduler which allows users to create and confirm group meetings and special events online. and quick searches. which allows you to configure your email connection. Figure 7-1. click Finish.46 Chapter 7. Evolution is a full-featured personal and workgroup information management tool for Linux and UNIX-based systems. Follow the on-screen instructions and fill in the information you collected from your ISP or administrator in the text boxes provided. go to Main Menu => Internet => Email. Evolution Main Screen To see what is in your inbox or to send an email. Figure 7-2. click on the Inbox icon. Email Applications 7. and is the default email client for Red Hat Linux.

like calendering/scheduling and group messaging. click Send on the toolbar. Email Applications 47 Figure 7-3. select New Message from the toolbar. If you would like to learn more about using some of the other features of Evolution. Figure 7-4. While Evolution does so much more than read and send email. Evolution Inbox Screen To compose a mail. Evolution New Email Message Screen Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to. .Chapter 7. click Help from the main toolbar and choose the component you want to learn more about. this chapter focusses exclusively on its email capabilities.

click on the mail icon near the lower left corner of the Mozilla screen. To open Mozilla Mail while in Mozilla.48 Chapter 7. To start Mozilla Mail. Figure 7-5. Email Applications 7. the Mozilla Help contents are located under Help on the main menu. Mozilla Mail This section briefly covers the basic steps for sending and receiving email with Mozilla.2. Mozilla Mail and News Figure 7-6. Mozilla Mail New Email Message Screen . select Main Menu => Extras Internet => Mozilla Mail. If you need further information about using Mozilla Mail.

click on the mail folder you created for yourself to see a list of messages waiting for you. save it to a separate folder. you first need to set up a newsgroup account. Newsgroup Account Setup Enter your name and email address on the next screen and click Next. you can delete it. If you choose to send later. A dialog box appears. The New Account Setup screen will appear. The discussions are in threaded format (which means all topics and responses to the topic are sorted and organized for convenient reading) and subscribing to a group is very easy. 7. click on the arrow next to the newsgroup account name and the list of groups you are subscribed to will appear beneath.1. contact your Internet service provider or network administrator for this information). Email Applications 49 To send an email. Posting to a newsgroup is just like writing . The newsgroup account you created will appear in the sidebar of the Mozilla mail screen. Select Newsgroup account and then click Next. click on OK. Figure 7-7. you can just lurk. enter the name of your news server (if you do not know the name of your news server. Select the groups you are interested in reading and click Subscribe. Now. you can go back to the main mail screen and go to File => Send unsent messages. and more. You do not have to post messages if you do not want to.Chapter 7. You can even post and download pictures and files to Newsgroups (although your ISP may restrict Newsgroups to text-based postings only). On the following screen. click on the Send button or go to File => Send Now or Send Later. To read email. Once you read a message. which is a Newsgroup term for reading without posting messages. Click on your mail account name in the sidebar and select Create a new account from the options that appear on the right of the screen. Select the newsgroup you want to access and a dialog box appears with information about downloading and reading existing messages. click on the message you want to read. There are a great many newsgroups on the Web with topics ranging from politics to computer games to random strange thoughts. listing all the newsgroups available. Then. Right-click on this account name and select Subscribe. When you are done. On the last few screens.2. To join a newsgroup. you can determine the name that this account will be referred to and review your settings. Mozilla and Newsgroups Newsgroups are Internet discussion groups with specific topics.

Using Mutt Mutt is a small but very powerful text-based mail client for UNIX operating systems. there is always tab-completion to help you. It is also this file that might give new users problems. plain text email is just that — plain text. you can save them in a file which is loaded every time the program starts up. gives mutt its flexibility and configurability. mutt allows the user to control nearly all of the functions that mutt uses to send. You do not have to type all your preferred configuration commands each time you run mutt.muttrc. Plain Text Email Clients Most modern email clients allow the user to select whether they want to send their emails in plain text or in HTML. except that the newsgroup name appears in the To field rather than an email address.muttrc or ~/. textures. 7. and pictures or backgrounds can be added.50 Chapter 7. The advantage of HTML formatted email is that they can contain graphics and interactive links to Web sites. This configuration file must exist in your home directory.3.3.g. When you launch mutt. it takes time to understand the features and what they can do for you. As is true with all powerful software. The term plain text refers to textual data in ASCII format. type :set help. Email Applications an email. e. and there are no special fonts. For example :unset help turns off the handy keyboard command hints at the top of the screen. . with either boolean or string values. If you cannot remember the command you want to use. To unsubscribe from a newsgroup. the layout is very controllable. 7. They is nothing fancy. Most of the options are invoked using the set or unset commands. it has to be named either ~/. all this makes for a visually appealing message when it gets to the recipient.1. On the other hand. receive. and read your mail. ~/. right-click on the group name and select Unsubscribe. set folder = ~/Mail. All configuration options can be changed at any time by typing a [:] followed by the relevant command. Plain text emails are simple. This initial menu is called the index. the first thing you see is a screen with a list of email messages. Mutt’s configuration file. Plain text (also called clear text) is the most portable format because it is supported by nearly every email application on various types of machines. To turn those hints back on.mutt/muttrc. This chapter will discuss the mutt plain text email client. there are no pictures embedded in the email. The number of options that mutt has available to it are truly astounding. The particular font can be specified.

After editing your email. often called the mailspool. add file attachments or simply press the [Y] key to send your email on its way. To learn more about mutt. Mutt will prompt for the To: address and the Subject: line. The mutt manual is installed in /usr/share/doc/mutt-1. . refer to the man pages for muttrc and mutt (type man muttrc or man mutt at the shell prompt). A text editor (defined by your $EDITOR environmental variable in the configuration file) will then launch allowing you to compose your message. You may also find the mutt manual to be very helpful. Use the [K] and [J] keys on your keyboard to move the highlighted cursor up and down the list of messages. change the encoding. where you can customize your message headers. Email Applications 51 Figure 7-8. save your file and exit the editor.x . that you can think of as your inbox.2. In the index or pager views. mutt Main Screen These messages are in a default mail folder. Mutt displays the compose menu. where x is the version number of mutt installed on your system. Type your message.Chapter 7. use the [R] key to reply to a message or the [M] key to create a new one.

Email Applications .52 Chapter 7.

The Printer Configuration Tool Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility for configuring local and remote printers without the need to install additional drivers and applications.2. With few exceptions. This chapter shows you how to set up and test a printer directly connected to your Red Hat Linux system.1. Printer hardware manufacturers distribute CD-ROMs or diskettes with their printers. Click Forward to proceed. The printer name cannot contain spaces and must begin with a letter.Chapter 8. refer to the chapter called Printer Configuration in the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. 8. all you need to do is attach the printer to your Red Hat Linux system. dashes (-). Figure 8-1. Adding a Printer In the window shown in Figure 8-2. such as one attached through a parallel port or USB port on your computer. The printer name may contain letters. Adding a Local Printer To add a local printer. numbers. . The Printer Configuration Tool uses a step-by-step process that can help you configure a printer faster than editing configuration files manually. Red Hat Linux provides drivers for most printer models. as most operating systems require these CD-ROMs because they contain printer drivers — software that communicates with both the printer and the operating system. thus the drivers and software on the printer manufacturer’s CD-ROM and diskettes are not needed. Printers have become a very popular PC peripheral due to their increasing quality and decreasing prices. enter a short description for the printer. enter a unique name for the printer in the Name text field. For remote printer setup and more advanced printer configuration issues. and configure it with the useful tools provided by Red Hat Linux. click the New button in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to display the window in Figure 8-1. turn on the printer. Printer Configuration Most computer users either own a printer at home or use one at work. Optionally. and underscores (_). which can contain spaces. 8.

The printer models are updated each time a different manufacturer is selected. Go to Section 8. The printers are divided by manufacturers. The device is usually /dev/lp0 for a parallel printer or /dev/usb/lp0 for a USB printer. 8. Printer Configuration Figure 8-2. If no devices appear in the list. Adding a Local Printer The next step is to select the type of printer.3 Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing to continue. select the model from the list. . Figure 8-3 appears. You will see a window similar to Figure 8-4.54 Chapter 8. the next step is to select the printer model. Selecting a Queue Name After clicking Forward. Select the name of the printer manufacturer from the pulldown menu. Click Forward to continue. Selecting the Printer Model and Finishing After selecting the queue type of the printer. Figure 8-3. click Rescan devices to rescan the computer or click Custom device to specify it manually. If it was not auto-detected. Select the printer model from the list. and select the device. Select Locally-connected from the Select a queue type menu.3.

you need a print driver to process the data that is sent to the printer.3. After applying the changes. SMB. clicking Edit. print a test page to try out this new configuration. Tip You can select a different print driver after adding a printer by starting the Printer Configuration Tool. Click Back to modify the printer configuration.1. selecting a different print driver. . or NCP). Since a local printer is attached directly to your computer. applying the changes. selecting the printer from the list. Click the Apply button in the main window to save your changes and restart the printer daemon.5 Modifying Existing Printers for details. You can also configure options such as paper size if you edit the print queue after adding it. Refer to Section 8. If you need to print characters beyond the basic ASCII set (including those used for languages such as Japanese). clicking the Driver tab. 8.4 Printing a Test Page for details. After applying the changes. Confirming Printer Configuration The last step is to confirm your printer configuration. If you select an additional print driver on your local computer. Printer Configuration 55 Figure 8-4. first try selecting Generic as the manufacturer and Raw Print Queue or Postscript Printer as the printer model. the data is filtered multiple times and is converted to a format that the printer can not understand. the remote print server usually has its own print driver. Try selecting a print driver according to the manufacturer and model of the remote printer. print a test page to ensure the configuration is correct. you must review your driver options and select Prerender Postscript. and printing a test page. Selecting a Printer Model The recommended print driver is selected based on the printer model selected. LPD. Refer to Section 8. and then applying the changes. The print driver processes the data that you want to print into a format the printer can understand. If you are configuring a remote printer (IPP. If the test fails.Chapter 8. the remote print server might not have a print driver configured. Click Apply to add the print queue if the settings are correct. To make sure the data is not filtered more than once.

then select the appropriate test page from the Test pulldown menu. The tabbed window shown in Figure 8-6 is displayed. Modifying Existing Printers To delete an existing printer. Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. Printing a Test Page After you have configured your printer. Figure 8-5. The window contains the current values for the selected printer.5. select the printer from the printer list and click the Default button on the toolbar. The default printer icon appears in the Default column of the default printer in the list. Click Apply in the main Printer Configuration Tool window to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. the settings can be edited by selecting the printer from the printer list and clicking the Edit button. After adding the printer(s). If you change the print driver or modify the driver options. you should print a test page to test the different configuration. select the printer and click the Delete button on the toolbar. To set the default printer. Make any necessary changes. select the printer that you want to try out from the printer list. Test Page Options 8. and click OK. Printer Configuration 8.4. you should print a test page to make sure the printer is functioning properly.56 Chapter 8. . The printer is removed from the printer list. To print a test page.

This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system. The name of the printer should change in the printer list. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon.5. If it is changed. click OK to return to the main window.1. click OK to return to the main window.5. Printer Configuration 57 Figure 8-6. If this does not work. Common options include: • Send Form-Feed (FF) should be selected if the last page of the print job is not ejected from the printer (for example.3. The queue type of the printer can be changed or just the settings. the form feed light flashes). different options are displayed. Click Apply to save the changes and restart the printer daemon. Refer to the appropriate section on adding a printer for a description of the options.5.Chapter 8. Queue Type The Queue type tab shows the queue type that was selected when adding the printer and its settings. Some printers require both Send Form-Feed (FF) and Send Endof-Transmission (EOT) to eject the last page. Send End-of-Transmission (EOT) should be selected if sending a form-feed does not work. Options vary for each print driver. Depending on which queue type is chosen. Editing a Printer 8. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. 8. try selecting Send End-ofTransmission (EOT) instead. • .5. Driver Options The Driver Options tab displays advanced printer options. change the value in the Queue name tab.2.4. After making modifications. Refer to Send Form-Feed (FF) above. Printer Driver The Printer driver tab shows which print driver is currently being used. 8. Queue Name To rename a printer or change its short description. 8. Click OK to return to the main window.

Convert Text to Postscript is selected by default. try unselecting this when printing plain text documents to decrease the time it takes to print. A3. If this option is selected along with the Convert Text to Postscript option. This option prerenders non-standard PostScript fonts so that they are printed correctly. • • • GhostScript pre-filtering — allows you to select No pre-filtering. the print driver assumes that any data that it can not recognize is text and attempts to print it as text. Printer Configuration Assume Unknown Data is Text should be selected if the print driver does not recognize some of the data sent to it. For example.6. Prerender Postscript should be selected if characters beyond the basic ASCII set are being sent to the printer but they are not printing correctly (such as Japanese characters). select ja_JP. The options include US Letter. Also select this option if the printer can not handle PostScript level 3. and A4. and more. This option is only available if the PostScript driver is used with the CUPS printing system. select this option to print Japanese fonts to a non-Japanese printer. Click Apply to save the change and restart the printer daemon. 8. If the CUPS printing system is used. the job number. accept the default of C. click the Printer Manager icon on the panel to start the GNOME Print Manager as shown in Figure 8-7. Page Size allows the paper size to be selected. this is not an option because text is always converted to PostScript. such as printing text file from Emacs or printing an image from The GIMP. If Japanese characters are being printed. • • • • To modify the driver options. US Legal. The print spool queue is a list of print jobs that have been sent to the printer and information about each print request. . Only select this option if there are problems printing. If the printer can print plain text. Effective Filter Locale defaults to C. the print driver assumes the unknown data is text and then converts it to PostScript.58 Chapter 8. Managing Print Jobs When you send a print job to the printer daemon. the username of the person who sent the request. Do not choose it unless problems printing the correct fonts exist. If this option is selected. Change this option to use paper from a different tray. try selecting this option. If the printer does not support the fonts you are trying to print. such as the status of the request. Media Source defaults to Printer default. This option converts it to PostScript level 1. the hostname of the system that sent the request. Convert to PS level 1. Otherwise. or Convert to PS level 2 in case the printer can not handle certain PostScript levels. Extra time is required to perform this action. click OK to return to the main window. the print job is added to the print spool queue. If you are running a graphical desktop environment. This option is only available with the LPRng printing system.

Printer Notification Icon Clicking on the printer notification icon starts the GNOME Print Manager to display a list of current print jobs. . Also located on the Panel is a Print Manager icon. If there are active print jobs in the print spool. Because it probes for active print jobs every five seconds. select it from the list and select Edit => Cancel Documents from the pulldown menu. right-click on the icon for the printer and select Properties. GNOME Print Manager It can also be started by selecting Main Menu Button (on the Panel) => System Tools => Print Manager. List of Print Jobs To cancel a specific print job listed in the GNOME Print Manager.Chapter 8. Click OK to start printing the file. Printer Configuration 59 Figure 8-7. Double-click on a configured printer to view the print spool queue as shown in Figure 8-8. The Printer Configuration Tool is then started. Figure 8-9. a printer notification icon might appears in the Panel Notification Area of the desktop panel as shown in Figure 8-9. To print a file from Nautilus. browse to the location of the file and drag and drop it on to the Print Manager icon on the Panel. To change the printer settings. Figure 8-8. The window shown in Figure 8-10 is displayed. the icon might not be displayed for short print jobs.

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Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

Figure 8-10. Print Verification Window To view the list of print jobs in the print spool from a shell prompt, type the command lpq. The last few lines will look similar to the following:
Rank Owner/ID active user@localhost+902 Class A Job Files 902 sample.txt Size Time 2050 01:20:46

Example 8-1. Example of lpq output If you want to cancel a print job, find the job number of the request with the command lpq and then use the command lprm job number . For example, lprm 902 would cancel the print job in Example 8-1. You must have proper permissions to cancel a print job. You can not cancel print jobs that were started by other users unless you are logged in as root on the machine to which the printer is attached. You can also print a file directly from a shell prompt. For example, the command lpr sample.txt will print the text file sample.txt. The print filter determines what type of file it is and converts it a format the printer can understand.

8.7. Additional Resources
To learn more about printing on Red Hat Linux, refer to the following resources.

8.7.1. Installed Documentation
• man printcap —

The manual page for the /etc/printcap printer configuration file.

• map lpr — The manual page for the lpr command that allows you to print files from the command

line.

• man lpd

— The manual page for the LPRng printer daemon.

Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

61

• man lprm

— The manual page for the command line utility to remove print jobs from the LPRng spool queue. — The manual page for the command line utility to print multiple pages on one sheet — The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon. The manual page for the CUPS printer daemon configuration file. The manual page for the class configuration file for CUPS.

• man mpage

of paper.

• man cupsd

• man cupsd.conf —

• man classes.conf —

8.7.2. Useful Websites
• •

http://www.linuxprinting.org — GNU/Linux Printing contains a large amount of information about printing in Linux. http://www.cups.org/ — Documentation, FAQs, and newsgroups about CUPS.

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Chapter 8. Printer Configuration

. The applications that comprise a productivity suite are integrated — which means that you can.doc.html .sda. . The OpenOffice.gif. clip art. and allows you to . or printed collateral. Using OpenOffice.xls files. 9.slk. .sxc.org suite contains several applications for creating and editing documents.org suite. school papers. . .1.html . spreadsheets.org Impress OpenOffice.org.csv. including . you know they are commonly associated with the Microsoft Office suite.Chapter 9. business forms. It includes templates. write a document with an embedded chart created by the spreadsheet application as well as a slide from a graphical presentation application. Web presentations.htm/. This real-time.org Features The OpenOffice. lectures. slide shows . . organizational charts .org is much faster and easier than learning complex tags and code to format your documents and presentations. and presentation utilities.org Suite Productivity suites are collections of applications designed to save time and assist users at work.sxi.org suite has many file compatibility features.org Features As you can see. . at school. . address books. forms. reports Spreadsheets. visual form of document formatting is called what you see is what you get (or WYSIWYG) editing.1. image formats.rtf.dbf. budgets.bmp. . productivity suites are graphical and include such applications as word processors. graphs. 9. . . and . It allows you complete control over the layout and content of your documents and lets you see the results as you edit it.xls.org Writer OpenOffice.sxd. line drawings.png Table 9-1. personnel directories. .sxw. tables.sdc. Usually. The OpenOffice. .jpg. newsletters. Red Hat Linux includes a powerful business productivity suite called OpenOffice. edit. writing a formal letter. spreadsheets. OpenOffice. lectures.sxd. OpenOffice. for example. and artwork. Working with Documents Red Hat Linux includes several tools for managing all of your documents. export files to several Illustrations. Red Hat Linux has a tool that suits your needs. including files which are commonly associated with Microsoft Office. which incorporates several complementary applications into one integrated package. Whether you are preparing for a business or school presentation.txt.1. Table 9-1 shows the many different types of files you can use and tasks you can accomplish with the OpenOffice. the OpenOffice. If you have ever worked with or received . and create files in several formats.sdd Document Types Formal letters. .htm/.doc or . Application OpenOffice. . resumes. and wizards for creating basic professional documents and presentations quickly. . or opening a document from an email attachment.ppt. and at home.org Draw File Compatibility .org Calc OpenOffice. business presentations. Integration of the software that make up a productivity suite helps you to give impact to your presentations. simple databases Business and academic presentations.sdw. charts.org suite is able to read.

org applications. and more. However. there is a toolbar with buttons for checking your spelling. keyword and phrase searching.64 Chapter 9. Figure 9-1 shows OpenOffice. letter sizes. click the Save button choose the file format from the File type drop down menu at the bottom of the browser window. business.org Writer is a powerful word processor that features WYSIWYG formatting — what you see in the OpenOffice. or right margins). for files that you need to distribute to Microsoft Office users. There is also a text box that enables you to specify the exact location of a document on your machine and load the document into the editing area. You can immediately begin typing text into the document editing area at any time using the default .org is similar to other word processing applications you may have used before. or if you are . center. Along the left side of the window. choose Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. There are also buttons for opening. The following sections shows you how to use the OpenOffice. OpenOffice.org Writer.1. as well as buttons for creating new documents (which will open up a new window with a blank document for you to add content). type oowriter. or home use. and other convenient editing functions.org Writer window is exactly what you get if you printed the document or if you gave the document file to someone else for them to view. OpenOffice. and print your documents without the need to memorize complex formatting tags or codes. If you hover the mouse cursor over a toolbar button.org suite. to start it from a shell prompt. The default file type is appropriate for files that you are working on exclusively with OpenOffice. At the top of the window are various functions collected into toolbars that let you choose your fonts.org Writer in action: Figure 9-1. toggling the automatic highlighting of misspelled words. a pop-up Tip is displayed with a brief explanation of the button’s functionality. OpenOffice. and printing documents.org Writer To start OpenOffice.org Writer from your desktop panel. You can display more detailed Tips by clicking the Help menu and choosing Extended Tips.2. which opens the pop-up file browser. A word processor is like a text editor but has several additional features that allow you to format. The main interface is the document editing area (the white space in the middle of the window) where you can add and edit text. You can settings. saving. To save your text.org Writer Writing documents using OpenOffice. justification (aligning the text of your document to the left. 9. Working with Documents accomplish several tasks for academic. design.

org Calc from a shell prompt.doc extension. Figure 9-2 shows an image added to a document. you can also add objects such as images. illustrations. The image will appear where you placed your cursor and can be made larger or smaller by clicking on the resizing borders around the image. Note that you can also export your document to HTML or PDF format. creating business charts. You can perform calculations on groups of cells (such as adding or subtracting a column of cells) or create charts based on the quantities contained in a group of cells. To add an image to the document. charts.org Calc in action. OpenOffice. Adding an Image to Your Document Once you have created your document.org Writer is useful for general document editing. To start OpenOffice. and choose the image from the pop-up file browser. Figure 9-2.org Calc is a software spreadsheet application that allows you to enter and manipulate data cells organized in columns and rows. you can save it in any format that you wish. such as a quantity. and manipulating data.org Calc from the desktop panel. you can save the file as a Microsoft Word file type that others will be able to open it in Microsoft Word. 9. label. While OpenOffice. Consult Table 9-1 for available file formats. professionals in every industry use spreadsheets for keeping records. select Insert => Graphics => From File.1. . or mathematical formula. formats which can be read by almost every computer with a Web browser (such as Mozilla) or PDF viewer application (such as xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader).3. To start OpenOffice. Figure 9-3 shows OpenOffice. Working with Documents 65 editing a file that was sent as an email attachment with the . and tables to your document to complement your text or give impact to your documents.Chapter 9.org Calc. type oocalc. select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. A cell is a container for individual pieces of data. You can even incorporate spreadsheet data into your documents for a professional touch.org Calc From large enterprises to home offices. OpenOffice.

Highlight the areas you would like to chart. .org Calc has several preset functions and calculations (such as =SUM() for addition/multiplication. For detailed information about creating functions for calculating your numerical data in OpenOffice. For example.org Calc OpenOffice. and click Create. or you can save the graph as an object that you can then embed in OpenOffice. refer to the documentation by selecting Help => Contents.. you can create a personal budget by entering data descriptions (such as rent.org Calc.org Calc allows you to enter the data either in the cell itself by double clicking the cell and typing your information or by using the Input Line (the text box on the toolbar).66 Chapter 9.org Writer documents or OpenOffice. groceries. OpenOffice. The graph will be displayed anchored within the spreadsheet window... =quotient() for division. You can move it anywhere on the screen for printing. Choose the style you want. and =subtotal()for preparing receipts). and utilities) into column A and the quantities of those data descriptions in column B. If you need to create charts or graphs for class or business presentations. Click Next to display the many different charts and graphs you can create using your data.org Impress presentations.org has several chart and graph templates available. then click Insert => Chart. OpenOffice.org Calc allows you to enter and manipulate personal or business data. OpenOffice. In the Chart window. OpenOffice. Then you can run a formula on column B to come up with a total. the data ranges you chose will be shown in the text box for you to customize further if desired. Working with Documents Figure 9-3.

org Impress from a shell prompt.Chapter 9. To start OpenOffice. For more information about using OpenOffice.sxc as well as Microsoft Office compatible . webpages.org Impress from the graphical desktop. You can even import charts and graphs created by OpenOffice.org Impress features a step-by-step automated presentation wizard called AutoPilot that allows you to create presentations from a collection of default style templates.xls formats. or images.org Calc in several file formats. you can export rendered charts and graphs to several image file formats and integrate them with document files. To start OpenOffice. including the native .org Impress in action. 9. OpenOffice. and presentations.org Impress.org Impress Visual aids can give your presentations an added impact that catches your audience’s attention and keeps them interested. . type ooimpress.1.4. You can make slides with itemized lists. Working with Documents 67 Figure 9-4. OpenOffice. OpenOffice. Creating Charts with OpenOffice.org Calc You can save spreadsheets created with OpenOffice. select Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice. Additionally.org Impress is a graphical tool that can help you make a more convincing presentation.org Calc into a slide. outlines. refer to the help page located in Help => Contents from the file menus. Figure 9-5 shows OpenOffice.org Calc.

you will be presented with the AutoPilot. in the floating toolbar. Your presentation can be saved in several file formats. You can choose the style of your slides.sdd). and any animated visual effects you want to apply to the slides if you run presentations from your computer. Working with Documents Figure 9-5.. or a display monitor). You can select a pre-formatted slide from the list or start with a blank slide and customize the layout yourself. You can save in the native OpenOffice. Figure 9-6. the Microsoft PowerPoint format (mypresentation.sxi). transparent paper for overhead projectors.ppt). You can also print your presentation to plain or transparent paper formats by clicking File => Print from the file menu. OpenOffice.org Impress. OpenOffice. .. click Insert Slide.org Impress AutoPilot Wizard Once you have chosen your preferences with AutoPilot tool. the medium with which you will present your slides (plain paper. which you can exit by cycling through every slide until you reach the end or by pressing the [Esc] key at any point in the slide show. slides.org Impress When you first start OpenOffice. You can have as many slides in your presentation as you need. and a pop-up window will appear allowing you to choose the layout of the new slide.68 Chapter 9. The presentation will be presented in full screen.org Impress format (for example. To add new slides to your presentation. You can also preview your presentation at any point by selecting Slide Show => Slide Show from the file menus. mypresentation. you can choose the type of slide you want to create. or StarImpress format (mypresentation.

org Draw If you want to create graphics for your documents and presentations. To start OpenOffice. You can create images and fill them with the color of your choice using the Area Style/Filling drop-down menu on the main toolbar. Refer to Table 9-1 for the complete list of compatible image file formats. You can additionally insert text into your illustrations. and more.org Draw has some of the same basic functions.org Impress.org Draw. OpenOffice. OpenOffice. There are toolbars for creating straight and curved lines.org Draw from the desktop panel.org Draw allows you to make illustrations and save them in several formats that you can add to printed documents. click Help => Contents from the file menus.org Draw. Figure 9-7 Shows OpenOffice. you can use OpenOffice. basic shapes such as squares and circles. OpenOffice. you will find that OpenOffice. click Main Menu => Office => OpenOffice.org Draw also allows you to open and import images and modify them with the tools provided. refer to the documentation located at Help => Contents from the file menus. To start OpenOffice. place on websites. you can save the file in one of several native file formats or export your work to several popular formats such as . . 69 9. or attach to emails.jpg or . Using your mouse as a you would a pen or a paintbrush.org Draw.png.org Draw If you are familiar with illustration and graphics applications such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information).1. type oodraw.org Draw in action. 3D objects such as cones and cubes. For more information on using OpenOffice.Chapter 9. When you complete your illustration or image modifications.5. Working with Documents To learn more about OpenOffice.org Draw from a shell prompt. OpenOffice. Figure 9-7.

applications that allow you to view and modify plain text files. You can navigate the text file by clicking and holding the scroll bar on the right edge of the window and moving your mouse cursor up and down. You can also start gedit by typing gedit at a shell prompt. Press the [Page Up] and [Page Down] keys to advance the document a page at a time.70 Chapter 9. It can open. Plain text files are files that contain text without any font or style formatting applied to it. such as system logs and configuration files. or. If you have a file already open and want to copy text from another file. Tip gedit allows you to open multiple text files in one window using separate tabs for each file. Editing Text Files Red Hat Linux includes several text editors.2. click Main Menu => Accessories => Text Editor. Figure 9-8. To start gedit. click Open. You can also cut and paste text to and from other graphical desktop applications. Note gedit can only be used in a graphical desktop environment. edit. gedit Once gedit is running. you are presented with a blank editing area. use the arrow keys to navigate through the text file line-by-line. You can begin using gedit immediately or click the Open button to locate the plain text file you want to edit. and save plain text files. create new text files. and print files. gedit is a graphical text editor. Working with Documents 9. gedit has a clear and understandable interface that uses tabs so that you can open more than one file at the same time without opening more than one gedit window. The file will load into the main editing area as shown in Figure 9-8. choose the file you want .

© ¨ . For more information about gedit. which is convenient if. meaning that you can view and run built-in commands on the file but you cannot add text to it. or by choosing File => Save from the file menus. type [:] and then type [q] followed by [!].2. If you have made changes to the text file that you want to save. press [:] and type [w] then [q] to write your changes to the file and exit the application. To exit vi. you can save it by pressing the Save button in the toolbar. You can also choose File => Save As. which will allow you to make any modifications you need to. To start vi. More information about using vi can be found by typing man vi at a shell prompt. choose Help => Contents from the file menus to access the gedit manual.. press [i] (for Insert mode).1. To open a file with vi type vi filename at a shell prompt.Chapter 9. 9. a pop-up window will prompt you to name the file and save it in the directory of your choice. and vi reverts to Normal mode. If you are editing an existing file. vi is a simple application that opens within the shell prompt and allows you to view. Working with Documents 71 to access. type vi at a shell prompt. for example. Figure 9-9. To exit insert mode. to save an existing file under a new name or in a different location. press [Esc]. vi By default. If you accidentally made changes to a file and you want to exit vi without saving the changes.. and the file will open in a new tab within the gedit window. If you are writing a new text file. Once you have modified or written your text file. You can navigate between each file by clicking on the the tab associated with the particular filename. then any changes you make will automatically appear in the file the next time you open it. Red Hat Linux includes the vi (pronounced vee-eye) text editor. search. vi opens a file in Normal mode. press [:] (which is the vi command mode) and press [q] then [Enter]. To add text. which exits without saving changes. and modify text files. Shell Prompt Text Editors If you are not using a graphical desktop and want to read and modify a text or configuration file. you are editing a configuration file and you want to test your changes without losing your original configuration.

Select the PDF file you want to view and click Open. 4. . as well as standard zoom. The xpdf man page provides useful information on the xpdf options. you can download it free of charge at http://www.72 Chapter 9. Right-click in the xpdf screen to display a list of options. and find tools. xpdf To view a PDF with xpdf: 1. In your desktop environment. PDF captures formatting information from a variety of desktop publishing applications. Figure 9-10.com/. The xpdf toolbar at the bottom has navigational tools that let you move backward and forward through the PDF document. Select Open to display the file browser. An open source application called xpdf is included with Red Hat Linux. at a shell prompt type man xpdf. 3. 2. go to Main Menu => Graphics => PDF Viewer.3. print. To view a PDF you must have a PDF reader. You can also launch xpdf by typing xpdf at a shell prompt. Working with Documents 9.adobe. To view the xpdf man page. Another popular PDF viewer is Adobe Acrobat Reader. making it possible to send formatted documents and have them appear on the recipient’s monitor or printer as they were intended. While it is not included with Red Hat Linux. Viewing PDFs A PDF (Portable Document Format) file is an electronic image of a document.

The CD Player application should appear automatically and begin playing the first audio track. and General Amusement This chapter presents you with the lighter side of Red Hat Linux. .1. Red Hat Linux provides many packages to assist you in having some fun with your computer. Audio. Users enjoy the technology because the sound quality is excellent compared to analog tape or records. There is even a sliding bar that allows you to adjust the volume. and the files are compact (audio files can easily be transferred across the Internet). pause. If the interface does not appear.2. You can edit the track listings for your CDs by clicking the Open track editor button. Video. From games and toys to multimedia applications. and stop functions. CD Player Interface The CD Player interface acts similar to a standard CD player. Figure 10-2. CD Player Preferences 10. Playing Digital Audio Files Digital audio has become very popular in recent years.Chapter 10. To take advantage of this technology. with play. Here you can set themes for the player as well as set the behavior of the CD-ROM drive when you open or quit the CD Player application. you can also use the Track List drop down menu to select a track from the available listing. a cross-platform multimedia player which allows you to play several digital audio file formats. place the CD in your CD-ROM drive. Figure 10-1. Playing Audio CDs To play an audio CD. click Main Menu => Sound & Video => CD Player to launch the CD Player application. Press the Next track and Previous Track buttons to skip forward or backward one track. You can also change the way the application functions by clicking on the Open Preferences button. 10. Red Hat Linux includes the powerful X Multimedia System (XMMS).

click the Open button window. Using XMMS To play an audio file with XMMS. click and hold the mouse button and drag it over all of the files you want to open) and click OK. The files that end in . To learn more about using XMMS and its many options.3. 10. by genre or artist). You can use XMMS to add audio files into a list and then save it as a playlist. This can be convenient if you have several audio files and you want to categorize them (for example.1. go to Main Menu => Sound & Video => XMMS. and choose a file from the Load File(s) Figure 10-4. you can run the Sound Card Configuration Tool utility.74 Chapter 10. Notice that XMMS begins to play your audio files immediately. refer to the man page by typing man xmms at a shell prompt. . and most module formats. you do not hear sound and know that you do have a sound card installed. Audio. XMMS can be extended via plugins to play a number of other digital multimedia formats. To launch XMMS from a shell prompt. for some reason. XMMS Interface XMMS can be used for more than just playing digital audio files. type the command xmms.ogg are Ogg Vorbis files. a popular new audio file format. you see that there are several files to choose from. There are also buttons to stop. pause. RIFF wave. and skip (backward and forward) your audio files. By default XMMS can play Ogg Vorbis. Additionally.pls file is an audio playlist file. 10. The Load File(s) Window In Figure 10-4. Troubleshooting Your Sound Card If. Video. To launch XMMS. the . To adjust the volume click the volume slider (the long slider above the Open button) to the left to lower the volume or to the right to increase it like a CD player.2. Highlight the file you wish to play (if you have multiple files. and General Amusement Figure 10-3.

10. refer to the Linux Sound HOWTO at the Linux Documentation Project webpage: http://www.3.com/ to see if your card is supported.Chapter 10. and General Amusement 75 To use the Sound Card Configuration Tool. although they are not quite as simple as running the Sound Card Configuration Tool. Manual Sound Card Configuration If your sound card is not a plug and play card. You can then click the Play test sound button to play a sound sample. check the Hardware Compatibility List at http://hardware. You can edit your modules. choose Main Menu => System Settings => Soundcard Detection.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/ . Figure 10-5.3. For example: alias sound sb alias midi opl3 options opl3 io=0x388 options sb io=0x220 irq=7 dma=0. A small text box pops up prompting you for your root password. If the utility detects a plug and play sound card.conf file as discussed below (this strategy is not recommended for most new users) or refer to the documentation that came with your sound card for more information.1 mpu_io=0x300 For information on configuring sound manually.conf file to include the sound card module that it should use. it will automatically try to configure the correct settings for your card. If you are having trouble configuring your sound card. If Sound Card Configuration Tool Does Not Work If the Sound Card Configuration Tool does not work (if the sample does not play and you still do not have audio sounds).redhat. The Sound Card Configuration Tool utility probes your system for sound cards. there are alternatives. Audio. Video.tldp. select OK and your sound card configuration is complete.1. If you can hear the sample. Sound Card Configuration Tool 10.1. but there are some sound cards that are not completely compatible or may not work at all. you can manually edit your /etc/modules.1. Note Most sound cards are supported by Red Hat Linux.

which then prompt you to input your root password. if you did not choose to configure a video card at that time.. button next to the Video Card entry. button next to the Monitor Type entry. click the Advanced tab. for example. X Configuration Tool attempts to automatically configure your video card and monitor settings for you. click Main Menu => System Settings => Display.76 Chapter 10. or if you need to reconfigure your settings. redhat-config-xfree86 attempts to start a minimal X session to allow you to continue your configuration. A pop-up window will display a list of video card models. A pop-up window prompts you for your root password. Figure 10-6 shows the Advanced tab for configuring your video device manually. Games Playing games under Red Hat Linux is a fun way to pass the time. you should be able to start an X session and enjoy your graphical desktop environment. Choose your model and click OK. If you are working from a shell prompt and X is not working. click the Advanced tab. Follow the instructions that appear on the screen. and General Amusement 10. You can also start from a shell prompt by typing the command redhat-config-xfree86. then click the Configure. then click the Configure. Whether you enjoy card games like . Figure 10-6. When you have finished reconfiguring your video card and monitor. 10. X Configuration Tool To configure your monitor manually. You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your monitor for the correct model and vertical/horizontal frequency settings. You can also let X Configuration Tool probe your video card for the correct model and settings by clicking the Probe Videocard button. Troubleshooting Your Video Card Video card configuration is handled during the Red Hat Linux installation (refer to the Red Hat Linux Installation Guide for more information). The games included in Red Hat Linux appeal to quite a large number of video game enthusiasts.5. Note The X Configuration Tool backs up your system’s original video configuration file to /etc/X11/XF86Config. if you install a new video card. Choose your model and click OK. Audio.backup in case you need it to switch back to a previous configuration.. A pop-up window will display a list of monitor models. However.. You should do this. To configure your video card manually.. you can use the X Configuration Tool utility. Video.4. To run the X Configuration Tool.

Figure 10-7 shows a fun game for kids of all ages called Same GNOME. To start a game. click Main Menu => Games and select the game of your choice. you can click them to make them disappear. http://www. and General Amusement 77 Aisle Riot (a solitaire card game). For more information. Finding Games Online There are many more games available within Red Hat Linux and online.google.Chapter 10.linuxgaming.org/ — the Linux gaming repository. Video. http://happypenguin. you can find it in Red Hat Linux. The object of the game is to make all the marbles disappear.com — A store where you can buy games just for Linux. such as http://www.com/ — a Linux gaming news site. Audio. arcade games like Tux Racer. or space shooting games like Chromium and Maelstrom.tuxgames.linuxgames. . In this game you point your mouse at matching marbles until they start to spin.6. then.com/. You can also browse the Internet for linux games using a search engine.net — A website that covers Linux-compatible games in depth. Figure 10-7. board games like Chess. here are a few suggestions: • • • • http://www. http://www. Same GNOME — Match the Marbles Game 10.

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Chapter 10. Audio, Video, and General Amusement

Chapter 11. Working with Images
Digital images have grown in popularity with the development of the graphical Internet and the increasing quality of digital cameras. There are several types of image files, some of which are created using sophisticated illustration software packages, while others are made from digital sources such as a scanner or camera. You may have downloaded some of these image files from the Web or received them in an email. You may also want to create your own images to send to others. You can view and modify the most common types of image files using the many applications included in Red Hat Linux.

11.1. Viewing Images
This section discusses some of the common tools for viewing image files. Certain tools included in Red Hat Linux are specialized applications with several functions that enhance your image viewing experience; while others are general-purpose file managers that have integrated image viewing functionality.

11.1.1. Using Nautilus to View Images
Nautilus is a general-purpose file manager and browser for your graphical desktop environment. Nautilus has many functions beyond simple image viewing; however, for this section, we will use it for basic image browsing. For more information about Nautilus, see Chapter 2 Using the Graphical Desktop. Nautilus is known for its ease-of-use and it handles images with the same ease as it does for other file types. To begin browsing your image collection with Nautilus, double-click your home desktop icon: You will be presented with a view of all files and folders within your home directory. Double-click the image (or the folder containing the image) and Nautilus will open the file or folder within its browser window. Figure 11-1 shows that Nautilus automatically creates thumbnails of any images in your folders:

Figure 11-1. Contents of a Folder in Nautilus

80

Chapter 11. Working with Images

Double-click on any thumbnail icon to view the image in its native size. The image will load within the browser window. To increase or decrease the size of the viewed image in Nautilus, click on the zoom buttons next to the Location: field as shown in Figure 11-2:

Figure 11-2. The Zoom Function in Nautilus Click the + button to increase the size of the image or - to decrease it.

11.1.2. Using gThumb
gThumb is a powerful image viewer for graphical desktop users that supports several image file formats, including:
• • • • • • • • •

JPG/JPEG GIF PGM XPM PNG PCX TIF/TIFF PPM BMP

gThumb is useful for viewing individual image files as well as browsing collections of files in folders. It supports zoom in and zoom out functions, as well as thumbnail sized preview icons of all image files within a directory. It also supports several advanced options not found in Nautilus. gThumb can be started from your desktop panel. Choose Main Menu => Graphics => gThumb Image Viewer or type gthumb at a shell prompt to start the application. gThumb will browse your user home directory by default. If you have any images in this directory, the gallery panel will automatically generate thumbnails for you to highlight and view in the main display area.

and converting an image from one file format to another. You can combine functions within gThumb and create a dynamic presentation effect for groups of images within a directory. By default. You can also scale and stretch the image. 11.2. To restore your desktop wallpaper to its default. and write descriptions about the images. You can center the image on the page.1. The toolbar allows you to fit the image to the display window. moving. The gThumb interface also has a text field for you to enter a particular path to your image directories.2. type the path to the the directory where your images are located and highlight the first image in the main gallery panel. You can stop the slide show at any time by pressing [Esc] or by moving your mouse cursor and clicking the Restore Normal View pop-up button that appears on the top left corner of the screen. right-click on an image. right-click anywhere in the main gallery area and choose Set Image as Wallpaper => Restore. Configuring gThumb gThumb allows you to customize several settings by choosing Edit => Preferences. Working with Images 81 Figure 11-3. collect multiple files into a catalog for easier access if they are located in different directories. You can also set an image as your desktop wallpaper within the pop-up menu. You can also tile the image. Changing your Desktop Wallpaper with gThumb To change your desktop wallpaper with gThumb.Chapter 11. and then choose the orientation of the image. Double-click an image preview thumbnail to view it within the main gallery area. 11. and be printed on your configured printer.1. each image in the slide show is presented for 4 seconds. Right-clicking on an image in the display area opens a pop-up menu of file management options such as renaming. set to full screen (which covers your entire screen with the image). In the text field below the toolbar. choose Set Image as Wallpaper. copying.2. Click the Slide Show button on the toolbar and you will start a full-screen slide show where gThumb displays images in full screen. which fills your desktop with multiple instances of the image. .1. which resizes the image from its native resolution to fit your screen size. The image can be zoomed in and out. gThumb Displaying a Folder of Images The interface of gThumb is straightforward. which sets the image at its native resolution on the desktop and fills the rest of the space with the default desktop color if the image is smaller than your desktop resolution.

or you can start the GIMP from the desktop by choosing Main Menu => Graphics => The GIMP. This section offers a quick overview of the GIMP and refers you to comprehensive references for learning more about it. you start the GIMP using the command gimp. Manipulating Images with the GIMP The GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP) is a powerful tool that can be used to create. change thumbnail preview sizes.2. and enhance digital image files — photographs. you will need to know some of the basics. . From a shell prompt. scanned images. customize a default image directory on startup. and change the interval between cycled images during a slide show. choose Help => Contents from the main menu. You can choose the layout of the application window. 11.2. and more. The GThumb Preferences Dialog Box To find out more about using and configuring gThumb. Working with Images The preferences pop-up menu lets advanced users change several of the default gThumb behaviors. GIMP Basics To use the GIMP.82 Chapter 11. computer-generated images. Figure 11-5 shows a typical GIMP session in action. manipulate. Figure 11-4. 11.1. alter.

select File => Open. Figure 11-6. as shown in Figure 11-6. Loading a File To load an existing file. You will see the Load Image dialog.2. Working with Images 83 Figure 11-5. The GIMP in Action 11. The Load Image Dialog .Chapter 11.2.

Select the quantity of lines per inch using the sliders. imagine you have a picture that you would like to modify to make it look as if it were clipped from a newspaper.2. rotation. then selecting a file to open from the Files list on the right. you can add text to images.. Figure 11-7 shows an example of an image after the Newsprint filter has been applied: Figure 11-7. When you reach a desired quantity and are ready to render the image. 11.84 Chapter 11. erase regions of an image. Once you have selected a file.jpg. . File name completion is supported by the GIMP. If you type the first letter (or more) of a file name into the Selection field and press the [Tab] key. The GIMP then renders the image with the new effect applied. and filter application. click on the OK button to open it. When you are saving an image. If you want to see a thumbnail of the image. right-click on the image and select Filters => Distorts => Newsprint.png. Saving a File To save an image file. or even fill selected regions with the color of your choice. the GIMP provides more than one method to accomplish tasks. alternatively. The Save Image dialog looks almost exactly like the Load Image dialog and navigation of the file system tree and choosing files works in the same way. Using the Toolbox. GIMP Options Like many applications. including . you must choose an image format. A thumbnail preview is displayed in the dialog. and . . You can navigate up and down the file system tree by double-clicking on the Directories list on the left. the view will change to only those subdirectories and/or files beginning with that letter or letters. click OK. a Generate Preview button is displayed. Working with Images The Load Image dialog displays your working directory — the directory you were in when the GIMP was launched. To do this. . You can also double-click on a file name to open it. The file you select appears in the Selection field near the bottom of the dialog. which displays a set of menus containing most of the GIMP’s many capabilities.2. For example.4.3. 11.. The GIMP supports a wide variety of image formats. including image sizing. right click on the image and choose File => Save (or Save as). click on the Generate Preview button. An Image modified with a GIMP Filter The Toolbox also has several easily accessible functions.bmp.gif. The easiest way to work with images is to right-click the image. You will see the Save Image dialog if you choose Save as or if you choose Save and the file has not been saved before..

3. • • For more information about using gThumb. from the GIMP toolbar menu.sourceforge. do not worry. . where you can choose a font and type some text in the provided text box. 11. You can always undo your mistakes by right-clicking on the image and choosing Edit => Undo. This For example. Working with Images 85 button and click on your image. You can read the manual page by typing man gimp at a shell or terminal prompt. accessible right from your PC. If you make a mistake. refer to the documentation in Help => Contents in the gThumb main menu. Useful Websites The Web has several sites of interest if you are looking for more detailed information about an application covered in this chapter: • http://gthumb.3. 11.Chapter 11.1. the GIMP is a powerful image editing tool. Click OK and your text is displayed as a floating section on the image. 11. Additional Resources While this chapter covers several applications briefly. The GIMP also has a help browser accessible by choosing Help => Help. Try exploring some of the options yourself. Figure 11-8 shows our photo with exciting new text: Figure 11-8. You can then move the text to the position you wish using the Move Layers tool.3. The GIMP manual page contains some of the more advanced command line options and environment variables associated with it. Refer to the following resources if you are interested in learning more about the applications in this chapter. and it takes some time to master all of its functions. Installed Documentation Some applications discussed have online documentation included with the package..2.. there is so much more you can do with them. Using the Text Tool on an Image As you can see.net — The official GThumb home page. if you wish to add text to a file. select the loads the Text Tool dialog box.

86 http://www. New Riders Publishing GIMP for Linux Bible by Stephanie Cottrell Bryant.gimp. Hammel. New Riders Publishing Sams Teach Yourself GIMP in 24 Hours by Joshua and Ramona Pruitt. try your favorite bookstore. Sams .org/gimp/ — The GIMP website of tigert (Tuomas Kuosmanen).com/~meo/gimp/faq-user.html — A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) list for questions commonly asked about the GIMP by GIMP users (as opposed to developers). Inc. Working with Images • • • • • http://www.com/ — The companion website to the book Grokking the GIMP. http://manual.org/ — The official GIMP website.gimp. et al.rru. Inc. 11. http://gimp-savvy. by Carey Bunks. GIMP Essential Reference by Alex Harford. GIMP: The Official Handbook by Karin Kylander and Olof S.3. Frank Kasper and Associates. Chapter 11. Kylander. The following books were available at the time of this writing: • • • • • • The Artists’ Guide to the GIMP by Michael J. Hungry Minds. The entire book is also available on the site for download http://tigert.3. Coriolis Group Grokking the GIMP by Carey Bunks. Related Books If you need in-depth information about the many capabilities of the GIMP.org/manual/ — The online GIMP User Manual.gimp.

You only have to configure gtKam for your camera once. choose Select => All. then save the images to disk. whether your camera uses USB or serial ports to communicate with your computer. Click Apply to accept the changes and OK to close the dialog box. gtKam is a graphical application that allows you to interface with your digital camera. the settings will be saved with each additional use. choose Camera => Add Camera.1. Digital cameras create high-quality images that allow you to send to others over the Internet or print on a color printer. Figure 12-1. view. Working with Digital Cameras Digital cameras have recently grown in popularity because of their increasing image quality and easy interaction with desktop PCs. If you want to save all of the stored images. which you can then save to disk by choosing File => Save Selected Photos. click on the images you want. 12. . To start gtKam. From this panel. Before you begin using gtKam. view. and delete images directly. and modify your digital photographs. You can also download the images to your computer and modify it with image manipulation programs such as The GIMP (refer to Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information about image manipulation tools). From the menu.Chapter 12. Adding a Camera in gtKam Once you have added your camera. choose Main Menu => Graphics => Digital Camera Tool. gtKam works directly with your digital camera. From the pop-up dialog. You can also start gtKam by typing gtkam at a shell prompt.. it will be shown as an icon on the left panel of the main gtKam window. it is likely that Red Hat Linux will support it. Using gtKam Red Hat Linux supports over 100 digital camera models. you need to configure it to work with your digital camera. allowing you to open. Select the directory that commonly stores your images and the stored images will immediately load as thumbnail images in the main panel. Red Hat Linux supports several brands of digital cameras and has applications that help you access. So. Directories shown below the icon may differ depending on your brand of camera.. save. you can choose your camera from the drop-down list or let gtKam automatically find your camera by clicking Detect..

Viewing Images with gtKam For more information about using gtKam. Working with Digital Cameras Figure 12-2.net/proj/gtkam/ . refer to the gtKam page at the gPhoto website: http://gphoto.sourceforge.88 Chapter 12.

they wanted to create a way for people to interact with their new system. something that offered better features than the command interpreters available at that time. created by S. other shells have been developed. and other shell prompt basics. 13. But Ritchie and Thompson wanted something more. Experienced users can write shell scripts to expand their capabilities even further. Bourne. This lead to the development of the Bourne shell (known as sh). many Red Hat Linux functions can be completed faster from the shell prompt than from a graphical user interface (GUI). and then the shell tells the OS what to do. The History of the Shell When AT&T software engineers Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson were designing UNIX™.2. the shell interprets these commands. A Shell Prompt This section explains how to navigate the file system. In less time than it might take to open a file manager. Operating systems at that time came with command interpreters. which could take commands from the user and interpret them so that computers could use them. perform simple administration tasks. However. locate a directory. Shell Prompt Basics 13.1. Users type commands at a shell prompt.Chapter 13. A shell prompt looks similar to other command-line interfaces with which you might be familiar. or modify files from a GUI. Figure 13-1. manipulate files. Why Use a Shell Prompt Graphical environments for Linux have come a long way in the past few years. delete. such as the C shell (csh) and the Korn shell (ksh). and then create. a task can be finished with just a few commands at a shell prompt. You can be perfectly productive in the X Window System and only have to open a shell prompt to complete a few tasks. .R. Since the creation of the Bourne shell.

the response is called standard output. moving to any other directory requires a pathname. the Bash prompt in Red Hat Linux shows just your current directory. 13. You will see something such as: /home/sam This example shows that you are in the user sam’s directory. 13. not the entire path. which is in the /home directory. When you typed pwd. Determining Your Current Directory with pwd Once you start looking through directories. By default.90 Chapter 13.3. Your system responded by printing the full path of the current directory in the shell prompt window. it is easy to get lost or forget the name of your current directory. and can be printed to the shell prompt or can be redirected to other programs or to other output devices such as printers. The command pwd stands for print working directory. you asked your Linux system to display your current location.4. developers began to work on the language behind the Bourne shell as well as some of the popular features from other shells available at the time. When the system responds to requests for information. . Shell Prompt Basics When the Free Software Foundation sought a royalty-free shell. bash is the default shell for interactive users. You will find that using pwd is very helpful as you learn to navigate your Red Hat Linux system. The result was the Bourne Again Shell. Changing Directories with cd Changing directories is easy as long as you know where you are (your current directory) and how that relates to where you want to go. You can learn more about bash by reading the bash man page (type man bash at a shell prompt). Although your Red Hat Linux system includes several different shells. Typing this command by itself will always return you to your home directory. use the cd command. Figure 13-2. or bash. The Command pwd Shows You Where You Are To determine the exact location of the current directory at a shell prompt and type the command pwd. To change directories.

which is where you will find configuration files and directories related to the X Window System. relative paths look down from your current directory. It tells Linux to start at the top of the directory tree (/) and change to directory1. Using relative paths allows you to change to a directory relative to the directory you are currently in. Executing the command cd directory1 while you are in directory3./etc/X11 After using the full command in the example. use the cd . you should be in the directory X11.. Using absolute paths allows you to change to a directory from the / directory. You told your system to: 1.. will present you with an error message explaining that there is no such directory. To go up two directories. tells your system to go up to the directory immediately above the one in which you are currently working. type: cd /directory1 This is an example of an absolute path. Take a look at your last cd command. Otherwise. To move up to directory1. Then go up to that directory’s parent (which is the root. wherever that may be. The command cd . From your home directory. you need to move up in the directory tree.Chapter 13./.. type the relative path: cd . .. This is because there is no directory1 below directory3.. / /directory1 /directory1/directory2 /directory1/directory2/directory3 If you are currently in directory3 and you want to switch to directory1. using an absolute path would get you to the /etc/X11 directory more quickly. it is a relative path. The following directory tree illustrates how cd operates. For example: cd /etc/X11 Absolute paths start from the root directory (/) and move down to the directory you specify. Absolute paths start at the top of the file system with / (referred to as root) and then look down for the requested directory. directory) 3. which can be convenient if you are changing to a subdirectory within your current directory. Go up one level to your login directory’s parent directory (probably /home) 2. or /. A path is absolute if the first character is a /. which requires you to know and type the complete path./. Finally. command. go to the X11 directory Conversely. Then go down to the etc directory 4. Shell Prompt Basics 91 You can use absolute or relative pathnames. Use the following exercise to test what you have learned so far regarding absolute and relative paths.

type pwd and your current working directory will be displayed. it is as if you had logged in as root originally.. though. when you state the absolute path to another directory or file.makes you become root with root’s login shell. Typing su . account created at installation. Denying access to the root and other users’ accounts (or login directories) is one way your Linux system prevents accidental or malicious tampering. cd Options Now that you are starting to understand how to change directories. see what happens when you change to root’s login directory (the superuser account). Type: cd /root If you are not logged in as root. Command cd cd ~ cd / cd /root Function returns you to your login directory also returns you to your login directory takes you to the entire system’s root directory takes you to the home directory of the root. You do not have to worry about your position in the file system. if otheruser has granted you permission regardless of which directory you are in. See Section 13. you must be the root user to access this directory takes you to the home directory. you become root (also called the superuser) while still inside your login shell (your user’s home directory). which can be your guide for moving up and down directories using relative pathnames.. or superuser. Table 13-1. cd ~otheruser cd /dir1/subdirfoo cd . then to dir3. .92 Chapter 13./dir3/dir2 this relative path would take you up two directories. use the su command. a subdirectory of dir1 cd /home cd .. then to the dir2 directory. su Tip The command su means substitute users and it allows you to log in as another user temporarily. you are denied permission to access that directory. To change to the root login and root directory. where user login directories are usually stored moves you up one directory takes you to otheruser’s login directory. When you type su by itself and press [Enter]./. this absolute path would take you straight to subdirfoo. If you are not sure. Shell Prompt Basics Note Always make sure you know which working directory you are in before you state the relative path to the directory or file you want to get to.14 Ownership and Permissions.

The reason they are hidden is to help prevent any accidental tampering by the user. you are not usually looking for these configuration files. and you will return to your user account. If you want to see the size of a file or directory. the root account designation at the front of the prompt and "#" at the end. when it was created and more. you can display the contents of your current directory. ownership. just add the long option (-l) to the ls -a command. and more. 13. superuser status. Some files are hidden files (also called dot files) and can only be seen with an additional option specified to the ls command. Many options are available with the ls command. shells. and more. When you are searching for something in a directory. View Directory Contents with ls Now that you know how to change directories. by adding more than one option. If you want to print the man page.5. it is time to learn how to view the contents of these directories. permissions. you can read the man page by typing man ls at a shell prompt. When you are done working as root. but you can view still more information. Type the command ls -a. The ls command. by itself. Figure 13-3.Chapter 13. does not show all the files in the directory. its size. at the prompt type man ls | col -b | lpr. This command shows the file creation date. Viewing all the files using the ls -a command can give you plenty of detail. Tip To see all the options of the ls command. Now you will see files that begin with dots. you will see the changes in your command prompt to show your new. type exit at the prompt. ls with the -a Option Hidden files are mostly configuration files which set preferences in programs. . Using the ls command. Shell Prompt Basics 93 As soon as you give the root password. window managers. so keep them hidden to help avoid some screen clutter when viewing directories at the shell prompt.

group. you will see every file or directory whose name contains the search criterion. and so on. Sorts files by their sizes. you can view the full list by reading the ls man page (man ls). Lists details about contents. respectively. Sample ls Output for the /etc Directory The following is a short list of some options commonly used with ls. Search for a file or directory with the locate command. owner. and . at the top of your list refer to the parent directory and the current directory. For example. including • -F • -r • -R • -S 13. With locate. . — recursive. type: locate finger The locate command uses a database to locate files and directories that have the word finger in the file or directory name.. a directory named fingerthumbnails. Lists the contents of the directory from back to front. These symbols include / to indicate a directory. The . For example. permissions (modes).txt.txt. — size. and * to indicate an executable file. — file type. Remember. Shell Prompt Basics You do not have to be in the directory whose contents you want to view to use the ls command. To learn more about locate. This option lists the contents of all directories below the current directory recursively. • -a — all. including the hidden files (. to see what is in the /etc/ directory from your home directory.6. Lists all the files in the directory. • -l — long. if you want to search for all files with the word finger in the name. whether the file is a link to somewhere else on the system and where its link points.94 Chapter 13. @ to indicate a symbolic link to another file.filename). creation date. The search results could include a file called finger. size. read the locate man page (type man locate at a shell prompt). type: ls -al /etc Figure 13-4. a file called pointerfinger. Adds a symbol to the end of each listing. Locating Files and Directories There will be times when you know a file or directory exists but you will not know where to find it. — reverse.

To read the cron man page. Hence. Type lpq. Tip Cron is a daemon that executes tasks at regularly scheduled intervals. to control daily.txt file. and you will see information similar to this: active root 389 foo.Chapter 13. To update the database manually. Note You can run anacron to have your system execute commands periodically. type lprm 389 and press [Enter].7. it can be used on machines that are not running 24 hours a day. . After a few minutes. and view print jobs from the command line. with a frequency specified in days. Unlike cron. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information on cron. Printing From The Command Line Printing is not an involved process whether you click on a button in a GUI or type commands from the command line. performing various tasks (such as updating the locate database) at regularly scheduled intervals. Switching between operating systems and shutting down your machine at the end of the day can interfere with the automatic database update run by cron. 389 is the job number. sends that specified file to the print queue. weekly. which is used to catalog file locations. and monthly jobs that are usually controlled by cron. type man cron at the shell prompt. as long as the database is up to date. type lpq at the command line. the slocate database that is used by the locate command will be current. it does not assume that the machine is running continuously. 13. Refer to the man page on anacron (type man anacron at the command line) and the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information. cancel. To view the jobs waiting in the print queue. assuming you have a properly configured printer connected to your system. For example. You can cancel jobs in the queue by typing lprm followed by the print job number displayed when you use the lpq command. To cancel the foo. The cron task periodically updates the slocate database. This section explains how to print. Shell Prompt Basics 95 The locate command works very quickly. log in as root (type su at a shell prompt and then your root password) and type the command updatedb. followed by a filename. cron is a small program that runs in the background.txt In this example. Refer to Chapter 8 Printer Configuration for more information about setting up your printer. The lpr command.txt prints the foo.txt print job. That database is automatically updated on a nightly basis through a cron job. lpr foo.

using cat by itself outputs whatever you input to the screen as if it were repeating the line you just typed. type the following at a shell prompt (pressing the [Enter] key takes you to the next blank line):   .txt | less command.1. 13. use the symbol. The command cat will also display the contents of an entire file on the screen (for example. short for concatenate. Using the pipe (|) and the less command together displays the file one page at a time.9. use the cat filename. which means to combine files. type cat filename. The following example shows cat repeating every line that is entered: Figure 13-5. Sometimes. Once you close the file. Placing after the cat command (or after any utility or application that writes to standard output) directs its output to the filename following the symbol. Try typing the command clear at the shell prompt. You can always exit from the terminal window and open a new one. you could find that the text you are typing does not match the output on the monitor.10 Pipes and Pagers. The utility is called cat. Clearing and Resetting the Terminal After even one ls command in a shell prompt. 13. Manipulating Files with cat Red Hat Linux has a utility which can help you keep short lists. Using Redirection Redirection means causing the shell to change what it considers to be standard input or where the standard output should be going. you may accidentally open a program file or some other non-text file in a terminal window. To redirect standard output. The cat Command To redirect the output of cat to a file. The clear command does just what it implies: it clears the terminal window. For example. type reset to return the terminal window to its default values. it will quickly scroll past you on the screen. You can then use the up and down arrow keys to move backward and forward through the pages. see Section 13. gather lists together. For more on using pipes to combine two separate functions. the terminal window you are working in can begin to look crowded. Shell Prompt Basics 13. but there is a quicker and easier way to clear the contents displayed in the terminal.txt).9.96 Chapter 13. To prevent this.8. and even show you information about your system. In such cases. If the file is fairly long.

txt with sneakers.txt home.txt  cat sneakers. Redirecting Output to a File Press [Enter] to go to an empty line and use the [Ctrl]-[D] keys to quit cat. Type the following:  cat sneakers. That is because the standard output from cat was redirected. At the prompt.txt saturday. You can find the file in the directory you were in when you started cat (type ls if you want to see it listed). because you can easily overwrite an existing file! Make sure the name of the file you are creating does not match the name of a pre-existing file.txt . unless you want to replace it.txt Caution Be careful when you redirect the output to a file. use the [Ctrl]-[D] key combination again to quit cat. Next.txt. For this example. type: cat sneakers.Chapter 13. Do you notice anything different in Figure 13-6? There are no repeated entries. on an empty line. Shell Prompt Basics 97 Figure 13-6.txt. use cat to join home. As you learned earlier. followed by: bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! Now.txt. type the command cat > home. then [Enter].txt (you will find an example in Figure 13-7). you can then use cat to read the file.txt and redirect the output of both files to a brand new file called saturday. That redirection was to a brand new file you made called sneakers. Use output redirection again for another file and call it home.

txt to the information already in sneakers. 13.txt and saturday.98 Chapter 13. Appending Standard Output You can use output redirection to add new information to the end of an existing file.txt and home. You want to add the information in home.txt. rather than creating a new file.txt The contents of both files will be displayed — first sneakers. Joining Files and Redirecting Output You can see that cat has added home. By appending the output.txt sneakers. and you will see that they are identical.   cat home. you tell your shell to send the information somewhere other than standard output.txt. The final output shows the contents of buy some sneakers then go to the coffee shop then buy some coffee bring the coffee home take off shoes put on sneakers make some coffee relax! The command you typed appended the output from the file home. rather than replacing the contents .txt at the end of the file: Now check the file using the command cat sneakers. To make your comparison. Compare the results of the files sneakers.txt. you save yourself time (and a bit of disk clutter) by using existing files. then saturday.txt.2. cat saturday. Take two files which have already been created (sneakers.txt (as shown in Figure 13-8).txt   However. so type: home. The best explanation is a demonstration. you are adding information to a file.txt where sneakers. when you use of a file entirely.txt.9.txt now.txt to the file sneakers.txt ended.  .txt) and join them by using the append output symbol. Shell Prompt Basics Figure 13-7. type: cat sneakers. Similar to when you used the symbol.

Type: sneakers. Stringing Commands and Comparing Files 13.3. Use a file you have already created to demonstrate this idea. you can perform the same type of redirection with standard input. . Because you used the less-than symbol ( ) to separate the cat command from the file. Redirecting Standard Input   cat sneakers.txt was read by cat.9.Chapter 13. Redirecting Standard Input Not only can you redirect standard output. the output of Figure 13-9. Shell Prompt Basics 99 Figure 13-8.txt  When you use the redirect standard input symbol read as input for a command. you are telling the shell that you want a file to be .

Use the arrow keys to navigate the file. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file.11. List the contents of the /etc directory using ls and more. Pipes and Pagers In Linux.txt | lpr This command prints every line in the sneakers. The more Command The main difference between more and less is that less allows backward and forward movement using the arrow keys.3 The grep Command). To move forward a screen. to move back a screen. ls -al /etc | less Now you can view the contents of /etc one screen at a time. press [/] and type the search term. type dmesg | less. but what if the contents of a directory scroll by too quickly for you to view them? View the contents of the /etc/ directory with the command: ls -al /etc How do you get a closer look at the output before it moves off the screen? One way is to pipe the output to a utility called less. Use the vertical bar (|) to pipe the commands. Consider the ls command that was discussed earlier. at a shell prompt. to quit. Shell Prompt Basics 13.1. press [Q]. while more uses the [Spacebar] and the [B] key for forward and backward navigation.10.txt file that mentions the word "coffee" (read more about grep in Section 13.10. To search the output of a text file using less. 13. Alternatively. pipes connect the standard output of one command to the standard input of another command. you can use the arrow keys to navigate with less. Pipes can also be used to print only certain lines from a file. Type: grep coffee sneakers. a pager utility that allows you to view information one page (or screen) at a time. press [B]. ls -al /etc | more . press [Space]. to search for output. For example: /Linux Tip To read startup messages more closely. There are plenty of options available with ls.100 Chapter 13. You will be able to read the file one screen at a time.

Piping Output of ls to more To search the output of a text file using more. press [/] and then type the keyword you want to search for within the file. type the following at a shell prompt as the root user: tail -f /var/log/messages  head -20  head filename filename . Press [q] to exit. The command is: head can be a useful command. You can also use tail to watch log files as they are updated.11. but because it is limited to the first several lines.11. Using the -f option. This can be useful for viewing the last 10 lines of a log file for important system messages.Chapter 13. you can view the last ten lines of a file. you will not see how long the file actually is. More Commands for Reading Text Files You have already been introduced to several basic shell prompt commands for reading files in text editors. Here are a few more. you can only read the first ten lines of a file.1. 13. Using tail. Shell Prompt Basics 101 Figure 13-10. tail automatically print new messages from an open file to the screen in real-time. You can change the number of lines displayed by specifying a number option as shown in the following command: 13. 13. The head Command You can use the head command to look at the beginning of a file. to actively watch /var/log/messages.2. For example. By default. For example: /foo Use the [Spacebar] to move forward through the pages. The tail Command The reverse of head is tail.11.

Remember that you can save the file to a text file by typing man bash | col -b bash. numbers. grep searches are case sensitive. The grep Command The grep command is useful for finding specific character strings in a file. for example. I/O Redirection and Pipes You can use pipes and output redirection when you want to store and/or print information to read at a later time. use grep to search for particular contents of a file.txt. you would type: grep coffee sneakers. just type: grep coffee sneakers. For example.txt. and symbols that make finding particular directories and files easier than examining long directory listings to find what you are searching for.102 Chapter 13. if you want to find every reference made to "coffee" in the file sneakers. 13. Wildcards and Regular Expressions What if you forget the name of the file you are looking for? Using wildcards or regular expressions. You can. then have those results either saved as a file or sent to a printer. for example.4. If you want to print the file.txt and there is the name of the file: sneakers.txt ! . take a look at the bash man page (man bash). be aware that it is quite long." so type: ls sneak*. you can open and read the file with less or vi (vi bash. That means that searching for Coffee is different than searching for coffee.3. Tip To read more about wildcards and regular expressions.txt). Tip Unless otherwise specified.txt You would see every line in that file where the word "coffee" is found. Just fill out what you know. Shell Prompt Basics 13.txt. then substitute the remainder with a wildcard.11. which allows for a case-insensitive search through a file. you can perform actions on a file or files without knowing the complete filename.5. Then.11.txt.11. Among grep’s options is -i. Read the grep man page for more about this command. We know the file is called "sneak____.txt | lpr 13. To print the information about references to "coffee" in sneakers. Wildcards are special symbols that you can substitute for letters.

9. for example. though. you can specify that you do not want to search out everything by using the asterisk. One way to narrow a search is to use the question mark symbol (?). One solution is to use the command line history. We now see the contents of sneakers. Command History and Tab Completion It does not take long before the thought of typing the same command over and over becomes unappealing. Regular expressions are more complex than the straightforward asterisk or question mark.txt was called sneak*. It helps to narrow your search as much as possible. type: sneak\*.txt. of course. but you are instead looking for a file with an asterisk in the name. The first time. So even by typing: ls *." Insert the letter and press [Enter] again. The asterisk will search out everything that matches the pattern you are looking for. sneakers. When an asterisk.txt. so if you were searching for sneaker?. however.Chapter 13. . at the shell prompt.12.txt. By scrolling with the [Up Arrow] and [Down Arrow] keys. you can find plenty of your previously typed commands. Try it by taking a look again at sneakers. that is when regular expressions can be useful. just happens to be part of a filename. Shell Prompt Basics 103 You will probably use the asterisk (*) most frequently when you are searching. you would get sneakers.txt or: ls sn* You would find sneakers. using ? can help locate a file matching a search pattern.txt as a result.txt. then use the left-arrow key to get to the point where we missed the "e.txt Here is a brief list of wildcards and regular expressions: • * • ? — Matches all characters — Matches one character in a string — Matches the * character — Matches the ? character — Matches the ) character • \* • \? • \) 13.txt (created in Section 13. No problem. One minor typing error can ruin lines of a series of commands. If the file is called sneak*.txt Nothing happens.1 Using Redirection.txt file. if there were such a filename. Like the asterisk. because there is no sneakrs. ? is useful for matching a single character. Use the up-arrow key to bring back the command.txt and any other files whose name ends with .txt or begin with sn. In this case. and/or sneakerz. as might be the case if the file Using the backslash (\). type: cat sneakrs.txt.

The line which reads.rpm. Suppose you have downloaded a new file called foobar-1.bash_history in your login directory. Using Multiple Commands Linux allows you to enter multiple commands at one time. less. mv foobar-1. Tip By typing the env command at a shell prompt. Tip To find a command in your history file without having to keep hitting the arrow keys or page through the history file. we can see the environment variable that controls the size of the command line history. press [b].104 Chapter 13. and you think it might be in your history file.3 The grep Command . including updatedb and uptime. up to 500 commands can be stored in the bash command line history file. to move back a screen. cat.11. . HISTFILESIZE=500 shows the number of commands that bash will store. If you get a beep.i386. your command is completed for you.bash_history To move forward a screen. You can combine both the creation of the rpms/ directory and the moving of your downloaded file into the directory by typing the following at a shell prompt: mkdir rpms/. type up. Be aware that the file can be long. bash will present you with either the remaining portion of the file/path. you can su to root. Here is how you can quickly find a previously used command: say you are searching for a command that is similar to cat sneak-something. from your home directory type: more .13. 13. if you forget the command updatedb. press [Space].3-2. or a beep (if sound is enabled on your system). The command line history is actually kept in a file. or pathname and then press the [Tab] key. and you want to put it in a new subdirectory within your home directory called rpms/. but the subdirectory has not been created. To read it with the more command. command. We can read it in a number of ways: by using vi. By typing the partial command upd and pressing [Tab] again. use grep. Shell Prompt Basics By default. type: history | grep sneak Another time-saving tool is known as command completion. but remember a portion of the command.i386. press the [Tab] key twice and you will see a list of possible completions. a powerful search utility (see Section 13.3-2. At the shell prompt. called . just press [Tab] again to obtain a list of the files/paths that match what has been typed so far. and others. press [q]. You have used the command. The only requirement is that you separate the commands with a semicolon. then at the shell prompt. For example. more. If you type part of a file.rpm rpms/ Running the combination of commands creates the directory and moves the file in one line. to quit.

as well as who created the file (sam). or (if it is an application instead of a text file) who can execute the file. There is a lot of detail provided here. Permissions for sneakers. Since users are placed into a group when their accounts are created. You created the file belongs to you.Chapter 13. since it is easy to make mistakes and alter important configuration files as the superuser.9. and executing are the three main settings in permissions. sneakers.txt Other information to the right of the group includes file size. write to the file.txt with the ls command using the -l option (see Figure 13-11). it has ten slots. and file name. Remember that. you received the following message: cd /root bash: /root: Permission denied That was one demonstration of Linux’s security features. is a multi-user system. like UNIX. as you learned earlier. and to which group the owner belongs (sam).txt All files and directories are "owned" by the person who created them. and file permissions are one way the system protects against malicious tampering. the name of your group is the same as your login name. The first column shows current permissions.txt (see Section 13. write to. Take a closer look at sneakers. You can see who can read (r) and write to (w) the file. But switching to the superuser is not always convenient or recommended.1 Using Redirection) in your login directory. That means you can specify who is allowed to read the file. The first slot represents the type of file. For example: -rw-rw-r-- . so sneakers. One way to gain entry when you are denied permission is to su to root. you can also specify whether certain groups can read. date and time of file creation. by default. Ownership and Permissions Earlier in this chapter. Linux. The remaining nine slots are actually three sets of permissions for three different categories of users.14. or execute a file. Shell Prompt Basics 105 13. This is because whoever knows the root password has complete access. writing. Reading. when you tried to change to root’s login directory. Figure 13-11.

the group in which the file belongs.1. altered. and others.txt and identify its permissions. That means you will have to change the "others" section of the file permissions. The original file looks like this. This example shows how to change the permissions on sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics Those three sets are the owner of the file. you will see one of the following: • r • w • x — file can be read — file can be written to — file can be executed (if it is a program) When you see a dash in owner. Caution Remember that file permissions are a security feature. with its initial permissions settings: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. It is not a program. so neither the owner or the group has permission to execute it.txt with the chmod command. or others. as well.106 Chapter 13. Anyone outside of the group can only read the file (r--). .txt If you are the owner of the file or are logged into the root account you can change any permissions for the owner.txt -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. In the following example. (rw-) | | type owner (rw-) | group (r--) 1 sam sam | others The first item. sam. it means that particular permission has not been granted.txt The file’s owner (in this case. and "others. and execute files. the owner and group can read and write to the file. and save it. so they can read it. which specifies the file type. in each of the following three sets. group.14. Right now. Whenever you allow anyone else to read. The chmod Command Use the chmod command to change permissions. you are increasing the risk of files being tampered with. you should only grant read and write permissions to those who truly need them.txt. write notes in it. write to. 13. you want to allow everyone to write to the file. Look again at the first column of sneakers. As a rule. The group. group. has permission to read and write to sneakers." meaning other users on the system. sam) has permission to read and write to the file. can show one of the following: • d — a directory — a regular file (rather than directory or link) — a symbolic link to another program or file elsewhere on the system • -(dash) • l Beyond the first item. or deleted. ls -l sneakers.

you are telling the system to remove read and write permissions for the group and for others from the file sneakers. Shell Prompt Basics Take a look at the file first.txt The o+w command tells the system you want to give others write permission to the file sneakers. type: ls -l sneakers.txt. Here is a list of what the shorthand represents: Identities u — the user who owns the file (that is.txt 107 The previous command displays this file information: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.txt Now.txt Now. g. list the file’s details again.Chapter 13. the owner) g — the group to which the user belongs o — others (not the owner or the owner’s group) a — everyone or all (u. . because all you really have to do is remember a few symbols and letters with the chmod command.txt. everyone can read and write to the file.— removes the permission = — makes it the only permission Want to test your permissions skills? Remove all permissions from sneakers. To check the results. Now. and o) Permissions r — read access w — write access x — execute access Actions + — adds the permission .txt Think of these settings as a kind of shorthand when you want to change permissions with chmod. To remove read and write permissions from sneakers.txt — for everyone. At the shell prompt. chmod go-rw sneakers. The result will look like this: -rw------1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers.txt use the chmod command to take away both the read and write permissions.txt By typing go-rw. the file looks like this: -rw-rw-rw1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. type the following: chmod o+w sneakers.

Here are some common examples of settings that can be used with chmod: • g+w — adds write access for the group — removes all permissions for others — allows the file owner to execute the file — allows everyone to read and write to the file — allows the owner and group to read the file — allows only the group to read and execute (not write) • o-rwx • u+x • a+rw • ug+r • g=rx By adding the -R option. can read the file again. successfully locked the file.txt to verify that you. Here is what happens now when you try to cd to into tigger: bash: tigger: Permission denied Next.txt Use the command cat sneakers. see if you can read the file with the command cat sneakers. you can change permissions for entire directory trees.txt . if you check your work with ls -l you will see that only others will be denied access to the 13. If you do not allow others to have execute permission to tigger. type: chmod a-x tigger to remove everyone’s execute permissions. when you add or remove execute permission for a directory. the file owner. But since the file belongs to you. it will not matter who has read or write access. Now.14. Because you can not really "execute" a directory as you would an application. although it may seem a little complex at first.txt Now. Changing Permissions With Numbers Remember the reference to the shorthand method of chmod? Here is another way to change permissions.108 Chapter 13.txt: -rw-rw-r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. you can always change its permissions back with the following command: chmod u+rw sneakers. restore your own and your group’s access: chmod ug+x tigger tigger directory.2.txt: Permission denied Removing all permissions.txt. which should return the following: cat: sneakers. you are really allowing (or denying) permission to search through that directory. No one will be able to get into the directory unless they know the exact file name. including your own. For example. Shell Prompt Basics chmod a-rwx sneakers. Go back to the original permissions for sneakers.

it is not a good idea to use these settings. add the value of w (2) to the second set of permissions.txt Now verify the changes by listing the file. These permissions could allow tampering with sensitive files. To return the group’s write access for the file. so in general. Shell Prompt Basics Each permission setting can be represented by a numerical value: • • • • 109 r=4 w=2 x=1 -=0 When these values are added together. Setting permissions to 777 allows everyone read. but can still read the file. Type: ls -l sneakers.Chapter 13. type: chmod 644 sneakers. To implement these new settings. The permissions setting is read as 664. (644) — Only the owner has read and write permissions. • -rwx------ . If you want to change sneakers. Here is a list of some common settings. the total for the group is six. would become six. remove the access by subtracting two (2) from that set of numbers. you would have a value of 6.txt Warning Setting permissions to 666 will allow everyone to read and write to a file or directory. if you want read and write permissions. and the total for others is four. write.txt The output should be: -rw-r--r-1 sam sam 150 Mar 19 08:08 sneakers. and execute permissions. and four (644). 4 (read) + 2 (write) = 6. For example. read only.txt so those in your group will not have write access. then. numerical values and their meanings: • -rw------• -rw-r--r-- (600) — Only the owner has read and write permissions.txt. For sneakers.txt Now. neither the group nor others have write permission to sneakers. chmod 664 sneakers.txt. The numerical values. four. and execute permission. write. here are the numerical permissions settings: (rw-) | 4+2+0 (rw-) | 4+2+0 (r--) | 4+0+0 The total for the user is six. the group and others have (700) — Only the owner has read. the total is used to set specific permissions.

(755) — Everyone can read the directory. (Again. the group and others have only execute. Shell Prompt Basics • -rwxr-xr-x • -rwx--x--x (755) — The owner has read.110 Chapter 13. write. and execute permissions. this permissions setting can be hazardous. and execute.) • -rw-rw-rw. write.(666) • -rwxrwxrwx Here are some common settings for directories: • drwx-----• drwxr-xr-x (700) — Only the user can read. . users and groups have read and execute permissions. write. the group and others have only read and execute. — Everyone can read and write to the file. (Be careful with these permissions.) (777) — Everyone can read. and execute permissions. (711) — The owner has read. write in this directory.

This chapter also discusses compression tools to create archives of your files for backup or to conveniently send to others. or be the "parent" of. For example. documentation • /usr/share/doc — Location of documentation for installed packages.Chapter 14. every file is stored in a directory.version-number . who has permission to do anything). for the redhat-config-date software package is located in /usr/share/doc/redhat-config-date. directories within it (called subdirectories) which hold files and may contain subdirectories of their own. Tip Red Hat Linux uses the term root in several different ways. a user with the username foo has the home directory /home/foo. This is normal behavior and is used to prevent non-privileged users from modifying or deleting important system files. unless you are root. You might think of the file system as a tree-like structure and directories as branches. • /home — Default location for users’ home directories. you will receive an error message saying your access is denied. Note Due to system security. There is the root account (the superuser. or execute a file. Managing Files and Directories Your desktop file manager is a powerful and important tool for managing files and directories using the graphical desktop. everything is connected to the root directory. No matter how far away the directories branch. There would not be a tree without a root. you will not be able to gain access to all system-level files and directories. For example. these subdirectories can also contain files and other subdirectories. the root account’s home directory (/root) and the root directory for the entire file system (/). which is represented as a single forward slash (/). modifications. delete. For example. A Larger Picture of the File System Every operating system has a method of storing data in files and directories so that it can keep track of additions. If you do not have the permission to open. you probably do not have permission to write to the files and directories outside of your home directory. When you are speaking to someone and using the term root. which might be confusing to new users.1. These directories may contain. Users that do not have superuser access might find the following directories useful for finding their home directories. Directories can also contain directories. and other changes. be sure to know which root is being discussed. 14. This chapter discusses various shell prompt commands that can be used to manage files and directories on your Red Hat Linux system. Unless you are a system administrator or have root (superuser) access. Certain directories are reserved for specific purposes. the # " . /home is the default location for users’ home directories. In Linux. and the same is true for the Linux file system. reading documentation. or storing temporary files.

zip archive for Linux files is rare.2.xpm .ps — a PostScript file.pdf • . — a file compressed with gzip • . A system process removes old files from this directory on a periodic basis.au — an audio file — a GIF image file — an HTML file — a JPEG image file — an electronic image of a document. Compressed and Archived Files • .3 File Compression and Archiving.txt.txt • . you may see certain file types that you do not recognize because of their unfamiliar extension. also known as a tar file — a tarred and bzipped file — a tarred and gzipped file. so finding a .2.com/fhs. Managing Files and Directories • /tmp — The reserved directory for all users to store temporary files. refer to the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide.htm • .gz — a file compressed with bzip2 — a file archived with tar (short for tape archive).112 Chapter 14.gif • . A file’s extension is the last part of a file’s name after the final dot (in the file sneakers. refer to Section 14.zip — a file compressed with ZIP compression.tar • .1. Here is a brief listing of file extensions and their meanings: 14.jpg • .bz2 • . "txt" is that file’s extension). Your Red Hat Linux system is compatible with many other Linux distributions because of the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS). File Formats • .wav • . To learn more about the FHS. PDF stands for Portable Document Format — a PNG image file (short for Portable Network Graphic) — a plain ASCII text file — an audio file — an image file • . The FHS guidelines help to standardize the way system programs and files are stored on all Linux systems. Files stored here are not permanent.pathname. Do not write any files or directories that you want to keep here.tgz • . 14. gzip.html/. 14. Identifying and Working with File Types If you are new to Linux.png • .2. commonly found in MS-DOS applications.tbz • . You can also visit the FHS website at http://www.2. formatted for printing • . For information on working with bzip2. Most compressed files for Linux use the gzip compression. and tar files.

or used consistently. It is important to understand the distinction between an archive file and a compressed file. Configuration files sometimes use the . or even transferred to a different computer.2. or the file does not seem to be what the extension says it is supposed to be? That is when the file command can be helpful. So what happens when a file does not have an extension. The archive file is not compressed — it uses the same amount of disk space as all the individual files and directories combined. Any file that is designated as a text file should be readable by using the cat. as well. determines whether a program or device is in use — a Red Hat Package Manager file used to install software 14. or less commands.cfg extension.cpp • .lock • .sh • . A . you find a file called saturday without an extension. read the man page by typing man file. the command file saturday will display ASCII text. Tip To learn more about file.pl • . File Compression and Archiving Sometimes it is useful to store a group of files in one file so that they can be backed up. more.py • . you can tell what type of file it is by typing: file saturday In the example.tcl But file extensions are not always used. An archive file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file.conf • .Chapter 14.4. For more information on helpful commands for reading files. It is also sometimes useful to compress files into one file so that they use less disk space and download faster via the Internet.c — a C program language source code file — a C++ program language source code file — a C or C++ program language header file — a program object file — a Perl script — a Python script — a library file — a shell script — a TCL script • . System Files • . For example.h • .o • . Programming and Scripting Files • .so • . Using the file command. 14.3.2. telling you it is a text file. easily transferred to another directory. Managing Files and Directories 113 14. see Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics. — a lock file.3. or by using a text editor such as gedit or vi.rpm — a configuration file.

1.1. Using File Roller Red Hat Linux includes a graphical utility called File Roller that can compress. A file menu will pop up.3. Tip If you are using a file manager (such as Nautilus). allowing you to choose the archive you wish to work with. The File Roller browser window will appear with the decompressed/unarchived file in a folder for you to extract or browse. You can even create an archive file and then compress it to save disk space. Decompressing and Unarchiving with File Roller To unarchive and/or decompress a file click the Open toolbar button.tar. Note An archive file is not compressed. To start File Roller click Main Menu => Accessories => File Roller. which you can navigate by double-clicking the folder icon.114 Chapter 14. The file will appear in the main File Roller browser window as a folder. File . decompress.3. Figure 14-1. It is also integrated into the desktop environment and graphical file manager to make working with archived files easier. If you do not have enough disk space on your computer. you can double-click the file you wish to unarchive or decompress to start File Roller. For example. Managing Files and Directories compressed file is a collection of files and directories that are stored in one file and stored in a way that uses less disk space than all the individual files and directories combined. File Roller in Action 14. File Roller supports common UNIX and Linux file compression and archiving formats and has a simple interface and extensive help documentation if you need it. if you have a file called foo. but a compressed file can be an archive file. and archive files and directories. you can compress files that you do not use very often or files that you want to save but do not use anymore.gz located in your home directory.1. 14. highlight the file and click OK. Figure 14-1 shows File Roller in action. You can also start File Roller from a shell prompt by typing file-roller.

Chapter 14. or send multiple files or a directory of files to another user. You can extract individual files or entire archives by clicking the Extract button. click Add. which is convenient if you are looking for a particular file in the archive. The bzip2 compression tool is recommended because it provides the most compression and is found on most UNIX-like operating systems. For example. Figure 14-2.3. File Roller allows you to create archives of your files and directories. click New on the toolbar. which will pop up a browser window (Figure 14-2) that you can navigate to find the file or directory you want to be in the archive. Click OK and your new archive is now ready to be filled with files and directories. choosing the directory you would like to save the unarchived files.gz) format from the drop-down menu and type the name of the archive file you want to create.1. 14. A file browser will pop up. Refer to the File Roller manual (available by clicking Help => Manual) for more information. If you need to transfer files between Linux and other operating system such . Managing Files and Directories 115 Roller preserves all directory and subdirectory structures. and clicking OK.2. and click Close to close the archive. you may choose a Tar Compressed wity gzip (tar. The gzip compression tool can also be found on most UNIXlike operating systems. Compressing Files at the Shell Prompt Compressed files use less disk space and download faster than large. bzip2. In Red Hat Linux you can compress files with the compression tools gzip. uncompressed files. Creating an Archive with File Roller Tip There is much more you can do with File Roller than is explained here. To add files to your new archive.3. 14.2. Click OK when you are finished. or zip. To create a new archive. Creating Archives with File Roller If you need to free some hard drive space. allowing you to specify an archive name and the compression technique.

Managing Files and Directories as MS Windows. type the following command at a shell prompt: bzip2 filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename. you should use zip because it is more compatible with the compression utilities on Windows. .bz2 is deleted and replaced with filename. Files compressed with gzip are uncompressed with gunzip. You can use bzip2 to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: bzip2 filename.bz2 The filename.3.zip Uncompression Tool gunzip bunzip2 unzip Table 14-1. files compressed with bzip2 are given the extension . 14. files compressed with bzip2 are uncompressed with bunzip2.3. To expand the compressed file.bz2 . and files compressed with zip are given the extension .gz .116 Chapter 14. Gzip and Gunzip To use gzip to compress a file.zip.bz2 file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. file3.bz2. file2. type the following command: bunzip2 filename.2.gz.bz2. Tip For more information.2. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename.1. and files compressed with zip are uncompressed with unzip. Compression Tools By convention.gz.bz2. type man bzip2 and man bunzip2 at a shell prompt to read the man pages for bzip2 and bunzip2. Compression Tool gzip bzip2 zip File Extension . 14. Bzip2 and Bunzip2 To use bzip2 to compress a file. type the following command at a shell prompt: gzip filename The file will be compressed and saved as filename.2. files compressed with gzip are given the extension .

You can use gzip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: gzip -r filename. Managing Files and Directories To expand the compressed file. Zip and Unzip To compress a file with zip. file2.2.gz 117 The filename. type the following command: unzip filename.Chapter 14. file2.gz is deleted and replaced with filename. .gz file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. Tip For more information. type the following command: gunzip filename. To extract the contents of a zip file. type man zip and man unzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for zip and unzip. file3. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename.zip file1 file2 file3 /usr/work/school The above command compresses file1. type man gzip and man gunzip at a shell prompt to read the man pages for gzip and gunzip. and the contents of the /usr/work/school directory (assuming this directory exists) and places them in a file named filename. type the following command: zip -r filename. Tip For more information.zip You can use zip to compress multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: zip -r filename. The -r option specifies that you want to include all files contained in the filesdir directory recursively. 14.3.zip. file3.gz.3.zip represents the file you are creating and filesdir represents the directory you want to put in the new zip file.zip filesdir In this example. filename.

— compress the tar file with gzip.tar represents the file you are creating and directory/file represents the directory and file you want to put in the archived file.tbz file is removed and replaced with filename.tar This command does not remove the tar file. The above command creates an archive file and then compresses it as the file filename.3.tar in the current directory.tar /home/mine/work /home/mine/school The above command places all the files in the work and the school subdirectories of /home/mine in a new file called filename. This is a good way to create backups and archives. For example. type: tar -xvf filename. when used with the -x option.tbz file with the bunzip2 command. Archiving Files at the Shell Prompt A tar file is a collection of several files and/or directories in one file. preserving any directory structure that the archive file used.tbz. — when used with the -c option. If you uncompress the filename.118 Chapter 14. use the -j option: tar -cjvf filename. — compress the tar file with bzip2. — extract files from an archive. Remember.tar To extract the contents of a tar file. unarchive the specified file. type: tar -tvf filename. You can also expand and unarchive a bzip tar file in one command: .txt within a directory called foo/. • -t • -v • -x • -z • -j To create a tar file. but it places copies of its unarchived contents in the current working directory.bz2 extension. then extracting the archive file will result in the creation of the directory foo/ in your current working directory with the file bar.tbz.tar. the filename. use the filename specified for the creation of the tar file.tar directory/file In this example. sometimes users archive their files using the tar. the tar command does not compress the files by default. Some of the options used with the tar are: • -c • -f — create a new archive. — show the list of files in the tar file. filename. however. if the tarfile contains a file called bar. You can tar multiple files and directories at the same time by listing them with a space between each one: tar -cvf filename. To list the contents of a tar file.tbz file tar files compressed with bzip2 are conventionally given the extension . type: tar -cvf filename. Managing Files and Directories 14. — show the progress of the files being archived.txt inside of it. To create a tarred and bzipped compressed file.3.

which will create an empty file that you can use to add text or data.4. there is a variety of ways to manipulate files and directories. such as Nautilus or Konqueror.tgz file is removed and replaced with filename.5 Wildcards and Regular Expressions. You can also use wildcards. This command creates the archive file filename. You can expand a gzip tar file in one command: tar -xzvf filename. Managing Files and Directories 119 tar -xjvf filename. typing the command ls -l newfile at the shell prompt returns the following output: -rw-rw-r-1 sam 14.tar and then compresses it as the file filename. or deleting multiple files and directories faster. the filename.tbz To create a tarred and gzipped compressed file. They can also be manipulated using a shell prompt. To create a file with touch.tar is not saved. moving.tgz file with the gunzip command. To copy a file. Replace filename with the name of your choice.2.tgz Tip Type the command man tar for more information about the tar command.Chapter 14. use the -z option: tar -czvf filename. ) ( 0) ( cp source destination ' % & $ touch filename sam 0 Apr 10 17:09 newfile . If you run a directory listing. Manipulating Files at the Shell Prompt Files can be manipulated using one of the graphical file managers. you can see that the file contains zero (0) bytes of information because it is an empty file.tgz.11. (The file filename.4.tar. type the following command. which is often faster. 14.) If you uncompress the filename.4. to make the process of copying. This section explains how to manipulate files at the shell prompt.1. Creating Files You can create new files either with applications (such as text editors) or by using the command touch. Copying Files Like so many other Linux features. type the following at a shell prompt. 14.tgz file tar files compressed with gzip are conventionally given the extension . For example.tgz. as explained in Section 13.

For more about mv. — verbose.120 Chapter 14. tigger is one directory down from our home directory. because like the -i option for cp. move to your home directory and type: cp sneakers. • -v If you want to move a file out of your home directory and into another existing directory. subdirectories and all. Rather than just copying all the specified files and directories. cp -i sneakers. this option is dangerous. press [N] and [Enter]. this will copy the whole directory tree.3. you will be given the chance to make sure you want to replace an existing file. — recursive. Among the options you can use with cp are the following: • -i • -r — interactive. type the following (you will need to be in your home directory): mv sneakers. to copy the file sneakers. Overrides the interactive mode and moves without prompting. refer to Section 13. 14.txt tigger/ You can use both relative and absolute pathnames with cp. This is a handy option because it can help prevent you from making mistakes. Prompts you to confirm if the file is going to overwrite a file in your destination. If you do not want to overwrite the file.txt to the directory tigger/ in your home directory. 2 1 .4. Common options for mv include the following: • -i — interactive. Unless you know what you are doing. Our home directory is the parent of the directory tigger. use the mv command. This will prompt you if the file you have selected will overwrite an existing file in the destination directory.txt in the tigger directory.txt tigger 2 1 Replace source with the name of the file you want to copy. • -f — force.txt’? To overwrite the file that is already there. see the mv man page (type man mv). and name of the directory where you want the file to go. This is a good option. Shows the progress of the files as they are being moved. use cp -i to copy the file again to the same location. Tip To learn more about relative and absolute pathnames. be very careful about using it until you become more comfortable with your system. press [Y] and then [Enter]. Moving Files To move files. Shows the progress of the files as they are being copied. Read the cp man page (type man cp at the shell prompt) for a full list of the options available with cp.4 Changing Directories with cd . — verbose. Managing Files and Directories destination with the So.txt tigger cp: overwrite ’tigger/sneakers. • -v Now that you have the file sneakers.

type: rm piglet. unless you know exactly what you are doing. Use the -i (interactive) option to give you a second chance to think about whether or not you really want to delete the file. Now you need to learn how to delete files and directories. Deleting files and directories with the rm command is a straightforward process. — verbose. but be careful. Overrides interactive mode and removes the file(s) without prompting. rm -i piglet. This option can stop you from deleting a file by mistake. Deleting Files and Directories You learned about creating files with the touch command. For example. you would type: rm pig* The above command will remove all files in the directory which start with the letters pig.4.4.txt sneakers.txt’? You can also delete files using the wildcard *. See the rm man page for more information. the same command using absolute pathnames looks like mv sneakers. This might not be a good idea.Chapter 14. it is gone permanently and cannot be retrieved. Options for removing files and directories include: • -i • -f — interactive. if you want to recursively remove the directory tigger you would type: .txt Warning Once a file or directory is removed with the rm command. For example: rm piglet. and you created the directory tigger using mkdir. but only if the directory is empty. Shows the progress of the files as they are being removed. You can also remove multiple files using the rm command.txt with the rm command. • -v • -r To delete the file piglet.txt /home/newuser/tigger 121 14. To remove directories with rm. because you can easily delete files you did not intend to throw away.txt /home/newuser/sneakers. for example). Managing Files and Directories Alternatively. Will delete a directory and all files and subdirectories it contains.txt You can use rmdir to remove a directory (rmdir foo.txt rm: remove ’piglet. To remove a file using a wildcard. you must specify the -r option. — recursive. — force. Prompts you to confirm the deletion.

Read the rmdir man page (man rmdir) to find out more about this command. Managing Files and Directories rm -r tigger If you want to combine options. . With this command.122 Chapter 14. you are in trouble. Warning The rm command can delete your entire file system! If you are logged in as root and you type the simple command rm -rf /. this command will recursively remove everything on your system. so a directory which has files in it will not be deleted. such as forcing a recursive deletion. you will not be allowed to use recursive deletions. you can type: rm -rf tigger A safer alternative to using rm for removing directories is the rmdir command.

and Enhancement Alerts (collectively known as Errata Alerts) can be downloaded directly from Red Hat using the Red Hat Update Agent standalone application or through the RHN website available at http://rhn. By default. Your RHN Red Hat Network saves users time because they receive email when updated packages are released. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Red Hat Linux consists of various software applications and utilities. This chapter explains three ways to update your system: using Red Hat Network. using the online Errata List. known as RPM packages.Chapter 15. Users do not have to learn how to use RPM or worry about resolving software package dependencies. Bug Fix Alerts.redhat. Bug Fix Alerts. 15. Figure 15-1. RHN does it all. Red Hat Network Red Hat Network is an Internet solution for managing one or more Red Hat Linux systems. Red Hat Network installs the packages as well. Users do not have to search the Web for updated packages or security alerts. Each Red Hat Network account comes with: • Errata Alerts — learn when Security Alerts.com/. and Enhancement Alerts are issued for all the systems in your network through the Basic interface . All Security Alerts.1. A package is just a file that contains a software program. and using the Red Hat Linux Installation CD-ROMs.

and schedule actions such as Errata Updates through a secure Web browser connection from any computer • • • • • To start using Red Hat Network. Additional accounts can be purchased. Everyone receives a free Red Hat Network account for one system. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages Figure 15-2. Create a System Profile using one of the following methods: • • • Registering the system with RHN during the Setup Agent the first time your system boots after installation.124 Chapter 15. Execute the command up2date from a shell prompt. Relevant Errata Automatic email notifications — receive an email notification when an Errata Alert is issued for your system Scheduled Errata Updates — schedule delivery of Errata Updates Package installation — Schedule package installation on one or more systems with the click of a button Red Hat Update Agent — use the Red Hat Update Agent to download the latest software packages for your system (with optional package installation) Red Hat Network website — manage multiple systems.com/ and entitle the system to a service offering. Start scheduling updates through the RHN website or download and install Errata Updates with the Red Hat Update Agent.redhat. Log in to RHN at http://rhn. downloaded individual packages. 2. . follow these three basic steps: 1. Select Main Menu Button => System Tools => Red Hat Network on your desktop. 3.

3.com/docs/manuals/RHNetwork/.com/apps/support/errata/. A software dependency is when a package is dependent on other package being installed.Chapter 15. Installing Software with the Package Management Tool . RPMs downloaded from other sites are not supported.2. the Package Management Tool interface appears and allows you to select packages groups to install as well as individual packages within the groups. Installation CD-ROMs Place the first Red Hat Linux CD-ROM in your CD-ROM drive.com/help/basic/applet. refer to Section 15. read the Red Hat Network User Reference Guide available at http://www. Select Yes when asked if you want to run the autorun program from the CD. If you enter the correct root password. Inc. Figure 15-3.html 15.4 Downloaded Packages. It then prompts you for the root password so that you can install packages. Click on the name of the Errata Alert that you want to apply to your system. Click on the Red Hat Linux version you are using to view a list of all available errata for Red Hat Linux.redhat. It also requires users to resolve software dependencies manually. All Security Alerts. Errata List It is recommended that new users use Red Hat Network to download and install/upgrade packages. Refer to the following URL for more information about the applet: http://rhn. 15. Instructions for updating the packages are on the individual Errata pages.redhat. and Enhancement Alerts (collective known as Errata Alerts) can also be downloaded from the Red Hat website at http://www. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages 125 For more detailed instructions. Red Hat. a convenient panel icon that displays visible alerts when there is an update for your Red Hat Linux system.redhat. tests and approves the RPMs posted on this site. Updating Errata packages from the Red Hat Linux Errata website is recommended for more experienced Red Hat Linux users. Tip Red Hat Linux includes the Red Hat Network Notification Tool. Bug Fix Alerts. For more information about installing packages downloaded from our errata sites.

You can add packages by clicking the checkbox next to each package. Figure 15-4. click the Update button to install or uninstall the selected packages. RPM Package Dependencies The packages necessary to fulfill the dependency issues can be installed by following the steps in Section 15. the package will be installed and you can immediately begin using the software from the installed package. Downloaded Packages If you have downloaded packages from an errata on the Red Hat website.3 Installation CD-ROMs. If all goes well. if there are dependencies. 15. remove the checkmark (see Figure 15-4). Individual Package Selection After selecting packages. Refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide for more information about the Package Management Tool. To uninstall a package. you can install them by opening your file manager and double-clicking the package you want to install. Figure 15-5. .126 Chapter 15. such as package or library files needed. The Package Management Tool should open up and check the package for any dependencies you need to fulfill before installation. However. Installing and Updating Red Hat Linux Packages The Package Management Tool marks what packages are already installed on your system with a checkmark.4. the Package Management Tool will alert you with suggested files and packages you need to install.

If you are getting an error message similar to failed to open /var/lib/rpm/packages.rpm. When you install software. refer to Section 1. For more information about using RPM and Package Management Tool. You need to be the root user in order to install RPM files. When you get to that initial prompt. and everything seemed to go fine. also known as root. At a shell prompt. Starting Applications I installed an application I downloaded from the Internet.6 Creating a User Account.redhat. but I still get "command not found" when I type its name.1. you are often required to make system-wide changes which only root can make. you will not have permission to make such changes by default. It is highly recommended that you create at least one user account for regular use of your Red Hat Linux system. it is because you do not have proper permission to install RPM files. If you created a user account with the Setup Agent. 16. For more information. your Red Hat Linux installation will call your machine localhost. so why will it not start? . Frequently Asked Questions This chapter answers some of the most common questions about using Red Hat Linux that you may ask as you become more familiar with it.2.3. You can create a new user after logging in as root with the User Manager graphical tool or the useradd shell prompt utility. Error Messages During Installation of RPMs How do I install an RPM from a CD or the Internet? I keep getting an error message when I use rpm. I think I have the right name. or received that information from a network. If you are using your normal user account. such as creating new directories outside of your user home directory or making changes to your system configuration. 16.Chapter 16. I get a message telling me it needs a localhost login and password. you can log in using that user name and password. What are these? Unless you specified a host name for your computer. 16. then you can log in as the super user. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide on the Red Hat Linux Documentation CD or online at http://www. you should then be able to install the RPM file without further errors. this chapter will ease you step-by-step through some common tasks and get you on your way. switch to the root user by running the following command: su After entering the root password when prompted. Localhost Login and Password I have installed Red Hat Linux. From recovering forgotten passwords to troubleshooting package installation problems.com/docs/. it is asking you to log in to your system.localdomain by default. After rebooting. If you did not create a user account. The root password is the system password you assigned during installation.

16. You can then make the changes to . at a shell prompt. try typing out the full directory path before the name of the application’s executable (such as /usr/local/bin/my-executable).1. because of the potential security risks. You can customize your settings so that you are not required to use the type the full path to the application each time./ in front of the command. To do this.bash_profile. PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin: To the end of this statement. Caution These instructions are intended only for user accounts. Frequently Asked Questions If you are trying to start an application from the shell prompt and it is not working. similar to the one shown below. you will have to edit your PATH environment variable. which creates a subdirectory in your home directory called seti/. start the application using the full path to the executable file as shown below: /home/joe/seti/setiathome The reason you may need to type the full pathnames in order to start an application is because the executable was not placed in a directory where your user shell environment knew it could be found (such as /usr/local/bin).bash_profile You will see a PATH statement.bash_profile By adding paths to your . add $HOME/seti as shown below: PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:/usr/local/bin/:$HOME/seti: Save the file and exit the text editor.bash_profile by typing the following: gedit . you will have to edit your user shell configuration file to add the directory containing the executable you wish to run. . You can do this by adding the directory to your PATH environment variable. You can open the file called . Editing Your PATH If you frequently start programs that are not located in a directory that your user shell has been configured to search.3. you can place utilities and programs in your path and be able to execute them without having to type . Start a text editor. such as gedit or vi. imagine that you have downloaded the setiathome client application and want to try it out.bash_profile take effect immediately by typing the following command: source . Avoid modifying files such as the root user’s . Now.128 Chapter 16. For example. You follow the directions for installing the software.bash_profile.

Note the Device information for your Windows partition.4. you can use the Hardware Browser. For example: mkdir /mnt/windows . Hardware Browser hard disk device listing Select Hard Drives from the panel and find your Windows partition from the Disk Information displayed. Figure 16-1. To find this information. Accessing a Windows Partition I have a dual-boot system with Red Hat Linux and Windows 98. You should first determine where your Windows partition is located by determining what physical hard disk your Windows partition is located in (such as the primary master IDE drive or the the first SCSI drive). Once you have determined where your Windows partition is located on your hard drive. however. in two different ways. Create a directory in which the Windows partition will be mounted by typing the following command. which lists detailed information about the hardware in your Red Hat Linux system. if your Windows partition uses NTFS. Frequently Asked Questions 129 Tip For more information about using and configuring your shell prompt refer to Chapter 13 Shell Prompt Basics. 16. then you cannot mount and read from it as Red Hat Linux does not support NTFS file systems. a Windows partition). log in as root (type su and then enter the root password) at a shell prompt.Chapter 16. Windows partitions normally use the FAT or FAT32 file system type. Figure 16-1 shows Hardware Browser in action. choose Main Menu => System Tools => Hardware Browser. Is there a way to access my Windows partition while I am running Linux? You can access another partition on your system (for example. To start the Hardware Browser. This file system type can be mounted and read within Linux. as this is the device that you mount to access your Windows data.

Say you were reading the man page the day before. the /etc/fstab file is read. su to root.bash_history at the shell prompt and the results will display one page at a time.umask=0 0 0 Save the file and exit your text editor. As root. To access the partition at a shell prompt. you will need to mount it in the directory you just created. following the above example. press the [Space] bar. press [q]. type: history | grep man You will see a list of all the commands you typed which have the word man in them.5. The next time the system is rebooted. To move forward a screen. you must modify the /etc/fstab file. and the Windows partition is automatically mounted in the directory /mnt/windows. and I did not write it down. 16. To search for the command. open the /etc/fstab in a text editor by typing (for example): gedit /etc/fstab Add the following on a new line (replacing /dev/hda1 with the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows vfat auto. Frequently Asked Questions Before you can access the partition. type the following command at a shell prompt (where /dev/hda1 is the Windows partition you found via Hardware Browser): mount -t vfat /dev/hda1 /mnt/windows You may then logout of root user mode and access your Windows data by changing into the mounted Windows partition: cd /mnt/windows To automatically mount a Windows partition every time you boot your Red Hat Linux system. There are plenty of ways to your command history. you can search through the file for keywords using grep. a powerful search utility. . and to quit. see Section 16. type the command cd /mnt/windows.bash_history. Alternatively. as in ls "Program Files". By default.bash_history to find a command can be tedious. How do I get the man page back? The command you used will most likely be stored in a file called . Another way to view .6 Tips on Using Command History. You can glimpse the history of your commands by typing history at the shell prompt. Next. which configures all file systems and disk device mounting options. surround the name of the directory or file with quotation marks. but I cannot remember the name of the command I was reading about. Type less . For other tips and tricks. but the results will speed by too quickly for your to read ever line. press the [b] key. to move back a screen.bash_history is with a utility such as less. To navigate through directories or files with spaces. At a shell prompt. Paging through .130 Chapter 16. Finding Commands Quickly I was looking at a man page yesterday. but cannot recall its name. this file records the last 500 commands you typed at the shell prompt.

6. you can press the up arrow to move back through previous commands in your history list (the down arrow will move you forward through the commands) until you find the command you want.6.1. Frequently Asked Questions 131 16. showing you the previous 500 commands you have used. Tips on Using Command History What are some other ways I can use command history? If you type history. You can achieve the same results with more. so the command history 20 might be useful. or "page" at at time. Press [Enter] to execute the command. type the following to pipe the output of a command to the printer: ls -al /etc | lpr . to quit.7. Keep ls Output from Scrolling Whenever I type ls I can barely see the output of the directory because it scrolls by too quickly. type the following command at the shell prompt: ls -al /etc | less To move forward a screen.Chapter 16. "Bang number": Typing !number (as in !302) will execute the command which is numbered 302 in the history file. 16. [Up arrow] and [down arrow]: At the shell or GUI terminal prompt. You probably do not need to see all of the last 500 commands. To read the contents of /etc with less.7. you will see a numbered list scroll by very quickly. 16. If you have configured a printer. another paging utility. 16.1. press [q]. Other Shortcuts Here are other command history shortcuts which may be useful to you: • • • • "Bang. just as if you had typed it on the command line. press [Space] bar. This way. bang": Typing !! (called "bang bang") executes the last command in the history. to move back a screen. only the previous 20 commands you typed will display (you can use any quantity as an argument of the history command). pipe the output to a utility such as less or more. press the [b] key. "Bang string": Typing !string (as in !rpm) will execute a command with the most recent matching string from the history file. You will then be able to see the output one screen. How can I actually read the output? To prevent the output of ls from scrolling by too quickly. Printing ls Output You can also print directory listings by piping the output to a printer in the same way that you piped the output to your screen.

You must edit one file. From here. If you use the default boot loader.9. then add the word single to tell GRUB to boot into single-user Linux mode.8. /etc/inittab. Changing Login from Console to X at Startup How do I change my login from the console to the graphical screen? Instead of logging in to your system at the console and typing the startx command to start the X Window System. Password Maintenance I forgot or want to change my user account password. reboot your computer. At the boot loader menu. Once you are finished. Press [Enter] to make the editing change take effect. reboot the computer. How do I log in now? You can log in using single-user mode and create a new root password. you can configure your system so that you can log in directly to X. When you are finished. by changing just one number in the runlevel section. 2. After it finishes loading. the password will be changed.10. Look for the line that looks similar to the following: kernel /vmlinuz-2. You can now use the new password to log in to your user account.4 ro root=/dev/hda2 Press the arrow key until this line is highlighted and press [e]. Open a shell prompt and type the following: passwd username Replace username with your normal user name. 4. you will have a graphical login prompt. then you can log in to root as you normally would. The next time you log in. You can then reboot by typing reboot at the prompt. su to root by typing su .05# 5. You can now change the root password by typing bash# passwd root You will be asked to re-type the password for verification. press [b] and GRUB will boot single-user Linux mode.4. 16. 3. you will be presented with a shell prompt similar to the following: sh-2.132 Chapter 16. Frequently Asked Questions 16. type [e] to enter into editing mode. You will be brought back to the edit mode screen. Forgotten Password Help! I forgot my root password. you can enter single user mode by performing the following: 1. Press the Spacebar once to add a blank space. GRUB. To enter single-user mode. The passwd command will then ask for the new password.18-0. If you’re in your user account. 16. You will be presented with a boot entry listing. Open a shell prompt. which you will need to enter twice.

The runlevels used by RHS are: # 0 .unused # 5 . Within the first screen.Full multiuser mode # 4 . type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit.Multiuser. Your changed line should look like the following: id:5:initdefault: When you are satisfied with your change.Chapter 16.halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # 1 . your next login after reboot will be from the graphical screen. Frequently Asked Questions 133 Now. and asking you to confirm your change. You will see a message telling you that the file has been modified. Type [Y] for yes.reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) # id:3:initdefault: id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5. The file /etc/inittab will open. you will see a section of the file which looks like this: # Default runlevel. . Now.Single user mode # 2 . you should change the number in the line Warning Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5. if you do not have networking) # 3 .X11 # 6 . To change from a console to a graphical login. save and exit the file using the [Ctrl]-[x] keys. without NFS (The same as 3.

134 Chapter 16. Frequently Asked Questions .

2. working with files and applications. your default desktop will look similar to Figure A-2. The HelpCenter You can access the HelpCenter from the Main Menu by selecting Help. This appendix covers the basics of using KDE: system navigation.1. right-click on the desktop and select the Help => K Desktop Handbook. Finding Help You can access a comprehensive set of documentation about KDE through the HelpCenter.kde. and working with the Konquerer file manager. Using The Desktop Once you start KDE. From this main page. it allows you to access your Red Hat Linux system and applications using your mouse and keyboard. Introducing KDE The K Desktop Environment (KDE) is a graphical desktop that uses common graphical objects such as icons. menus. Figure A-1. If you would like to learn more about KDE. A. . KDE: The K Desktop Environment A. and panels. you can view help documentation on topics such as using and configuring the desktop. and customizing the desktop to suit your needs. To access HelpCenter from the desktop. working with the many applications included with KDE.3.org. visit the official website at http://www. The opening screen of the HelpCenter browser appears like Figure A-1.Appendix A. windows. A.

You can access any one of these resources by double-clicking on the associated icon. Configuration tools are also available which allow you to customize the way the desktop behaves at events such as single. The default KDE desktop displays icons for the trash can. Using The Panel The panel stretches across the bottom of the desktop. You can have up to 16 desktops running at the same time in KDE. The desktop itself is also highly customizable. email client. and so on. document windows. or file manager. By default. and backgrounds. Click on an icon to open the associated resource. it contains the main menu icon and quick-launch icons for starting a Web browser. The KDE desktop works similarly to other graphical desktop environments. word processor. You can drag and drop unwanted items such as files you no longer need to the Trash icon. A Typical KDE Desktop The KDE desktop displays application launchers. The long bar across the bottom of the desktop is the panel. and Copy. and other commonly used applications. and the desktop manager. file folders.136 Appendix A. Rename. You can also add new icons for all types of applications and resources to the desktop. You can also access the main menu and configure the desktop to suit your needs. you see several options for working with these resources. The panel contains application launchers. Icons located on the desktop can be files. Right-click on the trash can and select Empty Trash Bin to delete the items from your system permanently. the Start Here icon for applications and configuration tools. such as Delete. panel.4. You can change the appearance of buttons. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-2. and a diskette icon. folders. device links.and double-clicking mouse buttons and chording keystrokes to create time-saving shortcuts. Move to Trash. status indicators. your home directory. A. The panel taskbar shows your currently running applications. When you right-click on these icons. window and frame decorations. or application launchers. You can drag and drop files and application icons to any location on the desktop. .

which will display a password-protected screensaver. including Graphics. The Panel The panel is highly configurable. set a panel hiding configuration (where the panel remains hidden until you hover over the panel area). and launching applications by typing commands in a text box. This section covers them in detail. Panel Settings Other tabs in Settings contain options to further customize your panel and taskbar. The main menu also contains several submenus that organize applications and tools into several categories. you can lock your screen. Click on Help for more information on these options. Office. and customize your main menu.Appendix A. Clicking on the Main Menu icon on the panel displays a large master menu from which you can perform tasks such as launch applications.4. You can also run applications from a command line as well as logout of your KDE session. You can add and remove buttons that launch applications easily.4. Then select Application Button and make your choice from the menus. and more. To add an application launcher to the panel. find files. From the Main Menu. Right-click on the panel and select Configure Panel to open the panel Settings. Games. and configure your desktop.2. time and date display. There are some applets that run on the panel by default. Using Applets Applets are small applications that run on the panel. Using The Main Menu The Main Menu is the central point for using KDE.1. right-click on the panel and choose Add. There are several types of applets performing functions such as system monitoring. A. Click Help at any time to learn more about configuring your panel. Figure A-4. . A. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 137 Figure A-3. You can configure panel orientation and size. Internet. Applications and utilities can be added easily to the panel.

For more desktops. Click the Multiple Desktops icon (see Figure A-5). and choose the color or image you want to make your background using the associated tabs.4. and Background icons are where you can make various desktop configuration changes. uncheck the Common Background checkbox. You can also change the number of desktops available to you by adjusting the slider in the Number of Desktops. Virtual Desktop Configuration You can change the names of your desktops (from Desktop 1. Working with Multiple Desktops Appendix A. Right-click on the desktop. drag the bar to the right. click the virtual desktop you want to change. KDE: The K Desktop Environment By default. to customize each virtual desktop to have different backgrounds.2. for fewer desktops. Select Configure Desktop. open applications. you can have Mozilla browsing the Web on desktop two.138 A.) by deleting the default names and typing a new name in each desktop’s corresponding text box. and Paths.1. For example. Figure A-5. Behavior. KDE provides four desktops that you can use to display multiple applications without having to crowd all of them onto one desktop. click the Background icon. and so on. etc. the KDE desktop configuration tool will open. Each desktop can hold icons.org Writer word processor open on desktop three. while you are writing a message in Evolution on desktop one. The Appearance. the OpenOffice. . drag the bar to the left. 3. You can change the number and names of desktops available in KDE by making these adjustments: 1. Desktop 2. For example. you will see a brief menu of actions you can choose. and be individually customized. 2.

KDE: The K Desktop Environment 139 Figure A-6. click Apply to save the changes.2. release both keys and the application appears on the desktop. Tip You can use the keyboard combination of the [Ctrl] and Function keys to switch desktops. To scroll through the tasks. Applications on the Taskbar You can maximize running applications or bring them to the front of your working windows by clicking on the associated item on the taskbar. For example. Desktop Background Configuration After you make any adjustments to your desktop configuration. To pick an item from the taskbar.2. [Ctrl]-[F3] takes you to desktop three. . Viewing The Taskbar The taskbar displays all running applications. Buttons for your desktops appear on the panel in the Desktop Pager. When you have found the task you want to maximize and bring to the front. Tip Another way to bring minimized or background windows to the front is to use the [Alt] and [Tab] keys. hold down both the [Alt]-[Tab] key.4. [Ctrl]-[F2] switches to desktop two. both minimized and displayed.Appendix A. while tapping the [Tab] key. Click on a tile to move to a different desktop. on all desktops. and so on. hold down the [Alt] key. Click OK to close the desktop configuration tool. A. Figure A-7.

5. browse digital images. click on your home directory icon . or any one of the specific properties (Arrangement. click Hide automatically. The panel will remain hidden until you hover over the panel area to make it reappear. Konqueror allows you to configure your KDE desktop. allowing you to navigate through your home directory and throughout your Red Hat Linux file system. You can move the icon anywhere you want on the panel by right-clicking the icon and choosing Move Application Button.4.4. where Application is the name of the application associated with the icon. KDE: The K Desktop Environment A. and adjust the number of seconds to elapse before the panel is hidden. allowing you to adjust all panel settings. Hiding. Configuring the KDE Panel You can hide the panel automatically or manually. you can include additional launcher icons to start applications without using the main menu or Start Here. play multimedia files. The Konqueror File Manager . To start Konqueror for file management. right-click the panel and choose Configure Panel. Konqueror will open up in a window on your desktop. Managing Files Konqueror is the file manager and a Web browser for the KDE desktop. Menus. you can return to your home directory by clicking the Home button on the toolbar. and more from one interface. Click Apply then OK to close the Settings dialog. A. place it on any edge of your desktop. After exploring. and so on). This automatically adds an icon on the panel. The Settings window will appear.4. This section explains some of the ways Konqueror can help you work with and enjoy your Red Hat Linux system. Choose the Hiding tab. and change the way it behaves. A. configure your Red Hat Linux system. Figure A-8. Adding Icons and Applets to the Panel To further customize the panel for your particular needs.3. To add a new launcher to the panel. surf the Web.140 Appendix A. change its size and color. right-click the panel and choose Add => Application Button and choose the application or resource you wish to add to the panel. To alter the default panel settings.

PostScript/PDF files. Browsing the Web with Konqueror Konqueror not only allows you to browse your local and network file system.Appendix A. and Web files.1. Konqueror is also a full featured Web browser. and has a built-in media player for playing multimedia files without having to open a separate application. You can also delete files and folders by right-clicking on the item and choosing Delete. This panel appears on the left side of the Konqueror file browser window by default. Figure A-9. A. The Navigation Panel Another useful feature of Konqueror is the navigation panel. which you can use to explore the World Wide Web. The navigation panel makes Konqueror an efficient solution for users who want fast and easy access to all of their files and information.5. images. but with component technology used throughout KDE. To launch Konqueror choose Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => Konqueror Web Browser. Working with the Navigation Panel The navigation panel lets you access your Web bookmarks. A. Files and folders in the main window frame can be moved or copied to another folder or sent to the trash. Figure A-9 shows the navigation panel. file system. browsing history. KDE: The K Desktop Environment 141 You can navigate through the file system by clicking on folders within the main window frame or through the hierarchical file system viewer on the navigation panel as shown in Figure A-8. . It can also preview sounds from digital audio files. network resources. The navigation panel makes many of your sytem resources available to you in convenient tabbed icons.6. Konqueror also displays thumbnail icons for text.

KDE: The K Desktop Environment Figure A-10. and more. If you click Continue at the end of the webpage. plug-ins. By clicking Continue from the Tips screen. featured protocols. you will see the Specifications screen. enter a URL in the Location field. you will be presented with the Tips page. This screen displays information on supported standards (such as Cascading Stylesheets. . This screen offers basic instructions for browsing webpages. This page shows you basic tips for using Konqueror so that you can begin to take advantage of the many features. and OpenSSL). For additional information on using Konqueror. Welcome to Konqueror When you first launch Konqueror. To begin your Web session. you will be presented with an Introduction screen. click on Help (on the top menu panel) and then on Konqueror Handbook.142 Appendix A.

KDE: The K Desktop Environment 143 Figure A-11. Using Konqueror to View Images You can also use the Konqueror file manager to view images. The Konqueror Handbook A.Appendix A. Image files automatically generate thumbnail image icons for you to preview within the file browser window. click on your home directory desktop icon to access the Konqueror file manager: .7. Viewing an Image in Konqueror . When you double-click on a thumbnail icon. If you chose KDE as your default desktop environment. the browser displays the image in its native size. Using Konqueror as an image browser works similarly to Nautilus (see Chapter 11 Working with Images for more information). Figure A-12. as shown in Figure A-12.

you first need to change the way Konqueror renders the image. Figure A-14. Rightclick on the image. Security. Before you can really use KMail.. Click on the GIMP icon and click OK. KDE: The K Desktop Environment To zoom in and out of an image. Network.8.. choose View => View Mode => Image Viewer Part. choose Graphics and scroll down the list of applications. then Other.. To begin sending and receiving messages you will have to change the settings in the Identities and Network tabs. as shown in Figure A-13.. refer to the KMail user manual (Help => KMail Handbook) or visit KMail’s homepage at http://kmail. select Settings from the KMail toolbar.. Image viewing configuration on the Konqueror Toolbar You can also open the image with more advanced image viewers. The Configure Mail Client window consists of the following sections: Identities. . It has an intuitive graphical interface similar to Evolution that allows you to send and receive email using a graphical interface. as seen in Figure A-14. To open KMail.. and Folders.. This will re-display the image and allow you to rotate and zoom in on the image using the two magnifying glass icons or the magnification percentage drop-down menu on the toolbar.kde. you must configure it so it can send and receive mail. KMail KMail is an email tool for KDE. Figure A-13. Appearance. A pop-up menu will appear allowing you to open the application you wish to use. To launch the GIMP. choose Open With.. For additional information. Dialog Box A.144 Appendix A. Composer. as well as with The GIMP. The Open With. and click on Configure KMail. To run the configuration tool. click on the Main Menu => Internet => More Internet Applications => KMail.org. Have your email information from your service provider or administrator handy so that you can fill in the required information to begin using KMail. From the window menu.

KMail Main Screen Once you have your email settings configured.Appendix A. and more. click on the new message icon in the tool bar: Figure A-16. To compose a mail. The folders on the left side of the KMail screen allow you to view emails you have received. you can begin sending and receiving email. emails you have sent. emails ready to be sent. KMail New Email Message Screen . KDE: The K Desktop Environment 145 Figure A-15.

You can also customize mouse and keyboard events which makes working with the desktop as efficient for your needs as possible. where User is your account username. panel elements. Linux kernel configuration. It is strongly recommended that you leave these settings at their default values unless you understand the consequences of changing them. you can also configure accessibility features such as audible and visual cues and keyboard/mouse customization. You can configure options such as cache sizes. Logging Out of KDE There are two ways to log out of your KDE session. icons. from the menu.9. themes.10. KDE Components This section lets you configure the Konqueror file manager and customize certain file operations. Regional & Accessibility This section allows you to set country and language options to your particular locale. right-click on the desktop and. System Administration This section is an advanced system configuration interface. You can customize background images and configure fonts. available by selecting Main Menu => Control Center. lets you customize the look and behavior of the desktop. A. You will need your root password to configure most of these options. screensavers. From the Main Menu. In either case click Logout and your session will end. A. KDE Logout Screen . and window border appearance. proxy settings (if available). Appearance & Themes This sections allows you to customize the visual aspect of your desktop environment. The following list explains some of the configuration options in detail. The KDE Control Center. click Send in the toolbar: . Figure A-17. login management. select Logout User. and more. Web Browsing This section allows you to configure the Konqueror Web browser. and enhanced browsing using keyword shortcuts.146 Appendix A. You can also associate files to applications that you prefer (for example. KDE: The K Desktop Environment Once you have composed a message and entered an email address to send the email to. To log out from the desktop. Customizing KDE KDE allows you to configure the desktop and your system to suit your needs. This section allows you to configure system boot settings. For users with sight or hearing impairments. plugins. assigning all digital music files to open in XMMS instead of the default player). website cookies. select Logout User where User is your account username.

The GIMP Scan and OCR Program (Kooka).org Calc OpenOffice. KSpread KPresenter. X-CD-Roast Text Editor (gedit) Evolution Mozilla Instant Messenger (GAIM) xpdf Gnucash Fax Viewer (KFax) Audio Player (XMMS). lynx X-Chat. cdrecord.org Write OpenOffice. Chatzilla Ghostview Table B-1. Scanning (XSane) Jpilot CD Creator. Kate Kmail. Category Word Processors Spreadsheets Presentations Charts and Diagrams Graphics Image Viewers Digital Cameras/Scanners PDAs CD Recording Text Editors Email Clients Web Browsers Chat/Instant Messaging PDF/PostScript Viewers Personal Finance Fax Sound Recommended Application OpenOffice. KDE CD Player. This is not a complete list of all applications available. Mozilla Mail. links. Applications in between (parentheses) denotes the formal name of the application. Konquerer. XFig Icon Editor (K Icon Editor) Image Viewer (Kuickshow). CD Player (GNOME CD). Emacs. mutt Galeon. aumix. KDE Sound Mixer.org Impress Dia The GIMP. Paint Program (KPaint) GThumb Digital Camera Tool (gtKam). Kivio. MagicPoint Kchart. Evolution KOnCD vi.Appendix B. Applications The following table shows some of the Red Hat Linux applications that are available to perform many common tasks.Volume Monitor (VUMeter) Extras KWord Gnumeric. Applications . KMid Sound Recorder (GNOME Sound). The GIMP KPilot.

148 Appendix B. Applications .

txt echo this message gedit thisfile. Command’s Purpose Copies files Moves files Lists files Clears screen Closes shell prompt Displays or sets date Deletes files "Echoes" output to the screen Edits files with simple text editor Compares the contents of files Finds a string of text in a file Formats a diskette MS-DOS copy move dir cls exit date del echo edit fc find format a: Linux cp mv ls clear exit date rm echo gedit(a) diff grep mke2fs or mformat(b) man(c) mkdir less(d) mv(e) Basic Linux Example cp thisfile. This appendix provides common commands used at the DOS prompt in Windows and their counterparts in Linux.txt (if diskette is in A:) /sbin/mke2fs /dev/fd0 (/dev/fd0 is the Linux equivalent of A:) man command mkdir directory less thisfile. type man ls at the shell prompt to read about the ls command).txt Displays command help Creates a directory Views a file Renames a file command /? mkdir more ren .txt diff file1 file2 grep this word or phrase thisfile. Basic examples of how the command are used at the Linux shell prompt are also provided. some commands are identical.txt /home/thisdirectory ls clear exit date rm thisfile.Appendix C.txt mv thisfile. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands Many Linux commands typed at a shell prompt are similar to the commands you would type in DOS. In fact. read its associated man page (for example.txt /home/thisdirectory mv thisfile. To learn more about each command.txt thatfile. Note that these commands usually have a number of options.

e. as seen in this example. "move" that file to the same directory with a new name. cd . c. if you want to rename a file in the same directory. The mv command can both move a file and. date free date free Notes: a. with a relative path Displays the time Shows amount of RAM in use time mem cd pathname cd /directory/directory cd .150 Command’s Purpose Displays your location in the file system Appendix C. d. Table C-1.. You can also use info for some commands. other editors you can use in place of Gedit include Emacs and vi.. A Comparison of Common DOS and Linux Commands MS-DOS chdir Linux pwd Basic Linux Example pwd Changes directories cd with a specified pathname path (absolute path) Changes directories cd .. b. Similar Commands . The more pager can also be used to page through a file one screen at a time. Gedit is a graphical text editor. This formats a disk for the DOS file system.

— Contains configuration files and directories. The directory /usr/bin/ also stores user commands. Each directory is described briefly. For additional directory information. • /tmp/ — The temporary and write access. • /sbin/ — Location of many system commands. /tmp/ allows all users on a system read • /home/ • /opt/ — Default location of user home directories. — A virtual file system (not actually stored on the disk) that contains system information used by certain programs. the superuser. The directory /usr/sbin/ also contains many system commands. directory for users and programs. the default CD-ROM mount point is /mnt/cdrom/. — Stores device files. System Directories This is a list of the primary Red Hat Linux system directories. that is used to mount the initrd. For example. Used by fsck to place orphaned files (files without names). • /root/ • /mnt/ • /boot/ • /lost+found/ — • /lib/ — Contains many library files used by programs in /bin/ and /sbin/. — The home directory of root.img image file and load needed device • /proc/ • /initrd/ — A directory modules during bootup. — For variable (or constantly changing) files. • /bin/ — Used to store user commands. such as programs and supporting library files. . The directory /usr/lib/ contains more library files for user applications. — Contains the kernel and other files used during system startup. refer to the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide and the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide.Appendix D. Warning Do not delete the /initrd/ directory. such as shutdown. such as log files and the printer spool. • /dev/ • /etc/ • /var/ • /usr/ — Contains files and directories directly relating to users of the system. — Directory where optional files and programs are stored. — This directory typically contains the mount points for file systems mounted after the system is booted. You will be unable to boot your computer if you delete the directory and then reboot your Red Hat Linux system. This directory is used mainly by third-party developers for easy installation and uninstallation of their software packages.

152 Appendix D. System Directories .

For more command line and keyboard shortcuts. Type this command to clear all visible data from the shell prompt screen. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Delete] = shutdown and reboots your Red Hat Linux system. [Ctrl] + [l] = clears the terminal. [Ctrl] + [e] = moves cursor to end of a line. history = shows history of commands. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. use this shortcut to clear the current line from the cursor all the way to the beginning of the line. press the [up] or [down] arrow to scroll through a history of commands you have typed from the current directory. [Ctrl] + [a] = moves cursor to the beginning of a line. To display a shorter list of previously used commands. Many more are available in addition to what is listed here. Click the middle mouse button to paste it. [Ctrl] + [u] = clears the current line. Type this at a shell prompt to logout of the current user or root account. This works in most text editors and in the URL field in Mozilla. exit = logout. [Middle Mouse Button] = pastes highlighted text. Shuts down your current session and reboots the OS. Use only when the normal shutdown procedure does not work. [Ctrl] + [d] = logout of (and close) shell prompt. Point the cursor to the spot where you want it pasted. In a two mouse system. [Tab] = command autocomplete. By default. reset = refreshes the shell prompt screen. [F1] through [F6] are shell prompt screens and [F7] is the graphical desktop screen. It will automatically complete the command or show all commands that match the characters you typed. Use the left mouse button to highlight the text. • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Keyboard Shortcuts Here are a few keyboard shortcuts you can use to perform common tasks quickly. [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Fn] = switches screens.html#shortcuts • • • [Ctrl] + [Alt] + [Backspace] = kills your current X session. clear = clears the shell prompt screen. history 20. Use this if the normal exit procedure does not work. press [Enter]. Type this at a shell prompt to refresh the screen if characters are unclear or appear corrupt. Kills your graphical desktop session and returns you to the login screen. When using a shell prompt. If you are working in a terminal. Type this at a shell prompt to see a numbered list of the previous 1000 commands you typed. If you have more than one application open at a time. When you see the command you want to use. you can click both the left and right mouse buttons simultaneously to perform a paste. Type the first few characters of a command or filename and then press the [Tab] key. For example. This shortcut does the same thing as typing clear at a command line. Use this command when using a shell prompt. [Alt] + [Tab] = switches tasks in a graphical desktop environment. type history followed by a space and a number.dk/linux-newbie/lnag_commands. you can use [Alt] + [Tab] to switch among open tasks and applications. Use this quick shortcut instead of typing exit or logout. [Up] and [Down] Arrow = shows command history.Appendix E. visit: http://sunsite. [Ctrl]+[Alt] + one of the function keys displays an available screen. if you configured your mouse to emulate a third mouse button.

Keyboard Shortcuts .154 Appendix E.

92 tail. 105 numerical settings. 108 clear. 28 cdrecord. 147 starting from shell prompt. 28 bzip2. 113 commands (See shell prompt) cat. 115 C cat. 115 burning CDs. 140 adding to the panel. 32 and CD Creator. 30 and X-CD-Roast. 69 creating user accounts. playing. ii copying and pasting text when using X. 96 cd. 16 on the desktop panel. 95 DOS. 101 history. 93 ls. 101 head. 30 and mkisofs. 93 ls -al. 103 tips. 94 ls. 73 chmod. 93 keeping output from scrolling. 90 reset. 90 change directories. 96 command history. 26 additional resources. 31 CDs. common options with. using. 32 and CD Creator. 104 su. 26 additional resources. 28 CD-writable (CD-R). 60 . 94 multiple. 131 command line options printing from.Index A accounts creating. 7 B bunzip2. 27 with cdrecord. deleting) stringing together. 90 chmod.org Draw. 127 compressing files. 113 conventions document. deleting) rm -r (See directories. 30 and mkisofs. 26 additional resources. 98 applets adding to KDE panel. 96 rm (See files. 32 with CD Creator. 149 finding. 96 cd. 104 print working directory (pwd). 105 numerical settings. 30 and X-CD-Roast. 137 applications and Red Hat Linux. 101 cat. 7 appending standard output. v creating graphics with OpenOffice. 131 ls -a. 27 and cdrecord. 14 panel in KDE. 127 archiving files. 130 locate. 108 clear. 90 pwd. 90 CD-rewritable (CD-RW). 27 and cdrecord. 101 common user questions. 130 grep. 30 with mkisofs. 96 cron. 30 with X-CD-Roast.

111 file types. 113 with File Roller. 119 renaming at a shell prompt. 89 moving. 132 permissions for installing RPMs. 112 archiving. 131 keeping ls output from scrolling. 119 types of. 112 managing from shell prompt. 112 floppy disks (See diskettes) E email clients. 112 files archived. 23 unmounting. 93 managing from shell prompt. 112 Filesystem Hierarchy Standard. 89 moving. 121 descriptions. 64 PDF. 49 mutt. 90 copying. v FHS (See Filesystem Hierarchy Standard) file. v drawing OpenOffice. 114 compressed. 111 File Roller. 25 mounting. 18. 23 DNS definition. 120 diskettes. 45 Evolution.156 D date configuration. 127 accessing a Windows partition. 119 formats. 63 OpenOffice. 144 Mozilla Mail. 24 F FAQ. 119 deleting. 127 feedback contact information for this manual. 21 dateconfig (See Time and Date Properties Tool) desktop (See graphical desktop) applets. 69 environment variables PATH. 72 text files. 129 finding previous used commands. 131 login problems. 87 DHCP. 138 devices digital cameras. 127 starting applications. 50 plain text.org Draw. 113 file manager for KDE. 14 background changing. 120 moving at a shell prompt. 113 with File Roller. 112 compressing. 50 mutt. 151 listing contents. 48 Newsgroups. 140 Nautilus. 23 using. 121 deleting at a shell prompt. 119 deleting. 81 KDE. 119 copying at a shell prompt.org Writer. 16 file managers. 23 formatting. 35 documents.org. 135 desktops multiple KDE. 35 digital cameras. 70 dot files (See hidden files) drag and drop. 114 copying. 46 KMail. 130 history tips and tricks. 24 mke2fs. 128 errata updating with. 119 creating touch. 50 . 125 Evolution (See email clients) ext2 file system and floppy disks. 87 directories changing. 63 OpenOffice. 114 file system understanding.

157
formatting diskettes, 24

I
images additional resources, 85 manipulation, 79 GIMP, 82 viewing, 79, 79 gThumb, 80 Konqueror, 143 Nautilus, 79 Internet configuring, 35 Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 introduction, i IP address, 35

G
games and amusements, 76 finding more online, 77 getting started logging in, 5 Setup Agent, 1 GIMP, 82 opening a file, 83 saving a file, 84 GNOME desktop (See graphical desktop) GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 graphical desktop, 13 applets, 16 background changing, 18, 81 customizing, 18 logging out of, 20 main menu, 14 Nautilus, 16 panel, 14 Start Here , 17 using, 13 workspace, 13 graphical login changing to, 132 graphics GIMP, 82 gThumb, 80 changing wallpaper with, 81 gunzip, 115 gzip, 115

K
KDE, 135 applets adding, 140 multiple desktops, 138 customizing, 146 desktop, 135 desktop icons, 136 desktops multiple, 138 switching, 139 documentation, 135 Konqueror navigation panel, 141 main menu, 137 panel, 136 applets, 137 switching tasks, 139 Taskbar, 139 website, 135 keyboard shortcuts, 153 KMail (See email clients) Konqueror (See Web browsers) KDE file manager, 140 navigation panel, 141 viewing images with, 143

H
Hardware Browser, 129 help with KDE finding, 135 hidden files, 93 history finding commands using, 130

158

L
less, 100 linux commands (See shell prompt) listing directories (See commands, ls) log in, 5 logging in, 5 graphical, 132 graphical login, 6 virtual console login, 6 logging out, 11 from the desktop, 20 KDE, 146 login problems using single-user mode, 132 ls, 93 printing output, 131 viewing output, 131

configuring, 21 ntpd, 21 ntpd, 21

O
online connecting with Internet Configuration Wizard, 35 OpenOffice.org, 63 Draw, 69 features, 63 Impress, 67 Writer, 64, 65 ownership and permissions, 105

P
pagers, 100 less, 100 panel configuring, 16 configuring the, 140 KDE, 136 adding applications, 137 customizing, 137 hiding, 137 on the graphical desktop, 14 partitions accessing Windows, 129 password forgotten, 132 passwords secure, 8 PATH, 128 editing, 127 pathnames relative and absolute, 90 PDF viewing, 72 xpdf, 72 peripherals digital cameras, 87 permissions numerical settings, 108 setting for new RPMs, 127 permissions and ownership, 105 pipes, 100 plain text (See text files) Point-to-Point Protocol, 35 PPP, 35 presentations OpenOffice.org Impress, 67 printer configuration adding

M
main menu in KDE, 137 on the desktop, 14 mke2fs, 25 mkisofs, 31 mouse how to use, v Mozilla (See Web browsers) Mozilla Mail (See email clients) music Ogg Vorbis, 73 Wave, 73 XMMS, 73 using, 74 mutt (See email clients)

N
Nautilus, 16 disabling text icons, 17 disabling thumbnails, 17 viewing images with, 79 Network Time Protocol (See NTP) new users creating accounts, 7 Newsgroups (See email clients) NTP

159
local printer, 53 cancel print job, 60 default printer, 56 delete existing printer, 56 driver options, 57 Assume Unknown Data is Text, 57 Convert Text to Postscript, 58 Effective Filter Locale, 58 GhostScript pre-filtering, 58 Media Source, 58 Page Size, 58 Prerender Postscript, 58 Send End-of-Transmission (EOT), 57 Send Form-Feed (FF), 57 edit driver, 57 edit existing printer, 56 GNOME Print Manager, 58 change printer settings, 59 local printer, 53 managing print jobs, 58 modifying existing printers, 56 notification icon, 59 printing from the command line, 60 rename existing printer, 57 test page, 56 viewing print spool, 59 viewing print spool, command line, 60 printing from command line, 95 pwd, 90

S
Setup Agent, 1 shell, 89 history of, 89 shell prompt, 7 basic commands, 89 chmod, 106 single-user mode, 132 software installing, 123 upgrading, 123 sound card configuring, 74 Sound Card Configuration Tool, 74 spreadsheets OpenOffice.org Calc, 65 standard input redirecting, 99 standard output appending, 98 redirecting, 96 Start Here, 17 changing desktop background with, 18 startup messages dmesg | more, 100 startx, 6 su, 92 superuser (See commands, su) switching desktops KDE, 139 switching tasks KDE, 139 system directories descriptions, 151

R
Red Hat Network, 123 Red Hat Update Agent, 123 redhat-config-date (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redhat-config-time (See Time and Date Properties Tool) redirecting standard input, 99 redirection, 96 reset, 96 RHN (See Red Hat Network) root, 111 and root login, 111 logging in as, 5 RPM, 125 installing packages, 123 upgrading packages, 123 RPMs error message while installing, 127 installing with Gnome-RPM, 127

T
tab completion, 103 Taskbar KDE, 139 terminal (See shell prompt) terms introductory, 3 text files, 70 editing, 70 from a shell prompt, 71 The Graphical Desktop, 6 time configuration, 21 synchronize with NTP server, 21 time zone configuration, 22 timetool (See Time and Date Properties Tool) Trash icon

39 using. 96 less. 7 importance of. 39 Windows accessing on a separate partition add line to /etc/fstab. 74 video card. 100 V vi . 76 xpdf. 71 W wallpaper changing. 136 troubleshooting sound card.160 KDE. 72 . 141 Mozilla. 39 X X Configuration Tool. 129 World Wide Web browsers. 39 Konqueror. 39 Mozilla. 18 Web browsers. 5 utilities cat. 76 U unzip. 115 user account creating.

Garrett LeSage created the admonition graphics (note. and warning).Colophon The Red Hat Linux manuals are written in DocBook SGML v4.1 format. The DocBook SGML files are written in Emacs with the help of PSGML mode. Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. The HTML and PDF formats are produced using custom DSSSL stylesheets and custom jade wrapper scripts. The Red Hat Linux Product Documentation Team consists of the following people: Sandra A. They may be freely redistributed with the Red Hat documentation. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer John Ha — Primary Writer/Maintainer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer . Writer/Maintainer of custom DocBook stylesheets and scripts Edward C. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux Getting Started Guide Tammy Fox — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Customization Guide. caution. Moore — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide. Bailey — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux System Administration Primer. Contributing Writer to the Red Hat Linux x86 Installation Guide Johnray Fuller — Primary Writer/Maintainer of the Red Hat Linux Reference Guide. tip. Co-writer/Comaintainer of the Red Hat Linux Security Guide. important.

162 .

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