# NOTES FOR TEST 1: MATH 3500

Proposition 1.1 The medians of a triangle intersect at a point that is two-thirds of the way from each vertex to the opposite side. it p 5 Exercise 1.2.17 For any x, y ∈ , x − y ≤ x−y . Deduce that Deﬁnition A set V ∈ n is called a subspace if: 0∈V; Whenever v ∈ V and c ∈ , then cv ∈ V Whenever v, w ∈ V, v + w ∈ V. Proposition 2.1 The dot product has the following properties: x · y = y · x∀x, y ∈ n x · x = x 2 ≥ 0 and x · x = 0 ⇐⇒ x = 0 (cx) · y = c(x · y)∀x, y ∈ n x · (y + z) = x · y + x · z Proposition 3.1 Let v1 , v2 , ...vk ∈
n

x − y

≤ x−y .

Then V = Span(v1 , v2 , ...vk ) is a subspace.

Deﬁnition Let V and W be subspaces of n . We say they are orthogonal subspaces if every element of V is orthogonal to every element of W. Deﬁnition A function T: n → m is called a linear transformation or linear map if it satisﬁes: T (u + v) = T (u) + T (v) for all u, v ∈ n Whenever v ∈ V and c ∈ , then cv ∈ V Whenever v, w ∈ V, v + w ∈ V. Projection of x onto y projx y = x·y2 y y Geometric interpretation of dot product x · y = x y cosθ Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality |x · y| ≤ x y Triangle Inequality
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NOTES FOR TEST 1: MATH 3500

x+y ≤ x + y Rotation Matrix Aθ = cosθ −sinθ sinθ cosθ

Proposition 4.1 Let A, B, C ∈ Mm×n and let c, d ∈ 1. A + B = B + A 2. (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) 3. 0 + A = A 4. There is a matrix −A so that A + (−A) = 0 5. c(dA) = (cd)A 6. c(A + B) = cA + cB 7. (c + d)A = cA + dA 8. 1A = A