THE SIDDHA PHARMACOPOEIA OF INDIA

PART – I VOLUME – I First Edition

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE DEPARTMENT OF AYURVEDA, YOGA & NATUROPATHY, UNANI, SIDDHA AND HOMOEOPATHY (AYUSH) NEW DELHI

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1. AMUKKARA (ROOT)

AMUKKARË (Root) - ܺ‚èó£
Amukkar¡ is the dried root of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Syn. Physalis somnifera L., P. flexuosa L., P. arborescense DC. (Fam. Solanaceae), a perennial shrub, found in waste land, cultivated fields and open grounds throughout India. It is also cultivated in certain areas of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Roots are collected in winter, washed and cut into small pieces.The dried root is subjected to purification process before use. It grows in Mullai and Marutham thi¸ai. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Acuvakanthi (ܲõè‰F), Amukkar¡ Ki¾a´ku (ܺ‚èó£ Aöƒ°) Ashvagandha Ashvagandha Asgandha Asgandh Angarberu, Hiremaddina- gida Asagandh Amukkuram Asagandha, Askagandha Aswagandha Asgandh Asvagandha, Hayagandha, Vajigandha Pennerugadda Asgand

Roots straight, unbranched, thickness varying with age, roots bear fibre-like secondary roots, outer surface buff to grey-yellow with longitudinal wrinkles; crown consists of remains of variously thickened stem bases; fracture short and uneven; odour characteristic; taste bitter and acrid.

b) Microscopic
Transverse section of root shows cork exfoliated or crushed; when present rectangular, radially flattened and non-lignified; cork cambium 2 to 4 diffused rows of cells; secondary cortex about twenty layers of compact parenchymatous cells mostly filled with starch grains; phloem consists of sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma; cambium 4 or 5 rows of tangentially
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elongated cells; xylem hard forming a closed vascular ring separated by multiseriate medullary rays. Powder: Yellowish grey; shows cork cells, parenchyma cells, tracheids, vessels, fibres and starch grains.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than ASSAY

2 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 15 per cent, Appendix 27 per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C.

HPLC conditions for the separation of withaferin A in Alcohol extract. Mobile phase : n- Hexane: Isopropanol (9:1) Flow rate : 0.2 ml/min. Column : Porasil A coiled column (1.2ft. x 1/8 inch) Detector : UV at 225 nm

T.L.C. of Petroleum ether soluble fraction of Alcohol extract on an aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E.Merck) 0.2 mm. thickness using Petroleum ether (80 -100° C): Chloroform (1:1) spraying with 10% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105ºC shows two spots at Rf. 0.17 (violet) and 0.92 (greyish brown).

CONSTITUENTS
Withanolides- withaferin A, withanone, withanolides I, II, III, III A, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, WS-I, P and S, withasomidienone, cuscohygrine, anahygrine, tropine, pseudotropine, anaferine, isopellatierine, 3- tropyltigloate.

PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : ˸maiperukki (݇¬ñªð¼‚A), Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A), K¡yaka¼pam¡kki (è£òèŸðñ£‚A), U¼akkamu¸·¡kki (àø‚躇죂A), Uram¡kki (àóñ£ ‚A), U·alveppaka¼¼i (à왪õŠðèŸP), U·a¼t®¼¼i (à쟫îŸP), V¢kkamurukki (i‚躼‚A)
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IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Amukkar¡c C£ra¸am (ܺ‚èó£„ Åóí‹), Iracakanthi Me¾uku (Þóêè‰F ªñ¿°), I·ivall¡thi Me¾uku (Þ®õ™ô£F ªñ¿°), Kantaka Irac¡yaºam (è‰îè Þóê£òù‹), Mak¡ Ól¡thi Ku½ikai (ñè£ ãô£F °O¬è), Mak¡vall¡ti I½akam (ñè£õ™ô£F Þ÷è‹), Nanthi Me¾uku (ï‰F ªñ¿°), N¡rathtai I½akam (ï£óˆ¬î Þ÷è‹), Pa¼a´kippa··ai Irac¡yaºam (ðøƒAŠð†¬ì Þóê£òù‹) THERAPEUTIC USES C£lai (Ŭô), Curam/K¡yccal (²ó‹/裌„ê™), Karapp¡º (èóŠð£¡), Kayam (èò‹), T °·am («î£ì‹), U·al Vaºmaikku¼aivu (àì™ õ¡¬ñ‚°¬ø¾), Va½i N°yka½ (õO «ï £Œèœ), Ve½uppu N°y/P¡¸·u (ªõÀŠ¹ «ï£Œ/𣇴), V¢kkam (i‚è‹), Vintukku¼aivu (M ‰¶‚°¬ø¾) DOSE - Powder 3 - 6 g

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Kuma··ikk¡y (°ñ†®‚裌). white or pale yellowishwhite. 5 . peeled and cut into pieces. Indravalli. thick. Indrayanalata. internally irregularly concave and showing numerous ovoid depressions about 10 mm. Syn.2. 5 mm. Piccikk¡y (H„C‚裌). seeds flattened. Cucurbitaceae).ÝŸÁ¶‹ñ†® ˼¼uthumma¶¶i is the unripe fruit of Citrullus colocynthis (L. yellowish-white to dark brown. thick. The fruit is subjected to purification process (cutti ) before use. Peikummatti Urdu : Hanjal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Peeled and cut pieces of fruit about 6 cm. broad and 2 mm. SYNONYMS Tamil : Kali´kam (èLƒè‹). odourless. about 7 mm. left by fallen seeds. P®ykuma··i («ðŒ °ñ†®). taste intensely bitter. long and 2 cm. Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad. Fruits are harvested when mature but unripe. It grows in Marutham thi¸ai. Central and Southern parts of the country. long. AATRUTHUMMATI (UNRIPE FRUIT) ËÞÞUTHUMMAÙÙI (Unripe fruit) . externally convex with ridges and flattened areas marked by peeling with a knife. Garukhiya Punjabi : Indrayana Sanskrit : Indravaruni. Aendri Telugu : Chedupuchcha. Gavaksi. long.(Fam. ovoid. pulp bitter. arid and sandy tracts of North West.) Schrad. an annual or perennial prostrate creeper growing wild in the warm. Thuma··i (¶ñ†®). Variththuma··i (õKˆ¶ñ†®) Assamese : Gavadani Bengali : Rakhal English : Colocynth Gujrati : Indrayan Hindi : Indrayan Kannada : Havumekke Malayalam : Valiya Pekkummatti Marathi : Endrayana Oriya : Gothakakudi.

with thinner walls. isodiametric and the inner sclereids layer upto about 60 mm. Appendix 2.2 mm thickness. Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 7 per cent. Test solution 3 g of the powdered drug is extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with 150 ml of ethanol (8 to 9 hr).5 per cent. annular and spiral vessels. lignified sclereids.4. endosperm and cotyledons parenchymatous with fixed oil and aleurone grains. not more than 3. Appendix 2. Powder: Yellowish-brown. pitted parenchyma of rounded cells showing oval. Appendix 2. Spray reagent Vanillin-Phosphoric acid reagent. Appendix 2.5 per cent.6. Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 20. with inner layers of very thickwalled. The solvent is filtered and removed under vacuum. ASSAY HPTLC densitometric estimation of 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl. 20 mg of the residue is dissolved in 1 ml of methanol. Total Ash Not more than 14 per cent. flat.2.b) Microscopic Epicarp. IDENTITY. Merck) 0. where present. pitted areas where they are in contact with many slender bicollateral vascular strands having spiral vessels and occasional associated latex vessels. pitted. and an innermost layer of sclereids with reticulately thickened walls.3. radially elongated. shows groups of pitted parenchyma cells. about 15 to 30 mm in diameter. thin-walled. Water-soluble extractive Not less than 16. and an inner layer of sclereids. Pulp consists of large.p.2.0 percent. smaller. Light Petroleum soluble-matter: On continuous extraction with light Petroleum (b. 6 . 40 to 60 C) and drying at 100 C. outer sclereids very thick. striated.2. oil globules and aleurone grains. Appendix 2.2. sclereids.2.cucurbitacin I. testa of seed with outer epidermis of thick-walled unlignified palisade cells having vertical strips of thickening on the anticlinal walls. with epidermis of radially elongated cells having thick outer walls and thin inner walls and partially thickened anticlinal walls with occasional stomata of the anomocytic type. the adjacent parenchymatous layer about 15 layers of cells thick. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.7.2. Solvent system Chloroform: Methanol (95:10). TLC plates Aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E.

Standard solution 1 mg of 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-cucurbitacin I is dissolved in 1 ml of methanol.D.The amount of 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-cucurbitacin I present in the sample is calculated from the calibration curve.D.98 (dark blue).0.D.98 (both yellow). Calibration curve 2. The percentage of 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-cucurbitacin I ranges from 1. isovitexin. 0.88 and 0.β. and derivatized with Vanillin-Phosphoric acid reagent.O. 0.27) -hexanorcucurbitacin I. CONSTITUENTS 2. The plate is developed in the solvent system to a distance of 8 cm.0. 6. hentriacontane.96 (blue) and 0. 0.88 (light blue) and 0.L. 10.Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C until the colour develops.elaterin -2. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). colocynthitin. The plate is scanned immediately at 560 nm.(22. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : In small Dose 25 . αspinasterol. U·a¼t®¼¼i (à쟫îŸP).65 (blue). the plate shows four spots at Rf. In medium Dose 50 . iso.C. cucurbitacin I (elatericin B).glucopyranosyl. 12.98 (yellow).methyl ether. The plate is developed in the solvent system and the chromatogram is recorded .O .0.Glucopyranosyl.orientin 3´. Estimation of 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-cucurbitacin I in the drug 10 µl of the test solution is applied on a TLC plate.glucopyranoside).0. The peak areas are recorded and plotted to get the calibration curve. citrullol.50 mg: K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP). T. T. 8.cucurbitacin L.0 and 16.C.orientin. On exposure to iodine vapours two spots appear at Rf.100 mg : 7 . 4. lipids and essential oil constituents. colocynthin. cucurbitacin L (dihydroelatericin B). iso. The plate is heated at 100-105ΊC until the colour develops. K£rmai (جñ). 0.72 in the samples analyzed. 2.46 to 1.84 (blue). On spraying with 5% Methanolic.L.0 μl of the standard solution is applied on a TLC plate. cucurbitacin T. cucurbitacin J. 0. 14. coloside A (α.0.0.β. cucurbitacin E (elaterin). of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol: Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under UV (366 nm) two fluorescent zones at Rf.

8 . Nava Uppu Me¾uku (ïõ àŠ¹ ªñ¿°) THERAPEUTIC USES C£takata·ai (Åîèî¬ì). V¡ntiyu¸·¡kki (õ £‰F»‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Kumma··ik Ku¾ampu (°‹ñ†®‚ °ö‹¹). Malamn¢r¡kki (ñô‹có£‚A).500 mg: Ku·a¼pura··i (°ìŸ¹ó†®). Va½i N°yka½ (õO «ï£Œèœ) DOSE . Namaiccalu¸·¡kki (ï¬ñ„꽇죂A).125 . C£takavali (ÅîèõL).Powder 0.Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).5g Contraindicated in pregnancy. In standard Dose 125 .0.

petioles 2 to 8 cm. vasica (L. Malabar nut Ardusi. odour characteristic.10 to 30 cm. Vachaka Bakas. Arusa Vasa. Syn. glabrescent. cultivated also as hedges. Basanga Vishuti. Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. base tapering. mature leaves of Justicia adhatoda L. in surface view. flowering during FebruaryMarch and also at the end of rainy seasons. leaves stripped off from older stems and dried in drying sheds. slightly acuminate. Aradusi. Vasa Vasanga. epidermal cell walls sinuous with diacytic stomata on both surface.. Adarooshaka Adulsa. an evergreen shrub. long. broad. Vasaka. taste bitter. b) Microscopic Transverse section of leaf shows a dorsiventral type with 2 layers of palisade cells. Vrsa.. Atarusa.3. more numerous 9 . 8 to 10 pairs of lateral vein bearing a few hairs. ADA THODAI (LEAF) ËÙËTHÕÙAI ILAI (Leaf) . It grows in Marutham thi¸ai. long and 3 to 10 cm. A. Aduss Adusoye Vasa Adalodakam. Simhasya. Basak Vasaka. exstipulate. lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate. Araduso Adoosa. Bhekar. light greyish brown below.) Nees (Fam. Arusa. petiolate. distributed throughout India upto an altitude of 1300 m.Ý죫ì Þ¬ô ˶¡th°¶ai Ilai is the dried. Vansa. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic V¡cai (õ£¬ê) Bahak. Vajidnta Addasaramu Adusa (Arusa) Leaves dull brown above. Acanthaceae). Titabahak.

palisade ratio 5 to 9. acicular and prismatic forms of calcium oxalate crystals present in mesophyll. spiral and reticulate vessels and debris of trichomes. filtered and the marc is subjected for another two cycles of (1 hr.2.2. 2. uniseriate. 10 . x 3. 2. celled.2. range: 50-80 µg/ml) of vasicine in methanol is prepared. Resolve C18 spherical 5µ (15cm. Appendix 2. acicular and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. The pooled Chloroform fractions are concentrated under vacuum to dryness.2. If necessary further dilutions are prepared. Appendix 1 per cent. Sample preparation: 1g of dried leaves are refluxed with Methanol for 2 hr.3. 25 to 36 µm in diameter in surface view. The combined filtrates are concentrated to about 1ml. Mobile phase Flow rate Column Detector : : : : Methanol: Water (2:3) 0. glandular trichomes with unicellular stalk and 4 celled head measuring. thin-walled. and the Chloroform fractions are rejected. and diluted with water to 20ml. Appendix 22 per cent. IDENTITY. vein.. upto 500 µm. Powder: Green.6.4. 2. rarely upto 5. Appendix 3 per cent.9 mm. shows fragments of wavy epidermal cells with diacytic stomata. partition with Chloroform (2x 10 ml). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than ASSAY 2 per cent.islet number 6 to 8 per square mm.2. Procedure: Known volumes of standard and sample preparations are subjected to HPLC and the respective peak area for vasicine in triplicate is recorded and accordingly its percentage in the sample is calculated. 1 to 3. HPLC analysis of vasicine.on the lower. The above method may also be used for the estimation of vasicine in polyherbal formulations with suitable modifications in the sample preparation.) UV at 298 nm Standard preparation: A solution of known concentration (conc. cystoliths. and dissolved in Methanol (10 ml). covering trichomes a few. cystoliths in mesophyll layers elongated and cigar shaped. 2.2.7. stomatal index 10 to 18 for lower surface. acidified with dilute HCl (3 ml). 1 ml of this solution is diluted to 100 ml with Methanol. the major bioactive constituent. Appendix 21 per cent.each) reflux with Methanol.7 ml/min. The aqueous phase is basified with dilute Ammonia solution and extracted with Chloroform (5 x10ml).

desmethoxy aniflorine.5 . Icivaka¼¼i (ÞCõèŸP). Kuruti A¾al (°¼F Üö™) DOSE . 2. deoxy vasicine. 4 . anisoline.79 (orange).Dioxone: Ammonia (9:1) v/v.T. 9 . adhatonine. Kapacurak Ku·in¢r (èð²ó‚ °®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES Curam/K¡yccal (²ó‹/裌„ê™). adhavasinone. 11 . vasicinolone. deoxy vasicinone. vasicinol.3-ol. vasicol.C. vasicoline. vasicolinone. 1. 7-methoxy vasicinone. Ë·¡t°·ai Ney (Ýì£«î£¬ì ªïŒ).2 mm. Kakkuv¡º I½akam (è‚°õ£¡ Þ÷è‹). Merck) 0.50 ml twice daily. shows one spot at Rf.Powder 3 -5 g Juice 5 -10 ml Decoction 30 . T. vasicinone. CONSTITUENTS Vasicine.30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. 3.L. Pu¾ukkolli (¹¿‚ªè£™L) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Ë·¡t°·ai Ku·in¢r (Ýì£«î£¬ì °®c˜). PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).0.methoxy pyrrolo (2. and spraying with Dragendorff reagent. 15 .L. of Alcoholic extract on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E.C.tetrahydro . Ë·¡t°·ai Ma¸app¡ku (Ý죫ì ñíŠð£°). 1 -b) quinazoline . Irumal (Þ¼ñ™). K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP). thickness using 1. anisotine.

taste bitter. Ardusi. distributed throughout India upto an altitude of 1300 m. Vasa Basanga.4. b) Microscopic Shows 6 to 15 layers of rectangular to slightly tangentially elongated. a few containing oil globules. long. almost cylindrical. Vrsa Addasaramu Adusa (Arusa) Drug occurs in cut pieces of 8 to 13 cm.. Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. creamish-white internally. Vishuti Atarusa. ADA THODAI VER (ROOT) ËÙËTHÕÙAI VÓR (Root) .Ýì£«î£¬ì «õ˜ ˶¡th°¶ai V®r is the dried root of Justicia adhatoda L.0 cm. Bhekar. Syn. Vasa. Simhasya. followed by more or less discontinuous. greyishbrown to dark brown externally. secondary cortex wide consisting of rectangular to polygonal. in dia. 1. rough due to longitudinal cracks or fissures. Aduss. Vasaka Aradusi. vasica (L.. woody. cultivated also as hedges.) Nees (Fam. annular band of mostly 12 . SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic V¡cai (õ£¬ê) Bahak. Titabahak. Acanthaceae). Vansa. an evergreen shrub. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.5 to 3. Basak Malabar nut. Arusa Adusoye Vasa Adalodakam. A. Vachaka Bakas. hard. tap root having lateral branches. thin-walled cork cells. fracture hard. Vasanga Arusa. Adarooshaka Adulsa. Vajidnta. Vasaka.March and also at the end of rainy seasons. flowering during February . Araduso Adoosa.

. shows fragments of cork cells. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than ASSAY T.0.57.2. 0. vasicinolene. 2. fibres.52 (both orange). elongated. having concentric striations and hilum. starch grains simple and compound..rectangular groups of stone cells having distinct pits and striations. Appendix 4 per cent. thin-walled cells having usual elements. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (4:1) shows under UV (366 nm) four fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. Appendix 10 per cent. parenchyma and rays. Appendix 1 per cent.2. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent two spots appear at Rf.93 (all yellow). having concentric striations and hilum.2.2.27 and 0. CONSTITUENTS Vasicine. T.72. Powder: Brownish-grey.07.. K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP) 13 . present in secondary cortex and secondary phloem. 1 per cent. vasicinol. secondary phloem composed of 15 to 20 layered. xylem rays mostly uniseriate. secondary xylem composed of vessels. Appendix 2.6. round to oval.7.4. IDENTITY. rectangular. 0. Appendix 5 per cent.L. Icivaka¼¼i (ÞCõèŸP). 0. 2. simple pitted vessels. 3 to 6 µm in dia. On exposure to iodine vapours six spots appear at Rf.0. round to oval.52. 2.2. a few four.83 (sky blue) and 0.seriate rays are also present. Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).63 (both red).C. vessel simple pitted. starch grains simple and compound having 2 to 3 components.87 and 0. 2.27.87 (yellow).L.C.0. tritriacontane and essential oil. stone cells mostly in groups.2. 0. with 2 to 3 components. 3 to 6 µm in dia.3. Ìral T®¼¼i (ßó™ «îŸP).

Aiyacuram (äò²ó‹) DOSE .6 g Decoction 30.: Powder 3 . Irumal (Þ¼ñ™).30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. 15 .50 ml twice daily. 14 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS T£tuv®½ai Ney (ɶ«õ¬÷ ªïŒ) THERAPEUTIC USES Iraippu (Þ¬óŠ¹).

Atimadhura Multhi Irattimadhuram Jesthamadh Jatimadhu. ATHIMATHURAM (STOLON AND ROOT) ATHIMATHURAM (Stolon and Root) . high found wild and cultivated in Europe. It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. externally longitudinally wrinkled. a tall perennial herb or under shrub upto 2 m. with occasional small buds and encircling scale leaves. inner 3 or 4 rows having thicker. Muleti. Mulathi Yasti. Asl-us-sus DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Stolon consists of yellowish brown or dark brown outer layer. Yastika. outer layers with reddish-brown amorphous contents. Jethimadhu. Jethimard. odour faint and characteristic. root similar without a pith. unpeeled. Yastyahva Atimadhuramu Mulethi.Transverse section of stolon shows cork of 10 to 20 or more layers of tabular cells. b) Microscopic Stolon . fracture coarsely fibrous in bark and splintery in wood. Madhuyasti.ÜFñ¶ó‹ Athimathuram is the dried. taste sweetish. Fabaceae). Jethimadh Jestamadu. Afghanistan and to a small extent in some parts of India. colourless walls. Persia. transversely cut and smoothed surface shows a cambium ring at about one-third distance from periphery and a small central pith. stolon and root of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Jyeshtamadhu. Yeshtmadhu Yashtimadhu Liquorice root Jethimadha. Math£kam (ñÉè‹) Jesthimadhu. SYNONYMS Tamil Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Athi´kam (ÜFƒè‹). Madhuka.5. Mulathi. Jastimadhu Jethimadh. Jethimadh Mulethi. Yastimadhuka. 15 . Madhuka. (Fam.

simple. glabrolide. pitted. formononetin.6. hispaglabridin A & B.41 (dark violet.2. oval or rounded starch grains.hydroxy glycyrrhetic acid.70 (violet) and a dark blue spot running along with the solvent front.27 (violet).L.sitosterol. Powder: Yellowish-cream. Appendix 10 per cent. vessels with spiral thickening.secondary cortex usually of 1 to 3 layers of radially arranged parenchymatous cells containing isolated prisms of calcium oxalate.41 (glycyrrhetic acid marker) and 0. of the Chloroform extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate shows under UV light (254 nm) 2 spots at Rf. all parenchymatous tissues containing abundant. CONSTITUENTS Glycyrrhizin.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105º C until the colour develops . 3 to 5 cells wide. ß. fragments of fibres. glabranin A & B.5 per cent. 0. shows parenchyma cells containing a small prism of calcium oxalate. herniarin. glycyrrhetic acid. Appendix 2. licoagrodin. neoliquiritin. glabrol. 10 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) 16 . 2. oval or rounded with wide lumen having 2 to 4 or more components. glycyrrhetol. cells of inner part cellulosic and outer lignified. 0.3. the plate shows 6 spots at 0.49 (dark yellow).2. measuring 2 to 20 µm in diameter. ß. starch grains simple. the remaining with thin walls. each usually containing a prism of calcium oxalate about 10 to 35 µm in size. mixture of potassium and calcium salts of glycyrrhizinic (glycyrrhizic) acid. 24 . yellow.45.Transverse section of root shows structure closely resembling that of stolon except that no medulla is present. Appendix 20 per cent.C.L. cambium of 3 or more layers of cells. secondary phloem a broad band. groups of lignified fibres with crystal sheaths similar to those of phloem. those between the vessels having thick pitted walls without intercellular spaces. secondary xylem distinctly radiate with medullary rays. isoglabrolide.4. xylem parenchyma of two kinds. vessels with thick. reticulate walls. surrounded by a sheath of parenchyma cells.45 (dark yellow) 0. stigmasterol. Appendix 2. 2. xylem tetrarch. After spraying with Anisaldehyde. onocerin. Appendix Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. T. glabroisoflavanone A and B. umbelliferone. marker).2. 2. radially arranged groups of about 10 to 50 fibres. 0. IDENTITY.7. Root .2.2. glycyrrrhetic acid. glabrone. 2 to 20 µm in length. glabrocoumarin.2. usually four principal medullary rays at right angles to each other. glychionide Aand B and flavonoids. 2.C. pith of parenchymatous cells in longitudinal rows with intercellular spaces. glycyrrhetinic acid. 0.amyrin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Nil.

K¡m¡lai (è£ñ£¬ô). Malami½akki (ñôI÷‚A). Ve¸ Ku··am (ªõ‡ °†ì‹). N¢rv®·kai (c˜«õ†¬è). Ka¸ N°yka½ (è‡ «ï£Œèœ). Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A). T¡½ic¡thi C£ra¸am (î £Oê£F Åóí‹). Irumal (Þ¼ñ™). Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP). Elumpu N°yka½ (⽋¹ «ï£Œèœ).Gu¸am : Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ). Vayi¼¼uppu¸ (õJŸÁŠ¹‡).Powder 2 . P¢ºicat Tailam (dQêˆ ¬îô‹). Vacanta Kucum¡karam (õê‰î °²ñ£èó‹).4 g 17 . Va¼a·ciyaka¼¼i (õø†CòèŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Arakku Tailam (Üó‚° ¬îô‹). Ë·¡t°·ai Ku·in¢r (Ýì£«î£¬ì °®c˜). Mak¡ Ól¡thi Ku½ikai (ñè£ ãô£F °O¬è). Veppu N°y (ªõŠ¹ «ï£Œ) DOSE . Ve¸p£ca¸i I½akam (ªõ‡ÌêE Þ÷è‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Ci¼un¢r Ericcal (CÁc˜ âK„ê™). U½½a¾al¡¼¼i (àœ÷öô£ŸP).

4 to 1. native of western Himalayas and found in Garhwal. ATHIVIDAYAM (ROOT) ATHIVIÚAYAM (Root) . corresponding to end of fibrovascular bundles. thin-walled cells. long and 0.6 cm. b) Microscopic Transverse section of mature root shows a single layered epidermis consisting of lightbrown tabular cells rupturing on formation of cork. Pa´kurai (ðƒ°¬ó) Aatich Ataicha Atis root Ativishni Kali. about 2. taste bitter with no tingling sensation. ex. gradually decreasing in thickness towards tapering end. Aruna.ÜFMìò‹ is the dried. white. Visa Ativasa Atees Roots conical. cork cambium single layered consisting of tangentially elongated.6. an annual herb. Athihage Atividayam. starchy. fusiform or cylindrical. Ghunapriya.000 m. Royle (Fam. or more thick at its upper extremity. external surface wrinkled marked with scars of fallen rootlet and with a rosette of scaly rudimentary leaves on top. tuberous root of Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. fractured surface marked towards center by 4 to 7 concentrically arranged yellowish-brown dots. Ativitayam Atvisha Atushi Atisa. Atees Ativisa.500 to 4. cortex much wider consisting of tangentially elongated or rounded. odourless. Ativikhani Kali Atis Ativisha.5 cm. Ranunculaceae). cork consists of 5 to 10 rows of tangentially elongated. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Atthira¸am (܈Fóí‹). Kumaon and Kashmir at an altitude between 2. externally yellowish to greyish white.0 to 7. thin-walled 18 . thin-walled cells. It grows in Athivi·ayam Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. M¡thiri (ñ£FK). fracture short.

The peak areas for Atisine are recorded and the calibration curve is constructed.2. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than ASSAY HPTLC densitometric estimation of Atisine.2.4. filtered and the volume was made up to 50 ml with Methanol. Aliquots of 0. central core consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Test solution 5 g of powdered drug is accurately weighed and extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with 50 ml Methanol for 4 hr. and dried in a current of hot air and scanned at 232 nm. Powder: Ash coloured to light brown. endodermis distinct composed of barrel-shaped cells. Estimation of atisine in the drug 19 . shows abundant simple and compound starch grains. thickness. Appendix 6 per cent. spherical.2. 2. Appendix 1 per cent.2 mm. 3 ml is pipetted out and diluted to 10 ml with Methanol. Standard solution 1. 2.parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.5 to 3 ml is pipetted out in increments of 1 ml into 10 ml in volumetric flasks and made up to the volume in each flask with Methanol. Appendix 4 per cent.2. cells fully packed with both simple as well as compound starch grains.. Appendix 2. inter-fascicular cambium present in the form of a ring composed of a few layered thin-walled cells.2. possessing starch grains similar to those found in cortical cells.2.7. Aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. 2. Appendix 24 per cent. TLC plates 2 per cent.0 mg/ml stock solution of Atisine is prepared in Methanol.3. Calibration curve 10 µl of each concentration of standard solution is applied in triplicate on a TLC plate. compound starch grains composed of 2 to 4 components. The plate was developed in the solvent system to a distance of 8 cm. 2. Merck) 0. fragments of reticulate xylem vessels and parenchyma cells. Solvent system Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Diethylamine (7:2:1). elements of vascular bundles poorly developed.6.

P£ra M¡tthirai (Ìó ñ£ˆF¬ó) THERAPEUTIC USES K°¾ai («è£¬ö).C.dihydroatisine.73 and 0. of Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using 1.C. 0. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : ˸maiperukki (݇¬ñªð¼‚A).44 in the samples analyzed. hetisinone and atisenol. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°).2 g 20 . F. T. hetidine.95 (all orange). The plate was developed with the solvent system to a distance of 8 cm. 0. four spots appear at Rf. T. hetisine.31. Ka¾iccala·akki (èN„êôì‚A).49. Veppaka¼¼i (ªõŠðèŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Kap¡·a M¡tthirai (èð£ì ñ£ˆF¬ó). and the chromatogram is recorded. Nanthi Me¾uku (ï‰F ªñ¿°). Mu¼aicuram (º¬ø²ó‹). The percentage of Atisine ranges from 0. heterophyllidine. Mu¼aiveppaka¼¼i (º¬øªõŠðèŸP). heterophylline. N¡rathtai I½akam (ï£óˆ¬î Þ÷è‹). M£lam (Íô‹). Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A). Peru´ka¾iccal (ªð¼ƒèN„ê™). Pu¸ (¹‡). V¡nti (õ£‰F) DOSE . CONSTITUENTS Atisine.36 to 0. and on spraying with Dragendorff reagent.L. The amount of Atisine is determined in the test sample from the calibration curve.4 -Dioxone: Ammonia (9:1) v/v.10 µl of the test solution is applied in triplicate on a TLC plate.0. heteratisine.L.Powder 600 mg . Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH). heterophyllisine. Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®).

a number of secondary cortex cells contain starch grains and some contain rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. Country fig Umbro. Umber Jajnadimbri. Oudumbara. Gular Attihannianmara.8 cm. 3 to 6 layers of thin-walled cells filled with brownish contents. Dimbiri Kath Gular. on rubbing white papery flakes come out of outer surface. Yagyadimru Jagnadumur. most of the cells filled with chloroplast. ATTHI PATTAI (BARK) ATTHIPPAÚÙAI (Bark) . thick. Syn. Ficus glomerata Roxb. Gular Udambara. Medi Gular Bark greyish-green.܈FŠð†¬ì Atthippa·¶ai is the dried bark of Ficus racemosa L. fracture fibrous. Sadaphala Atti. Athimara. inner surface light brown. Yagnadumur Cluster fig. Gular. secondary cortex 6 to 12 layered. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic A·am (Üì‹). Umardo. Umerdo. thin-walled cells containing 21 . cork cambium single layered. rectangular cells arranged regularly..7. taste mucilaginous without any odour. surface soft and uneven. Moraceae). 0. Umarado Gulara. often cultivated in villages for its shade and edible fruits. b) Microscopic Transverse section of bark shows cork. Atavu (Üî¾). K°½i («è£O). composed of thin-walled. It grows in Ku¼iµci and Marutham thi¸ai. Attigida Rumbal Athi Atti. (Fam.5 to 1. cortex a fairly wide zone composed of circular to oblong. Utumparam (උðó‹) Jangedumuru. a deciduous tree distributed all over India in moist localities and banks of streams to the elevation of 1800 m.

30 (blue).L. starch grains and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate also found in most of phloem parenchyma and ray cells. 2 to 3 layered of tangentially elongated thin-walled cells. 2.C. phloem fibres much elongated.4. when present. most of the cells filled with simple and compound starch grains. cerylbehanate.7. laticiferous cells.3. 2. lignified.6. 0. 3-O-α-L.2. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH) 22 . scattered singly or in large groups throughout. widen towards peripheral region. phloem fibres with thick walls and narrow lumen. secondary phloem a very wide zone composed of parenchyma with patches of sieve tubes. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ). companion cells and traversed by medullary rays. shows cork cells. 2. Powder: Brown.2. medullary rays uni to pentaseriate. cortical cells with cubical and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. phloem parenchyma circular to oval and thin-walled.2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde .rhamnopyranoside.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105ºC four spots appear at Rf. elongated.21. shows under UV (366 nm) one fluorescent spot at Rf. lupeol and its acetate. 2. leucopelargodinin.orange-brown contents.L.89 and 0.2. of Dichloromethane extractive of alcohol extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Petroleum Ether:Chloroform (1:1) v/v. simple and compound starch grains.C. a number of cells also contain cubical and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. 0. Appendix 14 per cent. very heavily thickened and possess a very narrow lumen.2.2.36. cambium. IDENTITY.0. 2 per cent. lignified. CONSTITUENTS Leucocyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. a number of ray cells also get lignified and show pitted wall as described above. Appendix 1 per cent. T. some cortical cells are lignified with pitted walls. single or in groups. Appendix 2. Appendix 7 per cent.97 (all violet). laticiferous cells found in phloem parenchyma cells filled with small granular masses. α-amyrin acetate and tannins. Appendix 9 per cent. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.

M£lam (Íô‹). 23 .50 ml twice daily. 20 .30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction.Powder 3 .6g Decoction 30. Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷) DOSE . Kurutipp°kku (°¼FŠ«ð£‚°).IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Karic¡lai I½akam (èK꣬ô Þ÷è‹) THERAPEUTIC USES C¢takka¾iccal (Yî‚èN„ê™).

Numerous in nearly sessile spicate racemes. Nila Neel Nili. lenticels present. Nilika. woody.Tap root having lateral roots.2 cm. pale yellow to light yellowish-brown.8. Leaf . 0. Amari Neel Nili. 24 . Aviri Neel Root . imparipinnate..5 cm. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Aviri (ÜMK).2 to 1. long. high. in dia. an under shrub.1 to 1. long and 0. hard. (Fam.0 cm. Nilini. about 4 mm. smooth. Fabaceae). Neeligida Nilam. Rangapatri Nili Chettu. long. AVURI (WHOLE PLANT) AVURI (Whole Plant) . taste slightly bitter. nearly smooth except for a few having scattered lenticels. yellowish-green to greyish-brown in colour. Flower . wide. acute. hard. N¢li (cL) Nilbam Nil Indigo. Nili. no characteristic odour and taste. hairy outside. pale green to greenish-black. no characteristic odour and taste.ace. teeth triangular. cylindrical.ܾK Avuri is the dried whole plant of Indigofera tinctoria L. as long as tube. oblong or oblanceolate with a short mucronate tip. calyx 1. slender. corolla pink.Pieces woody. It grows in Marutham thi¸ai. Gari. leaflets. found throughout India and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. upto 2m. papilionaceous.5 mm.3 to 1.Compound. Nil Nili Karunili. 1 to 5 cm. cylindrical. odour not distinct. suRf. Stem . Indian indigo Gali. 10.

pith occupied by isodiametric. parenchyma 2 or 3 layered.15 to 0.1 cm. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and simple starch grains measuring 3 to 6 µm in dia.. secondary cortex a narrow zone. found in secondary cortex. xylem traversed by rays. thin-walled.Shows a dorsiventral structure. Fruit .Shows a narrow zone of cork. mature stem shows 5 to 15 layers of tangentially elongated. pith composed of rounded to oval. rectangular. vessels. Leaf Petiole . apiculate. consisting of oval to polygonal. spongy parenchyma 2 to 4 layered. pith and rays.2 cm. with lenticels. secondary phloem and secondary xylem composed of usual elements. isolated vessels show spiral thickening and simple pits. parenchymatous cells. crescentshaped. Stem . epidermis single layered. stigma capitate. each containing 1 or 2 prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled chlorenchymatous cells. smooth. diadelphous. thin-walled. about 0. covered externally with thin cuticle and followed internally by a single layered collenchymatous hypodermis. phloem.Young stem furrowed and ridged in outline. lower and upper epidermis followed by single and 2 or 3 layers of collenchymatous hypodermis respectively. 5 to 10 layers of collenchymatous cells present in ridges. epidermis. thin-walled cells. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in mesophyll 25 . phloem and xylem parenchyma.Pod nearly cylindrical. a few patches of veins scattered between palisade and spongy parenchyma. medullary ray 1 to 4 cells wide. secondary cortex consists of 5 to 7 layers of oval to elliptical.Appears nearly circular in outline having two lateral wings. vessels solitary or 2 to 7 in radial rows. present centrally. parenchymatous cells. vascular bundle collateral and three in number. consisting of rectangular to polygonal thin-walled cells containing rhomboidal to hexagonal crystals of calcium oxalate and groups of fibres. back of standard petal pubescent. oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. Lamina . thin-walled cork cells.. long and 0. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. cortex 4 to 6 layered. vessels solitary or 2 to 4 in groups having simple pits. in dia. having 8 to 12 seeds. crystal fibres upto 12 chambered. long and 0. xylem parenchyma and rays. stamen 10. pericycle a discontinuous ring of fibres. fibres and rays. measuring upto 11 µm in dia. consisting of 4 to 10 layers of tangentially elongated. large one present in center and two smaller in lateral wings. rectangular. straight or slightly curved. cuticle and hairs as in petioles.2 cm. starch grains simple.Shows a similar structure of epidermis. epidermis single layered. a few cells of secondary cortex. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem and pith region. a few upper rectangular cells filled with reddish-brown contents.Somewhat quadrangular with truncate ends. fibres having narrow lumen and pointed ends. present on both sides. phloem and pith contain brown coloured substances. ovary sessile. vascular bundle single. xylem parenchyma and rays. brown to dark brown. downy. fibres long. smooth. linear. palisade 2-layered. present in cortex. phloem. Seed . elongated. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. collateral. wide. 2 to 3. pericycle scanty. present in the form of continuous or discontinuous ring. aseptate with pointed end. unicellular hairs scanty to moderate with blunt tip.long. thinwalled parenchymatous cells. Midrib . b) Microscopic Root . tracheids pitted. secondary xylem consisting of xylem parenchyma. cuticle and hairs as in petiole and midrib. yellowish-brown to greenish-brown in colour.2 cm. round to oval. broken by lenticels.

2. rounded to oval. thin-walled parenchymatous cells present. thin-walled. T. simple.2. On spraying with 5% Methanolic . Powder: Yellowish grey.2 per cent. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 0.2.67. indoxyl. Appendix 7. Appendix 5. vein -islet number 15 to 18 per square mm.88 (all grey). 0. vascular bundle present in the mesocarp region sheathed by sclerenchyma cells. mesocarp 7 or 8 layered. straight walled. kaempferol -4-7-dirhamnoside. tephrosin. starch grains measuring 3 to 11 µm in diameter. 0.59.88 (all grey). 2. semiglabrin and pseudo semiglabrin. indirubin. Fruit . stomata paracytic. cotyledons consists of oval to angular. kaempferol. shows aseptate fibres.0 per cent. 2 per cent. a few upper cells contain reddish brown content.15. 0. apigenin.C. 2. Appendix 2.Shows single layered epicarp. pieces of hexagonal.75 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. beneath bearer cells 2 to 4 tangentially elongated elliptical. 2.4. endocarp present in the form of 3 to 5 layers of sclerenchymatous cells.2. unicellular hairs present on both surface but abundant on lower surface.2.38. tangentially elongated. groups of mesophyll cells. dehydrodegalin. epidermal cells in surface view. 0. 0. indican. covered externally by a thin cuticle and internally followed by a single layer of bearer cells.15. 0. sumatrol. Appendix 2. palisade ratio not more than 4.50. Appendix 1.6. trans-tetracos-15-enoic acid. IDENTITY. rarely oil globules. unicellular hairs. 0.67. 0. elongated. 2.84 and 0.cells.38. thin-walled parenchymatous cells.L.2. of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol: glacial Acetic acid: Water (5:1:4) in visible light shows three spots at Rf. palisade-like cells. Seed .7. vessels with spiral thickening and simple pits. CONSTITUENTS Indigotin. 0.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105° C until the colour develops.Shows a single layered. the plate shows nine spots at Rf. On exposure to iodine vapours seven spots appear at Rf.38.88 (all yellow).L. radially elongated.59. stomatal index 18 to 40 on lower surface and 10 to 16 on upper surface. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Acaivu (ܬê¾) 26 .50. 0. luteolin.5 per cent. degalin. more or less elliptical. ercetin.75 and 0. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3.5 per cent. 0.0.25. 0.C.75. 0. 0.

50 ml twice daily. 10 .20 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷) DOSE . 27 .Decoction 25. Nu¸pu¾ukkolli (¸‡¹¿‚ªè £™L).V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Mu¼aiveppaka¼¼i (º¬øªõŠðèŸP). Naµcu N¢kkum (ï…² c‚°‹). Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Nanthi Me¾uku (ï‰F ªñ¿°) THERAPEUTIC USES Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹).

Shows a narrow zone of cork consisting of 4 to 10 layers of tangentially elongated. secondary phloem composed of usual elements. high.ܾK «õ˜ Avuri V®r is the dried root of Indigofera tinctoria L. Nili Neel Nili. Fabaceae). hard.5 cm. found throughout India and widely cultivated in many parts of the country. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. It grows in Marutham thi¸ai. Nilini. an under shrub up to 2 m. thin-walled cells. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Aviri (ÜMK). pale-yellow to light yellowish-brown. consisting of usual elements. taste slightly bitter.9. Nili chettu Neel Root mostly availabe in pieces. AVURI VER (ROOT) AVURI VÓR (Root) . woody. wood occupies bulk part of the root. Indigo Gali. parenchyma cells rectangular to polygonal in shape and present on both external and internal sides of vessels. b) Microscopic Root . phloem and xylem parenchyma 28 . secondary cortex a narrow zone. odour not distinct. Rangapatri Aviri. Nilika. Amari. fibres present in the form of alternating bands of parenchyma. rectangular. thick. thin-walled cells. Nili. group of fibres thick-walled and lignified with wide lumen. N¢li (cL) Nilbam Nil Indian indigo. medullary rays 1 to 4 cells wide. 0. consisting of rectangular to polygonal. with lenticels.1 to1. Neeligida Nilam. cylindrical. vessels solitary or 2 to 4 in groups having simple pits. surface nearly smooth except for a few scattered lenticels. Nil Nili Karunili. (Fam. Gari. Neela Amari Neel Nila.

86.2. 0. 0. 0. occasionally oil globules and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.58 (blue).40.2. 2.L. pitted vessels. 0.27.10.58.63(bluish green). 0.06.L.50. of Alcoholic extract of the drug on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. 0.6. 0.75.27. measuring upto 12 mm in dia.C.3. 0.81. On exposure to iodine vapours thirteen spots appear at Rf. Appendix 3 per cent.91 (all grey). IDENTITY. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. simple and compound starch grains.58. 0.21. 0. 2.06. 0. thickness using Chloroform: Ethylacetate (3:2) shows under UV light (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. T. 0.2. Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Karic¡lai I½akam (èK꣬ô Þ÷è‹) 29 . measuring 3 to 11 mm in dia. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Acaivu (ܬê¾) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Mu¼aiveppaka¼¼i (º¬øªõŠðèŸP). shows aseptate fibres.80.C. 0.30 (bluish green). 0. 0. 0. CONSTITUENTS Indican. 2 per cent.86 and 0.63. Powder: Creamish.81 (blue).14.40 (blue). Appendix 0.50. 0. 0.75 (blue).2. 0.86 (green) and 0. 0. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105°C until the colour develops.40. xylem parenchyma and rays. 0.63. phloem.10. 0.2. 0.and rays. 0. present in cortex. the plate shows fourteen spots at Rf. Appendix 4 per cent..75. Appendix 2. round to oval. starch grains simple. 0. 0. Merck) 0. 0.14.14 (blue). 0.33.brown. 0.91 (all yellow).91 (blue). Appendix 6 per cent. 0. and 0. oil globules present in cortex and phloem parenchyma. 2. 0.7 per cent.4. Nu¸pu¾ukkolli (¸‡¹¿‚ªè £™L).47 (blue). 0..7.33. 0.2 mm. 0.2.

Naµcu N¢kkum (ï…² c‚°‹).30.Decoction 30. 30 . Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷).THERAPEUTIC USES Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹).60 g powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. M£rccai (͘„¬ê) DOSE .50 ml twice daily.

Kakkedai. odour characteristic. and pulp separated and dried. Garmalo Amaltas Aragvadha. Fabaceae). .10. sticky. Vyadhigata. Rajataru Kriyangal Phali Konna. It grows in Ku¼iµci. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. Garamala. Ita¾i (ÞîN). fruits collected when pods are ripe and black. Mullai and Marutham thi¸ai. common throughout India as wild or cultivated plant. (Fam. a moderate sized deciduous tree. SARAKKONDRAI PULI (FRUIT PULP) CARAKKOÜÞAI PUßI (Fruit Pulp) . Kirut¡malam (A¼î£ñô‹) Sonaroo Sondala Indian laburnum. Purging cassia Garamala. Kritamlam Bahava. Ko¸¸ai (ªè£‡¬í). Samopaka. septa and pieces of pericarp) of Cassia fistula L.2. Kakke.2. Nrpadruma Rela Khiyar Shambar Pulp dark brown. Amaltas Sunari Amaltas Aragvadha. Kakkemara. Appendix 31 2. Kakke-gida.êó‚ªè£¡¬ø ¹O Carakkoº¼ai Pu½i is the pulp of fruit (devoid of seeds. Krtamala. sweet and mucilaginous. somewhat disagreeable. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Pulp shows oval to polygonal thin walled parenchyma cells and lignified stone cells.

acidified with dilute hydrochloric acid and then extracted with diethyl ether (3 x 25 ml). and scanned densitometrically at 434 nm. Calibration curve 10 µl of the standard solutions (100 to 350 ng per spot) are applied on a TLC plate. Filtered.5: 0.3. on a boiling water bath. The plate is developed with the solvent system in twin trough chamber to a distance of 8 cm.5: 2. 2. thickness Solvent system Petroleum ether (40-60º): Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (7. Appendix 15 per cent. cooled.2 mm. pooled the filtrates and concentrated the extract and made up the volume to 25 ml with methanol.1). The plate is developed in the solvent system and the peak area is recorded as described above for the calibration curve. 1 gm. of the powdered drug is extracted with 25 ml of 0.7. Appendix 2.01N Potassium hydroxide for 1 hr. The peak areas are recorded and the calibration curve is obtained by plotting peak area vs concentration of rhein applied.6.01N Methanolic potassium hydroxide (3 x 25 ml) under reflux on a water bath. The solution is filtered.Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive ASSAY Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 6 per cent.2.4. Further dilution is made by pipetting 2. Standard solution 5 mg of rhein is dissolved in 5 ml of 0.2. The combined ether layer is evaporated to dryness and 32 .2. Test solution 1 g of powdered drug is extracted with 0. TLC densitometric estimation of rhein TLC plates Aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E.5 ml into a 25 ml volumetric flask and making up the final volume to 25 ml with Methanol. T. 2. 2.2. From this stock solution standard solutions of 10 to 35 µg/ml are prepared by transferring aliquots (1 to 3.5 ml) of stock solution to 10 ml volumetric flasks and adjusting the volume to 10 ml with Methanol. Estimation of rhein in the drug 10 µl of the test solution is applied in triplicate on a TLC plate.14 in the samples analyzed.L.01 N Methanolic potassium hydroxide in a volumetric flask. Appendix 46 per cent. The percentage of rhein ranges from 0.07 to 0. Merck) 0. Appendix 1 per cent. The amount of rhein present in the sample is calculated from the calibration curve of rhein.C.

25.8 g 33 . 0. T. rhein marker) and 0. 0. Merck) 0. galactomannan. 0.dissolved in 25 ml of Methanol. 0.2) shows under UV light (254 nm) seven spots at Rf. tryptophan. N¢rmu½½ik Ku·in¢r (c˜ºœO‚ °®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES Ku·al Vali (°ì™ õL). glucose.76 (purple. Malakka··u (ñô‚膴). 0.37 (light blue).hydroxy-8.L.8:0. procyanidin-B-2.67 (all light brown) and 0. (+) catechin.58 (fluorescent blue). Neruµcik Ku·in¢r (ªï¼…C‚ °®c˜).76 (greenish yellow. 0. epicatechin and its derivatives.76 (rhein marker).8 (9) -en-15-one. of the solution on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F 254 (E.methoxy. 0.24. sucrose.C. phenylalanine. Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷) DOSE . 0.25 (green).17 (blue). CONSTITUENTS Fistulic acid.51. aspartic acid. methionine. leucine.10. thickness using Toluene: Ethyl acetate : Formic acid : Methanol (3:3: 0. Under UV light. 0. On spraying with 5 percent ethanolic potassium hydroxide shows six spots at Rf. rhein marker). glutamic acid.55.69 and 0.formyl-1. 0. 0. (366 nm) shows seven spots at Rf.anthraquinone. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Pu½ippu (¹OŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : N¢rmalamp°kki (c˜ñô‹«ð£‚A). 0.2 mm.38. 3.48 (light blue). 3ß.62.86 (green). 0.11.21. 0.hydroxy-17norpimer. 0.Powder 4 . fructose. 0. Pu¾uvaka¼¼i (¹¿õèŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Karu¸ai I½akam (輬í Þ÷è‹). 0. argenine. rhein.

phloem in form of patches 34 .5 cm. Mamsi. odour strongly aromatic. high.11. SADAMANJIL (RHIZOME) CAÚËMËØCIL (Rhizome) . Jata jatila Jatamamsi Sumbul-ut-teeb b) Microscopic Transverse section of rhizome shows cork consisting of 2 to 5 layers of cells filled with oil globules. P£tak®ciºi Jatamansi.It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. jatamansi grandiflora DC. Jatamangshi Jatamamsi Nardus root Baalchad. which are skeletons of sheathing leaf bases. Ca·ilai (ꮬô). Paic¡ci (¬ðê£C). Valerianaceae). found in the subalpine Himalayas from Punjab to Sikkim and Bhutan at altitudes of 3000 to 5000 m . long. Syn. 2. fracture brittle. Jatamanchi Jatamansi Jatamansi Billilotan. N.5 to 7. slightly bitter. cortex characterized by the presence of schizogenous canals. covered with reddish-brown fibres forming a net work.êì£ñ£…C™ Ca·¡m¡µcil is the dried rhizome of Nardostachys grandiflora DC. Ganagila maste Bhutijata Manchi. cylindrical. an erect perennial herb. internal colour reddish-brown. Chharguddi Jatamansi. taste acrid. Ca·¡m¡µci (êì£ñ£…C).(Fam. 10 to 60 cm. SYNONYMS Tamil : (Ìî«èCQ) Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried rhizome dark brown. Kalichad Balchara Bhootajata. Balchhar.

0. 0.2. TLC of Petroleum Ether (40-60°C) extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' precoated plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (7:3). cambium ring distinct and continuous. 240ºC.58. 5 per cent.10. Appendix 2.69.2.resin cells with resinous matter and oil globules.C. 0. 35 . 5 per cent. (3. patchouli alcohol.endesrol.of small cells.2. jatamanshic acid. seychellen. 2 per cent. jatamansone. xylem consists of vessels. jatamol A and B. α. 240ºC. v/wAppendix 2. seychelane.3. oroselol. 0. on exposure to iodine vapours shows six spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.carene.48 (grey).9%) with valeranone as marker Column Oven temperature Injector temperature Detector (FID) temperature Carrier gas (N2) : : : : : OV-1 Chrom W (80 -100). 0.69(indigo blue). norseychelanone. angelicin.β. 3. shows cork cells. 0. SS. 9 per cent. virolin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than Volatile oil Not less than ASSAY 5 per cent. α & β . β. 0. fragments of vessels with scalariform thickening. Appendix 2.6. Appendix 2. nardostachysin.95 (all yellow).77. parenchyma and oleo. tissues in between the strands usually non-functional except for the cork cells which act as storage organ for oil globule.95 (violet). nardostachone. On spraying with Anisaldehyde -Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf.48.4. completely or incompletely separating the rhizome into four to nine vascular strands by joining outer cork. Powder: Dark brown.77 (orange). each separated strand encircled by a few layers of cork cell consisting of an outer cortex zone followed by two or more functional vascular bundles. x 3. tracheids and a few linear fibres. IDENTITY. CONSTITUENTS Jatamansin. nardol. narostachone. elemol.pinene.8 kg/cm2) T. Programmed from 180 -220ºC at a rate of 10ºC/min.L. jatmansinol.58 (blue). older rhizomes show one or more stellate shaped rings of interxylary and medullary cork.82 and 0. actinidine.7.1 per cent.2.2m..2. Appendix 2.82 (light violet) and 0.2mm. 0. 0. scattered individually or in rows of two or three vessels with scalariform thickening. Appendix 2. spirojatamol. GC profile of volatile oil (yield upto 1.2.2.patchoulenes.

36 . Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Cir°p¡ra Niv¡ra¸at Tailam (C«ó£ð£ó Gõ£óíˆ ¬îô‹).Powder 500 mg . Mayaºat Tailam (ñòùˆ ¬îô‹). Iµci C£ra¸am (Þ…C Åóí‹).PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) . Noccit Tailam (ªï£„Cˆ ¬îô‹). T£kkamiºmai (É‚èI¡¬ñ). U·al C £·u (àì™ Å´) DOSE . Nanthi Me¾uku (ï‰F ªñ¿°). Icivaka¼¼i (ÞCõèŸP). Ilaku Cantaº¡thi Tailam (Þô ° ê‰îù£F ¬îô‹). T¡½ic¡thi C£ra¸am (î£Oê£F Åóí‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Ku··am (°†ì‹).10 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP). Pur¡¸a Curam (¹ó£í ²ó‹). K¡rppu (dried) (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).1 g Decoction 30. Mak¡ Ól¡thi Ku½ikai (ñè£ ãô£F °O¬è).50 ml twice daily. 5 . U¼akkamu¸·¡kki (àø‚躇죂A).

It is mainly grown in Tamil Nadu. externally greenish-brown sometimes marked with small irregular dark brown patches or minute dark points and lines slightly furrowed reticulately. Jaiphal . (Fam. now found under cultivation in India. long and about 20 mm. native of Moluccas. Jaykai. It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. Kerala. and the kernel is collected for the market. about 10-20 m high. a small light-coloured area at one end indicated the position of the radicle.ê£F‚裌 C¡thikk¡y is the dried endosperm (kernel) of the seed of Myristica fragrans Houtt.12. Andhra Pradesh and Assam. The seed is cracked to remove shell. Myristicaceae). Jatisasya Jajikaya Jauzbuwa. a thin layer of perisperm with infoldings appearing as dark ruminations surrounding the abundant greyish-brown endosperm. taste pungent and aromatic. small with two widely spreading crumpled cotyledons and a small radicle. odour strong and aromatic. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Kernel ellipsoid. Jaitri Nutmeg Jaiphala. Kanivish Jaiphala. Jaidikai Jafal Jatika Jaiphal Jaiphal Jaiphal Jatiphala. 20 to 30 mm. in an irregular cavity. embryo. a groove runs along the line of raphe to the darker chalaza at the opposite end. 37 J¡thikk¡y (ü£F‚裌). dioecious or occasionally monoecious aromatic tree. Jayfar Jaiphal Jadikai. Kulakk¡y (°ô‚裌) Jaiphal. SATHIKKAI (KERNEL) CËTHIKKËY (Kernel) . broad.

0.26. 0.22. containing numerous simple.3.44 (both pink).18. with upto about 10 components usually 2 to 8.39.14(both pinkish brown). 0. 0. with thin brown walls.31( both pinkish brown). 0. infolding into the tissue of the endosperm to form the ruminations containing numerous.51 (pinkish brown).57 (pinkish red).74.10 T. 0. 0. of the Alcoholic extract on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F 254 (E. 0. large celled. 0. containing a rhombic protein crystal upto 12 µm and small aleurone grains with less regular crystalloids.C. rounded and compound starch grains. 0.C. CONSTITUENTS Dimeric phenylpropanoids I-VI.12.12.12.62. 0. parenchymatous with occasional tannin idioblasts. Appendix 2.57. upto 20 µm in diameter present. 3 per cent. Merck) 0. a few cells containing oil globules and a few aleurone grains. inner layer of perisperm of thin-walled parenchyma about 40 µm thick.48 and 0.b) Microscopic Transverse section of endosperm shows peripheral perisperm of several layers of strongly flattened. or containing prismatic crystals. On spraying with Anisaldehyde . myricetin. most of the cells with crystalline fat and often a large aleurone grain in each cell. 0.86 (brown).2. 0.95 (all yellow). endosperm. individual grains.2. 0. measuring upto 20 µm in diameter having 2 to10 components. of shrivelled and collapsed parenchyma. 38 . Powder: Brown. embryo.18 (grey). 0. 0.89 and 0. vascular strands in the peripheral region with numerous small spiral vessels.2.2.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105ºC seventeen spots appear at Rf. a few cells of endosperm containing brown contents. essential oil and fixed oil.44. Appendix 2. 0.78 (violet).26.74 (both brown).2. 0. Appendix 2.7. 1 per cent.6. 0. shows fragments of endosperm cells containing prismatic crystals and starch grains.L.34. 11 per cent. 0. very large oil cells with brown cell walls.44.2.2. 0.L. Appendix 2. 0. oval to rounded. starch grains numerous. 0. On exposure to iodine vapours eleven spots appear at Rf.2 mm. 0. 0. polyhedral cells with brown contents.8 5 per cent v/w Appendix 2.4.84 (pinkish violet).2. thickness using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) in visible light shows five spots at Rf.31 0. 0.95 (both greyish violet).5 per cent.50 (all yellow). 7 per cent.34 (violet).18 (both light yellow). Appendix 2. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than Ether -soluble extractive Not less than Volatile oil Not less than T. 0. 0. 0. oily.84 and 0. 25 per cent v/w Appendix 2. 0.

Irumal (Þ¼ñ™).1g 39 .Powder 500 mg . N¡½pa··a Ka¾iccal (ð†ì èN„ê™). Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS A¿·apayiravak Ku½ikai (ÜwìðJóõ‚ °O¬è). Vintukku¼aivu (M‰¶‚°¬ø¾) DOSE . Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). Iraippu (Þ¬óŠ¹). Ma¸am£··i (ñí͆®). Kap¡·a M¡tthirai (èð£ì ñ£ˆF¬ó) THERAPEUTIC USES Pacitt¢kku¼aivu (ðCˆb‚°¬ø¾). K¡mamperukki (è £ñ‹ªð¼‚A). Carapu´ka Vilv¡ti I½akam (êó¹ƒè M™õ£F Þ÷è‹). Peru´ka¾iccal (ªð¼ƒèN„ê™). M£rccaiyu¸·¡kki (͘„¬ê»‡ì£‚A). K£rmai (جñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP).PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : K¡rppu (裘Š¹). Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A). Ilaku Cantaº¡thi Tailam (Þô° ê‰îù£F ¬îô‹). C¡mpir¡¸ipp£ Pata´kam (꣋Hó £EŠÌ ðîƒè‹).

a perennial climber found throughout tropical India. drug is collected during summer preferably in the month of May.6 to 5 cm. SYNONYMS Tamil : Amirtavalli (ÜI˜îõ™L). matured pieces of stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.13. C°mavalli («ê£ñõ™L). inner zone of thin walled colourless.) Miers. Madhuparni. older ones show a light brown surface marked with warty protuberances due to circular lenticels. transversely smoothened surface shows a radial structure with conspicuous medullary rays traversing porous tissues. b) Microscopic Transverse section of stem shows outermost layer of cork. Guducika. tangentially 40 . Amrtavalli. It grows in Ku¼iµci. in diameter. C¢nthil Ko·i (Y‰F™ ªè£®). Gilo Malayalam : Chittamrutu Marathi : Gulvel Oriya : Guluchi Punjabi : Gilo Sanskrit : Guduci. Menispermaceae). young stems green with smooth surfaces and swelling at nodes. Gurcha Kannada : Amrutaballi Kashmiri : Amrita. Amrta.Y‰F™  C¢nthil Tha¸·u is the dried. Caµc¢vi (ê… YM). taste bitter. differentiating into outer zone of thick-walled brownish and compressed cells. Amutavalli (ܺîõ™L). Amariat Bengali : Gulancha Gujrati : Galac. SEENTHIL THANDU (STEM) CÌNTHIL THAÛÚU (Stem) . Garo Hindi : Giloe. (Fam. Marutham and Neythal thi¸ai. drug is used in fresh form also. Mullai. Ku¸·ali (°‡ìL) Assamese : Siddhilata. Chinnodbhava Telugu : Thippateega Urdu : Gilo DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs in pieces of varying thickness ranging from 0.

Appendix 2.2.arranged 3 to 4 rows of cells. shows cork cells. or irregularly ovoid-elliptical. some large vessels possess several tyloses and often contain transverse septa. Total Ash Not more than 16 per cent. IDENTITY. simple.2. Appendix 2. On spraying with Anisaldehyde . starch grains of 6 to 13 µm in diameter and 6 to 11µm in length. phloem consists of sieve tubes.2. parenchyma and fibres. Appendix T. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH For dry drug: Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. pericyclic fibres lignified with wide lumen and pointed ends.L. polygonal in shape and filled with plenty of starch grains. in primary xylem. parenchyma cells. 2. several secretory cells found scattered in the cortex. cambium composed of one or two layers of tangentially elongated cells in each vascular bundle. associated with a large number of crystal fibres containing a single prism in each chamber. 2. ovoid. cork broken at some places due to opening of lenticels. thin-walled cells mostly containing starch grains. vascular zone composed of 10 to 12 or more wedgeshaped strips of xylem. vessels comparatively narrow devoid of tyloses.C. hemispherical. followed by 5 or more rows of secondary cortex of which the cells of outer rows smaller than the inner one. cortical cells situated towards inner side. starch grains simple. medullary rays 15 to 20 or more cells wide containing rounded. fragments of vessels with bordered pits.2. oval to rounded with faintly marked concentric striations and central hilum. vessels cylindrical in shape bearing bordered pits on their walls. oblong. fibres. Powder: Yellowish-cream.6. measuring 6 to 13 µm in diameter. of Chloroform soluble part of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform : Methanol (9:1). 2.4.2. alternating with wide medullary rays.C. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 11 per cent. Appendix For fresh drug: Foreign matter Nil. outer zone of cortex consists of 3 to 5 rows of irregularly arranged. secondary xylem elements thick-walled.L. xylem consists of vessels. just within the opening of lenticels. tangentially elongated chlorenchymatous cells.3.2.2.9 T. 2.2.7. groups of sclereids consisting of 2 to 10 cells found in secondary cortex region. occasionally compound of 2 to 4 components.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating 41 . Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 3 per cent. some of them contain crystals of calcium oxalate. tracheids. with faintly marked concentric striations and central hilum appearing like a point. pith composed of large. lignified. companion cells and phloem parenchyma of polygonal or tangentially elongated cells. 2. variously shaped. ovoid. crystal fibres containing prisms of calcium oxalate. externally surrounded by semi-circular strips of phloem.2 Moisture content 75 percent.

58 (violet).26 (violet).19 (violet). Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A).(α 4 . C¢nthil Ney (Y‰F™ ªïŒ).97 (all pinkish violet). Kayan°y (èò«ï£Œ). U·a¼t®¼¼i (à쟫îŸP). U½½a¾al¡¼¼i (àœ÷öô£ŸP).65 (violet). 0.88. Ku··am (°†ì‹). magnoflorium. 0. gilosterol. M®kam («ñè‹).tinosporal and amritoside A. K¡mamperukki (è£ñ‹ªð¼‚A).for five minutes at 105°C shows eight spots at Rf.30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction 42 . Mu¼aiveppaka¼¼i (º¬øªõŠðèŸP). 0. tinosporaside.B. Kapacurak Ku·in¢r (èð²ó‚ °®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES Co¼i (ªê£P).Powder 3 . Curam/K¡yccal (²ó‹/裌„ê™). giloin. 20 .5 g Decoction 30. 0. tinosporide. chasmanthin. K¡yaka¼pam¡kki (è£òèŸðñ£‚A).84 (violet). 0. tinosporic acid. columbin. 3. tinosporin. Kuruti A¾al (°¼F Üö™). CONSTITUENTS Diterpenoid furanolactone.50 ml twice daily. Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®). gilenin.dihydroxy-3-methoxy benzyl) 4-(4-hydroxy-3medoxybenzy1) tetra-hydrofuran. 0. P¢ºicam (dQê‹) DOSE . 0. palmaria. Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS C¢nthil C£ra¸am (Y‰F™ Åóí‹).C and D.93 and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).

tapering at ends and slightly compressed laterally. Jirun Hindi : Jira. long stalk in compound umbels. about 4 to 6 mm. Marutham and Neythal thi¸ai. dried and threshed for collecting mature fruits. Tella jilakarra Urdu : Zirah. 43 . odour umbelliferous.Yóè‹ C¢rakam is the ripe fruit of Cuminum cyminum L. brown with light coloured ridges. Pitthan¡ciºi (Hˆîï£CQ). taste richly spicy. high. ellipsoidal. characteristic. Sadajira English : Cumin seed. Jiru. Jira Punjabi : Safed jira. a cremocarp. (Fam. Ajajika Telugu : Jilakarra. elongated. Ajaji. 2 mm. Jiraka. alternating with 4 secondary ridges which are flatter and bear conspicuous emergences. plants pulled out. wide.14. Chitta jira Sanskrit : Sveta jiraka. flowers very small. Dalajira. Safed jira Kannada : Jirage. Jiraugi. Zirasafed DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit. Bilejirege Kashmiri : Safed Zoor Malayalam : Jeerakam Marathi : Pandhare jire Oriya : Dhalajeera. often separated into mericarps. about 38 mm. glabrous. Jeeru. mostly cultivated in plains. P °caºaku·°ri («ð£êù°«ì£K) Assamese : Jira Bengali : Jira. SYNONYMS Tamil : Acai (ܬê). Apiaceae). annual herb.It grows in Mullai. white. seeds orthospermous. mericarps with 5 longitudinal hairy primary ridges from base to apex. Cumin Gujrati : Jirautmi. SEERAGAM (FRUIT) CÌRAKAM (Fruit) . a small slender. long. 30 to 90 cm. Na¼c¢rakam (ïŸYóè‹).

26.4 . 0.þ . 0. 0. Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH). glycosides of luteolin and apigenin.C.6.26 (both violet).15. 1. Appendix 1 per cent. bristle hairs that are multicellular and multiseriate on ridges.3 . tabular cells densely covered with short. On spraying with Anisaldehyde.2.menthadien -7-al.dihydroxy flavone.73 (violet) and 0. sclerenchymatous cells of the mesocarp. 0. 7-1(O-β-D-galalacturonide) -4-(1-O-β-D.09.menthadien -7-al.b) Microscopic Transverse section of fruit shows epidermis consisting of short polygonal. 0. Powder: Brownish-yellow. 0. Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®). endosperm cells containing oil globules.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. of Dichloromethane extractive of the Alcohol extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Dichloromethane. CONSTITUENTS Cuminaldehyde. T. aleurone grains. Appendix 8 per cent.L. on exposure to iodine vapours shows six spots at Rf.4.C. shows fragments of vittae. β-pinene. 2. fragments of multiserial hairs.2. ϒterpinene.glucopyranosyl)-3. mesocarp with a few layers of parenchyma and five vascular bundles under five primary ridges.5.2. Appendix 7 per cent.þ-cymene. 0.þ . IDENTITY. K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°).55 and 0. 2 per cent. cuminin.2. small rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.55(grey).05. K£rmai (جñ). Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) 44 .94 (all yellow).1. Appendix 15 per cent.15. Appendix 2.3. 0.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. four on dorsal and two on commissural surface. carpophore consists of slender fibres. 2. 2. six vittae under secondary ridges.94 (violet).31 (pink). 0. 2.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹). endocarp consists of polygonal cells containing fixed oil and aleurone grains. 0.2. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP).7.

C¢takka¾iccal (Yî‚èN„ê™). Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹) DOSE . Mayili¼ak¡thi C£ra¸am (ñJLøè£F Åóí‹). Kalla·aippu (è™ô¬ìŠ¹). K¡m¡lai (è£ñ£¬ô).Powder 1 . Pittacurak Ku·in¢r (Hˆî²ó‚ °®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES A¾al N°yka½ (Üö™ «ï£Œèœ). C¢rakat Tailam (Yóèˆ ¬îô‹). Ìral N°y (ßó™ «ï£Œ). C¢rakac C£ra¸am (Yóè„ Åóí‹). Paµcat¢p¡kkiºi C£ra¸am (ð…êbð£‚AQ Åóí‹). K®cari I½akam («èêK Þ÷è‹).5 g 45 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS A¿·¡thic C£ra¸am (Üwì£F„ Åóí‹).

.Shows 5 to 20 rows of tangentially elongated and radially arranged cork cells. Ajasrngi Podapatri b) Microscopic Root . generally tetra seriate. a large woody. secondary cortex a wide zone consisting of oval to polygonal cells somewhat irregular in shape and moderately thick walled.2 to 1. companion cells and phloem parenchyma.0 cm. Br. external surface dark brown and cut surface showing a core cream in colour. in thickness. single or 2 to 7 in radial groups and dispersed throughout the xylem region. thick walled.15.CÁ°P…꣡ «õ˜ Ci¼uku¼iµc¡º is the root of Gymnema sylvestre R. long and 0. uni or multi seriate. SIRUKURINJAN (ROOT) CIÞUKUÞIØCËÜ VÓR (Root) . vessels simple pitted. groups of oval to elongated. (Fam. medullary rays prominent. fracture splintery. Mullai . taste bitter and acrid. Madhunasini. with pubescent young parts. extending from primary xylem to secondary phloem. SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Sanskrit : Telugu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Tap root branched. 46 . fibres long with tapering ends and wide lumen. secondary xylem consists of usual lignified elements. It grows in Ku¼iµci. Cakkaraikkolli (ê‚è¬ó‚ªè£™L) Medhasingi Periploca of the woods Kaavalee. Medhasinge Gudmaar. Madhunaashini Kaavalee. much branched. occasionally cultivated. corky. rough. Marutham and Neythal thi¸ai. with mostly large and a few small rosette crystals and starch grains. soft and nodulose pieces. Asclepiadaceae). longitudinally fissured. secondary phloem composed of sieve tubes. climber. Medhaasingee Kadhasige Cakkarakkolli. 2 to 7 cm. odour unpleasant. lignified sclereids with clear striations and narrow lumen present in cortex and phloem region. Medhaashingi Mesasrngi. primary xylem diarch. found throughout India in dry forests upto 600 m. filled with rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and a few simple or compound starch grains.

Va½iccuram (õO„²ó‹). 0.4. measuring 5 to 11 µm in diameter.6. 0.2.2. V¡ntiyu¸·¡kki (õ£‰F»‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Ma¸·£r¡ti A·aikku·in¢r (ñ‡Çó£F ܬ산®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES Iraippu (Þ¬óŠ¹). PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°).2. 0. 0.2.2. 2.2. 0. Appendix 1 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.L. Appendix 6 per cent. N ¢ri¾ivu (cKN¾) DOSE .C. 2.C.068. simple and compound starch grains. Irumal (Þ¼ñ™). 0.87 (violet) and 0. eight spots at Rf. 2.48 (grey). Appendix 5 per cent.95 (pink). 2 per cent. of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethylacetate: Methanol (5:5:2) as mobile phase shows on spraying with Anisaldehyde. Appendix 2. IDENTITY.Powder 1 .Powder: Light yellow. polygonal. groups of sclereids. simple pitted fibres. thin walled parenchymatous cells.7.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105ºC until the colour develops. Appendix 14 per cent. 0.3. vessels.L. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP). Naµcuka½ (ï…²èœ). 2.25 (violet). T.2 g 47 .80.57 (pink).17 (brown). large and a few small rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. shows thick walled cork cells.

30 -50 g powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction.Decoction 30.50 ml twice daily. 48 .

30 to 60 cm. densely pubescent on both surfaces. It grows in Marutham and Neythal thi¸ai.Nearly cylindrical. greenish-white.) Juss. Stem . fracture granular. an erect or prostrate branched herb. Amaranthaceae). Bhadra Telugu : Pindichettu. bracteolate.Tap-root. Leaf . acute. fracture fibrous and hard.16. stigma bifid. reticulate veined.0 to 2. in thickness and about 25 cm. broad. Goraksaganja. stamen 5. laterally branched.YÁd¬÷ êÍô‹ C¢¼up¢½ai Cam£lam is the whole plant of Aerva lanata (L. Ka¸p¢½ai (è‡d¬÷). unilocular with campylotropous ovule. SIRUPEELAI SAMULAM (WHOLE PLANT) CÌÞUPÌßAI CAMÍLAM (Whole Plant) . opposite to perianth. Flower .8 cm. SYNONYMS Tamil : Ci¼uka¸p¢½ai (CÁè‡d¬÷). long and 1. shortly petiolate. elliptic-orbicular or ovate. lamina 2. branching alternate. external surface shows slight ridges and furrows. alternate.6 cm. cylindrical. up to 0. Kanda Pindi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root . margin entire. found throughout India as a common weed in fields and in waste lands. in height. opposite. cut surface white.5 cm.Minute cluster as axillary spike. anthers 2 lobed. 49 . (Fam. externally light brown and rough but cut surface white and smooth.0 to 1. superior ovary. Kumrapindee Punjabi : Bhuikallan Sanskrit : Pattura. ex Schult.Simple. Ka¼p®ti (蟫ðF). hairy and light brown in colour. bisexual. P¡¿¡¸ap®ti (ð£û£í«ðF) Bengali : Chaya Gujrati : Gorakhganjo Hindi : Gorakhaganja Kannada : Bilihindisoppu Malayalam : Cherupila Marathi : Kapurphutee. perianth 5. long pieces. actinomorphic.

upper 2 or 3 layers filled with brownish content. trichomes multicellular present on both surfaces. Seed . phloem consisting of sieve tubes.Shows single layered epidermis covered with cuticle. trichomes multicellular. anomalous secondary growth present. medullary bundles present. end cells pointed or vesicular. palisade 1 or 2 layers. taste pungent. vascular bundles 3 in number. spongy parenchyma 3 to 5 layers composed of thin walled parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.Fruit . a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in spongy parenchyma. shows straight walled epidermal cells. pith wide consisting of circular to polygonal having intercellular spaces. upper collenchymatous and lower parenchymatous. in dia. tracheids. phloem consists of sieve tubes. polished. 2 accessory and one middle. vascular bundle collateral and 3 in number. similar to those in petiole. secondary cortex a wide zone consisting of circular to oval. elliptical. vessels circular to oval having simple pits.A greenish. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region. endodermis single layered.7 cm. b) Microscopic Root . vessels round to oval having simple pits. thin walled and parenchymatous. thin walled parenchymatous cells.Shows 5 to 7 layers of cork cells. vein -islet number 4 or 5 per square mm. corresponding to ridges and furrows. xylem towards the upper and phloem towards lower epidermis. compressed membranous. tracheids. cuticle and trichomes. cork cells. Powder: Yellowish-green. upper 3 collenchymatous and lower 3 or 4 circular.Epidermis. xylem composed of vessels. secondary xylem and phloem tissues in form of 3 or 4 alternating rings. roundish. with a few cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. 50 . thin walled and parenchymatous. elongated. cortex consisting of 2 or 3 layers. anomalous secondary growth present. cortex 5 to 7 layers. most of the cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vascular bundles arranged in 2 or 3 rings showing included phloem alternating with parenchymatous tissue. simple pitted vessels.Shows slightly wavy outline. pericycle present in the form of a ring. cuticle and trichomes similar as in petiole and midrib. xylem consists of vessels. pith cells circular in shape containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in this region. Lamina . Leaf Petiole . black. palisade ratio 2 or 3. 0.Seed minute.Epidermis. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical cells. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. pericycle present in the form of interrupted ring of pericyclic fibres. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. anomocytic stomata present on both surfaces. Stem . rest of the cells oval to elongated. cortex 6 or 7 layers with 3 or 4 layers below ridges being collenchymatous and 3 or 4 layers below furrows chlorenchymatous. tracheids. lenticular. epidermis single layered covered with thick cuticle. wood fibres and xylem parenchyma.. warty and thick walled. endodermis not distinct.5 to 0. Midrib . fibres and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. utricle or circumscissile capsule with a coriaceous upper part or lid and containing a single seed. fibres and xylem parenchyma. stomatal index on upper surface 12 to 15 and on lower surface 16 to 18. single or groups of 2 to 4 fibres. multicellular trichomes and anomocytic stomata in surface view.

of the Alcoholic extract on silica 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Methanol (5:5:2) as mobile phase shows under UV (366 nm) ten fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. Appendix 2 per cent. Appendix 2 per cent. aervine. rhamnose and sucrose. 2. 16dioxymethyl ester. 0.L. 0. 0.L.97 (dark red). 6'' di-p-coumaroyl) flavone.82 (pink). Perump¡·u (ªð¼‹ð£´).kaempferol-3-rhamno galactoside. 0. kaempferol.2. kaempferol-3-galactoside.73 (sky blue). aervolonine.94 (all violet) and 0. 0. galactose.94 (red) and 0. Kuruti V¡nti (°¼F õ£‰F).37. 0. 3-glu (4''. 0. methylaervine.coumaroyl) flavone.51 (sky blue). 4'-methoxy. stigmasterol acetate. 2.91 (red). 3-glu (6''-coumaroyl) flavone.3. 2 per cent. On spraying with Anisaldehyde. 0. olean-12-en-28-oic acid-3.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.0. stigmasterol. 0. 3-glu (6''p. Ka¼karaicci (èŸè¬ó„C) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Kallu·aikku·°ri (虽¬ì‚°«ì£K). 0. the plate shows ten spots at Rf.92 and 0. β-amyrin.6.87 (sky blue). CONSTITUENTS β-sitosterol. betulin. T. Appendix 11 per cent.85.0. Ka¾iccal (èN„ê™).23.2.4.27 (red). 3-glu (4''. campesterol. chrysin. β-sitosterol palmitate.2. 0. ergosterol.2. Appendix 17 per cent. 3'-methoxy flavone. 0. free sugars-fructose. hentriacontane.11.IDENTITY. aervoside. 0.61.11 (sky blue).47 (red).7. 2. Na¸·ukkal Pa¼pam (‚è™ ðŸð‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Cataiya·aippu (ê¬îò¬ìŠ¹).C. V¢kkam (i‚è‹) 51 . lupeol. Appendix 2.C.73.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105ºC until the colour develops. K£rmai (جñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). daucosterol.97 (dark violet).51. N¢rcurukku (c˜²¼‚°). 0. Kalla·aippu (è™ô¬ìŠ¹). α-amyrin. 6'' di-p-coumaroyl) flavone.2. 2.

Powder 5 -10 g Decoction 15. 15 . 52 .30 ml twice daily.DOSE .30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction.

1 or 2 m.officinale All. native of southern Europe and Asia cultivated extensively throughout India upto 1830 m. glabrous. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Acai (ܬê).17. orthospermous. fruits ripen in September. F. (Fam. Mullai. endosperm. tapering slightly towards base and apex. when dry. an erect. mericarps. Madhurika Sopu Saunf Fruits. Parinjaeragum Badishop Panamadhuri Saunf Misreya. 53 . Doddasompu Sanuf. cleaned by winnowing and collected. five sided with a wider commissural surface. greenish or yellowish-brown with five paler prominent primary ridges. aromatic herb.. Apiaceae). Acuvakanthi (ܲõè‰F) Guvamuri Marui. Syn. long and 4 mm. F. Panmauri Fennel fruit Variyali Saunf Badisompu. upto about 10 mm. glabrous. and also sometimes found wild. Badnai Kattusatakuppa. capillaceum Gilib. high. usually entire with pedicel attached. Anethum foeniculum L. broad..«ê£‹¹ C°mpu is the dried ripe fruit of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Misi. It grows in Ku¼iµci. Marutham and Neythal thi¸ai. SOMBU (FRUIT) CÕMPU (Fruit) . fruits are beaten out in a cloth in sun. crowned with a conical stylopod.

VIII. imperatorin.2. 0. 0. fenchone. Appendix 2.β-D-glucopyranoside.34 (red). IDENTITY. Appendix per cent.L.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹). 3'.miyabenol C and its glycosides.27.93 (all violet). 4 dorsal and 2 commissural extending with length of each mericarp. On spraying with Anisaldehyde.anethole. threo. 0. IX. with an epithelium of brown cells and volatile oil in cavity. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than Volatile oil Not less than T. adenosine.2.2. for five minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. zizybeoside I.93 (all yellow). 2. limonene. syringin. cis . each with 1 vascular strand having 1 inner xylem strand and 2 lateral phloem strands separated by a bundle of fibres.31. 0. with much reticulate lignified parenchyma. 2. vittae. methyl chavicol.58 and 0.anethole glycol.2.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate. α. CONSTITUENTS E.6. Appendix 1. often unsplit with two strands very close to each other.20. micro-rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and numerous aleurone grains upto 5 µm in diameter. 2 12 15 4 1 per cent. thin-walled cells arranged parallel to one another in groups of 5 to 7. 0. cellulosic parenchyma containing much fixed oil. 0.7. On exposure to iodine vapours six spots appear at Rf. Appendix per cent. many of these groups with longer axis of their cells at an angle with those of adjacent groups (parquetry arrangement). 2.27 (red).31. Appendix per cent.2.2.51(sky blue). thick walled endosperm cells containing aleurone grains.12. 2.O. mesocarp. K¡rppu (裘Š¹) 54 . 0. costae 5 in each mericarp. 0.27.4. Powder: Greenish yellow. shows lignified and reticulate parenchyma.pinene.C.04 (blue). of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) v/v shows five spots (UV light 366 nm) at Rf. 0.L. 0. absent. endosperm consists of thick-walled. synapyl alcohol. bergapten.10 T.0. xanthotoxol.anethole glycol and erythro. miyabenol C. with characteristic aroma. 0. Appendix per cent.2. icaviside A. endocarp cells showing a parquetry arrangement and fragments of yellowish brown vittae.37 and 0. trichomes. 2. 0.3.di. 1.4 per cent.20.41 (sky blue) and 0. carpophore with very thick-walled sclerenchyma in two strands. inner epidermis of very narrow.b) Microscopic Transverse section of fruit shows pericarp with outer epidermis of quadrangular to polygonal cells with smooth cuticle and a few stomata. minute rosettes of calcium oxalate and oil globules. VII. foeniculosides VI. intercostal.

N¡kkupp£cci(Kolli) Ku·in¢r (°ŠÌ„C(ªè£™L) °®c˜). Neruµcik Ku·in¢r (ªï¼…C‚ °®c˜).Powder 1 . Iraippu (Þ¬óŠ¹).3 g 55 .Gu¸am V¢rium Pirivu Ceykai : : : : Ilaku (Þô°). Va¼a·ci (õø†C) Veppam (ªõŠð‹) K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP). Vali N°y (õL «ï£Œ) DOSE . Ìral N°y (ßó™ «ï£Œ). Kural Kammal (°ó™ è‹ñ™). P¢ºicam (dQê‹). Tamarakak Ku·in¢r (îñóè‚ °®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES Ceriy¡mai (ªêKò£¬ñ). Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS C°mput T¢n¢r («ê£‹¹ˆ bc˜). Irumal (Þ¼ñ™).

externally buff coloured showing longitudinal striations and occasional loose fibres. Visvabhesaja. long. branches on upper side each having at its apex a depressed scar. a wide stele showing numerous scattered fibro56 . Sunti Urdu : Sonth. rhizomes dug in January .18. oblique. wide usually 3 to 4 cm. flattish. ovate. Ginger Gujrati : Sunth. Visva. Sundh. transverse surface exhibiting narrow cortex. (Fam. Ularnta Iµci (àô˜‰î Þ…C).5 cm. Zingiberaceae).²‚° Cukku is the dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. Aadar shuth Bengali : Suntha.5 to 6. 1. buds and roots removed. Suntha Hindi : Sonth Kannada : Shunthi Kashmiri : Shonth Malayalam : Chukku Marathi : Sunth Oriya : Sunthi Punjabi : Sund Sanskrit : Ardraka. Visvausadha Telugu : Sonthi. Zanjabeel DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome. (about one-third of radius) a well-marked endodermis. smooth. Ausadha. fracture short. widely cultivated in India. Sunthi English : Ginger root. V®rkkompu («õ˜‚ªè £‹¹). SUKKU (DRIED RHIZOME) CUKKU (Dried Rhizome) .February. pieces about 5 to15 cm. soaked overnight in water. It grows in Ku¼iµci and Marutham thi¸ai. thick. decorticated and some times treated with lime and dried.5 cm. Mahausadha. and 1 to 1. SYNONYMS Tamil : Cu¸·i (²‡®). Srngavera. Vi·am£·iya Amirtam (MìÍ®ò ÜI˜î‹) Assamese : Adasuth. laterally compressed bearing short.

2.6.L.vascular bundles and yellow secreting cells when examined under 10x lens.50. of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using n-Hexane: Diethyl ether (4:6) v/v shows two spots under (UV light 366 nm) at Rf. Appendix 1. 0. endodermis slightly thick walled. On spraying with Vanillin.5. stele of thin-walled. adjacent to vessels.27 (blackish brown). 0. parenchyma of cortex and stele packed with flattened.67 (brown). also present. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Water soluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. in single or in axial rows. parenchyma cells.3.2. reticulate or spiral vessels upto about 70 µm in diameter. each consisting of a few unlignified.2. shows groups of polygonal thin walled parenchyma cells. thin-walled. 0. 0. free from starch.2. unlignified fibres. Powder: Cream. arranged radially around numerous scattered.C. idioblasts about 8 to 20 µm wide and upto 130 µm long with dark reddish-brown contents. for five minutes at 105°C eight spots appear at Rf. 1 per cent.55.60 (both sky blue).5 per cent.81 (violet) and 0. odour agreeable and aromatic. 0.27. reticulate or spiral thickening. vessels with annular. 0. and associated with vascular bundles. 0. 2. 2. numerous scattered idioblasts. taste agreeable and pungent. Appendix 2. similar those of cortex. T. ovate starch grains upto 60 µm long about 25 µm wide and 7µm thick.94 (violet). about 40 to 80 µm in diameter containing a yellowish to reddish-brown oleo-resin. a group of phloem cells.2.23 (blackish brown). rectangular. about 25 µm wide and 7 ìm thick marked by fine concentric striations.2. b) Microscopic Transverse section of rhizome shows cortex of isodiametric thin-walled parenchyma with scattered vascular strands and numerous isodiametric idioblasts. 0. Appendix 6 per cent. marked by fine concentric striations.0. yellowish to reddish brown oleo-resin cells. 0.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate. IDENTITY.2. Appendix 3 per cent.81 and 0.7. 0.94(all yellow). 0. present.43.60 (brown). collateral vascular bundles.L. 57 .37 (violet).55 and 0. numerous round to oval starch grains upto 60 µm long. 0. Appendix 10 per cent.C.50 (violet). 2. septate fibres upto about 30 µm wide and 600 µm long with small oblique slit like pits present. unlignified.23. immediately inside endodermis a row of nearly continuous collateral bundles usually without fibres. On exposure to iodine vapours seven spots appear at Rf. 0.

Powder 500 mg . gingerdione. hexahydrocurcumin and desmethyl hexahydrocurcumin. and starch. Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Cukku Tailam (²‚° ¬îô‹).1g 58 . lipids. P¡vaºakka·ukk¡y (ð£õù‚贂裌). dihydrogingerol. Paciyiºmai (ðCJ¡¬ñ). Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP). Talaivali (î¬ôõL). Tirika·ukuc C£ra¸am (FKè ´°„ Åóí‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Ceriy¡mai (ªêKò£¬ñ). PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). α -zingiberene. Neµcerippu (ªï… ªêKŠ¹). ß-sesquiphellandrene.CONSTITUENTS Gingerols. ar-curcumene. Ól¡tic C£ra¸aÆ (ãô£F„ Åóí‹). Nilav¡kaic C£ra¸am (Gôõ£¬è„ Åóí‹). waxes. proteins. fats. shogaols. Paµcat¢p¡kkiºi C£ra¸am (ð…êbð£‚AQ Åóí‹). Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹). V¡ta Kuºmam (õ£î °¡ñ‹). Tayircu¸·icc£ra¸am (îJ˜²‡®„Åóí‹). Óppam (ãŠð‹) DOSE . Irumal (Þ¼ñ™). Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®).

Laung Kannada : Lavanga Kashmiri : Rung Malayalam : Karampu. enclosing numerous incurved stamens and 59 . Karayampoovu. ELAVANGAM (FLOWER BUD) ILAVA×KAM (Flower Bud) . dried carefully and separated from their peduncles. (Fam. hypanthium contains in its upper portion a two celled inferior ovary with numerous ovules attached to a axile placenta. Devapuspa Telugu : Lavangalu Urdu : Qarnful. in the months of October and February when they change colour from green to crimson. flower buds collected twice a year.Þôõƒè‹ Ilava´kam is the dried flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai.M.5 mm. SYNONYMS Tamil : Aµcukam (Ü…²è‹). Kir¡mpu (A󣋹). Grampu Marathi : Lavang Oriya : Labanga Punjabi : Laung. surmounted by four thick. dark brown to black. Var¡´kam (õó£ƒè‹) Assamese : Lavang. C°cam («ê£ê‹). Laung DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Flower bud measuring 10 to 17. divergent sepals and covered by unopened corolla consisting of four membranous imbricate petals.19. Lan. Laving Hindi : Lavanga. consisting of a subcylindrical.) Merr. a tree. Myrtaceae). frequently detached. Perry Syn. Tir¡½i (Fó £O). slightly flattened. in length. Long Sanskrit : Lavanga. Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. Eugenia aromatica Kuntze. & L. cultivated in many parts of the world and also to a considerable extent in South India. Long Bengali : Lavang English : Clove Gujrati : Lavang. four sided hypanthium readily exuding oil when pressed.

2. 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than Volatile oil Not less than ASSAY GC Profile GC analysis of volatile oil (yield 16.2.1µl. anther walls showing a typical fibrous layer. 2. 15 to 20 µm in diameter. schizolysigenous oil cavities. 230ºC 240ºC Helium 1. 15 to 20 µm in diameter. pollen grains numerous. schizolysigenous glands found in all parts.2.) with 0. taste pungent. clusters of calcium oxalate crystals varying in size from 6 to 20 µm in diameter. calcium oxalate crystals in rosette aggregates. spindle shaped fibres. 10 to 15 µm in diameter. small number of stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in stalk.2. fragments of parenchyma showing large.3. b) Microscopic Transverse section of hypanthium shows epidermis and calyx teeth composed of straight walled cells. fragments of anther walls with characteristic reticulated cells. oval.one erect-style. Appendix 15 per cent. spiral tracheids and a few rather thick-walled. Appendix per cent. aromatic followed by slight tingling of the tongue. each with an oil gland in the apex of the connective. stamens.4.7%) GC Conditions: Column Oven Temperature Injector temperature Detector temperature Carrier gas Flow rate Injection volume : : : : : : : 2 7 1 3 9 per cent. tetrahedral. Appendix 2.2. x 20 m. Appendix per cent.25 mm.2.10 Fused silica capillary column (0. 60 . Appendix per cent.25mm. with thick cuticle having large anomocytic stomata. 2.5 ml/min. 2.6. 2.2. odour strongly aromatic.7. hypanthium tissue spongy. occasional isolated pericyclic fibre present. triangularly centricular pollen grains. Appendix per cent. 0. Powder: Dark brown. coating of free fatty acid phase (FFAP) Programmed from 90 to 210ºC at 7ºC/min. IDENTITY.

4. 0. Amukkar¡c C£ra¸am (ܺ‚èó£„ Åóí‹).Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate. α-murolene. propyl benzoate. 0. 0. Pal Vali (ð™ õL).82 (red).selinene and eugenine . PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : K¡rppu (裘Š¹).76 (reddish brown).500 mg 61 . 2-hydroxy. Icivaka¼¼i (ÞCõèŸP). 0.C. Ku´kumapp£ M¡ttirai (°ƒ°ñŠÌ ñ£ˆF¬ó).41 (violet). 0. γ-decalacetate. V¡nti (õ£‰F).47 (pinkish violet). eugenol acetate.Powder 200 .3 (12). 0.L. of the Petroleum ether extract on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F 254 (E. 0. α-thujene. Pacitt¢t £¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Amirt¡tik Ku½ikai (ÜI˜î£F‚ °O¬è).T.93 (red) and 0. T. β. CONSTITUENTS Caryophyllene oxide. Merck) 0. Ilava´k¡ti M¡ttirai (Þôõƒè£F ñ£ˆF¬ó). β-caryophyllene.1 % of volatile oil). benzyl salicylate. 6. Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP). Pittamayakkam (Hˆîñò‚è‹) DOSE . α-cardinol. 0. fenchone. methyl palmitate. with Anisaldehyde . hexanal.di-methoxy-5.96. 7 (13) -dien -6 α-al.L. α-humulene and its expoxide. eugenol (77.56 (pink). palustrol.62 (pinkish violet). 6-dien-4-ol . caryophylla . caryophylla -3 (12).29 (pink). Pa¾akkir¡mpu Pakkuva Ve¸¸ey (ðö‚A󣋹 ð‚°õ ªõ‡ªíŒ). for five minutes at 105ºC shows eleven spots appear at Rf.35 (violet).methyl acetophenone.18 (light pink). Vi¼uvi¼uppu (MÁMÁŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°).C. 0. 2-hexanone. V¡¾aippu Va·akam (õ £¬öŠ¹ õìè‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Ka¾iccal (èN„ê™). 0. derivatives of β-caryophyllene. Paciyiºmai (ðCJ¡¬ñ).2 mm thickness using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (8:2). acetophenone.

dull yellowish-brown. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark pieces about 0. a moderate sized evergreen tree usually attaining a height of 6 to 7. ELAVANGA PATTAI (BARK) ILAVA×KAP PAÚÙAI (Bark) . aromatic with sensation of warmth. upto a metre or more in length and upto about 1 cm. Darusita Lavangapatta.20. marked with pale wavy longitudinal lines with occasional small scars or holes..S.5 mm. Darchini Cinnamon bark Dalchini Dalchini Dalchini Chakke Dalchini. striated with longitudinally elongated reticulations. Darchini Tvak. fracture splintery.Presl Syn. Ilavarngathely Dalchini Dalechini. taste sweet. Guda twak Dalchini. Dalchin Karuvapatta. Dalchini Daruchini.zeylanicum Blume (Fam. It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. bark collected during April -July and October -December. in diameter. Karuv¡ppa··ai (è¼õ£Šð†¬ì). inner surface darker in colour. C. thick. outer surface. occurs as single or double. Dalchini chekka Darchini b) Microscopic 62 . closely packed compound quills.5 m. cultivated in the Western Ghats and adjoining hills. Lauraceae).ÞôõƒèŠ ð†¬ì Ilava´kappa·¶ai is the dried inner stem bark of coppiced tree of Cinnamomum verum J. brittle. odour fragrant. Lava´kappa··ai (ôõƒèŠð†¬ì) Dalcheni.

Transverse section of bark (devoid of cork and cortex) shows except at certain places pericyclic sclerenchyma, 3 or 4 rows of isodiametric cells, sometimes tangentially elongated, inner and radial walls often being thicker than the outer, some containing starch grains; small groups of pericyclic fibres embedded at intervals in the sclerenchyma; phloem of tangential bands of sieve tissue alternating with parenchyma, and containing axially elongated secreting cells containing volatile oil or mucilage; phloem fibres with very thick walls, upto 30 µm in diameter, isolated or in short tangential rows; sieve tubes narrow with transverse sieve plates, collapsed in outer periphery; medullary rays of isodiametric cells, mostly 2 cells wide; cortical parenchyma and medullary rays containing small starch grains mostly below 10 µm in diameter; minute acicular crystals of calcium oxalate present. Powder: Dark brown; shows fragments of parenchyma as well as sclerenchyma cells with thicker inner and radial walls; a few pieces of tracheids, fibres; oil globules; numerous small, simple, rounded starch grains measuring 2 to10 µm in diameter; minute acicular crystals of calcium oxalate.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than Volatile oil Not less than T.L.C.

2 3 2 2 3

per cent, Appendix 2.2.2. per cent, Appendix 2.2.3. per cent, Appendix 2.2.4. per cent, Appendix 2.2.6. per cent, Appendix 2.2.7. 1 per cent, v/w Appendix2.2.10

T.L.C. of Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) under UV light (366 nm) shows four fluorescent zones visible at Rf.0.41(sky blue), 0.63 (sky blue), 0.70 (sky blue) and 0.93 (famthy sky blue). On spraying with Anisaldehyde- Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105ºC four spots appear at Rf. 0.14, 0.28,0.66 and 0.93 (all violet).

CONSTITUENTS
Cinnacassiol A, B and C, trans-cinnamic acid, protocatechuic acid, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol.

PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹), K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°), K£rmai (جñ), Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹)
63

Ceykai

: ˸maiperukki (݇¬ñªð¼‚A), Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ £ŒõèŸP), Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A)

64

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Kakkuv¡º I½akam (è‚°õ£¡ Þ÷è‹), T¡½ic¡ti Va·akam (î£Oê£F õìè‹), Tamarakak Ku·in¢r (îñóè‚ °®c˜), Vilv¡ti I½akam (M™õ£F Þ÷è‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Carvavi·am (ê˜õMì‹), Iraippu (Þ¬óŠ¹), Irattakka·uppu (Þóˆî‚è´Š¹), Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹), Porumal (ªð£¼ñ™), Vayi¼¼ukka·uppu (õJŸÁ‚è´Š¹) DOSE - Powder 65 - 260 mg

65

21. ELAVANGA PATTHIRI (LEAF)

ILAVA×KAP PATHTHIRI (Leaf) - ÞôõƒèŠ ðˆFK
Ilava´kappaththiri is the dried mature leaves of Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) Nees & Eberm. (Fam. Lauraceae), a small evergreen tree upto 7.5 m. high and occurs in tropical, subtropical Himalayas between 900 to 2300 m.; often raised from seeds sown in nursery; leaves collected in dry weather from about ten year old plants during October to March.It grows in Ku¼iµci and Marutham thi¸ai. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Lava´kappattiri (ôõƒèŠðˆFK) Tejpat, Mahpat Tejpatra, Tejpata Indian cinnamon Tamala patra, Develee Tejpatra Tamalapatra, Dalchini ele Dalchini pan, Tajpatra Karuvapatta patram Tamalpatra Tejapatra Tajpater Tvaka patra, Varanga, Coca Akupatri Tezpat

Leaves - 12.5 to 20 cm. long, 5 to 7.5 cm. wide at the center, 3 converging nerves from base to apex, young leaves pink; petiole 7.5 to 13 mm. long; margin entire, apex acute or acuminate, both surfaces smooth; stomata paracytic; odour aromatic; taste slightly sweet, mucilaginous and aromatic.

b) Microscopic
Petiole and midrib - Transverse sections of petiole and midrib show epidermis externally covered with cuticle, uniseriate, multicellular trichomes present with 1 to 3 cells; oil cells present as single
66

4'.31.C. represented by palisade tissue on upper and spongy parenchyma on lower side. K£rmai (جñ). present. under UV (366 nm) shows five fluorescent zones visible at Rf. eugenol. 2 5 1 6 9 per cent. 3'. p.2. 5.2.cymene. thin-walled cells of spongy parenchyma without intercellular spaces. irregular.phellandrene. vein-islet number 7 to 11 per square mm. much lignified and showing striations. 2. lamina intervened by several small veinlets. Appendix 1 per cent v/w Appendix 2. quercetin 3-O-rutinoside. kaempferol .7 . Ma´kal (ñƒè™) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) 67 . xylem on upper and phloem on lower side consisting of usual elements. 4'. isolated large stone cells. IDENTITY. 2. are found scattered.2.Transverse section of lamina shows dorsiventral structure. 3. 7 -tetrahydroxy flavone. stele more or less planoconvex as in the midrib of leaf. α and β pinene. vascular bundles covered with thick-walled fibres on both side. lower epidermis covered externally with cuticle.60 (all red).2.6.L. 0. 3. in surface view the anticlinal walls of both the epidermii are straight with striated cuticle containing paracytic stomata on the lower side.or groups.3-O-sophoroside.10.L. linalool.C. Powder: Light green. caryophyllene oxide. Appendix per cent. pericycle represented by a few layers of sclerenchymatous cells. palisade ratio 2 to 3. parenchyma cells. kaempferol .50 and 0. 0. 0.3.38.pentahydroxy flavone.27.2. 2. of Toluene extractive of Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethyl acetate (9:1) v/v.3-O-glucopyranoside. 0.O. oil cells and pitted spiral or scalariform vessels. CONSTITUENTS β . 5.7. idioblasts containing oil globules present in mesophyll and also in palisade. shows fragments of unicellular. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than Volatile oil Not less than T. oil globules.below upper epidermis single row of closely packed palisade layer followed by multilayered. d -β. Appendix per cent.2. T. 2. 2.4. stomatal index 14 to 15 for lower surface. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). epidermal cells with wavy walls and paracytic stomata. Appendix per cent.2.Caryophyllene. Appendix per cent. Lamina . multicellular trichomes. most of the parenchymatous cells of cortex show reddish-brown contents.

Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP). T¡½ic¡ti Va·akam (î£Oê£F õìè‹). N¢rv®·kai (c˜«õ†¬è). M®kakka··i («ñè‚膮). Mak¡vall¡ti I½akam (ñè £õ™ô£F Þ÷è‹). Ka¸attailam (è투îô‹).Powder 1. M®kacuram («ñè²ó‹). V¡nti (õ£‰F). Viyarvaiyu¸·¡kki (Mò˜¬õ»‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Arakku Tailam (Üó‚° ¬îô‹). Irumal (Þ¼ñ™). Tippili Ir¡c¡yaºam (FŠHL Þó£ê £òù‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Cuv¡cam/Cuv¡cak¡cam (²õ£ê‹/²õ£êè£ê‹). Ve··ai (ªõ†¬ì) DOSE . Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®).3 g 68 . Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A). Porumal (ªð£¼ñ™).

reaching up to 90 cm.5 to 6. Hasishunti Inchi Ardrak. brown cells of outer cork and 6 to 12 rows of thin-walled. Adrak Ardraka. tangentially elongated. collateral.Shows a few layered. 1. thin-walled. SYNONYMS Tamil : (ï¼ñ¼Š¹ ñF™) Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ërttarakam (ݘˆîóè‹). INJI (FRESH RHIZOME) IØCI (Fresh Rhizome) . Allam (Ü™ô‹). Katubhadra. It grows in Ku¼iµci and Marutham thi¸ai. Zingiberaceae). fracture short with projecting fibres. thick.. odour characteristic. (Fam. Allam Adrak Drug occurs as entire rhizome or in pieces. parenchymatous cells containing numerous circular to oval starch grains with characteristic striations and hilum at one end measuring 5 to 25 mm in dia. taste pungent. Rhizomes are dug in January to February. walls of oil cells suberised. Narumaruppu Matil Ada Ginger Adu Adarakha Alla. secondary cortex consisting of hexagonal to polygonal. rhizome laterally compressed bearing flattish ovate. irregularly arranged. buds and roots are removed and washed well. transversely cut surface shows a wide central stele having numerous greyish cut ends of fibres and yellow secreting cells. each having a depressed scar at its apex. extensively cultivated in India. oblique branches on upper side. Ale Adi. Srngavera Allamu. radially arranged cells of inner cork. colourless. pieces 5 to 15 cm. long.Þ…C Iµci is the fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. isodiametric. wide (usually 3 to 4 cm.) and 1 to 1. cortical fibro-vascular 69 . conjoint. idioblasts containing large yellowish to brownish globules of oleo-resin. a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial. numerous closed.22.5 cm.5 cm. in height. b) Microscopic Rhizome .

scalariform and spiral thickening.9. filled with abundant starch grains.08.2. 0. parenchyma and sheath of sclerenchyma. Under UV (366 nm).2. oleo-resin cells similar to those present in cortex. fibres septate with a few oblique pores on their walls.6. 2. 0.C.35. 0.16 (brownish violet).69 (all light yellow). Appendix 1 per cent. 0. 2. Appendix 2. On exposure to iodine vapours eleven spots appear at Rf. composed of xylem.69. 0. 2.5 per cent. bisabolene and phellandrene. dihydrogingerol.83 & 0.7.2.L. those arranged along pericycle in a definite ring are smaller in size and devoid of fibres. 2. Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ). Appendix 90 percent. shows thin-walled parenchyma cells.2. On spraying with Vanillin. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : K£rmai (جñ). fibrovascular bundles of two types.16.4. free from starch. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) 70 . 0.63 & 0. vessels 2 to 5 in number.69 (light violet).69 (grey).63(grey) & 0. the plate shows eight spots at Rf. dexahydrocurcumin and desmethyl .03. Appendix 8 per cent.47 (light violet). three fluorescent zones appear at Rf. elongated pits on their walls.L.Sulphuric acid reagent & heating the plate at 105ºC until the colour develops. T.3.hexahydrocurcumin. 0.08(violet). oleo-resin cells abundant. greater number occurring in inner cortical region. 0. endodermis single layered. 0.13.63. 0.C. Appendix 5 per cent. reticulate and spiral vessels. 0.92 (all yellow). phloem. measuring 5 to 25 mm in diameter.bundles scattered throughout cortical zone. 2. 0. gingerdione. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than Moisture content Not more than T. pericycle single layered enclosing central stele. zingiberol. 0. dehydrogingerdione.2. IDENTITY. 0. Powder: Light yellow. 0. 0.35. small cells of sieve tube. isodiametric cells of parenchyma. 0.92 (violet). 0.76 (violet) and 0. 0. of Alcoholic extract of drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Benzene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) shows in visible light four spots are seen at Rf. septate fibres with oblique. 0. CONSTITUENTS Volatile oil containing cineole.47. larger bundles consists of 2 to 7 vessels.2. larger bundles found scattered throughout stele. single starch grains of varying shapes with eccentric hilum. stele consisting of thin-walled polygonal. 0. zingiberene.63 (light violet). vessels showing reticulate.35 (light violet).16. Appendix 2 per cent. polygonal cells of parenchyma and group of fibres. 0.2. 0.76.16(blue).

V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP). 71 . Vali N°y (õL «ï£Œ). Piramm¡ºanta Pairavam (Hó‹ñ£ù‰î ¬ðóõ‹). K¡yaka¼pam¡kki (è£òèŸðñ£‚A). Iµci Irac¡yaºam (Þ…C Þóê£òù‹). Kanti Me¾uku (è‰F ªñ¿°). P¡vaºakka·ukk¡y (ð £õù‚贂裌). Cerippu¸·¡kki (ªêKŠ¹‡ì£ ‚A).2 . N¡rathtai I½akam (ï£óˆ¬î Þ÷è‹). Ceriy¡mai (ªêKò£¬ñ). Ceriy¡kka¾iccal (ªêKò£‚èN„ê™). Umi¾n¢rperukki (àI›c˜ªð¼‚A). Vacanta Kucum¡karam (õê‰î °²ñ£èó‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Caººi (ê¡Q). Kantaka Pa¼pam (è‰îè ðŸð‹). Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Iµci C£ra¸am (Þ…C Åóí‹). Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®). Iµci Va·akam (Þ…C õìè‹).3 ml of juice with honey. Irumal (Þ¼ñ™). Kumma··ik Ku¾ampu (°‹ñ†®‚ °ö‹¹). A¾al N°y (Üö™ «ï£Œ) DOSE . Mukku¼¼an°y (º‚°Ÿø«ï£Œ).

generally dirty white. bearing 2. embryo is slightly curved. b) Microscopic Testa is composed of 5 distinct cell layers. Khaskhas. seeds are odourless and oily in taste. Kashkash. about 1. larger network enclosing within. the next layer consists of polygonal or elongated cells containing minute microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate and below this is a single layer of thick walled unlignified elongated cells. testa is limited internally by a single layer or elongated palisade like cells with reticulately thickened walls. Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Postabeej Opium. this layer is followed by a single layer of thin walled cells. 60 to 120 cm. central portion of the seed is occupied by polygonal parenchymatous cells of endosperm containing abundant oil drops and aleurone grains. erect. numerous irregular smaller reticulations. high. Khasabija Gasgase. Aphini Avil. outermost layer of epidermal cells corresponding to the surface reticulations. cultivated under State control in certain areas of Rajasthan. round to reniform or kidney shaped. Aapheen. Aalan Khaskhas Aapu Ajasrngi. long. occasionally found mingled with a few brownish or greyish coloured seeds. Papaveraceae). (Fam. Karappu. KASA KASA (SEED) KACAKACË (Seed) . annual herb.15 mm.0 to 1. Nallamandu Apheem Seeds are small.èêèê£ Kacakac¡ is the seed of Papaver somniferum L. hilum and micropyle are situated in the notch on the lateral side near the smaller end. radicle rod like. or 72 . SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Apiºi (ÜHQ). P°sttakk¡y («ð£vˆî‚裌) Aaphim postadaanaa. Khaskhasa Gasgashaalu.23. Postadaanaa. Madhunasini. Poppy seeds Khaskhas Apheem. surface coarsely reticulated. It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. a glaucous.

glaudine. albumin. 0.2. 2. pacodine.25. thebaine-N-oxide. oripavine. reticuline. captisine.2. palaudine.hexanol. papaveraldine. cells containing characteristic crystal and fibres. scoulerine.1-pentanol. berberine. narcotine. papaverine. codeine-N-oxide.50. 2. amino acids. Appendix T. narceine. laudanosine. papaveramine. codamine. 6-methylcodeine. 2. pseudomorphine.L.4. hydrocotamine. corytuberine. protopine.L. laudanidine. fatty acids.5 per cent. of Hexane extract on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. shows large fatty oil droplets. narceine imide.83.8. 0. 1hexanal. CONSTITUENTS Morphine. IDENTITY. coarse.C. dihydrosanguinarine. salutaridine. normorphine. laudanine. characteristic penta to hexagonal testa cells. Powder: Light brown.39. 2. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 8 per cent. oxydimorphine. not free flowing. codeine. embedded in the oily endosperm. morphine-N-oxide.3. cryptopine. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) 73 . N-methyl-14-Odemethylepiporphyroxine.7.2.1. ß-allocryptopine.6. dihydroprotopine. 2-pentyl furan.C.2. on spraying with Vanillin -Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105ºC. Appendix Fixed oil Not less than 19 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent. 13-oxocryptopine.2. choline. narcotine-methohydroxide. canadine. 0. 2. sanguinarine. papaverrubines C and D. thebaine.2. 0. pectin and sugars. 6-Acetonyl dihydrosanguinarine. neopine. narcotoline. Merck) 0. endosperm and reticulate layer cells. magnoflorine. 10-hydroxycodeine. orientaline. T. norsanguinarine.76 and 0. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 7 per cent. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1.rarely 3. gnoscopine. codeinone. oxysanguinarine.2. allocryptopine. 2. cotyledonary leaves.2 mm thickness using Toluene: Acetone (93:07) shows five spots at Rf. contents of the cotyledon are similar to those of endosperm. codeine. tetrahydropapaverine. lanthopine. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 13 per cent. nornarceine. stepholidine. clot or ball forming. coreximine.

U½½a¾al¡¼¼i (àœ÷öô£ŸP). C¢takka¾iccal (Yî‚èN„ê™). Talaikkaºam (î¬ô‚èù‹). Tiºavu (Fù¾). Ku·a¼pu¾u (°ìŸ¹¿). 74 . Kurutikka¾iccal (°¼F‚èN„ê™). U·aluram¡kki (àì½óñ£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS M®kavira¸ak Ka½impu («ñèMóí‚ èO‹¹). Nanthi Me¾uku (ï‰F ªñ¿°) THERAPEUTIC USES ˸maikku¼aivu (݇¬ñ‚°¬ø¾).5 g 10 ml kacakaca milk. T £kkamiºmai (É‚èI¡¬ñ).Powder 3 . U·al Nalivu (àì™ ïL¾) DOSE . Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH).Ceykai : Amaitiy£··i (ܬñFΆ®). 15 g seeds ground with 15 ml of water for preparing kacakaca milk.

thin-walled cells filled with starch grains. Girikarnika. secondary xylem consists of usual elements. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Root . a perennial climber with slender downy stem. .裂èí «õ˜ K¡kka¸av®r is the dried root of Clitoria ternatea L. oblong and pitted. cylindrical. xylem parenchyma irregular in shape with 75 Ca´ku PuÀpam (ꃰ ¹wð‹). with oblong bordered pits and have short conical tail at one end. KAKKANA VER (ROOT) KËKKAÛA VÓR (Root) . thin-walled. Fabaceae). fracture fibrous. Girikarnika Shankhapushapam Gokarna. tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells. being cultivated in gardens every where and often also found growing over hedges and thickets. vessels mostly occur 2 or 3 in groups. medullary rays 1 to 5 cells wide. Visnukranta Dintena Drug consisting of a stout tap root with a few tortuous branches. a few solitary fibres also present. polygonal. It grows in Marutham thi¸ai. distributed in the lower half of the cortex. found commonly throughout India. 1 to 5 m. single or groups of 2 to 10 lignified cortical fibres. xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres.24.Shows 10 to 20 or more layers of rectangular. Aparajita Aparajita Koyal Aparajita. secondary phloem consists of usual elements. taste bitter. K¡kka··¡º (裂è†ì£¡) Aparajita Aparajita Clitoria. phloem fibres 2 to 8 in groups. a few places show cracks due to presence of lenticels. secondary cortex consists of 10 to 12 rows of large. a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region. thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips. colour light-brown. Conch flower Gokarni Aparajita Girikarnika Balli. (Fam. in thickness. a few showing slit-like pits. very long.

Powder: Yellowish-brown.2. phloem and xylem parenchyma.pitted walls. single grains measuring upto 13 mm in dia. 2. U½½a¾al¡¼¼i (àœ÷öô£ŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS K¡kka¸a M¡ttirai (裂èí ñ£ˆF¬ó) THERAPEUTIC USES 76 . shows simple and compound starch grains. B1. B2. starch grains simple as well as compound having 2 to 6 components.79 (dull yellow) in visible light. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). of Alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethyl acetate: Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v shows one spot at Rf. On spraying with 10 % aqueous solution of Ferric chloride.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). 0. 2 5 2 5 8 per cent.2. T. 0.C. A2.2. 2. tailed vessels with oblong bordered pits and fragments of fibres.3. Appendix per cent. Peru´ka¾iccalu¸·¡kki (ªð¼ƒèN„꽇죂A). 2.6.L.C. K£rmai (جñ). On exposure to iodine vapours two spots appear at Rf.. the plate shows one spot at Rf. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. D1 and D2.2. cyanins. measuring 3 to 13 mm in dia.7. 0. Under UV (366 nm) a spot is seen at Rf. Appendix 2. found in secondary cortex. 0.2.2.ternatins A1. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. CONSTITUENTS Kaempferol.79(blue). taraxerol. Appendix per cent. 2.. Appendix per cent.79 (both yellow).54 and 0.79 (grey).4.

Ku·a¼pu¾u (°ìŸ¹¿). Ka¸ N°y (è‡ «ï£Œ). 77 .Powder 250 .Curam/K¡yccal (²ó‹/裌„ê™). M¡ntam (ñ£‰î‹). Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷) DOSE .1.500 mg for children 750 mg .5 g for adults.

Ganja Oriya : Bhanga. The leaves are subjected to purification process (cutti) before use. high. odour strong and characteristic. leaflets linear. b) Microscopic Transverse section of leaves and bracts shows dorsiventral surface. in the Sub-Himalayan tracts in India and abundantly found in waste lands from Punjab eastwards to Bengal and extending Southwards. lower pale. found wild almost throughout the year. narrow at base. Civa M£li (Cõ ÍL). Pa´ki (ðƒA) Assamese : Bhan. KANJA (LEAF) KAØCË (Leaf) . Sidhi English : Indian hemp Gujrati : Bhang Hindi : Bhaang. It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. Bhanga Kannada : Bhangigida. K°rakai («è£ó¬è). curved. Bhang Bengali : Bhang. pointed. Bhanga. SYNONYMS Tamil : Aºanta M£li (Üù‰î ÍL). downy. Cannabinaceae). taste slightly acrid. conical trichomes with enlarged bases containing cystoliths of calcium 78 . upper surface dark green and rough.25. lanceolate with serrate margins. Madani Telugu : Ganjayi Urdu : Qinaab. pointed. 5 to 20 cm. Bhang DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Leaves palmately compound. erect. Ganjagida Kashmiri : Pang. upto 2 m. upper epidermis with unicellular. (Fam. long. Ganjei Punjabi : Bhang Sanskrit : Vijaya.è…ê£ Kaµc¡ is the dried leaf of Cannabis sativa L. K°rakkar M£li («è£ó‚è˜ ÍL). dioecious herb. leaves of female plants longer than the male. an annual. Bangi Malayalam : Kanchavu Marathi : Bhang.

0. quercetin. M£rccaiyu¸·¡kki 79 .2. 340 to 500 µm but without cystoliths.4. kaempferol.L. cannabiglendol. longer.L. palisade cells. CONSTITUENTS Cannabinol. cannabitatrol. Essential oil-á pinene. trichomes on lower epidermis conical. numerous multicellular trichomes with or without cystolith. flavocannobicide. T. Appendix per cent.43 and 0. in surface view the upper epidermis devoid of stomata and lower epidermis shows sinuous walls with anomocytic stomata: palisade ratio 9 to 14. cannabiallsvin. trans-ß-ocimene á-terpinolene.carbonate. 0. 0.C.3. vitexin. 2.2.6. trans caryophyllene and áhumulene. numerous glandular trichomes.31.21. bracteoles with undifferentiated mesophyll and on lower surface bear numerous glandular trichomes.2. cannabicitran.38. Appendix 2. cannabidiol. myrcene.2. K¡mamperukki (è£ñ‹ªð¼‚A). cannabicumaronone. tetrahydrocannabinol. 2. Icivaka¼¼i (ÞCõèŸP). shows under UV (366 nm) one blue fluorescent spot at Rf. 2 15 5 10 13 per cent. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). mesophyll contains cluster crystals of calcium oxalate in many cells consisting of usually one layer of palisade cell and spongy tissue. cannabicyclol. cannabinodiol. Appendix per cent. cannabigerol. vein-islet number 22 to 28 per square mm. 0. parenchyma cells with cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and fragments of vessels with spiral thickenings.2. Appendix per cent. present in the lower epidermis especially on mid-rib. of Toluene soluble fraction of methanol extract on silical gel 'G' plate using nHexane: Diethyl ether (8:2) v/v. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. shows fragments of epidermal cells with anomocytic stomata. IDENTITY. club-shaped cells secreting oleo-resin. 2. orientin. sessile or with a multicellular stalk and a head of about eight radiating. 2. K£rmai (جñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). cannabichrome. On spraying with fast blue salt 'B' followed by 5% Alcoholic Potassium hydroxide five spots appear at Rf. 0. stomatal index 13 to 20 for lower surface.14. flavosativaside.7.C. K¡yaka¼pam¡kki (è£òèŸðñ£‚A).2.51 (all red). Powder: Green. Appendix per cent.

80 . V¡nti P®ti (õ£‰F «ðF) DOSE . Narampu Vali (ïó‹¹ õL). Tuyara·akki (¶òóì‚A). Perump¡·u (ªð¼‹ð£´). ;i M¡ttirai (áN ñ£ˆF¬ó). V¡¾aippu Va·akam (õ£¬öŠ¹ õìè‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Kakkirumal/Kakkuv¡º Irumal (è‚A¼ñ™/è‚°õ£¡ Þ¼ñ™). Mikupaci (I°ðC). Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Kap¡·a M¡tthirai (èð£ì ñ£ˆF¬ó).(͘„¬ê»‡ì£‚A). O¼¼aittalaivali (埬øˆî¬ôõL).It cannot be administered as a single drug It should be used in combination. U¼akkame¾uppi (àø‚èªñ¿ŠH). Peruvaliyu¸·¡kki (ªð¼õL»‡ì£‚A). U¼akkamu¸·¡kki (àø‚躇죂A).

è‡ìƒèˆFK êÍô‹ Ka¸·a´kaththiri Cam£lam is the mature. Chhotikateri. furrows more prominent in young stem appearing almost circular towards basal region. Kantakari. Nidigdhika. virginianum L. young branches covered with numerous hairs. taste bitter.10 to 45 cm. mature and dry stem often with a hollow pith. Nidigdha. found throughout India. dried whole plant of Solanum surattense Burm. center shows a large and distinct pith. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Dusparsa Telugu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ka¸·a´kattiri (è‡ìƒèˆFK) Kantakar. mature ones glabrous. S.26. Vakudu Root . Chakada Bhoji Kandiari Dhavani. Katali. Nelamulaka. Stem . bearing a number of fine longitudinal and few transverse wrinkles with occasional scars or a few lenticels and small rootlets. long. Katai. thick of variable length. Ringani Kiragulla.. green when fresh. transversely smoothened surface shows a thin bark and wide compact cylinder of wood. KANDANKATTHIRI SAMULAM (WHOLE PLANT) KAÛÚA×KATHTHIRI CAMÍLAM (Whole Plant) . few mm. in diameter. & Wendl. fracture short. when dry. Bhejibaugna. Pinnamulaka. Mulaka. transversely smoothened surface shows a very thin bark and a prominent wood.f. fracture short to slightly fibrous. surface yellowish green and smooth. 81 . prickly with prominent nodes and internodes. a perennial. almost cylindrical and tapering.Herbaceous. Kataringani Ankarati. (Fam. Vyaghri. Katvaedana Kantakari Febrifuge plant Bharingani Bhatakataiya. external surface light green. Solanaceae). stem pieces 8 to 10 mm. Nelagulla Kantakari chunda Bhauringani. very prickly diffused herb of waste lands. Chinnamulaka. Ksudra. Syn. Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. Kantakarika. to two cm. It grows in Marutham thi¸ai.

4 to 12. 1 to 2 cm. taste bitter and acrid. tracheids elongated with irregular walls and bordered pits.Transverse section of mature stem. green. stone cells and traversed by phloem rays. xylem parenchyma rectangular or slightly elongated with simple pits and rarely with reticulate thickening. rectangular and tangentially elongated cells. fibre tracheids. ovary superior. ovoid. stone cells present in singles or in small groups of 2 to 4. basifixed. globular. glabrous. parenchyma and traversed by medullary rays. cambium 3 to 5 layers of thin-walled rectangular cells. xylem rays 1 to 3 cells wide and 1 to 20 cells high. secondary cortex consists of 7 to 11 layers of parenchymatous cells. hairy. some cells thickened and lignified forming stone cells. a few fibres. stone cells either single or in groups of 2 to 20 or even more present in this region. exstipulate. tracheids. bright blue or bluish purple. some having truncated ends or bifurcated at one or both ends with a few simple pits. corolla-gamopetalous.8 to 1 cm. 1 or 2 or rarely 3 cells wide. lobes deltoid. sub-acute hairy.7 to 0. filament short 1 to 1. secondary phloem composed of sieve elements and phloem parenchyma traversed by medullary rays. sinuate or sub-pinnatifid. wide. cambium composed of 2 or 3 layers. pericyclic fibre. numerous. and middle phloem regions. Flower . ovate-oblong or elliptic. phloem rays.Ebracteate. gamosepalous. long. fibres found scattered in singles or in small groups in outer and middle phloem region. fibres and traversed by xylem rays. veins and midrib full with sharp prickles. 1 or 2 or rarely 3 cells wide and 2 to 25 cells high. stamens 5. in diameter.Transverse section of mature root shows cork composing of 3 to 6 layers of thin-walled. inner phloem devoid of fibres.5 to 1. globose. 0. Seeds . vessels vary greatly in shape and size and show bordered pits. bisexual. complete.5 cm. tangentially elongated to oval or circular parenchymatous cells. oblong lanceolate. parenchyma. internal phloem composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. xylem consists of vessels.5 to 2 cm. linear-lanceolate. in diameter.3 cm. surrounded by persistent calyx at base. 0. acute. pedicellate.2 cm. Stem . microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in secondary cortex. regular. xylem composed of vessels. xylem parenchyma cubical to rectangular with simple or bordered pits or reticulate thickening. a few phloem fibres similar to those of outer phloem region also present. pentamerous. fibres with a few simple pits.8 cm. with both ends tapering and have reticulate thickening. 1. long and 2 to 7. phloem and medullary rays. Fruit . thick-walled and lignified with tapering and pointed ends. phloem rays 1 to 4 cells wide and 2 to 22 cells high. hairy. tracheids fibres smaller than fibres.Petiolate. acute. anther. all elements being lignified. long. xylem rays conspicuous by their pitted thickenings. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements. 82 .Berry. about 0. fibres much elongated. forming more or less continuous band and embedded in perimedullary zone.Circular. flat. odour and taste not distinct. bilocular with axile placentation having numerous ovules. occur singly or in small groups of 2 or 3. embedded in a fleshy mesocarp. ripe fruit shows yellow and white shades.5 cm. unripe fruits variegated with green and white strips. longer size and radial elongation of cells. calyx-persistent. cork cambium single layered followed by 6 to 15 layers of thin-walled. primary cortex remains intact even in quite mature stage but later gets crushed. long and densely prickly. long and purple in colour. stone cells present in singles or in groups of 2 to 20 or more in outer. glabrous.Leaf . central region occupied by a large pith. thick consists of 6 to 12 layers of cork of thin-walled somewhat rectangular cells. tube short. tracheids.5 mm. measuring 0. epipetalous. vessels and tracheids with bordered pits. parenchyma. b) Microscopic Root .

2. stomatal index 20 to 25 on lower epidermis.2. shows single or groups of stone cells. groups of spongy parenchyma. angular.49 83 . palisade single layered. 0. 2. Appendix per cent. some fibro vascular bundles present. Appendix per cent. mesocarp composed of thinwalled. 2. Powder: Greenish. 2. wavy in outline. rest of tissue composed of thin-walled. Appendix 2.2. oval to polygonal cells. of Chloroform extractive of Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (9:1). stellate hairs and simple. narrow endosperm with embryo.L. scattered. rest of tissue of petiole composed of polygonal. 1 or 2 layers of collenchyma present below epidermis. one largecresent-shaped. some stellate hair present on epidermis.microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate as sandy masses and simple starch grains present in cortex.4. seed consists of thick-walled radially elongated testa. covered externally by a thick cuticle. some cells of endosperm contain oil globules. 14 to 24 on upper epidermis.34 (violet). parenchymatous cells. bicollateral. stele composed of crescent-shaped. epidermis on either side.2. groups of aseptate fibres with tapering ends.6. bicollateral. 2 9 3 6 16 per cent. epidermis single layered.Transverse section of mature fruit shows single layered epidermis. 4 to 6 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma present. fragments of palisade tissue. IDENTITY. epidermis on either side covered externally by a thick cuticle. below epidermis 3 or 4 layers of collenchyma present. Lamina . some stellate hairs (4 to 8 armed) present on both sides of epidermis. 0. Leaf Petiole . Appendix per cent. phloem.Transverse section of midrib shows a biconvex structure. covered externally by a thick cuticle.L. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. on spraying with Anisaldehyde -Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105°C minutes ten spots appear at 0.28 (violet). central vascular bundle and two small lateral vascular bundles. rounded to oval starch grains measuring upto 11 µm in diameter. vein-islet number 50 to 80 per square mm. 2. anisocytic stomata.3.2. T. palisade ratio 2 to 4.Transverse section of petiole shows circular to wavy outlines.C. Appendix per cent. secondary cortex.2. hypodermis consists of 3 or 4 layers of collenchymatous cells.Transverse section shows dorsiventral structure. anisocytic stomata present on both surfaces. thin-walled. parenchyma.7. medullary rays and pith cells. central vascular bundle and two small lateral bundles present. Midrib .C. Fruit . covered externally by a thin cuticle. epidermis shows mostly stellate and rarely uni to tricellular hairs. pitted vessels.

Irumal (Þ¼ñ™). 84 . cholesterol and their derivatives. 0. I½aippu N°y (Þ¬÷Š¹ «ï£Œ). N¢rk °vai (c˜«è£¬õ).4 g Juice 5 .solamargine. neocarpesterol. 0. 0.84.10 ml Decoction 30. 0. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP). 15 .55 (violet). 0.96 (violet). K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP).Powder 2 . Iraippu (Þ¬óŠ¹) DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). Peru´ka¾iccalu¸·¡kki (ªð¼ƒèN„ê½‡ì£ ‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS V¡tacurak Ku·in¢r (õ£î²ó‚ °®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES Curam/K¡yccal (²ó‹/裌„ê™).(violet). Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).88.92 (all pinkish violet) and 0.30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. 0. CONSTITUENTS Solasodine. β. solasonine.50 ml twice daily. solamargine. cycloartenol.58 (violet).78(violet). Pacitt¢kku¼aivu (ðCˆb‚°¬ø¾).

5 mm. KARPOGARISI (FRUIT) KËRPÕKARICI (Fruit) . ovoid-oblong or bean shaped. Bhavantibeeja. somewhat compressed. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Akkantam (Ü‚è‰î‹). an outer layer of palisade epidermis. seeds camphylotropous. cotyledons of polyhedral parenchyma and three layers of palisade cells on the adaxial side. Babchi Bauchige. 2 to 3 mm. high annual herb distributed throughout India. glabrous rounded or mucronate. consisting of collapsed parenchyma and large secretory glands containing oleo-resinous matter. broad. Somraji. Baukuchi Babchi Karkokil Bawchi Bakuchi Babchi. found commonly in Uttar Pradesh.裘«ð£èKC K¡rp°karici is the dried fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L. P¡kuci (ð£°C) Habucha Bakuchi. but when chewed smell of a pungent essential oil felt. Fiakucha Veeja Bavachi Bakuchi. odourless. layer of bearer cells which are much thickened in the inner tangential and basal radial walls and 2 or 3 layers of parenchyma. non-endospermous. taste bitter. unpleasant and acrid. Bengal and Maharashtra. b) Microscopic Transverse section of fruit shows pericarp with prominent ridges and depressions. Bavchi Bakuci. an erect. 3 to 4. testa. Somaraji Bavanchalu Babchi Fruits dark chocolate to almost black with pericarp adhering to the seed-coat. long. Fabaceae). (Fam. 0. Powder: 85 .27. closely pitted.8 m.It grows in Marutham thi¸ai.3 to 1. Bavachi. Bhavanchigid. Avalguja. oily and free from starch.

TLC plates 2 8 2 13 11 per cent. Merck) 0. The plate is developed in the solvent system and recorded the chromatogram as described above for the calibration curve. epidermal cells with brown contents. The area under the curves are recorded and plotted to get the calibration curve for psoralen. Appendix per cent. 86 .70 to 0.6.5 mg of standard.7. The residue is dissolved in 100 ml methanol. The filtered extracts are pooled and evaporated to dryness.76 in the samples analyzed.0 to 5.2. cooled and filtered. Appendix per cent.0 g of powdered drug is macerated in 75 ml methanol on a boiling water bath for 10 to 15 min.. Calibration curve 5 µl each of the standard solution (250 to 1250 ng per spot) is applied on TLC plate.2. The plate is scanned under UV light at 366 nm. bearer cells of hypodermis and fragments of oil cells. Appendix per cent. IDENTITY. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than ASSAY TLC densitometric estimation of psoralen. The process is repeated thrice.2. The percentage of psoralen ranges from 0.3. 2.Dark brown. The amount of psoralen present in the sample is calculated from the calibration curve of psoralen. Appendix per cent.2.0 ml) of stock solution in 10 ml volumetric flasks and adjusting the volume to 10 ml with methanol. 2. Appendix 2. psoralen is dissolved in 25 ml of methanol in a volumetric flask. The plate is developed in the solvent system to a distance of 8 cm. Standard solution 12. 2. standard solutions of 50 to 250 µg/ml concentration are prepared by taking aliquots (1. Estimation of psoralen in the drug 5 µl of the test solution is applied on TLC plate. Test solution 2. From this stock solution. 2.2. shows fragments of parenchyma cells containing oil globules and aleurone grains.2. oily. palisade-like cells of testa.2 mm thickness. Aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 plates (E. Solvent system Toluene: Ethyl acetate (7: 3).4.

neobavaisoflavone.12.2 g 87 . On exposure to iodine vapours seven spots appear at Rf.T.sitosterol. 0.19 (blue). isobavachalcone.12 (black).55 (blue) and 0.C. T. 0. corylinal. 0. linoleic. Merck) 0. stigmasterol. Ve¸ Pa·ai (ªõ‡ ð¬ì). 0.15 (yellow).62 (blue).29 (yellow). 0.44 (violet). of the Alcoholic extract on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E.L.24 (sky blue).08. β.26 (blue). Namaiccal (ï¬ñ„ê™). 0. 0. With Anisaldehyde -Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105ºC eight spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. essential oil and fixed oil. 0.62(blue) and 0. linolenic. 0.15 (yellow). 0. corylin. stearic. 0. Karapp¡º Tailam (èóŠð£¡ ¬îô‹).41 and 0.C. 0.41 (violet).15. 0. Mak¡vall¡ti I½akam (ñè£õ™ô£F Þ÷è‹). oleic. Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Iracakanthi Me¾uku (Þóêè‰F ªñ¿°). psoralidin. 0. bavachin.72 (pink). 0. behanic. lignoceric. 0. (blue). CONSTITUENTS Psoralen. fatty acids. M¡nta E¸¸ai E¸2 (ñ£‰î ⇬í â‡2).24.31.62 (all yellow).35 (sky blue).L.24 (blue). isopsoralen. Pu¸ (¹‡) DOSE .Powder 1 . palmitic. Naµcu (ï…²). 0. 4'-0methyl bavachalcone. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Malami½akki (ñôI÷‚A).47 (blue). 0. angelicin.2 mm thickness using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) shows ten spots under UV light (366 nm) at Rf.12. bakuchicin.08 (blue). bakuchiol. M®kavira¸ak Ka½impu («ñèMóí‚ èO‹¹) THERAPEUTIC USES Karapp¡º (èóŠð£¡). 0.

present on both surfaces. (Fam: Fabaceae). high. Atti.8 cm. short lived tall shrub. linear. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. spongy parenchyma consisting of round cells. Lamina . very shortly stalked. parenchymatous cells.28. paripinnate. KARUNCHEMBAI ILAI (LEAF) KARUØCEMPAI ILAI (Leaf) . Nelichettu Leaves pinnately compound. followed by 2 or 3 layered collenchymatous and 4 to 7 layered round. mucronate to acuminate. aegyptiaca (Poir) Pers.è¼…ªê‹¬ð Þ¬ô Karuµcempai Ilai is the dried leaf of Sesbania sesban (L. entire. having secretory cavities in phloem. wide.0 to 3. rachis shortly produced above last pair of leaflet. Jayanti Jaita. upto 6 m. Karijimangai. oblong. each bundle covered externally by sclerenchymatous sheath. leaflets 6 to 16 pairs.3 cm. polygonal. 0. consisting of thin-walled.Shows single layered epidermis.. Arishimajingai Semp.5 cm. b) Microscopic Leaflet Rachis .) Merr. SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Karuµci¼¼akatti (è¼…CŸøèˆF) Jayanti Rajashinganee.Shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. It grows in Ku¼iµci and Marutham thi¸ai. palisade single layered. Suksma patra Sominta. Syn. Jayata Arinintajinamgi. glabrous. long. pith small. long. Jaya. 1.5 to 15. Itthikkanni Jait Jayantipatra Jainta Jayanti. 7.3 to 0. stomata anisocytic. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. one smaller vascular bundle present in each of the wings. opposite. small veins situated 88 . Jalugu. a quick growing. S. found cultivated on paddy field bunds in Tamil Nadu as well as throughout the plains of India upto an altitude of 1200 m.

0. 0. Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH).69. 0.05. Appendix 25 per cent. 2. 0. chikusetsusaponin.97(all grey).29.2.2. shows spongy parenchyma.05. Powder: Dull green. the plate shows nine spots at Rf.19. Appendix 2.2. 2 per cent. 0. 0. 0. kaikasaponin. 0. Rutuvu¸·¡kki (¼¶¾‡ì£‚A). 0.29.between palisade and spongy parenchyma cells.97 (all yellow). CONSTITUENTS Stigmasterolglucoside.91 and 0. On spraying with 5 % MethanolicPhosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105ºC until the colour develops .L. xylem vessels with scalariform thickening and fragments of epidermal cells with anisocytic stomata. Appendix 2 per cent.11.C. palisade ratio 3 to 5. ilexoside. 0. 2.05.2. 2. T.islet number 27 to 36 per square mm.7. stomatal index on upper surface 11 to 20 and on lower surface 11 to 25 and vein.48.29.56.48. Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A). V ¢kka´karaicci (i‚èƒè¬ó„C) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Cempu Pa¼pam (ªê‹¹ ðŸð‹) 89 . Appendix 7 per cent. Appendix 11 per cent. Pu¾ukkolli (¹¿‚ªè£™L).56 (all pink) and 0. 0.97 (yellow).19. 0.37.19. 0. IDENTITY.37. 0. 0.2. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.11.91 and 0.2.3. lablaboside A. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). 2. kaempferol glucoside and oleanolic acid.L. 0. 0.56. of Alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) shows under UV (366 nm) shows six fluorescent zones at Rf. 0. 0.6.11 0.C.4. palisade cells. On exposure to iodine vapours ten spots appear at Rf. 0.

THERAPEUTIC USES Aiya N°yka½ (äò «ï£Œèœ).10 ml 90 .6 g Juice 5 . Perump¡·u (ªð¼‹ð£´) DOSE .Powder 3 . Irumal (Þ¼ñ™).

1 cm. rectangular to polygonal cells. Kalounji Kalaunji. Himachal Pradesh.è¼…Yóè‹ is the dried seed of Nigella sativa L. epidermis followed by 2 to 4 layers of thick-walled. Kalajira Small fennel. parenchymatous cells. followed by a pigmented layer composed of tangentially elongated. a few filled with oil globules. black. radially elongated cells present. (Fam. a small herb. Kalejire Kalvanji Upakuncika. flattened. endosperm consists of moderately thick-walled. Ëra¸am (Ýóí‹). shows groups of parenchyma. about 0. filled with reddish-brown contents. Powder: Black. odour slightly aromatic. It grows in Karuµc¢rakam Mullai thi¸ai. cultivated mostly in Punjab. Susavi Peddajila karra Kalongi Seeds. thickwalled cells covered externally by a papillose cuticle. a layer of parenchyma composed of thick-walled rectangular. Bihar and Assam. long and 0. Upakuµcikai (àð°…C¬è) Mota Kalajira. tubercular. rugulose. oily to touch. 91 . Ranunculaceae). cylindrical thick-walled cells filled with reddish-brown pigments. SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Transverse section of seed shows single layer of epidermis consisting of elliptical. embryo embedded in endosperm. high. Nigella seed Kalonji jeeru. taste bitter.2 cm. oblong. KARUNCHEERAGAM (SEED) KARUØCÌRAKAM (Seed) . endosperm cells and oil globules. wide. Sthulajiraka.29. Mangaraila Karijirige Karinjirakam Kalaunji jire. angular. tangentially elongated. 45 to 60 cm. below pigmented layer.

0.7.L. CONSTITUENTS Nigellinine. 0.29 (both greenish grey).2. of Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol: glacial Acetic acid: Water (5:1:4) v/v upper phase. T£kku¸ippu¾ukkolli (É‚°EŠ¹¿‚ªè£™L). Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP).2 per cent. lophenol.4.L.2.95 (red). Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹). 2.C. Appendix 15 per cent.24.89 (both violet) and 0. K¡m¡lai (è£ñ£¬ô). 0. Vayi¼¼upporumal (õJŸÁŠªð£¼ñ™) 92 .65 (both grey). 2. nigellicine. 0. Pa¼a´kippa··ai Irac¡yaºam (ðøƒAŠð†¬ì Þóê£òù‹). Appendix 20 per cent. 2 per cent. Appendix 2.6. P¡¼perukki (𣟪ð¼‚A).78.56. Appendix 0.IDENTITY. 0. Pu¸ (¹‡). 2. Appendix 6 per cent. Ma¸·aikkarapp¡º (ñ‡¬ì‚èóŠð£¡). ViÀakku¾ampu (Mû‚°ö‹¹) THERAPEUTIC USES Cira´ku (Cóƒ°). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. Rutuvu¸·¡kki (¼¶¾‡ì£‚A). Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®). arenasterol-5-ene. N¡kkupp£cci(Kolli) Ku·in¢r (°ŠÌ„C(ªè £™L) °®c˜).3. 2.N-oxide. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). T.C. Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).2. Pu¾ukkolli (¹¿‚ªè £™L).2.2. Va¼a·ciyaka¼¼i (õø†CòèŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Akattiyar Ku¾ampu (ÜèˆFò˜ °ö‹¹).2. 0. on spraying with Anisaldehyde -Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf. α-hederin and fatty acids.

at places cork exfoliates exposing dark cortex. Kaur Katuka. long and 4 to 8 mm. dusky grey. straight or slightly curved.4 g 30. Scrophulariaceae). Tikta. Katvi. Kalikutki Katuki Karru.5 to 8 cm. in diameter. b) Microscopic 93 . subcylindrical. surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles. Ka·ur°kiºi (è´«ó£AQ) Katki. KADUGUROHINI (RHIZOME AND ROOT) KAÚUKURÕKIÛI (Rhizome and Root) .DOSE . SYNONYMS Tamil Assamese English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : Ka·akar°kiºi (èìè«ó£AQ).2.Thin.Powder 500 mg . Katurohini. externally greyish-brown.05 to 0. tip ends in a growing bud surrounded by tufted crown of leaves. (Fam. cylindrical. odour pleasant.1 cm. more or less hairy herb common on the north-western Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim. a perennial. 5 to 10 cm. Sutiktaka Katukarohini Kutki DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizome . fracture short. long. mostly attached with rhizomes. inner surface black with whitish xylem. circular scars of roots and bud scales and sometimes roots attached. odour pleasant. straight or slightly curved with a few longitudinal wrinkles and dotted scars. Katu Kutki Katuka rohini Kaduk rohini. Kutki Hellebore Kadu. Katuka rohini Kutki. taste bitter.è´°«ó£AE Ka·ukur°ki¸i is the dried rhizome and root of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Root . thick. Rhizome is cut into small pieces after harvesting It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. Tiktarohini. fracture short. 0. taste bitter.

On exposure to iodine vapours nine spots appear at Rf. 0. parenchyma and fibres. round to oval starch grains. abundantly found in all cells.41. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. Root .21. cortex 8 to 14 layered. tracheids.62. thick-walled. 0.L. mature root shows 4 to 15 layers of cork. pitted vessels and aseptate fibres. 0.72 and 0. fibres aseptate. 2.C.84(all yellow). 0. 0. one or two small vascular bundles present in cortex.Young root shows single layered epidermis. Appendix per cent. On spraying with 5 % Methanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105° C until the colour develops. secondary xylem consists of vessels.C. vascular bundles surrounded by single layered endodermis of thick-walled cells. tracheids long. parenchymatous cells.10.Shows 20 to 25 layers of cork consisting of tangentially elongated.2. IDENTITY. 0. 2 7 1 10 20 per cent. lignified with tapering blunt chiesel-like pointed ends. thick-walled. centre occupied by a small pith consisting of thinwalled cells. T. thick-walled.2.35(green). tapering ends. 0. secondary phloem poorly developed. primary cortex persists in some cases.4. measuring upto 105 mm in dia.L..6. 0. xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.84 (all brownish grey). 0.17. hypodermis single layered. 0. tracheids cylindrical with tapering pointed ends. measuring 25 to 104 mm in diameter. cambium 2 to 4 layered. the plate shows seven spots at Rf. Appendix 2. 0. Powder: Dusky grey. Appendix per cent.2.2. 0.30 (blue).3. of Alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (95:5) shows under UV light (366 nm) three fluorescent zones at Rf.30. 0. 2. 1 or 2 layers of cork cambium.30. 2. thick-walled cells of endodermis. CONSTITUENTS 94 . 0. 0.37. simple.41 & 0. 2.Rhizome . Appendix per cent. some epidermal cells elongate forming unicellular hairs. vessels vary in shape and size having transverse oblique articulation. tracheids. suberised cells. cork cambium 1 or 2 layered. Appendix per cent.21.7. secondary xylem consisting of vessels. consisting of oval to polygonal. 0.17. some drum shaped with perforation on end walls or lateral walls. more or less cylindrical with blunt tapering ends. simple round to oval.2. starch grains. enclosed by single layered pericycle and single layered. secondary phloem composed of phloem parenchyma and a few scattered fibres. primary stele tetrach to heptarch. cortex single layered or absent. 0. lignified.2. shows groups of fragments of cork cells.05.10. thick-walled parenchyma. vessels have varying shape and size.05 (blue). xylem parenchyma thin-walled and polygonal in shape. some cylindrical with tail-like.

Vall¡rai Ney (õ™ô£¬ó ªïŒ) THERAPEUTIC USES Curam/K¡yccal (²ó‹/裌„ê™). arvenine III. Murukkaº Vitai M¡ttirai (º¼‚è¡ M¬î ñ£ˆF¬ó). minecoside. Karapp¡º (èóŠð£¡). Ìral N°y (ßó™ «ï£Œ). picroside I. N¡kkupp£cci(Kolli) Ku·in¢r (ï£ ‚°ŠÌ„C(ªè£™L) °®c˜). picein. veronicoside.Powder 500 mg .1 g 95 . Ke½acikar Ku¾ampu (ªè÷Cè˜ °ö‹¹). pikuroside. androsin. catalpol. Pu¸ka½ (¹‡èœ) DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ku·a¼pu¾uvaka¼¼i (°ìŸ¹¿õèŸP). 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone.Cucurbitacin glycosides. Mu¼aiveppaka¼¼i (º¬øªõŠðèŸP). kutakin and apocynin. II and III. 6feruloylcatalpol. Peru´ka¾iccalu¸·¡kki (ªð¼ƒèN„ê½‡ì£ ‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Emata¸·ak Ku½ikai (âñî‡ì‚ °O¬è). neronicoside. Kutkoside. M¡ntam (ñ£‰î‹). Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®).

hairy. erect herb. trichomes are of two types . present mostly on the ridges. surface exhibits about 20 longitudinal ridges. the epidermis is single layered.裆´ Yóè‹ K¡··u C¢rakam is the seed of Vernonia anthelmintica (L. covering trichomes unicellular. Worm seed fleabane Kaaleejeeree. 96 . KATTU SEERAGAM (FRUIT) KËÚÚU CÌRAKAM (Fruit) . Asteraceae). most of them consisting of aleurone grains and a few exhibit oil globules.covering and glandular. elongated with tapering ends. followed by discontinuous and laterally extending arches of thick walled and lignified sclerenchymatous tissues. Soharaai Kaadujeerage. Marutham and Neythal thi¸ai. Caºi Ø¡yi¼u (êQ ë£JÁ) Somaraaj Purple fleabane.31. Kadavijeeree Kaalijeeree. 3 to 5 mm. Syn. in diameter. indehiscent. rest of the pericarp consists of thin walled parenchymatous cells. sessile with unicellular heads are seen in the furrows. testa is single layered followed by thin walled parenchymatous cells of the cotyledon. pappus present over flattened upper end.) Kuntze (Fam. It grows in Mullai. long and 1 to 2 mm. glandular hairs. found throughout India upto 1850 m. SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Sanskrit : Telugu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic K¡··u C¢rakam (裆´ Yóè‹). Kattujirakam Kadujire Somaraji. vascular bundles are present below the ridges. in Himalaya and Khasi hills and often cultivated. b) Microscopic T. Garetikamma The fruits are cypsela. covered externally with thick cuticle. Kaarijirige Krimishatru. an annual. Centratherum anthelminticum (L. blackish-brown to black in colour. taste bitter and odour indistinct. It is a weed growing in waste places near villages and bears seeds in the month of May to June. Vanyajiraka. Aranyajirakah.S. Brhatpali Adavijilakara.) Willd. of fruit exhibits about 20 ridges and furrows. Karajiri. tapering towards base. robust.

2. the plate shows 4 spots at Rf.84 (all faint brown). shows under UV (366 nm) one spot at Rf. shows fragments of fibres. 2. T. 0.C. Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®). K£rmai (جñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).57.2. Mu¼aiveppaka¼¼i (º¬øªõŠðèŸP).L. oleic. linoleic and vernolic acids.48 (dark orange).84 (all faint orange).Powder: Blackish brown to black. Appendix 2.6. On exposure to iodine vapours 4 spots appear at Rf.5 per cent. Karapp¡º Tailam (èóŠð£¡ ¬îô‹) 97 . Appendix 20 per cent. 2. Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A). Appendix 4. palmitic.7.2. stearic. 2 per cent.2. scalariform vascular elements.4.3. thin walled parenchymatous cells with aleurone grains and oil globules. of Petroleum ether extract on silica Gel 'G' plate using Petroleum ether (60 -80ºC): Diethyl Ether: Acetic acid (35:16:1).48 (light blue).68 and 0. 0. On spraying with 5% Ethanolic.2. 2. IDENTITY. U·a¼t®¼¼i (à쟫îŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Iracakanthi Me¾uku (Þóêè‰F ªñ¿°). essential oil. CONSTITUENTS Avenasterol. resins and fixed oil consisting of myristic. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.5 per cent.C.68 and 0.57. 0. Appendix 14 per cent. Pu¾ukkolli (¹¿‚ªè£™L). 0.48 (black) 0. 2.Sulphuric acid and heating the plate at 105ºC until the colour develops. covering as well as glandular trichomes. fibre sclereids. Appendix 7. vernosterol.2. thin walled radially elongated cells of pappus. 0. 0.L.

3 g 98 . Ve¸ Pu½½i (ªõ‡ ¹œO) DOSE . Ku·a¼pu¾u (°ìŸ¹¿).THERAPEUTIC USES Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹). Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷).Powder 1 .

Pulo-harda Hindi : Harre. 20 to 35 mm. (Fam. pericarp fibrous. thick. a moderate sized or large tree found throughout India. elevation.32. chiefly in deciduous forests and areas of light rainfall. of Terminalia chebula Retz. Varikk¡y (õK‚裌) Assamese : Shilikha Bengali : Haritaki English : Myrobalan Gujrati : Hirdo. Kayastha. ovoid. 2 or 3 layers of collenchyma. Haritaki. taste astringent. b) Microscopic Transverse section of pericarp shows epicarp consisting of one layer of epidermal cells.贂裌 Ka·ukk¡y is the pericarp of mature fruit devoid of seeds. Amutam (ܺî‹). Pathya Telugu : Karaka. mesocarp. Harar Kannada : Alalekai Kashmiri : Halela Malayalam : Katukka Marathi : Hirda. Abhaya. 99 . non-adherent to the seed. wrinkled and ribbed longitudinally. Himaja. upto about 1500 m. 13 to 25 mm. 3 to 4 mm. Aritaki (ÜKîA). Karakkaya Urdu : Halela DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit yellowish-brown. Harda. KADUKKAI (FRUIT) KAÚUKKËY (Fruit) . flowers appear from April-August and fruits ripen from OctoberJanuary. Harar Sanskrit : Haritaki. long. Hireda Oriya : Harida Punjabi : Halela. throughout India. but occasionally also in slightly moist forests. wide. It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. SYNONYMS Tamil : Ammai (Ü‹¬ñ). Harad. Siva. inner tangential and upper portions of radial wall thick. Pattiyam (ðˆFò‹). Combretaceae).

Slightly Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹). Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®). vanillic acid.15(blackish blue). Appendix 2.L. 0. arjungenin.35 (dark blackish blue). 2.2. K¡rppu (裘Š¹).5 per cent.43 (blue). 0. 2. 0. uniformly thick-walled.52 (blue) and 0. ferulic acid.7.3. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Mainly Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹). found in plenty in almost all cells of mesocarp. 0.27 (blackish blue).2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. rounded or oval in shape. K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP). CONSTITUENTS Gallic acid.27 (blackish blue).2 mm thickness using Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic Acid (5:4:1) under UV light (254 nm) shows nine fluorescent zone at Rf. mostly elongated. 2. shows a few fibres. 0. several of them divided into two by a thin septa.32 %). 0. caffeic acid and fatty acids. Malami½akki (ñôI÷‚A).35 (dark blackish blue). 09 (blackish blue).C.67 (blue) and 0. Kaippu (¬èŠ¹).followed by a broad zone of parenchyma in which fibres and sclereids in group and vascular bundles scattered. tannin (30 .88 (blue). arjunolic acid. 0. epidermal surface view reveal polygonal cells.2.52 (blackish blue). 0. epidermal fragments with cells showing division by a thin septa.C. 1 per cent. fibres with peg like out growth and simple pitted walls. vessels with simple pits and groups of sclereids. starch grains simple. of Diethyl ether extract of the drug on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : Cerippu¸·¡kki (ªêKŠ¹‡ì£‚A). T. endocarp consists of thick-walled sclereids of various shapes and sizes.2. 0.09(blackish blue). measuring 2 to 7 µm in diameter. Merck) 0. terchebin. U·aluram¡kki (àì½óñ£‚A) 100 . Powder: Brown. Appendix 60 per cent. 2. 0. Appendix 0. Appendix 40 per cent.L.4. terminoic acid. sclereids of various shapes and sizes but mostly elongated.2.15 (blackish blue). Pu½ippu (¹OŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). 0. ellagitannin terchebulin.2. p-coumaric acid.43 (blackish blue) and 0. chebupentol. IDENTITY. Appendix 5 per cent. On spraying 5% Methanolic ferric chloride reagent six spots appear at Rf. tannins and raphides in parenchyma. arjungenin.6.

5 g Decoction 30. Peruvayi¼u (ªð¼õJÁ). Karu¸ai I½akam (輬í Þ÷è‹). Ma¸·£r¡ti A·aikku·in¢r (ñ‡Çó£F ܬ산®c˜). 20 . Malakka··u (ñô‚膴). P¡vaºakka·ukk¡y (ð£õù‚è ´‚裌). Vi·am (Mì‹) DOSE .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Carapu´ka Vilv¡ti I½akam (êó¹ƒè M™õ£F Þ÷è‹).Powder 3 . Tiripalaic C£ra¸am (FKð¬ô„ Åóí‹) THERAPEUTIC USES K¡m¡lai (è£ñ£¬ô). Kuruti A¾al (°¼F Üö™). 101 .30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. Ka¸ N°yka½ (è‡ «ï£Œèœ). T¡½ic¡thi C£ra¸am (î£Oê£F Åóí‹).50 ml twice daily.

Mahidhatrika. with a number of fibrous secondary and tertiary roots. gradually tapering. light brown. leaflets arranged in two rows on a rachis. Bhony amari. Keezhanelli.5 to 11. (Fam. Marutham and Neythal thi¸ai. non L. fracture short.Compound.Transverse section shows. 20 to 75 cm. greenish-brown in colour. Bhumyamalaki. nearly straight. taste slightly bitter. glabrous. rectangular. odour indistinct.33. long. upto 1. long and 0. Stem .5 cm. f. internode. stipulate. high. Phyllanthus niruri Hook. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Sanskrit : Telugu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic K¢¾¡nelli (Wö£ªï™L) Bhuin Amla Bhumamla. Bahuphala Nela vusirika Root . cylindrical. branching profuse towards upper region bearing 5 to 10 pairs of leaves. Bhonyamali Bhu Amala Nelanelli Embali. long. Euphorbiaceae).. Ajjahada Bhuiawali Bhuin Amla Tamalaki. taste slightly bitter. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. secondary 102 . external surface light brown. odour indistinct. Bhumi amalaki Bhoi Amali. wide. found wild throughout plains in India. Amli Kizanelli.Pieces 2. 1 to 3. Leaf .5 cm.0 cm. 4 to 6 layers of cork consisting of thin-walled. b) Microscopic Root .Slender.Syn: Phyllanthus fraternus Webst. upto 60 cm. oblong. an annual herb.5 cm. almost sessile.& Thonn. entire. KEEZHKKAI NELLI (WHOLE PLANT) KÌàKKËYNELLI CAMÍLAM (Whole Plant) . filled with reddish-brown contents. alternate. opposite and decussate. long. It grows in Mullai.W›‚裌ªï™L êÍô‹ K¢¾kk¡ynelli Cam£lam is the whole plant of Phyllanthus amarus Schum.

Appendix per cent. 2. palisade cells. fragments of epidermal cells with anisocytic stomata and a few cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. fibres and parenchyma. tangentially elongated cells. composed of several tangentially elongated strands of lignified fibres with thick walls and narrow lumen. fibres. tangentially elongated and radially arranged cells. vessels mostly simple pitted. shows fragments of cork cells.Transverse section shows a single layered epidermis composed of thick-walled. some cortical cells filled with yellowish-brown contents. phloem parenchyma and traversed by narrow phloem rays. Appendix per cent. all elements being thick-walled and lignified having simple pits. palisade single layered. IDENTITY. 2. rest of tissue of leaf composed of thin-walled. dispersed in mass of phloem parenchyma. Appendix 2.2. Lamina: Shows a dorsiventral structure. composed of thin-walled. Appendix per cent. circular to oval parenchymatous cells. tracheids. tangentially elongated cells. Leaflet: Midrib: Shows epidermis on either side. elongated. older stem shows 4 or 5 layers of cork. covered externally by a thick cuticle. endodermis quite distinct. covered externally by a thick cuticle. secondary xylem composed of vessels. secondary phloem narrow. composed of vessels. parenchymatous cells. fibres narrow. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 2 16 7 3 13 per cent.6. anisocytic stomata present on both epidermises.2. Appendix per cent.3. 103 . flattened.2. vessels and fibres. mesophyll differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. tangentially elongated parenchymatous cells. a few cluster crystals of calcium oxalate present in spongy parenchyma. secondary phloem narrow consisting of sieve elements. epidermis on either side composed of thin-walled.7. with narrow or sometimes blunt ends with simple pits. 2. pericycle represented by a discontinuous ring. center. cortex composed of 4 to 6 layers of oval. Powder: Brown. xylem rays uniseriate.2. occupied by a pith composed of thin-walled. occasionally cluster crystals of calcium oxalate present in parenchymatous cells of ground tissue.cortex consists of 8 to 10 layers of thin-walled. a few show spiral thickenings. 2. parenchymatous cells some having cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. a single palisade layer present on the adaxial side intercepted by a few parenchymatous cells in the middle. Stem . meristele composed of small strands of xylem towards upper surface and phloem towards lower surface.2.2. mesophyll composed of 3 to 5 layers of loosely arranged cells having a number of veins traversed in this region. tabular. single layered. parenchyma and traversed by numerous uniseriate rays. composed of sieve elements. filled with reddish-brown content. tangentially elongated.4. secondary xylem represented by a broad zone of tissue.

5 g of fresh whole plant Powder 2 g Decoction 30.78. Veppu N°y (ªõŠ¹ «ï£Œ) DOSE .T. 2. Kaippu (¬èŠ¹).21.Medicinal paste 3 . quercetin . Vayi¼u Mantam (õJÁ ñ‰î‹).44. 0.30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. rutin.desmethoxy seco . Matum®kam (ñ¶«ñè‹).C.92 and 0. 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹).78.92 (all grey) and 0.97 (pink). corilagin.L.97 (all yellow). for five minutes at 105°C seven spots appear at Rf.desmethoxy seco isolintetralin diacetate and linnanthin.digalloyl . 0.38.isolintetralin. 0. Captat¡thu Curam (êŠî ²ó‹). 0. 104 .88. 15 . On Spraying with Anisaldehyde -Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°).3-O-glucoside. Pu½ippu (¹OŠ¹). Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). 3 . Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Karic¡lai I½akam (èK꣬ô Þ÷è‹).C. K¢¾¡nelli Tailam (Wö£ªï™L ¬îô‹) THERAPEUTIC USES A¾al N°yka½ (Üö™ «ï£Œèœ). Ku½ircciyu¸·¡kki (°O˜„C»‡ì£‚A). 0. hypophyllanthin. 0. Kurutikka¾iccal (°¼F‚èN„ê™).0. Prominent spots at Rf.50. 0. 0. Ìral T®¼¼i (ßó™ «îŸP).97 (pink).57.44 (green) and 0. 2. 6 .62. 0. V¢kkamurukki (i‚躼‚A). on exposure to iodine vapours shows eight spots at Rf. 0. geranin. Ka¸ N°yka½ (è‡ «ï£Œèœ). 0.L. CONSTITUENTS Phyllanthin.38 (grey). 3 .. 1.50 ml twice daily.β-D-glucoside. 0. of Hexane fraction of alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethyl acetate (80:20) v/v.38 (grey). K¡m¡lai (è£ñ £¬ô). T. 0.44 (green).

Powder: Whitish in colour. flattened. wider at micropylar region. KOLLU (SEED) KOßßU (Seed) .34. cotyledon consisting of single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with a thin cuticle.) Walp. greyish to reddish brown. thin-walled. wide.ªè£œÀ Ko½½u is the dried seed of Vigna unguiculata (L. Hurali Mudiraa Kulitha Kulattha. parenchymatous. palisade like cells covered with a thin cuticle followed by single layer of rectangular to square bearer cells and 3 or 4 layers of thin-walled rectangular parenchymatous cells. Syn. consisting of angular parenchymatous cells. sub-erect or twining. Mutirai (ºF¬ó) Kulattha. K¡¸am (è£í‹). shows broken pieces of testa. micropyle prominent. Khalva. (Fam. Kalaya Horse gram Kalathi. ellipsoid. taste somewhat astringent. hard. Vardhipatraka Ulavalu Kulthi Seeds. Kulathi Kulathi. filled with numerous simple starch grains and protein bodies also present. long and 4 mm. 105 . epidermal cells thin-walled. parenchyma cells and starch grains. Dolichos biflorus Linn. rectangular and parenchymatous followed by mesophyll. surface smooth. Papilionaceae ). cultivated all over India more for use as cattle feed after cooking It grows in Marutham thi¸ai. an annual branched. downy or glabrescent herb. SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Transverse section of seed shows testa consisting of a single layer of columnar. 4 to 6 mm. Kurathi Huruli.

Appendix Total Ash Not more than 5 Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 Water-soluble extractive Not less than 12 T. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Nil .97 (reddish violet).4.2. 2. 0. T. Uram¡kki (àóñ£ ‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Iracakanthi Me¾uku (Þóêè‰F ªñ¿°). 30. per cent.2. Kallaik Karaikkum (虬ô‚ è¬ó‚°‹) DOSE .IDENTITY. 2. Ko¾uppaik Ku¼aikkum (ªè £¿Š¬ð‚ °¬ø‚°‹). Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹). Ku½irk¡yccal (°O˜è£Œ„ê™).55 (reddish violet).6.50 ml twice daily. III.2. 0.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Acaivu (ܬê¾). of Petroleum ether (40-60°C) extractive of Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) v/v. 2. Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH).29 (reddish violet).3. CONSTITUENTS Galactosyl inositol and six oleanane glycosides -azukisaponins I.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate. IV. 2.95 (reddish violet) and 0. Appendix per cent.L. Appendix 2. Pira¸·ai Va·akam (Hó‡¬ì õìè‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Aiyan°yka½ (äò«ï£Œèœ).C.2. 0. 0. Ilaku (Þô°) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). II.63 (reddish violet). V and VI.C. 0. on spraying with Anisaldehyde.7. Ka¾iccal (èN„ê™). 0.20 (reddish violet). for five minutes at 105°C shows seven spots at Rf.Decoction 30.2.2. Appendix per cent. V¢kkam (i‚è‹).33 (reddish violet). 106 . Appendix per cent.40 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction.

a tall. occasionally ridged.35. characteristically aromatic. thicker roots with collapsed center. outer periderm ring thin. rootlets rarely present. stout. Kur Kudo Upleta. inner porous woody portion lighter in colour showing fine radial striations and often the central portion collapsed. S. KOTTAM (ROOT) KÕÚÚAM (Root) .5 cm. Asteraceae). fracture short. cut surface shows two regions under 10 x. b) Microscopic Transverse section of thin root shows thin periderm. robust. Kath Kutha Changal Kustha Kuth Kottam Upleta. perennial herb 1 to 2 m. It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. secondary cortical cells polygonal. Pakala Changalva Koshtu Qust DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug greyish to dull brown. mostly elongated. broad. horny. Kashmir at an altitude of 2500 to 3600 m. Kur¡ (°ó£).) Lipsch.) C.«è£†ì‹ K°··am is the dried root of Saussurea costus (Falc. followed by broad zone of phloem and still broader zone of xylem traversed by wide medullary rays. secondary phloem consists of mostly storage 107 . Kustha Kudha Kuth Kustha. Amaya. 1. long. cultivated in Himachal Pradesh. fusiform to cylindrical. Uttranchal and Sikkim.0 to 5.B. height found in Himalayas. odour strong. Syn. 7 to 15 cm.. lappa (Decne. Clarke (Fam. wrinkles longitudinal and anastomosed. cork 3 to 5 layered wide. roots collected in September-October. SYNONYMS Tamil Assamese Bengali Gujrati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Telugu Urdu : : : : : : : : : : : : : : K°À·am («è£wì‹). thick. taste slightly bitter. Oli (åL) Kud.

L.90 and 0. with wider lumen and obtusely tapering ends.2. Appendix 12 per cent. on spraying with Anisaldehyde. lignified. wood fibres smaller than bast fibres. α-cyclocostunolide. shows irregular bits of yellow. small groups of sieve tubes and companion cells and often phloem fibres. while others have parenchymatous center with scattered xylem elements.2. 0. 0. mokkolactone and dehydrocostus lactone.2. Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A). 0. Appendix 1 per cent.74 (dark violet). broken bits of xylem vessels with scalariform. in older roots.3. tracheids and parenchyma. of Chloroform extractive of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using nButanol :Acetic Acid : Water (5:1:4) v/v.97 (dark violet).parenchyma. brown or orange-red fragments of resins and oil drops associated with thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. 0.4. Powder: Deep or rusty brown.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate. 0. isoalantolactone. some roots possess a central cylinder of sclerenchyma.50.38. bast fibres thick-walled. T. Viyarvaiyu¸·¡kki (Mò˜¬õ»‡ì£‚A) 108 . β-cyclocostunolide. reticulate thickening IDENTITY. Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A). resin canals found throughout as large cavities.86 (grey).6.7. Appendix 20 per cent. Appendix 2. upto 350 µm in length. 0. 0. 2 per cent.68 (violet). 2. 2. inulin present in storage parenchyma. with many simple pits associated with fibres.L. CONSTITUENTS Costunolide.61. for five minutes at 105°C shows nine spots at Rf.54 (violet). wood parenchyma collapses and takes a spongy appearance in the center of root.C. medullary rays multiseriate and wider in phloem region. Appendix 4 per cent. 0.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹). 2.2.2. Vi¼uvi¼uppu (MÁMÁŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP). 2.2.

Vall¡rai Ney (õ™ô£¬ó ªïŒ) THERAPEUTIC USES Iraippu (Þ¬óŠ¹). T°·am («î£ì‹) DOSE .4 g 109 . Vacanta Kucum¡karam (õê‰î °²ñ£èó‹).IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Amirt¡tik Ku½ikai (ÜI˜î£F‚ °O¬è). M£lam (Íô‹). Naµcu (ï…²). K®cari I½akam («èêK Þ÷è‹). K°r°caºai M¡ttirai («è£«ó£ê¬ù ñ£ˆF¬ó). Irumal (Þ¼ñ™).Powder 2 . Pittacurak Ku·in¢r (Hˆî²ó‚ °®c˜).

Taºiy¡ (îQò£).36. Kothambari bija Dhaniwal. winnowed. herb is pulled out with roots. sometimes crowned by the remains of sepals and styles. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Malli (ñ™L). straight. taste spicy and characteristic.Apiaceae). endosperm coelospermous. odour aromatic. KOTTHUMALLI VITHAI (FRUIT) KOTHTHUMALLI VITAI (Fruit) . glabrous. and stored in bags. Danya. after proper drying It grows in Mullai and Marutham thi¸ai. Vitunnaka. (Fam. primary ridges 10. Dhania Coriander fruit Dhana Dhaniya Havija. dried and fruits threshed. in diameter. and more prominent. high. annual aromatic herb 30 to 90 cm. ripe fruit of Coriandrum sativum L. secondary ridges 8. crop matures in 2 or 3 months after sowing. mericarps usually united by their margins forming a cremocarp about 2 to 4 mm. Kothampatayari Dhane. Uru½arici (à¼÷KC) Dhaniya Dhane. branched. Kustumburu Dhaniyalu Kishneez Fruit globular. b) Microscopic 110 . glabrous. a slender. uniformly brownish-yellow or brown.ªè£ˆ¶ñ™L M¬î Koththumalli Vitai is the dried. wavy and slightly inconspicuous. extensively cultivated throughout India. Kothimbir Dhania Dhania Dhanyaka. Dhanawal Malli.

2.7 0.52 (all red). middle layer of mesocarp sclerenchymatous.L.C. coriandrones A-E. large tubular hexagonal rather thin-walled sclerenchymatous cells of endocarp. 0.49. thickness using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) shows four spots under UV (366 nm. often crossing at right angles.27. trichomes absent. a few stomata.4.49 and 0. Merck) 0.75 (violet) and 0. 0. 0.20. rutin. masses of sclerenchymatous cells of mesocarp in sinuous rows. of Alcoholic extract of the drug on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. With Anisaldehyde.36 (both light violet).95(pink). slightly thick-walled and many containing small prism of calcium oxalate.6. Appendix 2. lignified walls. numerous aleurone grains.3 per cent v/w. 0.11(light violet).43 (violet). parenchymatous cells of mesocarp without reticulate thickening.0. Appendix 2. and many cells with small prisms of calcium oxalate.2.36. containing fixed oil and numerous small aleurone grains and micro rosettes of calcium oxalate.2. Appendix 2. thick-walled polygonal parenchymatous cells of endosperm. 0. 2 per cent.coriandrin and dihydro coriandrin. luteolin. sinuous primary cosate with some spiral vessel. outer layer of mesocarp parenchymatous with inner cells in wavy longitudinal rows and degenerated vittae as tangentially flattened cavities. with slightly thickened anticlinal wall. On exposure to iodine vapours seven spots appear at Rf. 19 per cent. furoisocoumarins . 0. carpophore consists of fibres surrounded by spiral vessels.Sulphuric acid reagent. 111 . split carpophore passing at apex of each mericarp into raphe. inner epidermis of very narrow thin-walled cells slightly sinuous anticlinal wall showing parquetry arrangement.49 (light green). 0.2.3.Transverse section of fruit shows pericarp with outer epidermis. endosperm of thick-walled cellulosic parenchyma containing much fixed oil.C. cells of inner epidermis with slightly sinuous anticlinal walls. 0. forming a thick layer of fusiform pitted cells in very sinuous rows. heating the plate for five minutes at 105ºC eight spots appear at Rf. epidermal cells of pericarp when present. 1.L. 0.27. Powder: Fawn to brown. layers often crossing at right angles with definite longitudinal strands in the secondary ridges. CONSTITUENTS S-(+)-linalool.10 T.2.2.95 (all yellow). normal vittae occurring on commissural side of each mesocarp containing volatile oil. about 4 to 8 in diameter containing micro rosettes of calcium oxalate. inner side of this is a flattened vascular strand.2.5 per cent. hexagonal with rather thin. 0. 0. 0. 0.43.) at Rf.75 and 0. 6 per cent. large. Appendix 2.43.20 (violet). 10 per cent. 0. adjacent to which is a large cavity. 0. gnaphaloside A & B.2 mm. inner cells of mesocarp. quercetin. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total ash Not more than Acid insoluble ash Not less than Alcohol soluble extractive Not less than Water soluble extractive Not less than Volatile oil Not less than T. Appendix 2. Appendix 2. IDENTITY. two or rarely more.24. isorhamnetin.

Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). Ku½irk¡yccal (°O˜è£Œ„ê™).30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction 112 . N¡va¼a·ci (ï£õø†C). 20. N¡rathtai I½akam (ï£óˆ¬î Þ÷è‹). Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Iµci Va·akam (Þ…C õìè‹).PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). V¡nti (õ£‰F). Vikkal (M‚è™). Pittacurak Ku·in¢r (Hˆî²ó‚ °®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES C¡r¡yave¼i (ê£ó£òªõP). Pittam¡ntam (Hˆîñ£‰î‹).30 ml twice daily. Pu¸ (¹‡).Powder 1 . Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®). Veppam (ªõŠð‹) DOSE . Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ) V¢rium : Ta·paveppam (î†ðªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP).3g Decoction 20 . T¡kam (î£è‹).

Marutham and P¡lai thi¸ai. walls mainly of hemicellulose and swell considerably in water. Shonkainch Jequirity Rati. glossy surface and bright scarlet colour. seeds are poisonous to cattle. long. a climber common in the plains of India and ascending to 900 m. Gulagunjee Kunni. in the Himalayas. Ghungchi Galuganji. 4 to 5 mm. The weight of 100 seeds is between 12 to 13 g . inner region of testa consists of collapsed cells forming a hyaline layer. Cuvanna Kunni Gunja Kainch Ratti Gunja. (Fam. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Transverse section of seed shows testa composed of radially much elongated cells. Ku¸·uma¸i (°‡´ñE) Rati Kunch. Raktika. Kuº¼ivittu (°¡PMˆ¶).°¡PñE Kuº¼ima¸i is the seed of Abrus precatorius L. 5 to 8 mm. walls of which swell to a less extent in water. Guruvenda Ghongcha. The seeds are subjected to purification process (cutti) before use. KUNDRI MANI (SEED) KUÜÞIMAÛI (Seed) .Papilionaceae). Chanothee Ratti. It grows in Ku¼iµci. arranged irregularly and measuring 45 to 50 µm in length. broad with the smooth. 113 Kuº¼i (°¡P). Ratti Seed ovoid or sub globular.37. isodiametric cells larger towards inside. outer one or two layers of cells formed of rather smaller cells. hilum a black patch. endosperm composed of thick-walled cellulosic parenchyma. Mullai. Kakananti Guriginia.

0.71 (all blue). 0. pieces of numerous endosperm cells containing starch. of Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (5:4:1) shows under UV (366 nm) seven spots fluorescent zones visible at Rf.2. Appendix 0.2. arabinose. 0.85 and 0.7.91 (both green). shows fragments of thick walled lignified palisade-like testa. hemagglutin glucoside.30. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. abralin. T. Aiya N°y (äò «ï£Œ). antitumour proteins .abrin A and B.L.2. a few rectangular. 0. 2.2. Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Mak¡vacanta Kucum¡karam (ñè£õê‰î °²ñ£èó‹). 2. trigonelline. globulin. Appendix 3 per cent.L.27. precatorine. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°).6. choline.abrus saponin I and II. IDENTITY. Appendix 15 per cent.44 0.4.C. 0. Viyarvaiy°·uk£·iya Mu¼aiccuram (Mò˜¬õ«ò£´Ã®ò º¬ø„²ó‹ ) 114 .2.C. On spraying with 4% Methanolic -Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105ºC three spots appear at Rf. starch grains measuring 3 to10 µm in diameter. 5 β-cholanic acid. Appendix 2. CONSTITUENTS Abrine.Powder: Cream in colour. thick walled stone cells having wide lumen. K¡m¡lai (è£ñ £¬ô). Ka¸ N°y (è‡ «ï£Œ). 0. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : N¢rmalamp°kki (c˜ñô‹«ð£‚A). βsitosterol. M£c¡mpara Pa¼¼u(Kuº¼ippa¼¼u) (Í꣋ðó ðŸÁ(°¡PŠðŸÁ)) THERAPEUTIC USES A¾al N°y (Üö™ «ï£Œ).77 and 0. 2 per cent. K£rmai (جñ). 2. simple. hypaphorine.85 (all violet).3. 2. Appendix 3 per cent.35. oval to rounded.2. stigmasterol. 0.46.5 per cent.

115 .DOSE .It cannot be administered as a single drug It should be used only in combination.

Khurasanee ajmo Khurasanee ajvayan Khurasajnee. aromatic smell. mucilaginous and pungent. starch absent. KUROCHANI OMAM (SEED) KURÕCËÛI ÕMAM (Seed) . native to the Mediterranean region and temperate Asia. powder cleared with dilute nitric acid shows surface view of sculpturing on testa. odour pleasantly aromatic. outer one with a row of osteosclereids. Yavaani Khurasanee ova Khurasanee ajvain. Powder: Dark brown. powder when treated with Sudan IV and mounted in glycerine shows the presence of oil globules which turn orange red. taste bitter. inner one with crushed parenchyma. Tippiyam (FŠHò‹) Khorasani ajwan Henbane Khurasanee ajma. seeds are imported into India. bitter mucilagenous taste and an oily texture. Khursanee Seeds irregularly reniform or sub-quadrate. slightly over a mm. Khurasanee omam Ajvayanee. 116 K¡rapi (è£óH). Madakarini Kurasanee vamu.°«ó£ê£E æñ‹ Kur°c¡¸i Õmam is the seed of Hyoscyamus niger L.It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. surface concave. dark grey. in size. shows a number of flask-shaped or dumb-bell shaped osteosclereids. Khurasani yavani. Solanaceae). Paarasika. high. SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Transverse section of seed shows the presence of a thick cuticle. K¡rcavai (裘ê¬õ). but also occurring in Western Himalayas from Kashmir to Kumaon at an altitude of 1600 to 4000 m. (Fam. testa with two layers. fragments of testa in surface view. embryo coiled. . containing oil globules..38. Turusaka. an annual or biennial foetid herb upto 5 ft. ranging from 50 to 80 µm in size. showing cells with sinuous walls. endosperm cells thin walled. Bangidewana Parasikayavani. Ajawaana Khurasaanee.

2.5 to 3 ml in increments of 0. Appendix 2.6.2. Estimation of hyoscyamine in the drug 10 µl of the test solution is applied on TLC plate. Solvent system Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Diethylamine (6. and the chromatogram is recorded and area of the peak is noted. The aqueous solution is shaken with 2 x 25 ml portions of Petroleum ether (60-80º) to remove fatty material. Appendix per cent. The plate is developed in the solvent system to a distance of 8 cm. Appendix per cent. The peak area for each concentration of hyoscyamine is recorded and the calibration curve is got. The plate is scanned in the TLC scanner at 210 nm.2.2. Aliquots of 0. The percentage of hyoscyamine ranges from 0. The amount of hyoscyamine in the test sample is determined from the calibration curve of hyoscyamine.006 to 0.IDENTITY. and dried in a current of hot air. Calibration curve 10 µl of each concentration of standard solution is applied on TLC plate. The plate is developed in the solvent system to a distance of 8 cm.2 mm thickness. Appendix per cent.0 mg/ml stock solution of hyoscyamine is prepared in Methanol. The combined extract is concentrated to 10 ml and extracted with 2M Hydrochloric acid (2 x 15 ml). TLC plates Aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. Standard solution 1. 2.0:1.0).2. 117 Not more than Not more than Not more than Not less than Not less than 2 4 1 16 10 per cent.7.019 in the samples analyzed.0:3. Test solution 10 g of powdered drug is accularately weighed and refluxed with Methanol (2 x 50 ml) for 2 hr.4. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Total Ash Acid-insoluble ash Alcohol-soluble extractive Water-soluble extractive ASSAY HPTLC densitometric estimation of hyoscyamine. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted to 10 using strong ammonia solution and extracted with Chloroform (3 x 30 ml). Merck) 0. 2.5 ml is pipetted out into 10 ml volumetric flask and made upto the volume with Methanol. Appendix per cent. 2. . The combined Chloroform extract is concentrated and adjusted the volume to 10 ml with Chloroform. 2.3.2.

Ve¸p £ca¸i Ney (ªõ‡ÌêE ªïŒ) THERAPEUTIC USES Ërampa Paittiyam (Ýó‹ð ¬ðˆFò‹).500 mg 118 . Kap¡·a M¡tthirai (èð£ì ñ £ˆF¬ó).C.90.69 (greenish brown). N-trans-feruloyl tyramine. 16á. 0. stearic. Niºaivu Ta·um¡¼¼am (G¬ù¾ î´ñ£Ÿø‹). After spraying with Anisaldehyde. 1-O-octadecanoylglycerol. 0. hyoscyamide. ßsitosterol. cannabisin G. cannabisin D.(9Z. palmitic.(9Z.(9Z. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Ci¼ukaippu (CÁ¬èŠ¹). rutin. 0. 24tetracosanediol diferulate and vanillic acid.77. 1-O. 12Z-octadecadienoyl) glycerol. Tippili Ir¡c¡yaºam (FŠHL Þó£ê£òù‹).49 (blue). Icivaka¼¼i (ÞCõèŸP). myristic. hyoscine-N-oxide (equatorial isomer).L.10.0. 0. the plate shows three spots at Rf. Tuyara·akki (¶òóì‚A).Powder 125 .C. CONSTITUENTS Hyoscyamine.(9Z-12Z-octadecadienoyl) -3O-(9Z-Octadecenoyl) glycerol.acetoxyhyoscyamilactol.12Zoctadecadienoyl) -2-O. 12Z-octadecadienoyl) -3-O-nonadecanoyl glycerol. Tamaraka Ta·ippu (îñóè ¹).(9Z. tropine.09 (brown). isomeric N-oxides of hyoscyamine (equatorial and axial). U¼akkamu¸·¡kki (àø‚躇죂A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Carapu´ka Vilv¡ti I½akam (êó¹ƒè M™õ£F Þ÷è‹). 0.61. of the Methanolic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate: diethylamine (7:2:1) shows under UV (366 nm) one fluorescent spot at Rf. 1-O.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105ºC until the colour develops.49 (brown). hyoscyamilactol. T. daucosterol. C£takav¡yu (Åîèõ £»). Nanthi Me¾uku (ï‰F ªñ¿°). Palla·i N°yka½ (ð™ô® «ï£Œèœ) DOSE . 1-O. T¡tuveppaka¼¼i (ªõŠðèŸP). After spraying with modified Dragendorff reagent spots appear at Rf. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢r Ku¼aipa·aperukki (CÁc˜ °¬øðìªð¼‚A). 0. T£kkamiºmai (É‚èI¡¬ñ). Mant¡ra Iraippu (ñ‰î£ó Þ¬óŠ¹). daturalactone-4.T.L.1. grossamide. hyoscine. 1-O.12Z-octadecadienoyl) glycerol. C£takavali (ÅîèõL). K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ). oleic and linoleic acids.23 and 0. 0.

often short branched (long turmeric). externally yellowish to yellowish-brown with root scars and annulations of leaf bases. latter 2 to 5 cm. Maµca½ Ki¾a´ku (ñ…êœ Aöƒ°).39. Haldi English : Turmeric Gujrati : Haldar Hindi : Haldi. Haldar Sanskrit : Haridra. fracture horny. Nici (GC). rhizomes carefully dug up with hand-picks between October-April and cured by boiling in its own decoction and dried. Nisa. long and about 1 to 1. P¢tam (dî‹) Assamese : Haldhi. Hardi Kannada : Arishina Kashmiri : Leadar. Haladhi Bengali : Halud. K¡ºcaºi (裡êQ). Nisi. C. central cylinder twice as broad as cortex. MANJAL (RHIZOME) MAØCAß (Rhizome) . fractured surface orange to reddish brown. It grows in Ku¼iµci and Marutham thi¸ai. thick.ñ…êœ Maµca½ is the dried and cured rhizome of Curcuma longa L. SYNONYMS Tamil : Aricaºam (ÜKêù‹). Syn. Ladhir Malayalam : Manjal Marathi : Halad Oriya : Haladi Punjabi : Haldi. Zingiberaceae). Rajant. Dosa Telugu : Pasupu Urdu : Haldi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rhizomes ovate. oblong or pyriform (round turmeric) or cylindrical. domestica Valeton (Fam. a perennial herb. Ksanada. extensively cultivated in all parts of the country. Ratri. former about half as broad as long.8 cm. odour and taste characteristic. crop is harvested after 9 to 10 months when lower leaves turn yellow. b) Microscopic 119 .

0. vessels with spiral thickening.15 (greenish yellow). of Alcoholic extract of the drug on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105ºC ten spots appear at Rf. Powder: Yellow. 0. Merck) 0. 120 .2. A piece of filter paper is impregnated with an alcoholic extract of the powder. dihydrocurcumin. a few layers of cork developed under epidermis and oleo-resin cells with brownish contents scattered. 0. 0.C. 2.Transverse section of rhizome shows epidermis with thick-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than Volatile oil Not less than T. ukonan A. a few reticulate and annular.2.10 (blackish yellow).10 (yellow). oil cell with suberised walls containing either orange-yellow globules of volatile oil or amorphous resinous matter. the filter paper assumes a pink or brownish red colour which becomes deep blue or greenish-black on the additςion of alkali.64 (violet). rounded.51 (all violet). desmethoxy curcumin. 2. measuring 4 to 15 µm in diameter.94 (all sky blue). a few oil globules. CONSTITUENTS Curcumin.38. vessels mainly spirally thickened.28.2. 0. shows fragments of cork cells. Appendix per cent. Appendix per cent.2.4.L. bisdemethoxy curcumin.2. a deep crimson colour is produced. 0. Appendix per cent. dried again. 0. β-turmerone. oleo-resin cells with brownish content. 2.L. 2. B.35. cells of ground tissue contain starch grains of 4 to 15 µm in diameter. 0.58 (light pink).3.7. 0. On the addition of concentrated Sulphuric acid or a mixture of concentrated Sulphuric acid and alcohol to the powdered drug. 2. dried.15 (dull yellow). brick-shaped parenchyma. starch grains simple. cubical cells of various dimensions. cortex characterized by the presence of mostly thin-walled rounded parenchyma cells and scattered collateral vascular bundles.94 (pink).82 (red) and 0. thickness using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) shows five spots under UV (366 nm) at Rf.2. 2. 0. and then moistened with a solution of Boric acid slightly acidified with Hydrochloric acid. Appendix per cent. bisabolane derivatives.48 and 0.2 mm. With Anisaldehyde. Appendix per cent. 0.6. C & D phytosterols and fatty acids. 0.43. Appendix 2. 0. Identification 1. cork generally composed of 4 to 6 layers of thin-walled. parenchyma cells with gelatinised starch grains.C.10 T.2. 2 9 1 8 12 4 per cent. IDENTITY.

Pi·a´ku N¡¼ikku·in¢r (H샰 ï £P‚°®c˜). K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP). Pira¸·ai Va·akam (Hó‡¬ì õìè‹). Vall¡rai Ney (õ™ô£¬ó ªïŒ). Ve½va´kap Pa¼pam (ªõœõƒèŠ ðŸð‹) THERAPEUTIC USES A¾al/Pittam (Üö™/Hˆî‹).Powder 520 . Va½i (õO) DOSE . V¡nti (õ£‰F). M£kkun¢r P¡yccal (Í‚°c˜ 𣌄ê™). Pu¸ (¹‡). N¡kaccent£ram (ï£è„ªê‰Éó‹). Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS C¢nthil Ney (Y‰F™ ªïŒ). Ìral T®¼¼i (ßó™ «îŸP). Aiya N°yka½ (äò «ï£Œèœ). Vali (õL).650 mg 121 . V¢kkam (i‚è‹). Kumma··ik Ku¾ampu (°‹ñ†®‚ °ö‹¹).PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹).

bark about 0. Daruhalidi Sumalu Daruharidra. Maramanjnal Daruhalad Daruharidra.4 to 0.8 to 3. thick. and in the Nilgiri hills in South India. phloem fibres arranged in tangential rows. a few cells of rhytidoma also contain prismatic crystals of calcium 122 . b) Microscopic Stem .. more or less hard. pale yellowish-brown. lignified having wide lumen. Daruhaladi Maramannal. fracture short in bark region. Var. rough. consisting of 1 to 4 cells.Shows rhytidoma with cork consisting of 3 to 45 rows of rectangular and squarish. spinous. taste bitter. Maradarishina. pith mostly absent. MARAMANJAL (STEM) MARAMAØCAß (Stem) . Katamkateri Manupasupu Darhald Drug available in pieces of variable length and thickness. sieve elements irregular in shape. each fibre short thick-walled. Darvi. SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic K¡l®yakam (裫ôòè‹). xylem portion yellow. thin-walled. usually 1.40. almost all phloem ray cells having single prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. yellow coloured. thin-walled cells arranged radially. spindle-shaped. brittle. radiate with xylem rays. yellowish-brown when dried. closely and rather deeply furrowed. Darhald Maradarishana. soft. aristata. an erect. a few cells containing yellowish-brown contents. splintery in xylem. T¡ruvi (M) Daruharidra Indian berberry Daruharidra. phloem rays run obliquely consisting of radially elongated parenchymatous cells.8 cm. (Fam. It grows in Ku¼iµci thi¸ai. in height found in the Himalayas at an elevation altitude of 1000 to 3000 m.ñóñ…êœ Maramaµca½ is the dried stem of Berberis aristata DC. half inner portion of rhytidoma traversed by secondary phloem rays. deciduous shrub. Berberidaceae). when present small.6 m. Daruhuladur Daruhaldi.

oxalate. 2 mg of the residue is taken and dissolved in 1 ml of Methanol.6. when an extract of the powder with chloroform and methanol is exposed under near UV light (254. xylem vessels having sprial thickening. isolated vessels cylindrical with rounded or projected at one or both ends with spiral thickening.2.4. Powder: Yellow. secondary phloem.7. arranged radially. rarely single.2. xylem rays quite distinct. Aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. sieve elements. Appendix 6 per cent. 123 . groups of vessels usually arranged radially. multiseriate. 2. Appendix 8 per cent.2 mm. yellow coloured phloem fibres entire or in pieces. Merck) 0. xylem fibres numerous. xylem vessels numerous. 2. sieve elements arranged in tangential bands and tangentially compressed cells alternating with single to five rows of phloem fibres. lignified. 366 nm. The extract is filtered and concentrated and dried in vacuo. numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Solvent system n. xylem fibres and traversed by multiseriate xylem rays. 2. Appendix 14 per cent. 2. traversed by multiseriate phloem rays. Appendix 2. consisting of sieve elements and phloem fibres.). straight. Appendix 5 per cent.) and further extracted with Methanol (150 ml) (8 to 9 hr. each ray 30 to 53 cells high. short. a broad zone.2. TLC plates 2 per cent. a few rounded. a few ray cells containing brown contents. mostly elongated. Test solution 10 g of powdered drug is extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with n-Hexane (150 ml) to defat the material (5 to 7 hr. thick-walled. stone cells in singles or in groups. thick-walled with wide lumen and pointed tips. lignified. stone cells also found scattered in phloem ray cells in groups. consisting of radially arranged rectangular cells. thickness. IDENTITY.3.Butanol: Ethyl acetate: Acetic acid : Water (3:5:1:1).) shows dark yellow and greenish yellow fluorescence respectively. large. shows mostly fragments of cork cells. lignified xylem fibres and ray cells. small to medium sized. tracheids. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than ASSAY TLC densitometric estimation of berberine. secondary xylem broad consisting of xylem vessels. distributed throughout xylem region in groups or in singles. 8 to 12 cells wide. some of which contain a single prism of calcium oxalate crystals. thick-walled having pointed ends.2.2.2.

0.L.2 mm. palmatine. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®).20 in the samples analyzed. The amount of berberine present in the samples is calculated from the calibration curve of the standard.Standard solution 1 mg of the reference compound. kalashine.58 (orange red) and 0. The percentage of berberine varies from 2. The plate is developed in the solvent system to a distance of 8 cm. 0. Calibration curve The calibration curve is drawn for berberine with 8 data points 1 to 8 µl of the standard solution is applied on a TLC plate. 0. Veppaka¼¼i (ªõŠðèŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS C¡mpir¡¸ipp£ Pata´kam (꣋Hó£EŠÌ ðîƒè‹) 124 . The plate is scanned densitometrically at 366 nm. berberine marker). Merck) 0. T.26 (all yellowish brown).methyl pakistanine. of the Methanolic extract of the drug on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. T. The peak area under curve is recorded and plotted the calibration curve for berberine.32 (dark orange red). karachine. chitraline and 1 .L. Estimation of berberine in the drug 1 µl of the test solution in triplicate is applied on TLC plate.75 to 3.C. in 1 ml of Methanol.o . The plate is developed in the solvent system and recorded the chromatogram. CONSTITUENTS Berberine. pakistanine.15. taxilamine. berberine is dissolved.C. 0.67 (dark orange red. oxycanthine.21. jatrorrhizine. 0. thickness using Butanol: Ethyl acetate: Acetic acid: Water (3:5:1:1) and visulalization with Dragendorff solution reagent shows seven spots at Rf.40 (yellowish brown). Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A). 0.

THERAPEUTIC USES Cuvaiyiºmai (²¬õJ¡¬ñ). K¡¸¡curam (è£í£²ó‹). 125 . U·curam (à†²ó‹) DOSE . Ka¸am (èí‹). M£la N°y (Íô «ï£Œ).50 ml twice daily.Decoction 30. 50 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction.

Neermatti. inner surface somewhat fibrous and pinkish. (Fam. in width. Svetavaha Telugu : Maddi Urdu : Arjun DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark available in pieces. outer surface somewhat smooth and grey. MARUDHAM PATTAI (STEM BARK) MARUTHAM PAÚÙAI (Stem bark) . a large deciduous tree commonly found throughout the greater parts of the country.) W. flat. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . in length and up to 7 cm. Kudare Kivimase Malayalam : Nirmasuthu.5 cm. secondary phloem occupies a wide zone. curved. SYNONYMS Tamil : Arccuºam (ܘ„²ù‹). Mattimora. Mathichakke. Vellamaruthi. thick. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 126 . Arjuna.ñ¼î‹ ð†¬ì Marutham Pa·¶ai is the stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. Kakubha.Mature bark shows cork consisting of 9 to 10 layers of tangentially elongated cells. and also planted for shade and ornamental purpose. Sadada Oriya : Arjuna Punjabi : Arjon Sanskrit : Arjuna. Sajada Hindi : Arjuna Kannada : Matti. usually uniseriate but biseriate rays also occasionally seen. 0. traversed by phloem rays.It grows in Marutham and Neythal thi¸ai. taste bitter and astringent. fracture short in inner and laminated in outer part. market samples upto 10 cm. phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. consisting of sieve tubes. in the middle and outer phloem region. Partha. Combretaceae). cork cambium and secondary cortex not distinct and medullary rays observed traversing almost upto outer bark. Kellemasuthu. & A. phloem fibres distributed in rows and present in groups of 2 to 10. companion cells. transversely cut smoothened bark shows pinkish surface. channelled to half quilled. a few outer layers filled with brown colouring matter.41. Intiraº P¡r (Þ‰Fó¡ ð£˜). Marathi : Arjuna.2 to 1. Ve½½ai Marutamaram (ªõœ¬÷ ñ¼îñó‹) Assamese : Arjun Bengali : Arjuna Gujrati : Sadad. Bilimatti. sieve tubes get collapsed and form ceratenchyma.

Development with the solvent system Toluene: Ethyl formate: Formic acid (5:5:2) shows 6 spots at Rf.41 (dark blue).26. T.30 (blue).52 and 0.80 to 180 mm in dia. distributed throughout the tissue (absent in T.55 (all greyish blue).079 (grey). 2. compound of 2 or 3 components. oxalic acid and ß-sitosterol. 0.2.(-)gallocatechol.arjunoletin.19 (pinkish blue).3. present in most of the phloem parenchyma. 2.1:1. arjunoside I. Appendix 20 per cent.43(ellagic acid marker). 0. 0.L.6.arjunolone. 0.casuarinin. uniseriate phloem rays 2 to 10 cells high and biseriate. 0. epicatechol. shows pinkish red fluorescence under near UV light when an extract of the powder with light petroleum (40 to 60°) is exposed. Appendix 20 per cent. 0. derivatization being carried out with 5 per cent methanolic ferric chloride solution. of the Methanolic extract of the drug on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. shows fragments of cork cells. elliptic.L. 2. arjunin. leucodelphinidin.. sometimes upto 5 components. 0.C. having 2 or 3 components with concentric striations measuring 5 to 13 mm in diameter with small narrow hilum.17. uniseriate phloem rays.45 (grey). a few rhomboidal crystals. 4 to 12 cells high. Merck) 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.7.alata). starch grains... arjungenin. round to oval. alternating with fibres. 0. pyrocatechol. a number of rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. measuring 260 to 600 mm in dia. catechol. 0. idioblasts consisting of large cells having aggregates of prismatic and rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate in row throughout the zone.2. arjun glucoside I. terminoic acid. Appendix 2.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105ºC for 5 minutes. in a tangential section. fibres.34 0.23 (dark blue).II. 0.C. mostly simple.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) 127 . arjunic acid. starch grains simple and compound. Appendix 25 per cent.2.III. ellagic acid.IV.80 (dark pink).2.II. round to oval. 2. elliptical. arjunetin. terminic acid. 0.0) shows nine spots at Rf. arjunolic acid. tomentosic acid.2.2 mm thickness silica using Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Methanol (6:3:0.71 (greyish blue) and 0. CONSTITUENTS Friedelin. 2 per cent.4. in longitudinal section rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found in the form of strands in phloem parenchyma.III. IDENTITY. measuring 5 to 13 mm in dia. Appendix 1 per cent. With Anisaldehyde. oleanolic acid. Powder: Reddish-brown.65 (grey). glucotannic acid. 0.

N¢ri¾ivu (cKN¾). Vayi¼u Vali (õJÁ õL) DOSE .6 g 128 . Itayan°y (Þîò«ï£Œ). Ka¾iccal (èN„ê™).Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Tamaraka Veppamu¸·¡kki (îñóè ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A). Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷). Pu¸ (¹‡). Marutampa··ai C£ra¸am (ñ¼î‹ð†¬ì Åóí‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Curam/K¡yccal (²ó‹/裌„ê™).Powder 3 . Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH). Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Kantaka Pa¼pam (è‰îè ðŸð‹). Iraippirumal (Þ¬óŠH¼ñ™).

M¡vila´ku (ñ£Môƒ°).42.) DC. inner surface smooth and cream white in colour. Mattamavu. Marutham and thi¸ai. Varun. according to the age and portion of the plant from where the bark is removed. taste slightly bitter. C. non Foster f.-Ham. at places. greyish to greyish-brown with ash-grey patches. large number of stone cells in groups of two or more. polygonal to tangentially elongated cells with a number of starch grains.C.ñ£MLƒèŠð†¬ì M¡vili´kappa·¶ai is the dried stem bark of Crateva magna (Lour. tangentially elongated cells. Capparidaceae). Mullai. Barna Bipatri. b) Microscopic Transverse section of mature stem bark shows an outer cork composed of thin-walled. outer surface. odour indistinct. Vayavarna Baryno Barna. starch grains mostly simple. Syn.religiosa Auct. MAVILINGAPATTAI (STEM BARK) MËVILI×KAPPAÚÙAI (Stem bark) .. Neervalamara Neermatalam Haravarna. SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Kum¡rakam (°ñ£óè‹). a small wild or cultivated tree found throughout the year in India. nurvala Buch. surface rough due to a number of lenticels. followed by a wide secondary cortex. (Fam.5 cm. Barnahi Varuna. single stone cells not very common. fracture tough and short. Varano Baruna.It grows in Ku¼iµci . consisting of thin-walled. deep boulder formation in Sub-Himalayan tracts. usually 1 to 1. phellogen single layered with thin-walled. often found along streams and also in dry. occasionally compound with 2 or 3 components also present. stone 129 . V¡ra¸i (õ£óE) Varuna Three leaved caper Vayvarno. Varana Bilvarani Thickness of bark varies. rectangular and tangentially elongated cells. shallow fissures and a few vertical or longitudinal ridges. found scattered in secondary cortex.

0. 0. Appendix 8 per cent. CONSTITUENTS Cadabacine.2. ceryl alcohol and spinasterol acetate. With Anisaldehyde Sulphuric acid reagent heating the plate at 105°C for five minutes five spots appear at Rf. shows fragments of cork cells. secondary phloem comparatively a wide zone.C.cells vary in size and shape. 2. being circular to rectangular or elongated with pits and striations on their walls. glucocapparin.glucoside.92 (all yellow). cadabacine diacetate. Appendix 2.2 mm.26 (both grey).92 (blackish violet).6. 0.2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.7. Powder: Cream in colour. parenchyma and groups of stone cells. taraxasterol.2. pieces of phloem parenchyma. T. 0. diosgenin. whereas in inner region of phloem. 2. tangentially elongated towards outer periphery. consisting of sieve tubes. companion cells. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) 130 .16.2.92 (blackish violet). medullary rays mostly multiseriate composed of thinwalled. IDENTITY. 3-epilupeol.epicatechin-5. (-)epiafzelechin.2. few rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate also found in this region. simple starch grains measuring 3.L. 0. betulinic acid. a few rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate. rarely compound with 2 or 3 components. (-) -catechin. 2. Appendix 1 per cent. lignified thick-walled stone cells. intact. sieve elements found compressed forming ceratenchyma in outer phloem region. prominent spots at Rf. Appendix 13 per cent.3. and on exposure to iodine vapours three spots appear at Rf. alternating with medullary rays. friedelin. 0. of Alcoholic extract on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. stone cells distributed somewhat in concentric bands in phloem region except in inner region of phloem which is devoid of stone cells.5 to 8. 2. 2 per cent. thickness using n-Butanol: Acetic Acid: water (5:1:4) v/v.L.4. lupeol. lupeol acetate.2 µm in diameter. a number of starch grains similar to secondary cortex also present in phloem and ray cells. radially elongated cells. Appendix 1 per cent.13.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). 0.C.74.88 (both violet) and 0.88 and 0. Merck) 0. isothicyanate glucoside. (-) .88 (violet) and 0.

Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A).50 ml twice daily. Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®). Veppaka¼¼i (ªõŠðèŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS V¡tacurak Ku·in¢r (õ£î²ó‚ °®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES Kalla·aippu (è™ô¬ìŠ¹).50 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. 131 . K¡¸¡ka·i (è£í£è®). Malami½akki (ñôI÷‚A). Puraiy°·iya Pu¸ka½ (¹¬ó«ò£®ò ¹‡èœ).Ceykai : Ka¼karaicci (èŸè¬ó„C).Decoction 30. 30. Va½i N°yka½ (õO «ï£Œèœ) DOSE .

fruits ripen from December to March. Menaru Malayalam : Karumulaku Marathi : Kalamiri Punjabi : Galmirich. Malaiy¡½i (ñ¬ôò£O). Piperaceae). Kalimirch Sanskrit : Marica. perisperm contains parenchymatous cells having a few oil globules and angular. fruits harvested from December to April. Vellaja. tabular cells forming epidermis. wrinkled. pericarp consists of epicarp. b) Microscopic Fruit consists of a thick pericarp for about one third of fruit and an inner mass of perisperm. mesocarp wide. polyhedral 132 . 0. a climber. endocarp composed of a row of beakershaped stone cells. especially in North Konkan Kerala. Kalimirich DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruits greyish-black to black. slightly sinuous. taste pungent. enclosing a small embryo. MILAGU (FRUIT) MIßAKU (Fruit) . and also in Assam. a single row of oil cells in the inner region of mesocarp. mesocarp and endocarp. thick-walled sclerenchymatous cells. K¡yam (è£ò‹). lignified stone cells adjacent to group of cells of parenchyma.5 cm. Marichamu Urdu : Fulfil Siyah. testa single layered.43. odour aromatic. (Fam. are present 1 or 2 layers of radially elongated. depending upon climatic conditions. in dia. hard. cultivated from Konkan Southwards. It grows in Ku¼iµcithi¸ai. SYNONYMS Tamil : Ka¼i (èP). tangentially elongated oil cells present in outer region and a few fibro-vascular bundles. epicarp composed of single layered.4 to 0. Vall¢cam (õ™hê‹) Bengali : Golmorich.I÷° Mi½aku is the fully mature dried fruit of Piper nigrum L. below which. Usana Telugu : Miriyalu. Kalamorich. composed of band of tangentially elongated parenchymatous cells having a few isolated. Morich English : Black pepper Gujrati : Kalimori Hindi : Kalimirch Kannada : Karimonaru.. yellow coloured.. M¡r¢cam (ñ£gê‹).

(2. Appendix 6 per cent. 4. beakershaped stone cells from endocarp and abundant polyhedral. N. 0.tridecatrienamide.2.74. 4.05.5 to 11. (E.mentha . 0.97 (both blue).57 (bluish yellow). pipercide.4.C. N-5.0 µm in dia.2E. 0. elongated cells from perisperm. 133 . 0.46 (blue). 3-benzodioxol-5-yl) -N. oval to round. interspersed with thin-walled. shows debris with a characteristic groups of more or less isodiametric or slightly elongated stone cells. of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (7:3) shows in visible light four spots at Rf. 0. 027.) ten fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.3.0.(2-methyl propyl) -2.97 (light orange).46. 6-dione (isosylreterpinolene) delta -3.20.methyl propyl) -2. 0. Appendix 2.2.20.14. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. limonene and pipwaqarine. IDENTITY. 0. guineensine.82 and 0. (E.34.2.6. α and β.cells packed with abundant. dihydroferuperine. pellitorine. 4E-pentadienoyl piperidine.52 (yellow). E.08.27 (all orange). having 2 or 3 component and a few aleurone grains and oil globules. piperine.82. 4E).52. 2. α and β. 0.20.57. 2.pinene.08.66 (light blue). 0. N-trans-feruloyl piperidine.octadecadienamide. 0. feruperine.1. piperonal. 0.97 (all violet). 0. 0. On spraying with Vanillin.(4-hydroxyphenyl) 2E. 2. 0.L. 0. CONSTITUENTS Chavicine. 0. 0. N. isochavinic acid.05 (light orange). 10 .2. 0.46.7. simple and compound starch grains measuring 5.05. oval to round.decadienamide (-) cubelin. β-caryophyllene. 12.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105º C twelve spots appear at Rf. methyl caffeic acid.66. T.0 µm in dia.2. 0.C..52 (greenish yellow).isobutyl-2E.66. 0. 0.2.5 per cent. (-) 3-4-dimethoxy-3. E) -N. Powder: Blackish-grey. 0.20 (light blue).cic-bergamotene.Sulphuric acid reagent nine spots appear at Rf. 0. 0. 4.74 and 0.05. N-isobutyl. m .97 (all yellow). 4E. 0. (2E.N-isobutyl-2. 0. Under UV (366 nm.(1.3 (8).14.27 (light yellow) and 0. 0.. Appendix 6 per cent.57 (both yellowish orange). Appendix 0. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent followed by 5% Methanolic. caryophylleneoxide.05. 8Z-eicosatrienamide. 2.08 (both light green). E)-13.08 (both light brown). 0. piperitine. 0.L. piperidine. pipericide. 0. 4-decadienamide. (E. having 2 or 3 components and a few minute aleurone grains. 4-desmethylene dioxycubalin. packed tightly with masses of minute compound and single. starch grains measuring 5.5 to 11. 0. On exposure to iodine vapours eleven spots appear at Rf. polygonal hypodermal cells. 3 . 4E. Appendix 5 per cent.90 and 0. 0. 0. 0. pioperoleine B.74 (light pink).carene. 2 per cent.27. dihydrocarveol.1-α-phellanthrene. 0. E. 0. 0.74 (both orange) and 0.dtransferuloyltyramine.cryptone. E) -11 .66.tridecatrienamde.57. epoxydihydrocaryophyllene.Benzodioxol-5-yl) N.(2-methyl propyl) -2.46. 0.

T¡½ic¡ti Va·akam (î£Oê £F õìè‹).Powder 250 . Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A). Cuv¡caku·°ri (²õ£ê°«ì£K). Nilav¡kaic C£ra¸am (Gôõ £¬è„ Åóí‹). Ka¾alai (èö¬ô). 134 . Ceriy¡mai (ªêKò£¬ñ).PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). Timir V¡tam (FI˜ õ£î‹).500 mg Decoction 30. Civaº¡r Amirtam (Cõù£˜ ÜI˜î‹). Curam/K¡yccal (²ó‹/è £Œ„ê™).50 ml twice daily. Cuvaiyiºmai (²¬õJ¡¬ñ). K¡ralu¸·¡kki (è£ó½‡ì£‚A). Paµcat¢p¡kkiºi C£ra¸am (ð…êbð£‚AQ Åóí‹). Mu¼aiveppaka¼¼i (º¬øªõŠðèŸP). Va½i N °yka½ (õO «ï£Œèœ) DOSE . Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP).30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. V¡tama·akki (õ£îñì‚A). K£rmai (جñ). Tirika·ukuc C£ra¸am (FKè´°„ Åóí‹) THERAPEUTIC USES A¾al N°yka½ (Üö™ «ï£Œèœ). Naccaka¼¼i (ï„êèŸP). Ól¡tic C£ra¸aÆ (ãô£F„ Åóí‹). V¢kka´karaicci (i‚èƒè¬ó„C) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS A¿·¡thic C£ra¸am (Üwì£F„ Åóí‹). 15 .

surface rough due to minute longitudinal striations and root scars. Nalipuruni Punjabi : Itcit (lal). yellowish brown to brown coloured. fairly long. fracture short. Motosatodo Hindi : Gadapurna. no distinct odour. long. Pu·pakam (¹†ðè‹) Assamese : Ranga punarnabha Bengali : Rakta punarnava English : Horse purslene. Kathilla. long and smaller ones 12 to 18 mm. a trailing herb found throughout India and collected after rainy season. Lalpunarnava Kannada : Sanadika. prostrate. somewhat tortuous.Opposite in unequal pairs. Punarnava. minutely pubescent or nearly glabrous. Sothaghni Telugu : Atikamaidi. apex rounded or slightly pointed. Satodimula. swollen at nodes. cylindrical. base subcordate or rounded. slender. in diameter. slender. (Fam. Khattan Sanskrit : Punarnava (Rakta). divaricately branched. Khaparkhuti Oriya : Lalapuiruni.5 cm. 135 . Vasuchimuli. SYNONYMS Tamil : Irattapu·pik¡ (Þóˆî¹†Hè£). cylindrical.Í‚Aó†¬ì êÍô‹ M£kkira·¶ai Cam£lam is the dried. 0. branches from common stalk. Erra galijeru DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root-Well developed.2 to 1. herb is diffusely branched with stout root stock and many long. prostrate or ascending branches. Kommeberu. Stem-Greenish purple. stiff. Komma Kashmiri : Vanjula Punarnava Malayalam : Chuvanna Tazhutawa Marathi : Ghetuli. often more than a metre long Leaf. Sophagnni. MUKKIRATTAI SAMUALAM (WHOLE PLANT) MÍKKIRAÚÙAI CAMÍLAM (Whole Plant) . Hog weed Gujrati : Dholisaturdi. taste slightly bitter. whole plant of Boerhaavia diffusa L. Nyctaginaceae). larger ones 25 to 37 mm.It grows in Marutham thi¸ai.44. ovate-oblong or suborbicular. M£kkura··ai(Civappu) (Í‚°ó†¬ì(CõŠ¹)).

idioblasts containing raphides. margin entire or sub-undulate. endodermis indistinct. nearly sessile or shortly stalked. vessels mostly found in groups of 2 to 8. fibres aseptate. a middle ring of 6 to 14 bundles and an outer ring of 15 to 20 or more small bundles. secondary cortex consists of 2 or 3 layers of parenchymatous cells followed by cortex composed of 5 to 12 layers of thin-walled. ground tissue parenchymatous. upper part pink. perianth tube constricted above the ovary. but more in number on lower surface. Leaf. uni seriate glandular trichomes consisting of 9 to 12 stalked cells and an ellipsoidal head. tracheids and fibres. Stem. the upper epidermal cells have straight walls and lower epidermal cell walls slightly wavy. palisade ratio 3 to 7.. spindle shaped with pointed ends. funnel-shaped.Dorsiventral. the phloem groups and adjoining ground parenchyma occasionally appear as concentric annular or band shaped strips of tissue. intra fascicular cambium present. axillary and in terminal panicles. pink coloured. having simple pits and reticulate thickening. 6 mm. pericycle 1 or 2 layered. in radial rows. ribbed. slender. cork cambium of 1 or 2 layers of thin-walled cells. tube 5 lobed. 150 to 220 µm long. followed by 2 to 4 layered spongy parenchyma cells with small intercellular spaces. vascular bundle protected by 2 to 3 layered thick walled cells on the dorsal side. Fruit-One seeded nut. thick-walled with simple pits. ovoid. numerous raphides of calcium oxalate.islet number 9 to 15 per square mm. phloem occurs as hemispherical or crescentic patches outside each group of xylem vessels and composed of sieve elements and parenchyma. central regions of root occupied by primary vascular bundles. stamen 2 or 3. thick-walled often containing scattered isolated fibres. oval to polygonal cells. rounded. dorsal side pinkish in certain cases. bracteoles small. long. the secondary bundles exhibit a concentric or irregular arrangement embedded in parenchymatous conjunctive tissue. in surface view. occasionally cluster crystal of calcium oxalate and orange-red resinous matter present in mesophyll. broadly and bluntly 5 ribbed. epidermis single layered. palisade single layered. arranged on slender long stalks. stomatal index 11 to 16 for upper surface. acute. several concentric bands of xylem tissue alternating with wide zone of parenchymatous tissue present below cortical regions. stele consists of two medullary bundles. long. broad zone of parenchymatous tissue.75 to 11 µm in diameter. very small. 10 to 14 for lower surface. viscidly glandular.Transverse section of young stem shows epidermal layer containing multicellular. whitish below. 3 mm. tracheids small. cork composed of thin-walled tangentially elongated cells with brown walls in the outer few layers. clavate. cortex consists of 1 or 2 layers of parenchyma. multicellular glandular trichomes present on both the surfaces.green and glabrous above. umbels. stomata anomocytic present on both lower and upper surface. in between two successive rings of xylem elements composed of thin-walled more or less rectangular cells arranged in radial rows. elongated. in single or in group present in cortical region and parenchymatous tissue in between xylem tissue. number of bands vary according to thickness of root and composed of vessels. vascular bundle surrounded by an incomplete bundle sheath. thick-walled. starch grains mostly rounded in shape and measure 2. thick in texture. 136 . starch grains simple and compound having 2 to 4 components found in abundance in most of cells of cortex and in parenchymatous tissue between xylem elements. lower part greenish. Flowers. thin walled lignified groups of parenchymatous cells frequently associated with the phloem.Small clusters of 4 to 10 corymb. petioles nearly as long as the blade. vein.Transverse section of mature root shows anomalous secondary growth. b) Microscopic Root . Mature stem shows anomalous secondary thickening in the form of a succession of rings of vascular bundles. dorsal side of the midrib composed of 2 layered collenchyma. 10 to 25 cm.

Dglucoside. when assayed by the following methods:About 100 g of the drug (60 mesh powder) is taken and moistened with dilute solution of Ammonia. vessels with reticulate thickening.0 per cent. Appendix 2.69.2.. liridodendrin.C. Contains not less than 0.1 per cent of total alkaloids.45. numerous acicular and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. The percentage of the total alkaloid is calculated. 0.Powder: Brown. 2. C. T. Appendix 1 per cent. B.2.75 to 11 µm in dia. It is extracted continuously in a Soxhlet apparatus for 18 hours with 95 per cent Alcohol.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) 137 .L. The Alcohol is removed by distillation.9-L-arabinofuranoside. Appendix 4.69 and 0.31.7. compound having 2 to 4 components. The Chloroform layer is filtered in tared flask and evaporated to dryness. 0. 2. rounded starch grains measuring 2.2. The mixed acid solutions is transferred into a separating funnel and washed with 25 ml of Chloroform and the Chloroform washings are rejected. 0. CONSTITUENTS Punarnavoside. IDENTITY. T. of Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl Acetate: Acetone (2:4:4) v/v. fragments of unicellular hairs.C.4. 0.62. simple.96 (all grey).Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. syringaresinol mono . 0. boeravinones A.ß . Appendix 15 per cent. 0. shows parenchyma cells. 0. The combined Chloroform extract is washed with two portions each of 25 ml of water.3. The aqueous acid solution is made distinctly alkaline with Ammonia and shaken with five 25 ml portions of Chloroform till complete extraction of alkaloids is effected.) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0.6.2.75 (all red).L. 2.62. boeravine and hypoxanthine . under UV (366 nm. fragments of tracheids.80 & 0. The residue is extracted with five 25 ml portions of 1 N Hydrochloric acid till complete extraction of the alkaloid is effected. On spraying with 4% Methanolic. D & E.45. Appendix 6 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than ASSAY 2 per cent. 2.2.

K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP).Powder 1 . K¡m¡lai (è£ñ£¬ô). Ku½ircciyu¸·¡kki (°O˜„C»‡ì£‚A). Va½i N°yka½ (õO «ï£Œèœ) DOSE . Peruvayi¼u (ªð¼õJÁ).Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). K¢lv¡yu (W™õ £»). Malami½akki (ñôI÷‚A). Iraippu (Þ¬óŠ¹). Namaiccal (ï¬ñ„ê™). N¢rkka··u (c˜‚膴).3g 138 . Pu¾uvaka¼¼i (¹¿õèŸP). V¡ntiyu¸·¡kki (õ£‰F»‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS T¡½akacent£ram (î£÷èªê‰Éó‹) THERAPEUTIC USES A¾al N°yka½ (Üö™ «ï£Œèœ).

a prostrate or semi-erect laticiferous herb. P¡t¡½a M£li (ð£î£÷ ÍL) Assamese : Vaga sariva Bengali : Anantamul. external appearance dark brown.ï¡ù£K Naºº¡ri is the root of Hemidesmus indicus (L. surrounded by a mealy white cortical layer. hard. in diameter. sparsely branched. taste sweetish. NANNARI (ROOT) NAÜÜËRI (Root) . Upalsari Hindi : Anantamul Kannada : Anantamool. C¡riyam (ê£Kò‹). K¡mavalli (è£ñõ™L). bark brownish. Anantamula Oriya : Dralashvan lai. woody. Gopasuta Telugu : Sugandhi pala. Shvetashariva English : Indian sarasa parilla Gujrati : Kabri.45.) R. Asclepiadaceae). odour characteristic. Namadaberu Kashmiri : Anant mool Malayalam : Nannari. Nannar. sometimes with violet-grey tinge. Sogadeberu. Br. slightly acrid and aromatic. cylindrical. marked with transverse cracks and longitudinal fissures and easily detachable from the hard central core. Western and Southern India upto an elevation of 600 m SYNONYMS Tamil : A´k¡ri M£li (܃è£K ÍL). cork. Namada veru. throughout Central. Bili namadaberu. cork cambium and secondary cortex. Ushbah Sanskrit : Sveta sariva. (Fam. cork cells radially flattened and rectangular in appearance filled 139 . long and 3 to 8 mm. b) Microscopic Transverse section of root shows periderm consisting of three layers of tissues. provided with a few thick rootlets and secondary roots. center yellow. Tella Sugandhi Urdu : Ushba hindi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Roots occur in pieces. somewhat tortuous. about 30 cm. found throughout India from upper Gangetic plains east-wards to Assam. Anantamool Punjabi : Anantmool. Naruneendi Marathi : Upalsari. thick. Ananta. KiruÀ¸avalli (A¼wíõ™L). corky.

shows parenchyma cells filled with oval or rounded starch grains 7 to19 µm in dia.C.94 (both pinkish violet). secondary cortex. 1. Appendix 15 per cent. parenchyma. Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ). lupeol acetate. 0. 8.cineol.5 per cent. cork cambium. Powder: Brown. borneol.72 (pinkish violet). Appendix 0. 0. similar to cork cells.L. salicylaldehyde. having 2 to 8 or more components or prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. Merck) 0. T.65 (blue). 2.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate.methoxy-benzoic acid.hemidesminine. occasional prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. and filled with deep brown contents. Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A).C of Chloroform soluble fraction of alcoholic extract on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E.2. essential oil containing mainly 2. U½½a¾al¡¼¼i (àœ÷öô£ŸP). nerolidol. xylem traversed by narrow medullary rays.hydroxy . 2. U·a¼t®¼¼i (à쟫îŸP). PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹).59 (bluish grey). pith absent and central region occupied by woody tissues. cambium very narrow.2.2.6. isocaryophyllene. pieces of laticiferous ducts. ursane and lupane derivatives. secondary phloem consists of sieve elements.2. at 105ºC for five minutes shows six spots at Rf.oleanane.91 and 0. phloem ray cells alongwith several laticiferous ducts. IDENTITY. Appendix 4 per cent. Appendix 13 per cent.terpinylacetate.3.2 mm.7.2. compressed. 2. vessels and tracheids characterized by the presence of pitted markings. 0. 3 or 4 layers of cells..4methoxy benzaldehyde.5). 0. laticiferous ducts scattered in parenchymatous tissue.2. diameter 7 to 10 µm. 2. dihydrocarvylacetate. Appendix 2.80 (bluish grey). 2 per cent.L. Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). with very little or no dark brown contents. thickness using Toluene: Ethyl acetate : Methanol (8:2:0. á. vessels with spiral thickenings. with Anisaldehyde. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. 4. 0. hemidesmin 1 and 2. 2 or 3 layered. CONSTITUENTS 2-hydroxy.with dark brown contents giving reactions of tannins. parenchyma cells filled with starch grains. linalylacetate. Viyarvaiyu¸·¡kki (Mò˜¬õ»‡ì£‚A) 140 . coumarino lignoids .4.

N¢r®¼¼am (c«óŸø‹). Pa¼a´kippa··ai Irac¡yaºam (ðøƒAŠð†¬ì Þóê£òù‹). 141 . Curav®·kai (²ó«õ†¬è).IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Ma¸·£r¡ti A·aikku·in¢r (ñ‡Çó£F ܬ산®c˜).50 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. Pittacurak Ku·in¢r (Hˆî²ó‚ °®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES A¾al N°yka½ (Üö™ «ï£Œèœ). Va¸·u Ka·i (õ‡´ è®) DOSE .Decoction 30. N ¢ri¾ivu (cKN¾).50 ml twice daily. 30.

yellowish-brown.0 cm. sub sessile. perianth segments 5. Pratyakpuspa. connate forming a membranous tube-like structure.1 to 1. filament short. (Fam. gradually tapering. yellowish-brown. wavy margin. Western and Southern India upto an elevation of 600 m.Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes. decussate. in thickness. SYNONYMS Tamil : Apam¡rkki (Üðñ£˜‚A).Cylindrical tap root. in cut pieces. Asclepiadaceae). hairy. Latjira Kannada : Uttarani Malayalam : Katalati Marathi : Aghada Punjabi : Puthakanda Sanskrit : Apamarga.Simple. alternating with truncate and fimbriate staminodes. solid but hollow when dry. Mayura. erect.3 to 0. M¡muºi (ñ£ºQ) Bengali : Apamg English : Prickly chaff flower Gujrati : Aghedo Hindi : Chirchita. exstipulate. Br. actinomorphic. obovate. throughout Central.¼M êÍô‹ Naºº¡ri is the root of Hemidesmus indicus (L. Kharamanjar. numerous sessile. bracteate with two bracteoles.It grows in Marutham thi¸ai. branched. Sikhari Telugu : Uttarenu Urdu : Chirchita DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root .46. Leaf . odour not distinct. Ci¼uka·al¡·i (CÁèìô£®). Flower . Allam (Ü™ô‹). free. stamens 5. slightly acuminate and pubescent. contorted or quincuncial. opposite. slightly ribbed. one spine lipped. K¡µcari (装êK). a prostrate or semi-erect laticiferous herb. NAYURUVI SAMULAM (WHOLE PLANT) NËYURUVI CAMÍLAM (Whole Plant) . cylindrical. Stem . opposite. bisexual. rough due to presence of some root scars. membranous. 142 . 0. hypogynous. greenish-white.0. found throughout India from upper Gangetic plains east-wards to Assam.) R. secondary and tertiary roots present. the perianth lobes.5 cm.

epidermis followed by 4 or 5 layered collenchyma on upper side and 2 or 3 layered on lower side. medullary rays 1 to 3 cells wide. small prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present in cortical region and numerous in medullary rays. having single-layered epidermis with thickcuticle.0 on lower surface. spiral.Dorsiventral. non-lignified cell. xylem composed of usual elements. thin-walled cork cells. style. each vascular bundle shows below the xylem vessels. oval to rectangular. thin layers of cambium followed by phloem and a pericycle represented by 2 or 3 layers of thick-walled. stomata anomocytic present on both surfaces. rosette crystals of calcium oxalate found scattered in ground tissues.anther.Shows crescent-shaped outline. composed of parenchymatous cells.0 to 20. truncate at the apex. capitate. cambial strip present between secondary xylem and phloem. perianth and bracteoles.0 to 11. dorsifixed. brown. spongy parenchyma 3 to 5 layers thick.Young stem shows 6 to 10 prominent ridges. vascular bundles lie facing each ridge capped by pericyclic fibres. covered by thick cuticle having uniseriate. thin-walled cork cells.0 on upper surface. cortical and pith cells. followed by 4 to 6 discontinuous rings of anomalous secondary thickening composed of vascular tissues. small patches of sieve tubes distinct in phloem parenchyma.Mature root shows 3 to 8 layered. gynoecium bicarpellary. round at the base. parenchymatous cells having a few scattered single or groups of stone cells.islet number 7 to 13 per square mm. palisade 2 to 4 layered of thick parenchyma larger. shows single layered. pericycle a discontinuous ring of lignified fibres. endospermic. fibres pitted. more or less isodiametric parenchymatous cells. demarcating the xylem rings. stomatal index 4. most of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. vessels annular. palisade ratio 7. b) Microscopic Root . while smaller and rectangular in lower surface. elongated. 4 or 5 vascular bundles situated in mid region.Sub-cylindric. scalariform and pitted. epidermis single layered. ground tissue consisting of thin-walled. Leaf Petiole . 2 to 5 celled. Stem . secondary phloem consists of usual elements forming incomplete rings. thin-walled. two celled. parenchymatous cells containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. covering trichomes and glandular with globular head on a 3 to 4 celled stalk. transverse section of mature stem shows lignified. unilocular with single ovule. lignified. slightly elongated in upper.An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent. microsphenoidal calcium oxalate crystals present in some epidermal. single. secondary cortex consisting of 6 to 9 layers. ovary superior. two medullary bundles. 9. in the ridges cortex collenchymatous. syncarpous. Lamina .Shows a single layered epidermis on both surfaces. Midrib . idioblast containing large rosette crystals of calcium oxalate distributed in mesophyll. tangentially elongated epidermis cells covered with thick cuticle having covering trichomes which are similar to those of stem found on both surfaces. Fruit . rectangular. 143 . parenchymatous cells having a number of vascular bundles. stigma. parenchymatous cells. ground tissue consisting of thinwalled. Seed . clustered crystals of calcium oxalate. vessels simple pitted.5 to 9. tangentially elongated. vascular tissues show anomalous secondary growth having 4 to 6 incomplete rings of xylem and phloem. cortex 6 to 10 layered. pith wide consisting of oval to polygonal. vein.

20 (light pink).4. rectangular. pentatriacontane.2.one.3.55 (dark yellow).0:0.L.17 . 2. 0. tritriacontane.1) shows 3 spots at Rf. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 12 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.4 . 0.Hexane: Ethyl Acetate: glacial Acetic Acid (10. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Acaivu (ܬê¾). 10tria cosanone. hexatriacontane.cyclohexyl heptacosan. 2.0:5.Powder: Light yellow. IDENTITY. 4-tritria contanone. possessing oleanolic acid as aglycone. 2.2. K¡rppu (裘Š¹). oleanolic acid marker). CONSTITUENTS Triterpenoid saponins A-D.6.7. thin-walled eipdermal cells. ecdysone.2.7-ol. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹). scalariform and pitted thickening. dihydroxyhenpentacontan . Appendix T.49 (dark pink. T. on spraying with 1:1 aqueous Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105ºC for five minutes. 2. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 17 per cent.C. ecdysterone. Mu¼aiveppaka¼¼i (º¬øªõŠðèŸP).L. 16. U·a¼t®¼¼i (à쟫îŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS N¡kaccent£ram (ï£è„ªê‰Éó‹) THERAPEUTIC USES 144 . hydroxy -26.C. betaine. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 5 per cent. vessels with annular. aseptate fibres. 0.2. 6. 2.pentatria contanone. spiral.pentatriacontanol. 47.2. 27. and two brown spots one of which stays on the base and the other running to the solvent front with a green chlorophyll spot below it. of the Methanolic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using n.methyl heptacosan .2. K£rmai (جñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 2 per cent. Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH). rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.2. uniseriate hair with bulbous base. shows fragments of elongated.one and 36.

Aiya N°yka½ (äò «ï£Œèœ). C£takata·ai (Åîèî¬ì).50 ml twice daily.Cevin°y (ªêM«ï£Œ). Ve½uppu N°y/P¡¸·u (ªõÀŠ¹ «ï£Œ/𣇴). Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷).20 . Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹). V¢kkam (i‚è‹) DOSE . 145 . Irumal (Þ¼ñ™).Decoction 30.50 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. K¡m¡lai (è£ñ£¬ô).

a small or medium sized tree. Amli Malayalam : Nellikka Marathi : Anvala. Mi¼utupal¡ (IÁ¶ðô£). Amlaj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit. Nelli (ªï™L). Anala Punjabi : Amla. globose. changing to light yellowish or pinkish colour when mature. consisting of thinwalled parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. Euphorbiaceae).5 cm. (Fam. hypodermal cells tangentially elongated. Amrtaphala. Avalkathi Oriya : Ainla. Dhatri English : Amlaku. K°ra´kam («è£óƒè‹). smooth with six prominent lines. NELLIKKAI (FRESH FRUIT) NELLIKKËY (Fresh Fruit) . Aonla Kannada : Nellikayi Kashmiri : Embali. Emblica officinalis Gaertn.It grows in Ku¼iµciand Marutham thi¸ai.ªï™L‚裌 Nellikk¡y is the fresh fruit of Phyllanthus emblica L. Syn. ovoid or 146 . fleshy.47. ascending to 1300 m. b) Microscopic Transverse section of mature fruit shows an epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermis and 2 to 4 layers of hypodermis. SYNONYMS Tamil : Ëmalakam (Ýñôè‹). covered externally with a thick cuticle and appear in surface view as polygonal.5 to 3. Dhatriphala Telugu : Usirika Urdu : Amla. in diameter. thickwalled. Emblic myrobalan Gujrati : Ambala. taste sour and astringent followed by delicately sweet taste. found in mixed deciduous forests. T¡ttiri (FK) Bengali : Amla. Amlakhu. Aula Sanskrit : Amalaki. with a few dark specks. smaller in dimension than epidermal cells. greenish when tender. mesocarp forms bulk of fruit. Amlakhi. tabular in shape. epidermal cell. 2. on hills and cultivated in gardens and homeyards. Amla Hindi : Amla. peripheral 6 to 9 layers smaller.

2. Appendix T. 2.tangentially elongated while rest of cells larger in size. isodiametric with prominent corner thickenings.2.4.2. 2. K¡yaka¼pam¡kki (è£òèŸðñ£‚A). IDENTITY. mesocarp contains large aggregates of numerous irregular silica crystals.L.48 and 0. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°).6. L-malic acid-2-O-gallate. mucic acid-1.2. 0. 0. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 50 per cent.19 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Moisture content Not less than 80 per cent.19. 3-O-gallate. 2-O-gallate.04. Nelli I½akam (ªï™L Þ÷è‹).5-di-O-gallate and tannins.2.2. several collateral fibrovascular bundles scattered throughout mesocarp consisting of xylem and phloem. gallic acid. CONSTITUENTS Ascorbic acid. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹). 2. Ki½iµcal Me¾uku (AO…ê™ ªñ¿°). 0. 3. 0. xylem composed of tracheal elements. Malami½akki (ñôI÷‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Irunellik Ka¼pam (Þ¼ªï™L‚ èŸð‹).3. 2.04. T.32 (all blackish violet). tracheal elements show reticulate. scalariform and spiral thickenings. On spraying with 5% Ferric chloride solution three spots appear at Rf.41. Appendix Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.12. mucic acid-2-O-gallate. xylem fibres elongated with narrow lumen and pointed end.9 2. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 7 per cent.2. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 40 per cent. Ku½ircciyu¸·¡kki (°O˜„C»‡ì£‚A). Pu½ippu (¹OŠ¹). ellagic acid. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 2 per cent. 0. on exposure to iodine vapours shows seven spots at Rf. Poºº¡´k¡¸it Tailam (ªð£¡ù£ƒè£Eˆ ¬îô‹) 147 . fibre tracheids and xylem fibres.61 (all yellow). 5-O-gallate.4-lactone.C of Dichloromethane. 0.32. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).L.C. 2. 0.7.soluble fraction of Alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl Acetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1). 0.

10 ml 148 . V¡nti (õ£‰F).Powder 10 . Mayakkam (ñò‚è‹). Piram®kam (Hó«ñè‹).THERAPEUTIC USES Aiya N°yka½ (äò «ï£Œèœ).20 g Fresh juice 5 . Ve¼i N°y (ªõP «ï£Œ) DOSE . P¢ºicam (dQê‹).

NELLIVATRAL (DRIED FRUIT) NELLI VAÞÞAL (Dried Fruit) . pieces showing a broad. Amlakhu Bengali : Amla. taste sour and astringent. (Fam. 149 . Dhatriphala Telugu : Usirika Urdu : Amla. T¡ttiri (FK) Assamese : Amlakhi. Euphorbiaceae). SYNONYMS Tamil : Ëmalakam (Ýñôè‹). Mi¼utupal¡ (IÁ¶ðô£). Avalkathi Oriya : Ainla. transversely wrinkled lateral surface. texture rough. bulk colour grey to black.ªï™L õŸø™ Nelli Va¼¼al is the dried pericarp of mature fruit devoid of seeds. Nellikk¡y (ªï™L‚裌). Emblica officinalis Gaertn. ascending to 1300 m.It grows in Ku¼iµciand Marutham thi¸ai. Anala Punjabi : Amla. found in mixed deciduous forests. Aonla Kannada : Nellikayi Kashmiri : Amli. cartilaginous. Aula Sanskrit : Amalaki. of Phyllanthus emblica L. a small or medium sized tree.48. 1 to 2 cm. on hills and cultivated in gardens and homeyards. Amrtaphala. Nelli (ªï™L). long or united with 3 or 4 segments. Dhatri English : Emblic myrobalan Gujrati : Ambala. K°ra´kam («è£óƒè‹). tough. Nellimu½½i (ªï™LºœO). Amlaku. Embali Malayalam : Nellikka Marathi : Anvala. Syn. highly shrivelled and wrinkled external convex surface to somewhat concave. occasionally some pieces show a portion of stony testa. external surface shows a few whitish specks. Amla Hindi : Amla. Amlaj DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of curled pieces of pericarp of dried fruit occurring as separated segments.

2.2.2. Malami½akki (ñôI÷‚A) 150 . occasionally stone cells may be present either isolated or in small groups towards endocarp. 2.0. Pu½ippu (¹OŠ¹). 50 per cent. Appendix 50 per cent. 0. mesocarp cells tangentially elongated parenchymatous and crushed. T. shows epidermis with uniformly thickened straight walled.4.32 (both blackish violet).C. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°).18 and 0. 2. Appendix 2. On spraying with 5% Ferric chloride solution two spots appear at Rf.92 and 0. ramified vascular elements occasionally present. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹).48. isodiametric parenchyma cells with irregular thickened walls.32. walls appearing serrated due to the pit canals leading into lumen.C. Appendix 40 per cent. tannins gallic.L. differentiated roughly into a peripheral 8 or 9 layers of tangentially elongated smaller cells.9 2. rest consisting of mostly isodiametric larger cells with walls showing irregular thickenings.2.95 (all yellow).18.0.2. Appendix 3 per cent. pitted vascular fibres.2. occasionally short fibres and tracheids. PURITY AND STRENGTH Moisture content Not less than Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. CONSTITUENTS Ascorbic acid. cell appearing tabular and polygonal in surface view. on exposure to iodine vapours shows five spots at Rf. phyllemblic acid and emblicol. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). Powder: Black. IDENTITY.2.2.6.L. 0. ellagic. 0. Ku½ircciyu¸·¡kki (°O˜„C»‡ì£‚A). cuticle present.soluble fraction of Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl Acetate : Formic Acid (5:4:1). of Dichloromethane.3. 2. Appendix 7 per cent.b) Microscopic Transverse section of fruit shows epicarp consisting of single layer of epidermis.7. Appendix 2 per cent.

U·c£·u (à†Å´). Nellikk¡y I½akam (ªï™L‚裌 Þ÷è‹). Kuruti A¾al (°¼F Üö™).Powder 3 .6 g 151 . Kantaka Irac¡yaºam (è‰îè Þóê£òù‹). Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷) DOSE . Perump¡·u (ªð¼‹ð£´).IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS ˺anta Pairavam (Ýù‰î ¬ðóõ‹). Tiripalaic C£ra¸am (FKð¬ô„ Åóí‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Eºpurukki N°y (⡹¼‚A «ï£Œ).

Sannaneggilu. ripe. tips of spines almost meet in pairs. Gokhru Sanskrit : Goksura. K°ka¸·am («è£è‡ì‹). Michirkand. light or greenish yellow. Plakhada Malayalam : Gokshura. Ki··iram (A†®ó‹). chiefly in hot. Neruµcil (ªï¼…C™). pointed downwards. armed with a pair of spines. ripe fruit separates into five segments or cocci. Svadamstra. Neggilu Kashmiri : Gokshura. entire fruit of Tribulus terrestris L. more or less spherical in structure and covered with short stiff or pubescent hairs.5 cm.ªï¼…C ºœ Neruµci Mu½ is the dried. throughout India and upto 3. Traikantaka Telugu : Palleru Kaya Urdu : Khar-e-Khasak Khurd DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit stalked. Trikanta. whole together forming pentagonal frame-work around fruit. NAERUNCHI MUL (FRUIT) NERUØCI MUß (Fruit) . Gokhri. Gokhri English : Caltrops fruit Gujrati : Bethagokharu. coccus semi-lunar or plano-convex in structure. five ribbed or angled. 1 cm. Neythal and P¡laithi¸ai. road sides and other waste places. of prominent short stiff spines. Gokhyura Punjabi : Bhakhra. starting from its middle containing four or more seeds. in length. one chambered. Mithagokhru. dry and sandy regions.000 m. about 0. taste slightly astringent. Nerinjil Marathi : Sarate. an annual rarely perennial prostrate. in diameter with five pairs. Nanagokharu Hindi : Gokhru Kannada : Neggilamullu. Zygophyllaceae). Gokhurkata.It grows in Marutham .(Fam. Tirika¸·am (FKè‡ì‹) Assamese : Gokshura.49. in Kashmir. common weed of the pasture lands. SYNONYMS Tamil : Cutam (²î‹). Gokhurkata Bengali : Gokshura. 152 . Gokharu Oriya : Gukhura.

0.56 (greenish grey).6.2. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 15 per cent.35 (dark grey).23. 0. Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) 153 . shows fragments of rectangular epidermal cells. 0.66.C. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ). gitonin. Ntrans. IDENTITY.2. 2. mesocarp 6 to 10 layers of large parenchymatous cells. 2.93 and 0. 0.2.feruloyl tyramine. 0. 2.4. numerous rosette crystals of calcium oxalate and a few cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.43 (greenish grey).61 (greenish grey).2. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 2 per cent.23 (greenish grey).93 (dark greenish grey) and 0. With Anisaldehyde.b) Microscopic Transverse section of fruit shows rectangular epidermal cells of each coccus. tribulusamides A and B. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹).97 (dark greenish grey). 0.2 mm.97 (all yellow).49 (blue). 0.trans. 0.2. rosette of calcium oxalate crystals abundantly present.56. on exposure to iodine vapours shows ten spots at Rf. 0. unicellular trichomes with pointed tips. 0.09. N. 0.7 T.coumaroyl tyramine.61.L. ß-sitosterol and steroidal saponins. hecogenin and neotigogenin. 0. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 10 per cent.Sulphuric acid reagent heating the plate for five minutes at 105ºC twelve spots appear at Rf.86 (blue). F-gitonin. of Alcoholic extract on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. B.43. 0. Merck) 0. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent.29 (greenish grey). 0. desgalactotigonin.66 (greenish grey). Appendix T.2. hydrolysed products include diosgenin.35. Powder: Creamish-brown. C. terrestriamide.L. D and E. 2. 0. 0.09 (bluish grey). CONSTITUENTS Terrestrosins A. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 6 per cent. 2. thickness using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1). 0. 0.C. mesocarp followed by 3 or 4 compact layers of small cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.3. 0. unicellular trichomes in abundance.29. desglucolanatigonin.

Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Kantaka Irac¡yaºam (è‰îè Þóê£òù‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Cataiya·aippu (ê¬îò¬ìŠ¹). Ci¼un¢r Ericcal (CÁc˜ âK„ê™).50 ml twice daily. Ci¼un¢r Ka··u (CÁc˜ 膴).Powder 3 . Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). Kalla·aippu (è™ô¬ìŠ¹) DOSE .6 g Decoction 30. Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH).Ceykai : ˸maiperukki (݇¬ñªð¼‚A). 40. U½½a¾al¡¼¼i (àœ÷öô£ŸP). Ku½ircciyu¸·¡kki (°O˜„C»‡ì£‚A). 154 .80 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction.

dry and sandy regions throughout India and upto 3. in diameter. Gokhri English : Caltrops root Gujrati : Be tha gokharu. rarely perennial prostrate common weed of the pasture lands. Gukhurkata Bengali : Gokshura. Ki··iram (A†®ó‹). Zygophyllaceae). taste sweetish and astringent. (Fam. fracture fibrous.50. Traikantaka Telugu : Palleruveru Urdu : Khar-e-Khasak Khurd DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug consists of root. Neggilu. Sarate Oriya : Gukhura.ªï¼…C «õ˜ Neruµci V®r is the root of Tribulus terrestris L. 7 to 18 cm. Neruµcil (ªï¼…C™). Tirika¸·am (FKè‡ì‹) Assamese : Gokshura. slender. Nana gokharu. Gokhru Sanskrit : Goksura. Sannanaggilu Kashmiri : Michirkand. tough.3 to 07 cm. cylindrical. odour aromatic. in mature 155 . long and 0. frequently branched bearing a number of small rootlets.000 m. b) Microscopic Transverse section of primary roots show a layer of epidermis followed by 4 or 5 layers of thin-walled parenchymatous cortex. Neythal and P¡laithi¸ai. Mithogokharu Hindi : Gokhru Kannada : Neggilamullu. endodermis distinct. SYNONYMS Tamil : Cutam (²î‹). Trikanta. surface becomes rough due to presence of small nodules. Gokhyura Punjabi : Bhakhra. an annual prostrate herb. chiefly growing in hot. Pakhada Malayalam : Nerinjil Marathi : Gokharu. Svadamstra. in Kashmir. fibrous. woody and yellow to light brown in colour. It grows in Marutham . NAERUNCHIVER (ROOT) NERUØCI VÓR (Root) . road sides and other waste land. K°ka¸·am («è£è‡ì‹). pericycle enclosing diarch stele.

tracheids.L. shows parenchyma cells. some secondary cortex cells show secondary wall formation and reticulate thickening.3. 0. cork 4 to 6 layered. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ). a few xylem fibres.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105ºC shows nine spots at Rf. neotigogenin. 0. 0. 0. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹).13. wood composed of vessels. β-sitosterol and campesterol . 2. inner zone frequently parenchymatous. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. 0.42 (grey). scattered rosette crystal of calcium oxalate. stigmasterol. with Anisaldehyde .2. Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) 156 . outer zone characterized by presence of numerous phloem fibres with a few sieve tubes slightly collapsed.C.63(blue). Appendix T. 2.83 (grey) and 0. cork cambium single layered followed by 6 to 14 layers of thin-walled parenchymatous cells with groups of fibres. 2. 1 to 4 cells wide. a few prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate. vessels scattered. Powder: Creamish-brown.2.2. oval to rounded starch grains measuring 2 to 7 µm in diameter. a few cells get converted into fibres in outer region. starch grains and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate present in secondary cortex. 0. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 13 per cent. small. phloem rays distinct. narrow with simple pits.34. tigogenin. arranged in singles or doubles towards inner side. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 3 per cent.93 (pinkish grey). tracheids. xylem parenchyma rectangular or slightly elongated with simple pits and reticulate thickening. cambium 3 to 5 layered. phloem and medullary ray cells. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 10 per cent. a few prismatic crystals also present in xylem ray cells.C.38. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 4 per cent.L.2. IDENTITY.4.7. tracheids long.2. Merck) 0. in groups of three to four on outer side having bordered pits.2 mm.54 (violet). 0. gitogenin. thickness using Chloroform : Methanol (9:1) as the developing system. secondary phloem divided into two zones. single or groups of phloem fibres. 0. devoid of fibres often showing sieve tubes and companion cells. of Chloroform. hecogenin. T. distributed throughout. 2. fragments of lignified xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.soluble fraction of the Alcoholic extract of the drug on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E.6.2.root. medullary rays heterogenous. CONSTITUENTS Diosgenin. parenchyma and fibres and traversed by medullary rays.26 (violet).

157 .80 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction.Decoction 30.Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : ˸maiperukki (݇¬ñªð¼‚A). U½½a¾al¡¼¼i (àœ÷öô£ŸP).50 ml twice daily. Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷) DOSE . 40. Ku½ircciyu¸·¡kki (°O˜„C»‡ì£‚A). Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH). Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Tir¡·c¡ticc£ra¸am (Fó£†ê£F„Åóí‹) THERAPEUTIC USES N¢rka·uppu (c˜è´Š¹). Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).

inner most zone consists of tangentially 158 . kernel gives at first oily taste followed by an unpleasant acridity. NAERVALAM (SEED) NÓRVËßAM (Seed) . kernel yellowish and oily. slightly bent at middle.«ï˜õ£÷‹ N®rv¡½am is the dried seed of Croton tiglium L. raphe runs along ventral surface of seed.51. hilum on ventral side less distinct than that of castor seed. dull cinnamon-brown. epidermis followed by a layer of radially elongated cells. oblong. Jamalagota Jamalgota Nepal. convex on dorsal and somewhat flattened on ventral surface. a small evergreen tree. SYNONYMS Tamil : V¡½am (õ£÷‹) Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic C°pi («ê£H). N¡ka¸am (ï£èí‹). Nervala Nervalam. Japala. Japal beej. no marked odour. Japal Japolota Jayapala. Neervalam Jepal. slightly quadrangular. caruncle easily detatched and usually absent. Euphorbiaceae). N®p¡½am («ïð£÷‹). often mottled with black due to abrasion in testa. Tanti (î‰F). (Fam. upper half portion filled with reddish-brown and lower half filled with yellow contents. b) Microscopic Seed . terminating in a dark chalaza at opposite extremity. Tintidiphala Nepalamu Jamalgota Seed ovate. filled with brownish content. The seeds are subjected to purification process before use. Kanibish Jaipala Croton Nepalo. consisting of a large endosperm. about 12 mm. found throughout tropical India.Shows a hard testa. enclosing papery cotyledons and a small radicle. 5 to 7 m high. in length and resemble castor seed in shape. Mukula. consisting of an epidermal layer. covered externally with a thick cuticle and composed of oval and tangentially elongated cells.

54 and 0. thin-walled cells.34(grey). On spraying with 5 % Methanolic. b -sitosterol.7. 2. a few cells having rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. Citt¡ti E¸¸ey (Cˆî£F ⇪íŒ). 0. 0.29. T.2. oil globules and a few rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2.2.63 and 0. Powder: White with black particles of testa. Appendix 0.2.84 (all violet). of Alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol: Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under UV (366 nm.elongated. Appendix 3 per cent.2.39.34. 0.5 per cent.84 (brown). central region of endosperm shows a dicotyledonous embryo consisting of thin-walled parenchymatous cells.49. 0.C.3. 2. 0. shows elongated cells containing reddish-brown and yellow contents. On exposure to iodine vapours six spots appear at Rf. 0.10. 0. Appendix 7 per cent.90 (all yellow).54 (yellow). IDENTITY. endosperm consists of polygonal parenchymatous cells filled with oil globules. Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : N¢rmalamp°kki (c˜ñô‹«ð£‚A).4. Appendix 15 per cent.C. 2. phorbol esters.2. Ta·ippu¸·¡kki (¹‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Akattiyar Ku¾ampu (ÜèˆFò˜ °ö‹¹). M®kan¡ta Ku½ikai («ñèï£î °O¬è). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. 0.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105° C for five minutes three spots appear at Rf.. CONSTITUENTS 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol. T¡¾amp£ M¡ttirai (î£ö‹Ì ñ £ˆF¬ó) 159 .) three spots at Rf.L. 0. 2. 0. Appendix 2.6. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ). 2 per cent.L. fixed oil and resins. AÀ·apairavam (Üwì¬ðóõ‹).

Va½i N °yka½ (õO «ï£Œèœ) DOSE .THERAPEUTIC USES A¾al/Pittam (Üö™/Hˆî‹). it should be used only in combination.It cannot be administered as a single drug. M®kam («ñè‹). 160 . Vayi¼¼u N°y (õJŸÁ «ï£Œ).

52. PARANGI CHAKKAI (TUBEROUS ROOT)

PAÞA×KI CAKKAI (Tuberous root) - ðøƒA ꂬè
Pa¼a´ki Cakkai is the tuberous root of Smilax china L. (Fam. Liliaceae), a deciduous climber with sparsely prickled or unarmed stem. It is imported from China and Japan. The tuberous roots are subjected to purification process before use. SYNONYMS Tamil : (ðøƒAŠð†¬ì) Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Malayalam : Marathi : Sanskrit : Telugu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic C¢ºappa··ai (YùŠð†¬ì), Matusm¢ki (ñ¶veA), Pa¼a´kippa··ai Chopcheenee, Kumarika, Shukchin Chinna root Chopcheenee Chopcheenee China Pavu Chopcheenee Madhusnuhi, Dvipantara vaca Pirngichekka

Tubers about 6 to 12 cm. long, 2 to 4 cm. wide, rough, irregular, cylindrical, curved, slightly tapering with brownish or blackish scars; externally brownish-yellow in colour, and internally brown in colour; fracture hard; odour not characteristic; taste slightly bitter.

b) Microscopic
Cortex shows several layers of thin-walled, polygonal, elongated mucilaginous parenchymatous cells, a few cells containing raphides of calcium oxalate; endodermis not distinguished; ground tissue having several vascular bundles consisting of usual elements; fibres long and aseptate; numerous simple and compound starch grains, measuring 16 to 38 µm in dia. with 2 to more than 9 components mostly spherical to ovoid, having hilum in centre. Powder: Light brown; shows fragments of mucilaginous parenchymatous cells of cortex, fibres and vessels with reticulate thickening; a few scattered needles of calcium oxalate from raphides; numerous simple and compound starch grains measuring 16 to 38 µm in dia. with 2 to more than 9 components, mostly spherical to ovoid having hilum in centre.

161

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.L.C.

2 0.6 0.06 0.8 5

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Methanol (5:5:2) as mobile phase shows on spraying with Anisaldehyde- Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105ºC until the colour develops , ten spots at Rf. 0.09 (dark green), 0.17 (violet), 0.21 (dirty yellow), 0.26 (grey), 0.32 (yellow), 0.48, 0.55 and 0.58 (all violet), 0.73 (greenish blue) and 0.77 (violet).

CONSTITUENTS
Sarsaponin, parallin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and their glucosides, daucosterol, isoseryl-Smethyl-cysteamine sulphoxide and dihydrokaempferol-5-O- β-D- glucoside.

PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°), Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : K¡mamperukki (è£ñ‹ªð¼‚A), M®kappi¸ivilakki («ñèŠHEMô‚A), T£ymaiy¡kki (ÉŒ¬ñò£‚A), U·a¼t®¼¼i (à쟫îŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Iracakanthi Me¾uku (Þóêè‰F ªñ¿°), Pa¼a´kippa··ai C£ra¸am (ðøƒAŠð†¬ì Åóí‹), Pa¼a´kippa··ai Irac¡yaºam (ðøƒAŠð†¬ì Þóê£òù‹), Pa¼a´kippa··ai Pata´kam (ðøƒAŠð†¬ì ðîƒè‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Atika¾iccal (ÜFèN„ê™), C£lai (Ŭô), Karapp¡º (èóŠð£¡), Kir¡¸i (Aó£E), M¡ntam (ñ£‰î‹), N¢ri¾ivu (cKN¾), N¢rv®·kai (c˜«õ†¬è), Pi½avai (H÷¬õ), Pu¸ (¹‡), Uppicam (àŠHê‹), Vayi¼¼iraiccal (õJŸP¬ó„ê™), Ve··ai (ªõ†¬ì) DOSE - Powder 3 - 6 g
162

53. PATHIRI VER (ROOT)

PËTHIRI VÓR (Root) - ð£FK «õ˜
P¡thiri V®r is the dried root of Stereospermum chelonoides (L.f.) DC. Syn. S. suaveolens(Roxb.) DC. (Fam. Bignoniaceae), a large deciduous tree upto 18 m. high and 1.8 m. in girth with a clear bole of about 9 m., found throughout the moist parts of the country. It grows in Ku¼iµcithi¸ai. SYNONYMS Tamil (¹¡è£L) Assamese Bengali English Gujrati Hindi Kannada Malayalam Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Telugu : : : : : : : : : : : : : Kaººi (è¡Q), P¡·alimaram (ð£ìLñó‹), P¡·alam (ð£ìô‹), Puºk¡li Parul Parul Rose flower fragrant Podal Padal Padramora Padiri Padal Boro, Patulee Padal Patalai, Amogha, Madhuduti, Krsnvnta, Tamrapuspi Kaligottu, Kokkesa, Podira

DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic
Root occurs in about 6 to 9 cm. long, 1 to 1.5 cm. thick cut pieces, cylindrical, externally brown to creamy, rough due to vertical fissures, cracks, ridges and transverse fine lenticels, internally dark brown, lamellation or stratification due to presence of concentric bands of fibres; fracture tough and fibrous; odour not distinct; taste bitter.

b) Microscopic
Root cork consists of 25 to 35 layers of rectangular cells with 3 to 5 stratified layers, lignification being more prominent where the stratification starts, arranged with 1 to 3 tangential rows of narrow cells alternating with 3 to 5 tangential rows of wider cells; cork cambium composed of 1 or 2 layers of tangentially elongated cells; secondary cortex arranged more or less radially, becomes polyhedral to isodiametric in inner region, a few cells getting converted into stone cells
163

which are regular in shape and show projection; secondary phloem wide, forms ceratenchyma between two obliquely running rays; some rays and phloem cells get converted into irregular, polygonal stone cells, measuring 10 to 150 µm in width, phloem parenchyma being intact; medullary rays multiseriate, being 3 or 4 cells wide, and 8 to 15 cells high; fibres tapering, pointed or slightly blunt, with a small peg-like projection at both ends; sieve tube gets collapsed in outer region forming strips of ceratenchyma; a few small microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate present in phloem parenchyma and rays; secondary xylem wide having usual elements; vessels simple, pitted, lignified; fibres large, pointed, aseptate; rays multiseriate, 2 or 3 cells wide. Powder: Dark brown; shows fragments of rectangular cork and phloem parenchyma cells; groups of single, thick walled, cubical to rectangular, lignified stone cells having striations and wide lumen; a number of microsphenoidal crystals of calcium oxalate, intact and scattered outside.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.L.C.

2 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 6 per cent, Appendix 10 per cent, Appendix 20 per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using n-Butanol: Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. 0.62, 0.85 and 0.92 (all light yellow). Under UV (366 nm) five fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.47, 0.53 (both light blue), 0.62 (bluish pink), 0.74 (blue) and 0.85 (light green). On exposure to iodine vapours seven spots appear at Rf. 0.14, 0.28, 0.45, 0.53, 0.74, 0.85 and 0.92 (all yellow). On spraying with 5% MethanolicPhosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate at 105ºC until the colour develops, the plate shows four spots at Rf. 0.47, 0.74, 0.85 and 0.92 (all bluish grey).

CONSTITUENTS
n-Triacontanol, β-sitosterol, lapachol, dehydro-α-lapachone, dehydrotectol, 6-0glucosylscutellarein and stereolensin.

PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°), Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A), Veppaka¼¼i (ªõŠðèŸP)
164

5g par Decoction 30.50 ml twice daily. N¢ri¾ivu (cKN¾). Pittacurak Ku·in¢r (Hˆî²ó‚ °®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES Co¼icira´ku (ªê£PCóƒ°).Powder 2 .30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. 165 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Ma¸·£r¡ti A·aikku·in¢r (ñ‡Çó£F ܬ산®c˜). Pu¸ (¹‡) DOSE . Karapp¡º (èóŠð£¡). 15 . Ericcal (âK„ê™). Eruv¡y Mu½ai (â¼õ£Œ º¬÷).

(Fam.5 m. branched. Koshta Kulinjan. surface rough. Java galangal Kulinjan Jaanu. followed by many celled sclerenchymatous pericycle. both regions having irregularly scattered vascular bundles. internally orange yellow in colour. externally reddish-brown. Kurachi Vach Greater galangal. single layered epidermis with barrel shaped cells having unicellular root hairs. SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Arattai (Üóˆ¬î) Kulanjan. growing in eastern Himalayas and southwest India and extensively cultivated all over India.Transverse section of root circular in outline. 2 to 8 cm. Kolinjan Kulanjan. rhizome differentiated into a wide cortex and a central cylinder. b) Microscopic Root . Zingiberaceae). inner limit of cortex marked by rectangular parenchymatous cells. about 0.2 cm. in height. scaly leaves arranged circularly. bearing perennial rhizome. hypodermis 3 or 4 cells deep and sclerenchymatous.5 to 2 cm. a herb upto 2. Mahabhari Vaca.1 to 0. in diameter and yellowish-brown in colour. Dhoomraasmi Aratta Kulinlan. with well developed intercellular spaces.The roots are adventitious. odour pleasant and aromatic. epidermal cells small and angular. in groups. each vascular bundle with a prominent fibrous sheath. Mothe kolanjan Kulanjana. cortex parenchymatous.Rhizome cylindrical. Malaya Vaca. endodermis showing prominent casparian strips and 'v' shaped thickening. spicy and sweet in taste. fibrous.54. xylem and phloem in separate radial strands. fracture hard and fibrous. in diameter. Rhizome . long and 0. thick cuticle present. Sugandhamula. Rasna (South) Dumparaastramu Root . Kulinjan Doddarasagadde. Rhizome . PAERARATTHAI (RHIZOME) PÓRARATTAI (Rhizome) . persistent in dried rhizomes. many cells deep. centre occupied by a parenchymatous pith. longitudinally ridged with prominent rounded warts (remnants of roots) marked with fine annulations. stele with 166 .«ðóóˆ¬î P®rarattai is the dried rhizome of Alpinia galanga Willd.Transverse section of young rhizome circular in outline.

13 2.91 (violet). trans-para-coumaryl alcohol. Appendix Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 6 per cent.0. tracheidal fibres 68 to 920 µm long and 19 to 30 µm broad. 2. trans-parahydroxy-cinnamaldehyde. Galanganal.69 respectively.15. hilum eccentric.4) shows under UV (366 nm. 0. spicy and sweet in taste. 0.63 (greyish green).C.15 (greyish green).terpineol. of the Methanolic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Methanol (80:20:0. the narrow beaklike end become black when stained with dil.6. Macerated preparation shows vessels 95 to 710 µm long and 19 to 190 µm broad.3.2.2. 0.) blue fluorescent zones of yellow. 0. eugenol. shows parenchyma cells containing starch (as described under microscopy of rhizome).C.2.L. ß . cineol. limonene.2.4 percent. root traces present. galanolacetone.10 T.4. vessels with scalariform and reticulate thickenings and tracheidal fibres.2. most of the parenchymatous cells filled with starch grains which are ellipsoidal to ovoid.2. schizogenous canals and oil cells with suberized walls found in cortex and in central region. IDENTITY. 1'-S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate. 2.0. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) 167 .48 (greyish green). schizogenous canals. Appendix Water-soluble extractive Not less than 13 per cent.L. 2.2. CONSTITUENTS Esential oil. 2. Appendix Starch Not less than 22 percent.pinene. 2. galanganol B and C. 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate.2. 0. 2. 10 to 64 µm.irregular. terpinen . green and blue at Rf. circular or crescent shaped at the broad end. 0. linalool. Appendix T. On spraying with Anisaldehyde .35 (violet).Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for five minutes at 105ºC. closely placed vascular bundles towards periphery.7. six spots appear at Rf. Appendix Essential oil Not less than 0.4 -ol and a . sometimes beaked. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent. oil cells. simple. and di (p-hydroxy-cis-styryl) methane.69 (green) and 0. cedrol. Appendix Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 2 per cent. Powder: Orange brown.pinene. iodine water and chlor-zinc iodide but the remaining part become light blue or brown. containing a .25. trans-para-coumaryl acetate. Appendix Total Ash Not more than 5 per cent.

V¡tacurak Ku·in¢r (õ £î²ó‚ °®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES C£takavali (ÅîèõL). Tippili Ir¡c¡yaºam (FŠHL Þó£ê£òù‹). N ¢r®¼¼am (c«óŸø‹). U·al Vali (àì™ õL). Muppi¸i (ºŠHE).Ceykai : (ªõŠðèŸP) K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP). Talaippu¸ (î¬ôŠ¹‡). U½untu Tailam (àÀ‰¶ ¬îô‹). Va½i N°yka½ (õO «ï £Œèœ) DOSE .3 g 168 . Aiyacuram (äò²ó‹). Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®). Naµcu (ï…²). Veppaka¼¼i IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Kakkuv¡º I½akam (è‚°õ£¡ Þ÷è‹). T £tuv®½ai Ney (ɶ«õ¬÷ ªïŒ).Powder 1 .

April. Sahasravedhi Telugu : Inguva Urdu : Hitleet. Incisions are made at the upper part of tap root of more than five year old plants and resin collected by scrapping in March. Hingu Punjabi : Hing Sanskrit : Hingu. 169 . freshly exposed surface. red. SYNONYMS Tamil : Cantun¡cam (ꉶï£ê‹). the process is repeated several times. Ferula narthex Boiss. Hingda Kannada : Hingu. opaque. Ramatha. Ingu Kashmiri : Eng Malayalam : Kayam Marathi : Hing. yellowish and translucent or milky white. Apiaceae). K¡yam (è£ò‹). greyish-white to dull yellow. and other species of Ferula (Fam. odour strong. characteristic and persistent. taste bitter and acrid. I´ku (Þƒ°). It grows in Ku¼iµcithi¸ai.55. PERUNGAYAM (OLEO-GUM-RESIN) PERU×KËYAM (Oleo-gum-resin) . in diameter. Hing Oriya : Hengu. Vall¢kam (õ™hè‹) Assamese : Hin Bengali : Hing English : Asfoetida Gujrati : Hing.. after one or two days or after a few weeks when it gets hardened.ªð¼ƒè£ò‹ Peru´k¡yam is the oleo-gum-resin obtained from rhizome and root of Ferula foetida Regel. finally reddish brown. occurring in Persia and Afghanistan. a perennial herb. slowly becoming pink. Vagharni Hindi : Hing. flattened or masses of agglutinated tears. mostly 12 to 25 mm. Hing DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Rounded. Kanti (è‰F). Hira.

77 (pink).85 and 0. 0.2. 0. and weighed. shake well and allow the liquids to separate.94 (orange). 3) Triturate 1 g with 10 ml of light Petroleum (b.C. until all soluble matter is removed.7.2. filter into a test tube and add to the filtrate 10 ml of a fresh 0.22. 0. Appendix per cent.2.L.b) Microscopic Identification 1) Freshly broken surface when touched with sulphuric acid a bright red or reddish-brown colour is produced. Appendix per cent.42. 2.77.12.51 (pink). 0. of Alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (7:3) v/v.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate.85 (pink) and 0. dried at 100ºC. and tared. 40º to 60º) for 2 minutes.) at Rf. The filter paper is washed with hot alcohol (90 per cent) and the paper is transferred to the beaker.0. 2. 0.55.55. indicating absence of colophony resin.67. dilute with an equal volume of water. 0.2. T.3. 0. 0. 0. 0.34.4. 0.2.6. About 5 g accurately weighed drug is placed in a small beaker furnished with a glass rod. 0.60 (grey). 50 ml of Alcohol (90 per cent) is added and boiled gently.0.p. Appendix per cent. The hot solution is filtered through a tared filter paper the residue is boiled with further quantitòies of alcohol (90 per cent). petroleum layer does not show any green colour. Appendix 2. 0. IDENTITY. 0. 2) Boil 0.60. 0. On spraying with Anisaldehyde.C. 170 . fluorescence is produced.51.42 (violet). T. 0. using the glass rod to disintegrate the insoluble matter. The residue weighs not more than 50 per cent of the original sample taken.2 g with 2 ml Hydrochloric acid for about 1 minute. changing to violet when acid is washed off with water. Appendix per cent.91 (all blue).L. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than ASSAY (Alcohol insoluble fraction) 50 50 2 15 3 per cent.5 per cent w/v aqueous solution of copper acetate. 0. shows eleven spots under UV light (366 nm.12 (brown). 2.2. and filter into 3 ml of dilute solution of Ammonia.22(violet). 2.05 (violet). for five minutes at 105°C ten spots appear at Rf. cool.32 (brown).

butyl methyl disulphide. di. ferulic acid. ß.2-butyl trisulphide. Óppam (ãŠð‹). M¡ntam (ñ£‰î‹). linalool. Va½i N°yka½ (õO «ï£Œèœ) DOSE . asacoumarin A and B. Peruvayi¼u (ªð¼õJÁ). di-2. foetidin. Palla·i N°yka½ (ð™ô® «ï£Œèœ).Powder 16 .2-butyl disulphide.methyl thio propenyl)-1-propenyl disulphide. Kuºmaku·°ri Me¾uku (°¡ñ°«ì£K ªñ¿°).butyl methyl trisulphide.650 mg 171 . asafoetidin.CONSTITUENTS Dimethyl trisulphide. Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Akattiyar Ku¾ampu (ÜèˆFò˜ °ö‹¹).(-1. A¿·¡thic C£ra¸am (Üwì£F„ Åóí‹). 1. M£c¡mparappa¼¼u (Í꣋ðóŠðŸÁ). fenchone. 2.butyl . Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹). Icivaka¼¼i (ÞCõèŸP). ferocolicin. asaresinol ferulate. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : K£rmai (جñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP). T¡½ic¡thi C£ra¸am (î£Oê£F Åóí‹) THERAPEUTIC USES C£takac£lai (ÅîèŬô). ß. di.tetrasulphide.caryophyllene. R-2-butyl-1-propenyl disulphide.selinene. asadisulphide.

taste slightly bitter. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Capta½ai (êŠî¬÷).Small. Mandukaparni Brahmi Jalnam. about 1 to 2 mm. Sambarani Brahmi Root . ovoid and glabrous.Thin.Hó‹I õ¿‚¬è Pirammi Va¾ukkai is the dried whole plant of Bacopa monnieri (L. Brahmi Nirubrahmi. wiry. b) Microscopic 172 . Flower . Bamanevari Manduka Parni.Capsules upto 5 mm. Brahmi. opposite.) Wettst. Scrophulariaceae). Kapotavamka Sambarenu. decussate. obovate-oblong. long. nodes and internodes prominent. Leaf . soft. PIRAMMI VAZHUKKAI (WHOLE PLANT) PIRAMMI VAàUKKAI (Whole Plant) . Stem . found throughout India in wet and damp places. a glabrous. 1 to 2 cm. bracteoles shorter than pedicels. N¢rpirammi (c˜Hó‹I) Brahmi Thyme leaved gratiola Neerbrahmi. (Fam.Thin. glabrous. small. sessile.) H. small. creamish-yellow. Fruit . long. Syn.B. Valabrahmi. Herpestis monniera (L. taste slightly bitter. pedicels 6 to 30 mm..56. green or purplish green. branched. thick. Birami Brahmi Brahmibuti Brahmi. axillary and solitary. long. Ondelaga. green. Saraswati. succulent. & K. prostrate or creeping annual herb.Simple.

no distinct midrib present. Leaf .2. vein .88 (dark pink. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.Shows single layer of epidermis followed by a wide cortex of thin-walled cells with very large intercellular spaces.Root . stele consists of phloem with a few sieve elements and isolated material from xylem shows vessels with reticulate thickenings. monnierin. mesophyll traversed by small veins surrounded by bundle sheath. a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate occasionally found distributed in mesophyll cells..0 x 2. endodermis single layered.0 to 14.hydroxy . in cortical cells and 8. Ilaku (Þô°) 173 . round and oval starch grains.4. shows xylem vessels with reticulate thickening.2.sitosterol. round to oval. T. brahmine. ß. pericycle consisting of 1 or 2 layers.6. Stomatal index 13 to 18 for upper surface and 12 to 16 for lower surface.pyran. simple. 3-formyl .V. Appendix per cent. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Acaivu (ܬê¾).Shows a single layer of upper and lower epidermis covered with thin cuticle.L. 2. of the Methanolic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl Acetate: Methanol: glacial Acetic Acid (3:4:3:1) shows 3 spots at Rf. Appendix per cent. composed of a narrow zone of phloem towards periphery and a wide ring of xylem towards centre.islet number 6 to 13 per square mm.D and G.C. glandular hairs sessile. 2.Shows a single layer of epidermis. CONSTITUENTS Bacosides A.C. Powder: Yellowish-brown.3. Appendix per cent. centre occupied by a small pith with distinct intercellular spaces. pericycle not distinct.68 (light brown) and 0. endodermis single layered. 2 18 6 6 15 per cent.2. bacopasides I . bacoside A marker) on spraying with 20% Sulphuric acid in Methanol and heating the plate at 105º C for five minutes.2. plantainoside B.0. vascular ring continuous.2. IDENTITY.7. 2.14 mm in diameter. in a few cells of endodermis. nicotin.2H .III.L. starch grains simple. stigmasterol and stigmastanol. measuring 4 to 14 mm in dia.38 (yellowish brown) . herpestine. measuring 4.5 to 9. cortex having large air cavities.glucoside. Appendix 2.0 mm in dia. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹). 0.2. glandular hairs. A3 & B. subsidiary cells present on both surface. Appendix per cent. luteolin and its 7. betulinic acid. hersaponin. monnierasides I . 2. bacopasaponins A . Stem .4 .

A¾alaka¼¼i (ÜöôèŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Piramminey (Hó‹IªïŒ) THERAPEUTIC USES Aiya N°yka½ (äò «ï£Œèœ). Pitt¡tikkam (Hˆî£F‚è‹).Powder 1 . Malakka··u (ñô‚膴). K¡mamperukki (è£ñ‹ªð¼‚A). V ¢kkam (i‚è‹). N¢rcurukku (c˜²¼‚°). Valippu N°y (õLŠ¹ «ï£Œ) DOSE . K °¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP).V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).3 g 174 . Malami½akki (ñôI÷‚A).

cream to grey. 0.5 to 3 mm. PONNANGANI (WHOLE PLANT) POÜÜË×KËÛI (Whole Plant) . Flower . no characteristic odour and taste. no characteristic odour and taste.. or elliptic. diameter. wide.5 to 5 cm..57. ovary obcordate. a small prostrate or ascending herb with several spreading branches growing throughout the warmer parts of the country and frequently found in wet places especially around tanks and ponds. Leaf . A. Br.3 to 7. Ko·uppai (ªè£´Š¬ð) Sanchesak. no characteristic odour and taste. Syn. fracture short. Stem . SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Sanskrit : Telugu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic C¢tai (Y¬î).6 cm. A. Gandali. thin. mostly cylindrical occasionally sub-quadrangular at the apical region. with spreading branches from the base. A.1. long.. often rooting at lower nodes.. Gartkalambuk Ponnaganti Koora Root .It grows in Marutham thi¸ai. nodiflora R. long.Herbaceous. non Link. perianth 2.5 mm.5 cm. Amaranthaceae). fracture short. white often tinged with pink. Salincha Sak Jalajambo Gudari Sag Honagonne soppu Ponnankanni. long. wide. no characteristic odour and taste. yellowish-brown to light-brown.Br. Fruit . no characteristic odour and taste. denticulata R.Utricle 1.1 to 0. long. nodes and internodes distinct. long. ovate. acute. scarious. internodes 0. 0. bracteoles about a cm long. obtuse or subacute.. Br. linear-oblong. triandra Lam. numerous roots arising from the main tap root as lateral rootlets. compressed. capitellate. (Fam. sepals ovate.5 cm.ªð£¡ù£ƒè£E Poºº¡´k¡¸i is the dried whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis (L. 2.3 to 2 cm. A. orbicular. style very short. 175 . compressed with thickened margins.ex DC. Matsyagandha. weak. sessile.)R. Kozuppa Kanchari Matsagandha.Cylindrical. repens Gmel. Salincha Saaga Matsyaksi. sometimes reaching 10 cm. Bahli.Flower in small axillary sessile heads.

secondary cortex narrow.shows single layered epidermis on both surface. conjunctive tissue between bundles consisting of oval. parenchymatous cells. covered with striated cuticle. parenchymatous cells and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate measuring upto 80 mm in diameter.2. with anomalous secondary growth. 2.3. open and endarch. Stem . spongy parenchyma 3 or 4 layered of oval or irregular loosely arranged cells. which are conjoint. parenchymatous cells. composed of thin-walled. round or oval. thin-walled round or oval. palisade ratio 3 to 5. collenchymatous cells. isodiametric cells. round to oval parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces. pith consisting of thin-walled. parenchymatous cells. Leaf Midrib .4. shows single layered epidermis. 1 or 2 layered towards dorsal side.Shows single layered epidermis consisting of round or oval.Dorsiventral.Shows circular outline consisting of 5 to 7 layered. present in the centre. a few parenchymatous cells contain rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. numerous. bicollateral. stomata diacytic more on ventral side. Appendix 4.2. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. cortex 6 to 10 layered consisting of thin-walled oval to round.6. . consisting of thin-walled cells. vascular bundles three.b) Microscopic Root .5 per cent. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 176 2 per cent. thin-walled tangentially elongated and squarish.2.2. vein -islet number 6 to 12 and veinlet termination number 8 to 10 per square mm. open and exarch. shows fragments of parenchymatous cells. Appendix 2. each consisting of xylem and phloem. 2. lower with sinuous walls. there are two vascular bundles situated in the peripheral region of pith. pith distinct. stomatal index 20 to 26 in lower surface and 12 to 20 upper surface. 2 to 4 layered towards ventral side forming 1 or 2 small patches. vascular bundles radially arranged. Lamina . diacytic stomata. isodiametric. xylem consisting of usual elements traversed by xylem rays. 2. round to oval. Appendix 3 per cent. anomalous secondary growth occurs in the form of succession of rings of vascular bundles which are bicollateral. IDENTITY. parenchymatous cells. radially arranged cork cells. each bundle consisting of xylem and phloem. a few of them containing rosette crystals of calcium oxalate. thin-walled. consisting of thin-walled. phloem narrow consisting of thin-walled cells traversed by phloem rays. Powder: Olive green. xylem tissues lignified. palisade cells. thin-walled cells covered with striated cuticle. xylem vessels with pitted and reticulate thickening and rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.2. upper epidermal cells with slightly wavy walls. palisade 2 or 3 layers. vascular bundles arranged in a ring. in the pith there are two large vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem. wavy or undulate irregular epidemal cells in surface view. Appendix 10 per cent.

Not less than 19 per cent. On exposure to iodine vapours eight spots appear at Rf. 0.C.) five fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. Ka¸k¡cam (è‡è£ê‹).oeucalenol. 0. Appendix 2. 0. 0. 0.18.35. V¡yvu (õ£Œ¾) DOSE . PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : K¡yaka¼pam¡kki (è£òèŸðñ£‚A). Under UV (366 nm. 0. 0. of Alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethyl acetate (9:1) shows in visible light three spots at Rf. campesterol. 0.96 (all yellow).2.68 (all red). 0.16. 0. oleanolic acid glycosides and robinetin-7-0-ß-glucopyranoside. lupeol. Ìral N°y (ßó™ «ï£Œ).L.81.44. 24-methylene cycloartanol. 5a.44.33 and 0. stigmasterol.spinasterols.59.Water-soluble extractive T. Ku½ircciyu¸·¡kki (°O˜„C»‡ì£ ‚A).54 and 0. Poºº¡´k¡¸it Tailam (ªð£¡ù£ƒè£Eˆ ¬îô‹).C. sterol palmitates.Powder 2 .44 (all green).L. 0.stigmast-7-en-3-ol. Pu½iy¡rai Ney (¹Oò£¬ó ªïŒ) THERAPEUTIC USES A¾al N°yka½ (Üö™ «ï£Œèœ). U·a¼t®¼¼i (à쟫îŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Ka¸attailam (è투îô‹).3 g 177 .94 and 0.7.16. ß-sitosterol.25. 0. T. 0.33. CONSTITUENTS a and b .

0 to 1. Matsyadani.58. mature ones 1.0 cm. Mich. long and 1 to 2 cm. brown in colour. mitre-shaped.0 to 2.) A. compressed. length of internode 5. Bhuiokaraa Nelahippali Nirtippali. two armed. bracts about 2.5 to 7. Verbenaceae).Opposite.It grows in Marutham thi¸ai.Sessile. 1 to 2 mm. in dia. the acuminate lobes projecting 178 . SYNONYMS Tamil : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Sanskrit : Telugu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic N¢rtippili (c˜FŠHL). brownish-green. deeply and sharply serrate in the upper part. sub-sessile. 1.Fibrous.7 cm. a small creeping perennial herb found commonly in sandy wet.. sub quadrangular. PODUDHALAI (WHOLE PLANT) POÚUTHALAI (Whole Plant) .) Greene Syn. Panisigaa. canal edges and river banks almost throughout greater part of India and up to 900 m.0 cm long and 0.4 to 0. mucronate. membranous. broad. in dia. Vashira Bokkena Root .ªð£´î¬ô Po·uthalai is the dried whole plant of Phyla nodiflora (L.5 to 1. nodal roots are smaller.. cuneate at the base. broad. Stem . 2 to 10 cm. Podutalai Jalpippali. spathulate. in length and unbranched. Nila Jalapippali. peduncles 2.5 cm. calyx 2. Jalakana. Lippia nodiflora (L.0 cm. long..5 mm.5 to 3. Po·utilai (ªð£´F¬ô). long. broadly elliptic or obovate.Much branched. white hairs when seen under 10x.5 cm. Saradi. cuneate at base.5 mm.0 to 9. bilobed. Kaanchadaa Purple lippia Rataveliyo Jalpipali. Leaf . Flower . in length and 1. appressed by two armed. branched. white minute hairs on both sides. P£¼c¡tam (ÌŸê£î‹) Bukkana. rooting at nodes. glabrous. more or less clothed with appressed. Ratavel Nili. grassy places along bunds of irrigation channels. (Fam. flowering densely becoming oblong during fruiting.0 mm. pubescent underneath with ordinary trichomes closely covering the fruit. densely packed in long pedunculate axillary spikes. long. on the hills. 0.

2 unequally armed warty trichomes. 2. IDENTITY. in size. broader at the troughs. a single layer of epidermis with cells longer than broad. parenchyma and fibers. cells are pitted. Leaf . free flowing.7. lower lip 3 lobed of which the middle lobe largest.2. covering and glandular trichomes occur on both the surface. 2 armed trichomes which are usually attached to a epidermal cell from the slightly protruded stalk present in the middle. b) Microscopic Root . cortex 6 to 9 cells deep. in surface view. a layer of palisade also occurs adjacent to the lower epidermis. endodermis observed. Appendix 12 per cent.6.brown. vessels and palisade cells.2. . a few cells contain amorphous inclusions and many inner cells contain chloroplast. 2. medullary rays about 2 or 3 cells in width.Transverse section shows a nearly quardrant outline with ridges and deep furrows.0 mm. central cells usually degenerated. leaf epidermis characterized by the presence of circular trichome scars. fibrous. dehiscing longitudinally. stigma oblique. phloem cells are irregularly thick walled consisting of sieve tubes. stomatal index of upper and lower surface 11 to 18 and 18 to 30 respectively.beyond it. dorsifixed. Appendix 27 per cent. present on both lower and upper surface. globose. anthers 2-celled.Small. trichomes warty. subcapitate. pith absent.2. phloem compressed and 5 or 6 cells deep. but several others may occasionally contain a few chloroplasts. long. stamens 4. companion cells and phloem parenchyma. bilipped. range in diameter from 16 to 65 µm. striated cuticle.2. upper lip erect and bifid. midrib vascular bundle possess xylem on dorsal side and phloem on ventral side. characterized by the presence of glandular hairs. seeds exalbuminous about 1 mm. long. xylem a continuous ring. 1. mainly chlorenchyma while those of ridges are of collenchyma. stomata diacytic. with pointed tips are frequent on both the surface. Fruit . xylem composed of vessels. 2. vessels are variable in size. didynamous.2. the palisade ratio of upper surface 6 to 11 and that of lower 8 to 13. falling off as calyptra when fruit ripens. Appendix 5 per cent. bicarpellary.Transverse section shows slightly wavy outline composed of a single layered epiblema. the epidermal cells have straight walls. epidermis single layered followed by a layer of palisade cells. Appendix 2. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than 179 2 per cent. cortex is about 7 cells deep in the furrows. 2. Powder: Greenish. occasionally. unicellular.3.4.Isobilateral. composed of thin walled parenchymatous cells. Appendix 4 per cent. white or light pink. corolla 2.2. Stem . thick walled. ovules in each cell solitary.0 mm. surface possesses unicellular trichomes with two unequal arms which usually gets detached. tracheids. style short. oblong. some of the cortical cells towards the inner side are thick walled. but more in number on lower surface. pith large. ovary superior.5 to 2. most of the outer cortical cells in the nodal roots contain chloroplast. splitting into two 1-seeded planoconvex pyrenes.5 to 3. pericycle 2 or 3 layers of cells.

40 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. 6. 1. T.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for 5 minutes at 105ºC.34.C. Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷) DOSE . Karic¡lai I½akam (èK꣬ô Þ÷è‹). glucose. K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP). fructose.hydroxy luteolin-7-O-apioside. methyl salicylate. Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH). V¢kka´karaicci (i‚èƒè¬ó„C) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS AÀ·apairavam (Üwì¬ðóõ‹).cymen-δ-ol. p. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A).40 and 0. calamene. luteolin-7-O. linalool.79 on spraying with Vanillin.21.L. Pa¼a´kippa··ai Pata´kam (ðøƒAŠð†¬ì ðîƒè‹) THERAPEUTIC USES C¢takka¾iccal (Yî‚èN„ê™). nepetin. lippiflorin A and B. phenylethyl alcohol. Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A). nodifloridine.Decoction 30.50 ml twice daily. CONSTITUENTS Nodiflorin .hydroxyluteolin.caryophyllene.26.T.C. 0.octen-3-ol.L. U½½a¾al¡¼¼i (àœ÷öô£ŸP).glucoside. 20. Irumal (Þ¼ñ™). nodifloeretin lactose. 6. 0. 180 . of Methanol extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (19:1) shows five spots at Rf. xylose. Va½i N°yka½ (õO «ï£Œèœ). 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹).A and B. Peru´ka¾iccal (ªð¼ƒèN„ê™). β. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : K£rmai (جñ). 0. C£lai N°y (Ŭô «ï£Œ).A and B. maltose.

Dahara Karanja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji Karanj Honge Beru Pongu. glabra Vent. found almost throughout the country upto an altitude of 1200 m. most of phloem parenchyma cells contain starch grains and crystals. 3 to 11mm in dia. taste very bitter. b) Microscopic Root Bark . secondary phloem very wide.¹ƒè‹ «õ˜Š†¬ì Pu´kam V®rp·¶ai is the dried root bark of Pongamia pinnata L. tangentially elongated cells. Syn. upto 18m.59. Fabaceae). SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Amirtavalli (ÜI˜îõ™L). stone cells found scattered in this region in singles and groups. single cells of varying shape and size. secondary cortex wide composed of polygonal. composed of tangentially arranged fibres alternating with sieve tubes and phloem parenchyma.. Ghrtakaranja Ganuga. a glabrous tree. a few cells contain yellowish-brown contents and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. P. PUNGAM VERPATTAI (ROOT BARK) PU×KAM VÓRPÚÙAI (Root bark) . most of the cells containing both simple and compound starch grains having 2 to 5 components round to oval in shape. Derris indica (Lam. reddish-brown externally and yellowish-white internally.) Bennett (Fam. Kanuga Karanj Drug occurs in pieces of varying sizes. Naktamala. Naktahva. due to peeling off of outer thin skin and presence of numerous irregularly scattered and transversely arranged rows of lenticels. or sometimes more in height. tangentially elongated thinwalled cells.Shows cork consisting of 5 to 15 rows of rectangular. traversed by phloem rays. fracture fibrous. similar to those present in secondary 181 . Ungu Karanja Karanja Karanj Karanja. external surface rough. Pu´ku (¹ƒ°) Korach Natakarnaja.

18.47.5 per cent. Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH). Appendix 3. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹).7. 0. 0. 0.6. 0. Appendix 11 per cent.L. of Alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) shows under UV light (366 nm.2.31. Appendix 17 per cent. 0.42 (sky blue). CONSTITUENTS Ponganone I to XI. 1 or 2 seriate.08 (greenish blue). 2.98 (all yellow).09.37 (greenish yellow). 0.31 (sky blue). 0.C.37. most of ray cells contain starch grain. 0. 0.L. Powder: Reddish brown.2.2. IDENTITY. stone cells and simple and compound starch grains measuring 3 to 11mm in diameter.2.04 (blue). phloem rays many. Appendix 2. Appendix 2 per cent. T. 0.3. U·a¼t®¼¼i (à쟫îŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Pu´kat Tailam (¹ƒèˆ ¬îô‹) THERAPEUTIC USES 182 .25 (sky blue).2. 0. similar to those present in secondary cortex.4. 0. flavones. shows thin-walled. 1 per cent.2. 2. 2.cortex. phloem fibres. 0. 0.13(sky blue) 0.51. 0.80 (light blue). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. 0.18 (blue) 0. 0. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : K£rmai (جñ) V¢rium : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : T£kku¸ippu¾ukkolli (É‚°EŠ¹¿‚ªè£™L).C.80 and 0.47.) eleven fluorescent zones at Rf. 2. mostly straight. cork cells.47 (greenish yellow). consisting of thin-walled. radially elongated cells towards inner region and tangentially elongated towards periphery. On exposure to iodine vapours nine spots appear at Rf.51 (light blue). kanugin and demethoxy kanugin. parenchymatous cells.

15 . Pu¸ (¹‡). Irumal (Þ¼ñ™). V¡yvu (õ£Œ¾) DOSE . M£rccai (͘„¬ê). 183 . V¡ta Kuºmam (õ£î °¡ñ‹).30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction.Decoction 30. Va¼a·curam (õø†²ó‹).̽ai (߬÷).50 ml twice daily.

glabra Vent. Karanjaka. a medium sized glabrous tree with a short bole and spreading crown and found almost throughout India upto an altitude of 1200 m. long and 1. this is followed by a layer of large. wrinkled with reddish leathery testa. Derris indica (Lam. Pungu Karanja Karnja Karanj Naktahva. Unu. also present scattered in this region.7 to 2. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Amirtavalli (ÜI˜îõ™L). covered externally with a thick cuticle. cotyledons composed of outer layer of epidermis with cylindrical cells. Naktamala. Syn. externally covered with thin cuticle. a few layers of spongy parenchyma having large intercellular spaces and a number of parenchyma cells containing brown pigments. 1. b) Microscopic Transverse section of seed shows layers of testa composed of palisade . Pu´ku (¹ƒ°) Korach Dahara Karanja.Fabaceae). elliptic or reniform in shape.60. Pungam vitthu PU×KAM VITHTHU (Seed) .8 cm. Ungu.0 cm. 2 to 4 layers of thick-walled parenchyma cells.¹ƒè‹ Mˆ¶ Pu´kam Viththu is the seed Pongamia pinnata L.) Bennett (Fam. broad. somewhat rectangular cells. and a few rows of cells with small intercellular spaces. Karuaini Honge. filled with brown pigment. filled with globules. Lamiga Karanj Seed usually one and rarely two per fruit. thin walled. epidermis followed by rectangular to polygonal cells of mesophyll. Kanajo Dithouri. Grtakaranja Kanuga. P. 184 .2 to 1. Nata Karanja Smooth leaved pongamia Kanaji.like outer epidermis. Hulagilu Avittal. micropylar end of cotyledons slightly depressed while other side semicircular in shape.

methoxy .Powder: Creamish. palmitic acid.6. ß.7. 5'.(2''. pongol. Appendix 13 per cent. Appendix 0.81 (violet) and 0.3. 3'': 7.like testa cells.90 (yellow). amino acids and fatty acids. 0. 0.B.L.brown.2 mm. 0. shows fragments of palisade .hydroxyl (2'' 3'': 4' 3') furano chalcone.21 (blue). 0. 0.C.methoxy .74 (yellow).2. 3'': 7. pongaglabrone. Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Ka¸k¡ca M¡ttirai (è‡è£ê ñ£ˆF¬ó) 185 .phenylfuro (2.58 (yellow).furano flavone.1 per cent. glabrin.sitosterol. 0. 2.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for about ten minutes at 110°C six spots appear at Rf.58 (sky blue). glabrachromene II.2. 2. isoponga chromene 2'.67 (sky blue). 3' 4-dimethoxy . glabrachalcone. pongapin. U·a¼t®¼¼i (à쟫îŸP).31 (blue). demethoxy kanugin.4.h) -1. Appendix 3 per cent. Merck) 0.46 (blue). karangin.2.4-oxo. pongamol. linoleic acid. 1 per cent. IDENTITY.L. CONSTITUENTS Glabrachromene. kanjone. 2. 0.39 (violet).3. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : K£rmai (جñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH). 0. 0.(2''.3'': 7. oily. pongaglabroic lipids. isoponga flavone. 8) .ß. 0.2.B pongarotene. 0.methoxy-furano . 2.2. isolonchocarpin gamatin. T. 0. 0. oleic acid. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. Appendix 2.8) flavone.C. With Anisaldehyde . pinnatin.39 (blue).benzopyran.49 (violet).90(violet). Appendix 23 per cent. thickness using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (70:30) v/v shows under UV (366 nm. lanceolatin.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹).70 (yellowish blue). karangin. 0. parenchyma cells containing brownish content and oil globules. lanceolatin.2. karanjachromene. of the Alcoholic extract on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E.methoxy.furano (2''. 8) flavone.) nine flurescent spots at Rf. 6. 2'.42 (yellow).

40 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. 20.50 ml twice daily. Karapp¡º (èóŠð£¡).Powder 250 mg Decoction 30. 186 . Ka¸ N°y (è‡ «ï£Œ).THERAPEUTIC USES Caººi (ê¡Q). Pa·ai (ð¬ì) DOSE .

POOVARASAM PATTAI (STEM BARK) PÍVARACAM PAÚÙAI (Stem bark) . woody.Ìõóê‹ ð†¬ì P£varacam Pa·¶ai is the stem bark of Thespesia populnea (L. P£½am (Ì÷‹). medullary rays of two types. large ducts in cortex filled with yellow to orange contents. rectangular. tall with yellow. uni to triseriate of slightly elongated rectangular cells and wide. inner cortex composed of large. yellow inclusions present in the cells of outer cortex. 10 to 20 layered. 187 . foliaceous. cortex many layered. taste astringent.It grows in Mullai . ex Correa Syn. older barks. small. reddish-brown. Phalisah. Umbrella tree Paaraspipalo Paaraspipal Huvarasi Puvarasa. thin-walled. inner surface. narrow. Hibiscus populneus L. a fast growing. Pupparutti Parasa pimpala Kapitana. cup-shaped flowers having maroon centre and distributed throughout coastal forests of India and also largely grown as a roadside tree. no characteristic odour. varying in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. exfoliating in irregular scales. Paraasapipula Portia tree. polygonal cells. rosette calcium oxalate crystals scattered in cortex and medullary rays. abundant in groups.) Soland. Gardabhandah Ganyaraavi. b) Microscopic Shows outer exfoliating layer in hard. simple or compound in phloem region. medium-sized evergreen tree. Kandarala. rectangular to polygonal cells. Munigangaraavi Bark occurs in flat to slightly curved pieces. laminated. irregularly arranged. outer groups radially elongated and inner tangentially. starch grains. multiseriate. Marutham and Neythal thi¸ai. Malvaceae). greyish-brown. upto 10 m. Puvir¡caº (¹Mó£ê¡). Parisah. SYNONYMS Tamil : £ðF) Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Sanskrit : Telugu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ammai (Ü‹¬ñ). cork cells.61. fissured. bast fibres. external surface rough due to numerous irregularly scattered lenticels. (Fam. fracture fibrous. outer cortex consisting of closely packed. Tar¡pati (îó Gajashundi.

Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). 0. Peruvayi¼u (ªð¼õJÁ).2. CONSTITUENTS (+) Gossypol.C. 188 .2 mm. T. Appendix 13 per cent. 2.61 (reddish when hot turns yellowish on cooling) with Vanillin.2.4. 20 .29 (brown) and 0. 2 per cent. simple to 2 or 3 compound. thickness using Chloroform: Methanol: Formic acid (100:2. 0. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Pu¾ukkolli (¹¿‚ªè£™L). 2. flavonoids. Naµcu (ï…²).L. steroids and sesquiterpenoidal quinones. Appendix 2 per cent.C.50 ml twice daily.6. distinct. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. Appendix 2 per cent. IDENTITY.5:1) shows spots at Rf.Powder: Reddish-brown. V¢kkam (i‚è‹) DOSE . phloem parenchyma cells with large single rosette calcium oxalate crystal. T£ymaiy¡kki (ÉŒ¬ñò£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS M®kan¡tat Tailam («ñèï£îˆ ¬îô‹) THERAPEUTIC USES K¡¸¡ka·i (è£í£è®). shows stratified cork tissue.2. hilum.L.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105ºC for about five minutes.2. Appendix 3 per cent. numerous fibres in groups with narrow lumen and bluntly pointed ends. Appendix 2.2. 2. 2.Decoction 30. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹). starch grains.18 (brown).3. 0.2. of the Alcoholic extract on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E.30 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction.12 (brown). Merck) 0.7.

Tamarapuvow Urdu : Kamal DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as entire or pieces of flowers.î£ñ¬ó ñô˜ T¡marai Malar is the dried flowers (devoid of stalk) of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. sepals leaf-like. 3 to 5 cm. 1. Pankaja Telugu : Kaluva. It grows in Marutham thi¸ai (ponds and tanks). carpels many. Abja. becoming loose in their sockets when ripe. wide. starchy and large. long. Kamalam (èñô‹).5 to 3 cm. Padma. comprising of calyx.shaped fleshy thalamus (torus) 3 to 5 cm. black. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. long. membranous. obtuse. Na½iºam (ïOù‹). long. Senthamara Marathi : Komala Oriya : Padma Punjabi : Kanwal. embedded in a creamy. androecium. free. petals numerous. wide yellowish-brown. gynoecium and thalamus. Naidile. occurring throughout warmer parts of the country upto an altitude of 1000 m. long and 2.4 to 2 cm. Salaphool English : Lotus Gujrati : Kamal Hindi : Kamal. Chenthamara. Mu¸·akam (º‡ìè‹). wide. crimpled. Tavaregedd Malayalam : Tamara. entire flower 10 to 15 cm. Ampu (Ü‹¹). 189 . top. crimpled. 2 to 4 cm. seed hard. extended into clavate appendages. erect. aquatic herb with creeping stem. corolla. Tavare. linear 1. Pamposh Sanskrit : Kamala.2 to 2 cm. (Fam. Kanwal Kannada : Kamal. anther.. a large. dark brown.62. T¡maraipp£ (î£ñ¬óŠÌ) Assamese : Podum Bengali : Padma phool.3 to 2 cm. elliptic. 1. Venthamara. finely veined. Nymphaeaceae). in dia. fruit an etaerio of achenes. Aravinda. gynoecium apocarpous. yellowish-brown. Syn. Sitotpala. Kalhara. SYNONYMS Tamil : Aravintam (ÜóM‰î‹). broken pieces also occur. THAMARAI MALAR (FLOWER) TËMARAI MALAR (Flower) . C£riyana·pu (ÅKò).

angular.2. 0. present in centre consisting of usual elements of xylem and phloem tissues. CONSTITUENTS Nelumbine. the plate shows four spots at Rf.4. connected by parenchymatous cells containing vascular bundle.46 and 0.46 (light brown). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. Merck) 0.55 (gallic acid marker).C.83 (violet) and 0. measuring 50 to 61 mm in diameter having smooth exine and intine. After derivatization with Anisaldehyde -Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 100ºC until the colour develops. consisting of rectangular cells covered with striated cuticle.0.14.3. 0.7. IDENTITY. 1.b) Microscopic Petal .) four spots at Rf.C. two on either sides.Shows single layered epidermis on both surfaces. consisting of single layered epidermis covered with striated cuticle. Anther . Appendix 3 per cent. 2. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹). parenchymatous cells followed by single layer of endothecium consisting of thinwalled. spherical. parenchymatous cells. anther consists of a single layer of epidermis.55 (light brown. 2.4-dimethoxy benzene. 0.6. Powder: Dusty -brown. gallic acid marker). ground tissue consisting of polygonal.L. yellow pollen grains.2. of the Methanolic extract of the drug on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. 1. 0.Shows four chambered anther.2.2.96 (light brown). parenchymatous cells with wide air sacs. thickness using Toluene: Ehtyl acetate: Formic acid (5:5:1) shows under UV light (254 nm. Under UV light (366 nm.2 mm. composed of thin walled. 8-cineole terpinen-4-ol and linalool. followed by ground tissue of oval. spherical pollen grains with smooth exine and intine walls. columnar.55 (black. 0.Filament appears circular in outline. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°) 190 . parenchymatous cell. Appendix 2.2. 2. 2 per cent.46 (light black).2. measuring 50 to 61 mm in diameter. Appendix 12 per cent. 0. shows fragments of vessels with spiral thickening. 2. gallic acid marker). rectangular. Stamen: Filament.34. Appendix 6 per cent.L. 0. T. spore sac contains yellow. Appendix 14 per cent.) shows two spots at Rf. vascular bundle single.

Veppaka¼¼i (ªõŠðèŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Mak¡vacanta Kucum¡karam (ñè£õê‰î °²ñ£èó‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Curam/K¡yccal (²ó‹/裌„ê™).V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP). Ku½ircciyu¸·¡kki (°O˜„C»‡ì£‚A).50 ml twice daily.Decoction 30. 191 . Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH). 25 . Ka¸ Ericcal (è‡ âK„ê™).50 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction. N¢rv®·kai (c˜«õ†¬è) DOSE .

SYNONYMS Tamil : Aravintam (ÜóM‰î‹). 0. 0. dark brown.5 cm. Bhein Sanskrit : Kamala. in dia. attached to node of rhizome.. ascending upto 1000 m. root adventitious. middle cortex mostly composed of air cavities traversed by trabeculae of thin-walled small and nearly isodiametric cells. b) Microscopic Rhizome . Kamal Kakdi Kannada : Tavare Kanda Malayalam : Tamara Kizangu Marathi : Kamal Kand Oriya : Padma Punjabi : Kaul.î£ñ¬ó Aöƒ° T¡marai Ki¾a´ku is the dried rhizome with roots attached at nodes of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. less developed. thick.Shows a single layered epidermis followed internally by 2 to 4 layered lignified cells. Mu¸·akam (º‡ìè‹). Na½iºam (ïOù‹). cylindrical. C£riyana·pu (ÅKò). Saluka. smooth. yellowish-white to yellowishbrown. Nymphaeaceae).63.5 to 2.5 to 1 mm. cortex differentiated into three regions. Nelumbium speciosum Willd. Syn. outer cortex consisting of a wide zone of isodiametric thinwalled cells of which outer 5 or 6 layers collenchymatous and rest parenchymatous. T¡marai Va½aiyam (î£ñ¬ó õ¬÷ò‹) Assamese : Kamal Kakdi English : Lotus Gujrati : Loda Hindi : Kamal Kand. (Fam. an aquatic herb. Padnakanda.This grows in Marutham thi¸ai (ponds and tanks). Ambhoruha Telugu : Tamara Gadda Urdu : Kanwal Kakdi DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Drug occurs as cut pieces of rhizome with distinct nodes and internodes. with stout creeping rhizome found in lakes and ponds throughout the warmer parts of the country. inner cortex forming central core. having intercellular spaces and groups of fibres. Kamalam (èñô‹). longitudinally marked with brown patches. THAMARAI KIZHANGU (RHIZOME) TËMARAI KIàA×KU (Rhizome) . 192 .

vessels with spiral thickening. 0. IDENTITY.2. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹).5 per cent.2. 0. air cavities large. rounded to oval.5 per cent.5 per cent. elliptic or rounded. parenchyma cells. vessels with spiral thickening. loaded in cells. On spraying with 5% Methanolic. epidermis consists of oval. rounded to oval simple starch grains measuring 8 to 27 µm in dia. air cavities lined by thin-walled.3. resembling a monocotyledonous structure. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 0.10 (grey).2. 0. 2.43 (blue) 0. 0.Sulphuric acid and heating the plate at 105ºC until the colour develops. xylem fibres aseptate with blunt ends. 2.93 and 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. CONSTITUENTS Linalool. Appendix 6. 0.55 (blue). phloem cells.2. 0. 0. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) 193 . xylem composed of vessels.7.86. vessels having spiral and spiro-reticulate thickening. On exposure to iodine vapours eight spots appear at Rf. 0.64 (brown). cortex composed of 5 to 8 layers of oval to polygonal.64. shows groups of oval to elongated. vascular strands consists of scattered closed vascular bundles surrounded by thin-walled. four spots appear at Rf. rounded to oval.) seven fluorescent zones are visible at Rf.consists of spherical cells enclosing large intercellular spaces.91 (blue) and 0.06 (blue). rarely compound measuring 8 to 27 µm in dia. phloem composed of sieve tubes and companion cells.96 (all yellow). Appendix 2.4. starch grains abundant. Appendix 1.98 (reddish). xylem fibres aseptate with blunt ends.2. 2 per cent. of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Methanol (4:1) shows in visible light one spot at Rf.97 (light yellow). 2. nonadecane. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. Under UV (366 nm.2. vascular elements surrounded by slightly lignified endodermis.78 (blue) 0. phytol and raffinose. parenchymatous epithelial cells. T.13. Powder: Light brown. tracheids and parenchyma.Appears more or less circular in outline. 0.76 (brown) and 0. 2. mostly simple.76. Appendix 3.13 (blue) 0. 0. elongated.45. 0. poorly developed and consisting of usual elements. lignified sclerenchymatous fibres. Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ti¸mai (F‡¬ñ). Root .L. Appendix 14 per cent. vessels and tracheids have simple pits.L.6.C.C. 0. largest at middle cortex and smaller towards inner cortex.31.96 (brown).. 0.

Pirivu Ceykai

: :

Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) U½½a¾al¡¼¼i (àœ÷öô£ŸP)

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Ilaku Cantaº¡thi Tailam (Þô° ê‰îù£F ¬îô‹), Mak¡ Ól¡thi Ku½ikai (ñè£ ãô£F °O¬è), N¡cir°ka N¡cattailam (ï£C«ó£è ï£êˆ¬îô‹), Pa¼a´kippa··ai Irac¡yaºam (ðøƒAŠð†¬ì Þóê£òù‹), Tir¡·c¡ticc£ra¸am (Fó£†ê£F„Åóí‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Irumal (Þ¼ñ™), P¡rvai Ma´kal (𣘬õ ñƒè™), Tava½ai Co¼i (îõ¬÷ ªê£P), Vayi¼¼ukka·uppu (õJŸÁ‚è´Š¹), Veppu N°y (ªõŠ¹ «ï£Œ) DOSE - Powder 3 - 5 g

194

64. THANRIKKAY (FRUIT)

TËÜÞIKKËY (Fruit) - P‚裌
T¡º¼ikk¡y is the pericarp of dried ripe fruit devoid of seeds, of Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Syn.T.puneta Roxb., Myrobalanus belerica B.Gaertn. (Fam. Combretaceae), a handsome tree, upto 40 m high, commonly found in plains and deciduous forests upto 900 m elevation; fruits ripen during November -February.It grows in Ku¼iµciand Marutham thi¸ai. SYNONYMS Tamil : Akkantam (Ü‚è‰î‹), Amutam (ܺî‹), Erika·palam (âKè†ðô‹), T¡ºikk¡y (î£Q‚裌) Assamese : Bhomora, Bhomra, Bhaira Bengali : Bayda, Baheda English : Beleric myrobalan Gujrati : Bahedan Hindi : Bahera Kannada : Tare kai, Shanti Kayi Kashmiri : Babelo, Balali Malayalam : Tannikka Marathi : Baheda Oriya : Baheda Punjabi : Bahera Sanskrit : Bibhitaka, Vibhita, Aksa, Aksaka Telugu : Thanikkaya Urdu : Bahera DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic
Fruit nearly spherical to ovoid, 2.5 to 4.0 cm. in diameter. Ripe fruits slightly silvery or with whitish shiny pubescent surface; mature fruits grey or greyish-brown with slightly wrinkled appearance; rind of fruit shows variation in thickness from 3 to 5 mm.; taste astringent.

b) Microscopic
Transverse section of fruit shows an outer epicarp consisting of a layer of epidermis, most of epidermal cells elongate to form hair like protuberance with swollen base; composed of a zone of parenchymatous cells, slightly tangentially elongated and irregularly arranged, intermingled with
195

stone cells of varying shape and size; elongated stone cells found towards periphery and spherical in the inner zone of mesocarp in groups of 3 to 10; mesocarp traversed in various directions by numerous vascular strands; bundles collateral, endarch; simple starch grains and some stone cells found in most of mesocarp cells; a few peripheral layers devoid of starch grains; rosettes of calcium oxalate and stone cells present in parenchymatous cells; endosperm composed of stone cells running longitudinally as well as transversely. Powder: Yellowish-brown; shows fragments of epidermal cells of epicarp having hair-like projection; large, lignified pitted stone cells with wide lumen; cluster crystals of calcium oxalate; parenchyma cells with oil globules; numerous simple, oval to rounded starch grains, measuring 6 to 11 µm in diameter having 2 to 4 components.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.L.C.

2 per cent, Appendix 7 per cent, Appendix 1 per cent, Appendix 8 per cent, Appendix 35 per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of Diethyl ether extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic Acid (5:4:1) v/v, shows under UV light (254 nm.) five fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.20 (blue), 0.23 (blue), 0.33 (dark blackish blue), 0.39 (blue) and 0.60 (blue). On spraying with 5% Methanolic ferric chloride reagent four spots appear at Rf. 0.20 (blackish blue), 0.23 (blackish blue) and 0.33 (dark blackish blue).

CONSTITUENTS
Gallic acid, ellagic acid, ethyl gallate, galloyl glucose and chebullagic acid, belleric acid, belericoside, arjungenin and its glycoside, arjunglucoside, cannogenol - 3- 0- ß- Dgalactopyranosyl- (1→4) -0 -á- L- rhamnopyranoside, bellericanin, phyllemblin, termilignan, thaninilignan, 7- hydroxy-3', 4' (methylenedioxy) flavan and anolignan B and ß- sitosterol.

PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°), Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP), Malami½akki (ñôI÷‚A), Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH), Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS
196

Civataic C£ra¸am (Cõ¬î„ Åóí‹), Kantaka Irac¡yaºam (è‰îè Þóê£òù‹), T®¼¼¡ºko··ai I½akam («îŸø£¡ªè£†¬ì Þ÷è‹), Tippili Ir¡c¡yaºam (FŠHL Þó£ê £òù‹), Tiripalaic C£ra¸am (FKð¬ô„ Åóí‹) THERAPEUTIC USES ˸ku¼ippu¸ (݇°PŠ¹‡), Cilantinaµcu (Cô‰Fï…²), Kuruti A¾al (°¼F Üö™) DOSE - Powder 2 - 4 g

197

Aricittippili (ÜKCˆFŠHL). taste pungent producing numbness on the tongue. long and 0. catkin-like fruits with bracts of Piper longum L. each having an outer epidermal layer of irregular cells filled with deep brown content and covered externally with a thick 198 . arranged in circle on a central axis. THIPPILI (FRUIT) THIPPILI (Fruit) . Telugu : Pippalu Urdu : Filfil daraz DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit greenish-black to black. immature. Magadha. 2. Ëtimaruntu (ÝFñ¼‰¶). Magadhi. Pipali Hindi : Pipar Kannada : Hippali Malayalam : Pippali Marathi : Pimpali.FŠHL Thippili is the dried. Piperaceae). b) Microscopic Catkin shows 6 to 12 fruits. Magh Pipali Sanskrit : Pippali. thick. surface rough and composite. K°¾aiya¼ukki («è£¬öòÁ‚A). arranged around an axis. Ku·¡ri (°ì£K) Assamese : Pipali Bengali : Pipul English : Long pepper Gujrati : Lindi Peeper. and also cultivated in North East and many parts of the South. Krsna. Kana. occurring in hotter parts of India from Central Himalayas to Assam. odour aromatic.5 to 5 cm. upto lower hills of West Bengal and evergreen forests of Western ghats as wild. consisting of minute sessile fruits. Pippali Punjabi : Magh. aromatic climber with perennial woody roots.4 to 1 cm. Ka¸ai (è¬í). a slender.65. Saundi. Lendi pimpali Oriya : Pipali. SYNONYMS Tamil : Ampu (Ü‹¹). It grows in Ku¼iµcithi¸ai. broken surface shows a central axis and 6 to 12 fruitlets arranged around an axis. (Fam. cylindrical.

Standard Solution 10 mg of piperine is dissolved in 10 ml of Methanol in a volumetric flask. Appendix 0. round to oval measuring 3 to 8 µm in dia. and scanned densitometrically at 366 nm. 199 . a number of stone cells in singles or in groups present. The plate is developed in twin trough chamber to a distance of 8 cm. thickness. 2. Calibration curve 10 µl of each of the standard solutions is applied on a TLC plate. Powder: Deep moss green. usually collapsed.0 ml) of stock solution and adjusting the volume to 1.0 ml with Methanol. The solvent is removed under reduced pressure. Appendix 5 per cent.1 to 1.2.2. measuring 3 to 8 µm in diameter.2 mm. Sample preparation 20 g of powdered drug is extracted with 150 ml of n-Hexane in a Soxhlet apparatus to defat the material. Appendix 7 per cent.7.4.6. 20 mg of Methanolic extract is dissolved in 1 ml of Methanol. IDENTITY. mesocarp consists of larger cells.2.3. TLC Plates Aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. 2. The peak areas are recorded and the calibration curve is obtained by plotting peak area vs concentration of piperine applied. Appendix 2. High performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) assay of piperine. having reddish-brown content. endocarp and seed coat fused to form a deep zone.2. Toluene: Diethyl ether: Dioxane (62.5 : 16). PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than ASSAY Solvent system 2 per cent.5 per cent.cuticle.2. 2. Merck) 0. irregular in shape and thin-walled. oval to elongated stone cells. most of the endocarp cells filled with starch grains. Further the drug is extracted with Methanol for 8 to 10 hr. Appendix 7 per cent.5 : 21. shows fragments of parenchyma cells. 2. inner layer composed of tangentially elongated cells. From this stock solution standard solutions of 100 -1000 µg/ml are prepared by taking aliquots (0.2. outer layer of this zone composed of thin-walled cells and colourless. oil globules and round to oval starch grains.

Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°).Estimation of piperine in the drug 10 μl of the sample solution in triplicate is applied on a TLC plate.22. Ka¸ K¡tu M£kku N°yka½ (è‡ è£¶ Í‚° «ï£Œèœ). The amount of piperine present in the sample is calculated from the calibration curve of piperine.93 (all yellow). On spraying with Vanillin. 0.Powder 500 mg .. dihydriostifransterol.34.39.04. T.29 to 0.39. 0. Irumal (Þ¼ñ™). 0.82. Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹) DOSE .80. 0. 0. T. piperine. The percentage of piperine ranges from 0. piperundecalidine. piplasterol and futoamide.26. of the Alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (9:1) as mobile phase.50 and 0. seven spots appear at Rf.26. under UV (366 nm. 0.43 and 0. Aiyappi¸i (äòŠHE).26 and 0. 0.L.) shows six fluorescent zones at Rf. Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP). 0. 0.38. pipernonaline.C. Kakkuv¡º I½akam (è‚°õ£¡ Þ÷è‹).50 and 0.C. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹).Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105ºC for five minutes five spots appear at Rf. 0. 0.34.L. 0.35. 0. CONSTITUENTS β-caryophyllene. 0. 0.34 (all orange). Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì £‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS A¿·¡thic C£ra¸am (Üwì£F„ Åóí‹). piperlatine. Civaº¡r Amirtam (Cõù£˜ ÜI˜î‹). Tippili Ir¡c¡yaºam (FŠHL Þó£ê£òù‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Cuvaiyiºmai (²¬õJ¡¬ñ). On exposure to iodine vapours.1g 200 . sesamine. 0.15. Iraippu (Þ¬óŠ¹). The plate is developed in the solvent system and the peak area of piperine is recorded as described above for calibration curve.15. On spraying with Dragendorff reagent three red orange spots appear at Rf. Kuºmaku·°ri Me¾uku (°¡ñ°«ì£K ªñ¿°). P¡lacaµc¢vi M¡ttirai (ð£ôê…YM ñ£ˆF¬ó).15.04. 0.

globular. large scandent shrub with long. warty surface with a beak like projection at apex. Vella. V¡yuvi½a ´kam (õ£»M÷ƒè‹) Assamese : Vidang Bengali : Vidang Gujrati : Vavading. large. in diameter. pericarp brittle enclosing a single seed covered by a thin membrane. VAIVIDANGAM (FRUIT) VËYVIÚA×KAM (Fruit) . mesocarp consists of a number of layers of reddish-brown coloured cells and numerous fibrovascular bundles and rarely a few prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. endocarp consisting of single layered.It grows in Ku¼iµci . entire seed reddish and covered with yellowish spots. Vavaring Sanskrit : Vidanga. Vavding Oriya : Bidanga. Vidanga Punjabi : Babrung. Bhabhiranga. Vayavidanga Kannada : Vayuvidanga. in surface view cells rounded with wrinkled cuticle. thick-walled. Babrang DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit brownish-black. often short.õ£ŒMìƒè‹ V¡yvi·a´kam is the dried mature fruit of Embelia ribes Burm. Krmihara. taste astringent. odour slightly aromatic. f. b) Microscopic Transverse section of fruit shows epicarp consisting of single row of tabular cells of epidermis. Mullai Marutham thi¸ai.66. usually obliterated. Vizalari Marathi : Vavading. Krmiripu Telugu : Vayuvidangalu Urdu : Baobarang. (Fam. palisade-like 201 . Vayuvilanga Kashmiri : Babading Malayalam : Vizhalari. Jantughna. slender. Varºaºai (õ˜ù¬ù). flexible branches. SYNONYMS Tamil : K®ra½am («èó÷‹). inner part of mesocarp and endocarp composed of stone cells. Varaºai (õó¬ù). Myrsinaceae). distributed throughout hilly parts of India upto 1600 m. Krmighna. Vavding. 2 to 4 mm. thin pedicel and persistant calyx with usually 3 or 5 sepals present. Vayavadang Hindi : Baberang.

Contains not less than 2 per cent w/w of embelin (limits 1.5 per cent. Appendix 2. to constant weight at 80º. solution of Ferric Chloride is added a reddish-brown precipitate is produced. IDENTITY. shows reddish parenchyma cells and stone cells. The residue is transfered to a tared beaker with sufficient quantity of the solvent light Petroleum and dried. 2. Appendix 6 per cent. 0.51. 0.stone cells. 0. Appendix 9 per cent.C. To one portion. To the other portion 2 drops of dilute Ammonia solution is added and a bluish violet precipitate is obtained.14. T.2. The precipitate is filtered under suction and the filtrate is rejected. 0.95 (all yellow). 0. T. 40º to 60º) and cooled in ice. a dirty green precipitate is produced. On spraying with Anisaldehyde. The Ether is distilled off.2. 2.3. 2. on exposure to iodine vapours shows eight spots at Rf. 0. thick-walled. solution of Lead Acetate is added. 2. containing fixed oil and proteinous masses. of Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (7:3) v/v.L.2. 0.2.L. Appendix 10 per cent.58. The residue is washed with further small quantities of cooled light Petroleum.85 to 2.2.C. To a portion of the filtrate 5 per cent v/v solution of Sodium Hydroxide is added and a deep violet colour is developed in the aqueous layer.4.76.6. The deep red coloured filtrate is divided into two portions. Identification:(1) 1 g of the powdered seeds is shaken with 20 ml of solvent Ether for five minutes and filtered.2. The melting range of embelin is 142º to 144º. seed coat composed of 2 or 3 layered reddish-brown coloured cells. till the ethereal solution ceases to give a pink colour with a drop of Ammonia Solution.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate 202 . PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than ASSAY 2 per cent. It is shaken occasionally for thirty minutes with 150 ml of solvent Diethyl ether. To the other portion. endosperm cells irregular in shape.7. Appendix 1.p.86 and 0. (2) 5 g of the powdered seeds is boiled with 25 ml Alcohol and filtered.15) when assayed as follows:About 10 g of powder (40 mesh) is accurately weighed and transfered to a 500 ml glass stoppered flask. and the residue is treated with small quantity of light Petroleum (b.06. Powder: Reddish. The whole mass is packed in a percolator and macerated for thirty minutes and extracted with solvent Diethyl ether. embryo small when present otherwise most of the seeds sterile.82.

N¡kkupp£cci(Kolli) Ku·in¢r (°ŠÌ„C(ªè£™L) °®c˜). Naµcu (ï…²). quercitol. christembine. 0.95 (violet).51. Nu¸pu¾ukka½ (¸‡¹¿‚èœ).10 g 203 . K£rmai (جñ).76 (all grey).06. V¡yvu (õ£Œ¾).0. Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®).Powder 5 . Ve½uppu N°y/P¡¸·u (ªõÀŠ¹ «ï£Œ/𣇴) DOSE .14.0. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP). Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Karu·aºki¾a´ku E¸¸ey (è¼ì¡Aöƒ° ⇪íŒ).for five minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. embelic acid and vilangin. 0.58. CONSTITUENTS Embelin. Mak¡vall¡ti I½akam (ñè£õ™ô£F Þ÷è‹). T £kku¸ippu¾ukkolli (É‚°EŠ¹¿‚ªè£™L). 0. Pira¸·ai Va·akam (Hó‡¬ì õìè‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹). and 0. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). Nilav¡kaic C£ra¸am (Gôõ£¬è„ Åóí‹). tannin.

67. VALMILAGU (FRUIT)

VËLMIßAKU (Fruit) - õ£™I÷°
V¡lmi½aku is the mature, dried fruit of Piper cubeba L. f. (Fam. Piperaceae), woody, climbing, dioeceous perennial; female spike with small flowers, often curved; cultivated to a small extent in India, specially in the Karnataka state; fruits collected when mature but still unripe and carefully dried.It grows in Ku¼iµcithi¸ai. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Kashmiri : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Ka¸·ami½aku (è‡ìI÷°), La´k®cam (ôƒ«èê‹) Kakkol, Kababcheni Kababchini, Sugandhamaricha Cubebs, Tailed pepper Chanakabab, Chinikabab Seetalchini, Kababchini Gandhamenasu, Balamenasu Kushfal, Kababchini Cheenamulaku, Takkolam, Valmulaku Kankol Kababchini Kababchini, Sardchini Kankola, Lankesa, Cinatiksna, Kakkola, Kankolika Chalavamiriyalu, Tokamiriyalu Kababchini

Fruit wrinkled, rounded, 5 to 7 mm. in diameter, light brown to dark brown, about 7 mm. long stalk attached; pericarp red to slightly brown, testa fused with pericarp; fruit hard and stony; albumin white and oily; odour aromatic and characteristic; taste pungent and slightly bitter.

b) Microscopic
Transverse section of fruit shows an outer layer of epidermis, externally covered with thick cuticle, a row of 2 to 5 small, crushed, brown and thick-walled cells below; mesocarp composed of large, thin-walled parenchymatous cells, oil cells and vascular bundles; endocarp of multi-layered sclereids heavily lignified with narrow lumen; testa and tegmen composed of elongated cells, tegmen cells hyaline and kernel cells greyish in colour.

204

Powder: Dark brown, oily; shows fragments of parenchyma cells, elongated testa cells, sclereids; starch grains numerous, rounded with centric hilum measuring 3 to 15 µm in diameter having 2 or 3 components.

IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.L.C.

2 8 1 14 11

per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix per cent, Appendix

2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. 2.2.6. 2.2.7.

T.L.C. of Petroleum ether (40- 60°) extract of the drug on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. Merck) 0.2 mm. thickness using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (7:3), on exposure to iodine vapours six spots appear at Rf. 0.53, 0.66, 0.75, 0.82, 0.92 and 0.96 (all yellow). With Anisaldehyde- Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate, for five minutes at 105°C six spots appear at Rf. 0.53, 0.66, 0.75 (all violet),0.82, 0.92 (both pink) and 0.96 (red).

CONSTITUENTS
Sesqirterpenehydrocarbons-quiphellandrane,1-epibicyclosequiphellandrene, cyclohexane, piperenol A & B and zeylenol.

PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°), K£rmai (جñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP), Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A), K°¾aiyaka¼¼i («è£¬öòèŸP), Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS C¡mpir¡¸ipp£ Pata´kam (꣋Hó£EŠÌ ðîƒè‹), Imp£¼al I½akam (Þ‹Ìø™ Þ÷è‹), Ka¾a¼cit Tailam (èöŸCˆ ¬îô‹), Ku´kumapp£ M¡ttirai (°ƒ°ñŠÌ ñ£ˆF¬ó), Mak¡ Ól¡thi Ku½ikai (ñè£ ãô£F °O¬è), N¡rathtai I½akam (ï£óˆ¬î Þ÷è‹), T£tuv®½ai Ney (ɶ«õ¬÷ ªïŒ)

205

THERAPEUTIC USES A¾al N°yka½ (Üö™ «ï£Œèœ), Aiya N°yka½ (äò «ï£Œèœ), Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹), N ¢rv®·kai (c˜«õ†¬è), Va½i N°yka½ (õO «ï£Œèœ), Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷) DOSE - Powder 1 - 2 g

206

68. VALUZHUVAI (SEED)

VËLUàUVAI (Seed) - õ£½¿¬õ
V¡lu¾uvai is the dried, brownish-orange, ripe seeds, deviod of capsule wall of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. (Fam. Celastraceae), a large climbing shrub, mostly found all over the hilly parts of the country upto an altitude of 1200 m.It grows in Ku¼iµciand Mullai thi¸ai. SYNONYMS Tamil : Assamese : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Atipa¼iccam (ÜFðP„ê‹) Kapalphotla Staff tree Malkangani Malkangani Dodaganugae, Gangunge Beeja, Kangondiballi Ceruppunnari, Uzhinja Malkangoni Malkanguni, Jyotishmati Malkangoni Jyotismati Malkangani, Peddamaveru Malkangani.

Dried ripe seeds more or less covered by orange-red crusty aril, seed without aril also present, measuring 5 to 6 mm. in length and 2.5 to 3.35 mm. in breadth, a few roughly three sided being convex on the sides, and a few two sided with one convex and other more or less flat side; one edge of many seeds show a faint ridge or raphe on the entire margin; surface generally smooth and hard; colour light to dark brown; odour unpleasant; taste bitter.

b) Microscopic
Seed - Shows single layered epidermis covered externally with thick cuticle and filled with tannin, followed by 4 to 6 layers of thin-walled, collapsed, parenchymatous cells and layer of radially elongated stone cells; parenchyma of top one or two layers longer than of the below with triangular intercellular spaces; inner most layer of parenchyma containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate; beneath stone cells layer quadrangular to octagonal, tangentially elongated cells filled with brownish contents; endosperm composed of polygonal, thin-walled, parenchymatous cells having
207

2. Appendix 9 per cent.) four fluorescent zones visible at Rf. 0. 0.82 (pink) & 0.35. Appendix 1.04. 45 per cent.5 per cent. oleic. 0. celapanigin. (all blue) and 0. 0. 2. oil globules and aleurone grains.2.54 (both blue).82.6. zeylasterone & zeylasteral. IDENTITY. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : K£rmai (جñ).63.2.82 0.82 and 0.54. 0. shows groups of endospermic parenchyma.20.C.3. Narampu Uram¡kki (ïó‹¹ àóñ£‚A).7. 0.94 (yellow) in visible light. Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A). 0. Vemmai (ªõ‹¬ñ) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : K¡mamperukki (è£ñ‹ªð¼‚A).54. U·alveppaka¼¼i (à왪õŠðèŸP). On exposure to iodine vapours eight spots appear at Rf. pristimerin.C.15. fatty oil with palmitic. CONSTITUENTS Malkangunin. 0. 0.89 ( all yellow). 0. Under UV (366 nm.94 (yellow).2.4. 0.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105° C for five minutes four spots appear at Rf. 0. T. stone cells. 2.2. 2. Viyarvaiyu¸·¡kki (Mò˜¬õ»‡ì£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Civaº¡r V®mpu Ku½ittailam (Cõù£˜ «õ‹¹ °Oˆ¬îô‹). celapanin.89 (both greenish blue).89.L. I·ivall¡thi Me¾uku (Þ®õ™ô£F ªñ¿°). 0. dark brown. Karu·aºki¾a´ku E¸¸ey (è¼ì¡Aöƒ° ⇪íŒ) 208 . 2. celapagin. On spraying with Vanillin. embryo spathulate in fleshy endosperm containing oil globules and aleurone grains. linoleic and linolenic acids. Appendix 2.2. Appendix 20 per cent. Appendix 6 per cent.35.2.2.L.8. 0. PURITY AND STRENGTH Oil contents Not less than Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.oil globules and aleurone grians. Appendix 2 per cent. of Alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Toluene : Ethyl acetate (9:1) shows two spots at Rf. Powder: Oily.

K¢lv¡yu (W™õ£»).2 g 209 .Powder 1 . Pu¸ (¹‡). Irumal (Þ¼ñ™).THERAPEUTIC USES C£takan°yka½ (Åîè«ï£Œèœ). Aiya N°yka½ (äò «ï£Œèœ). Perump¡·u (ªð¼‹ð£´) DOSE . Kurutikka¾iccal (°¼F‚èN„ê™).

2 to 0. covered externally with thick cuticle. followed by 4 or 5 layers of tangentially elongated. odour pleasant. tall. (Fam. supported internally by a tangentially wide bearer cells having radial rib-like thickenings. thin-walled parenchymatous cells. 30 to 60 cm.15 to 0. Powder: Yellow. an aromatic. long.ªõ‰îò‹ Venthayam is the seed of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. very hard. endosperm and epidermal cells of testa.Seed shows a layer of thick-walled. cotyledons consists of 3 or 4 layers of palisade cells varying in size with long axis and a few layers of rudimentary spongy tissue. Methini Mentulu Methi Seed oblong. 210 Mentiyam (ªñ‰Fò‹). dull yellow. several layers of thin-walled. 0. SYNONYMS Tamil : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic b) Microscopic Seed . taste bitter. 0. cells of cotyledon contain aleurone grains and oil globules. M®ti («ñF) Fenugreek Methi Methi Mente. broad. . annual herb. Fabaceae). rhomboidal with a deep furrow running obliquely from one side dividing seed into a larger and smaller part.69. mostly pointed but a few flattened at apex. rudimentary vascular tissue situated in spongy mesophyll. aleurone grains. endosperm consists of a layer of thickwalled cells containing aleurone grains. oil globules. smooth.35 cm. long axis radially elongated in outer region and tangentially elongated in inner region present. VENDHAYAM (SEED) VENTHAYAM (Seed) . Menthe Uluva Methi Methi Methi. columnar palisade. shows groups of palisade parenchyma cells. seed becomes mucilaginous when soaked in water. cells flat at base. mucilaginous cells.5 cm. cultivated throughout the country. varying in size.

kaempferol. vitexin. K¡mamperukki (è£ñ‹ªð¼‚A).2. tigogenin.IDENTITY. quercetin. Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A). diosgenin marker). trigonellin. of the Methanolic extract of the drug on aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E. sarsasaposanin. Appendix 4 per cent.2 mm. 2. Ka¸attailam (è투îô‹). XIIIa .C. neogitogenin. sonilagenin. Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH).2. neotigogenin.5 per cent. XIIb. K°r°caºaittuka½ («è£«ó£ê¬ùˆ¶èœ) THERAPEUTIC USES 211 .Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 100 .91 (dark blue) after spraying with Anisaldehyde.6. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than T. 0. Merck) 0. 2.2.hydroxy. Kap¡·a M¡tthirai (èð£ì ñ£ˆF¬ó). Va¼a·ciyaka¼¼i (õø†CòèŸP) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Cu¸·aiva¼¼al C£ra¸am (²‡¬ìõŸø™ Åóí‹). gitogenin.2.Xa.58(blue) and 0. CONSTITUENTS Diosgenin. 0. fenugini B. Appendix 0. thickness using n-Hexane: Ethyl acetate (4:1) shows four spots at Rf. furostanol glycosides. vicenin 1 and 2. XIIa.4.C.L.41(blue). methyl protodioscin. yamogenin. trigoneosides . T.105ºC until the colour develops.isoleucine. Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A). U½½a¾al¡¼¼i (àœ÷öô £ŸP). Appendix 5 per cent.2. tetrosides B and C. 2 per cent.3. XIb. isovitexin. 2.L. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Ü膴õ£ŒõèŸP). 0. Xb. ßsitosterol. luteolin.36 (greenish brown. methyl protodeltonin and 4. Appendix 2.

Kuruti A¾al (°¼F Üö™). C¢takka¾iccal (Yî‚èN„ê™). Ve½½ai (ªõœ¬÷) DOSE . N¢ri¾ivu (cKN¾).Powder 3 . N¢rv®·kai (c˜«õ†¬è).6 g 212 . U·al Ericcal (àì™ âK„ê™).I½aippu N°y (Þ¬÷Š¹ «ï£Œ).

Ariveppu Marathi : Kaduninba. (Fam. seed kernel. ovoid to ellipsoid drupes. Chikkabevu Malayalam : Veppu.70. b) Microscopic Fruit . dark reddish-brown. Picumandah.«õŠð‹ðö‹ V®ppampa¾am is the whole dried fruit including seeds of Azadirachta indica A. wide. Nimgach English : Margosa tree. brownish. Picumaradah. upto 1. cracks to touch. Tu··ai (¶†¬ì). Nimba Punjabi : Nimb. long and 0. deeply wrinkled. long. V¡t¡ri (õ£î £K). Juss. inside of cracked pieces golden yellow.Brownish. SYNONYMS Tamil : Ari··am (ÜK†ì‹). shell-like. Seed . over one cm wide. epidermis more than one layered. Nimpam (G‹ð‹). Prabhadrah Telugu : Vemu. dorsally convex. enclosing a single seed in a brownish leathery pulp. Vepa Urdu : Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Fruit . Syn. Huchchabevu. Melia azadirachta L. or more under favourable conditions and found throughout the plains of India upto an altitude of 900 m.Pericarp well differentiated into epicarp. Aristah.6 cm. Indian lilac Gujrati : Leemade Hindi : Neem Kannada : Turakbevu. many layered of loosely packed cells with large elongated sclereids scattered in outer 213 . indehiscent. odour strong. Neem tree. 0. mesocarp and endocarp. Meliaceae). and also cultivated as avenue trees.Glabrous. VEPPAM PAZHAM (FRUIT) VÓPPAMPAàAM (Fruit) . squarish to rectangular cells containing yellowish-brown contents and oil droplets. V®mpu («õ‹¹) Bengali : Nim. taste bitter. seed coat thin. oily. taste bitter. a medium to large evergreen tree attaining a height of 15 to 20 m. Nimb Oriya : Neemo. odour strong. mesocarp. Nim Sanskrit : Nimba.5 to 2 cm.5 cm. light brown.

11 (greyish violet). 2. azadirolic acid. 11α.76 (light purple). 0. cotyledon consisting of parenchymatous cells containing abundant oil droplets.C. groups of lignified fibres. T. Appendix per cent.H azadirachtin. salimuzzalin. azadirachtin-A. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Ci¼uiºippu (CÁÞQŠ¹).5:1.3. 0. IDENTITY.H azadirachtin H. CONSTITUENTS Nimbin.19 (green). gedunin. fragments of testa showing distinctly striated isodiametric stone cells. thin-walled.2. nimolinone.6.2. 0. salanin.L. loosely packed.16 (yellow). Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS ViÀ¸ucakkara M¡ttirai (Mwµê‚èó ñ£ˆF¬ó) 214 . azadirachtin. 2. endocarp of two distinct layers.2. 0. a few scattered rosette crystals of calcium oxalate.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 105ºC for about five minutes shows ten spots at Rf. Appendix per cent. K£rmai (جñ).C. azadiradionol. 2. Appendix 2. azadironol nimbochalcin and nimbocetin. 2. 2 8 2 16 19 per cent.2. Seed .24 (violet). arranged in network of loose strands.Seed kernel shows a thin brown testa of isodiametric stone cells overlying integument of loosely packed parenchymatous cells.42 (pink). 0. 11 β. lignified. shows abundant brachysclereids. parenchymatous cells of cotyledon containing aleurone grains and oil globules.7.2.49 (greyish black). 3dasacetylsalannin. Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°). 0. Appendix per cent. Powder: Dark brown. azadirachtol. Appendix per cent. 6-0.29 (grey). outer of closely packed lignified stone cells.4. inner fibrous. nimbidin. 0. H.acetylnimbandiol.layers. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. columnar sclereids and pitted stone cells with wide lumen and distinct wall striations. 0. nimolicinol. of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G'plate using Chloroform: Acetone (18. 0. Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : Iºippu (ÞQŠ¹) Ceykai : Mu¼aiveppaka¼¼i (º¬øªõŠðèŸP).57 (violet) and 0.33 (mustard yellow).L.5) on spraying with 1% Vanillin.2.

Oil 5 . 215 .Powder 1 .2 g .THERAPEUTIC USES T°l N°yka½ («î£™ «ï£Œèœ) DOSE .10 drops.

Tu··ai (¶†¬ì). fissured and rusty-grey. V®mpu («õ‹¹) Bengali : Nim. woody. V¡t¡ri (õ£î £K). VEPPAM PATTAI (STEM BARK) VÓPPAM PAÚÙAI (Stem bark) . Nimb Kannada : Nimba. almost entirely dead elements of secondary phloem. Juss. alternating with discontinuous tangential bands of compressed cork tissue. (Fam. Nimpam (G‹ð‹). fracture fibrous. external surface rough. and also cultivated as avenue trees. Nimgacha English : Indian lilac. Picumarda Telugu : Vemu. Melia azadirachta L. former composed of several layers of stone cells occurring in regularly arranged groups together with collapsed phloem elements filled with brown contents. in between the successive zones of cork tissue 3 to 5 layers of fibre groups with intervening thin-walled and often collapsed phloem elements present.. or more under favourable conditions and found throughout the plains of India upto an altitude of 900 m. Kadunimb Oriya : Nimba Punjabi : Nim. Neem tree Gujrati : Kadvo Limbdo Hindi : Nim. laminated inner surface yellowish and foliaceous. Limba. Arista. Kahibevu Malayalam : Ariveppu. odour characteristic. Syn. Oilevevu. each zone of cork tissue consists of several layers of 216 . Veppu Marathi : Balantanimba.«õŠð‹ ð†¬ì V®ppam Pa·¶ai is the stem bark of Azadirachta indica A. b) Microscopic Stem Bark . a medium to large evergreen tree attaining a height of 15 to 20 m. Margosa tree.71. considerably thick in older barks.Shows outer exfoliating pieces hard. taste bitter. Vepa Urdu : Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Bark varies much in thickness according to age and parts of tree from where it is taken. Meliaceae). Nimba Sanskrit : Nimba. Bevu. SYNONYMS Tamil : Ari··am (ÜK†ì‹).

phloem elements of outer bark mostly collapsed. Appendix 5 per cent.2. nimbinin.2. cork cells. most of phloem parenchyma contain starch grains and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Appendix 6 per cent. 0. Appendix 1.5 per cent.2.C.L. Appendix 7 per cent. 2 per cent.75 to 5 µm in diameter.63 and 0. Va¼a·ci (õø†C) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : Mu¼aiveppaka¼¼i (º¬øªõŠðèŸP). CONSTITUENTS Nimbin. On spraying with 5% Methanolic.regular.90 (all blue). measuring 2. β-sitosterol and tannin. IDENTITY. 2.72 (blue). Tuvarppi (¶õ˜ŠH) 217 .4. round with central hilum. 0.C. Formic acid (5:4:1) shows under UV (366 nm. having wide lumen and distinct striations.75 to 5 µm. 0.45.3. essential oil. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T.7. 2. Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°).2. within exfoliating portion a number of layers of newly formed cork composed of thin-walled. secondary cortex absent in most cases. starch grains.20.6. shows numerous prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate. Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A). sugiol. thin-walled cells occasionally with a few compressed rows of thick-walled cells towards outer surface. phloem fibres with narrow lumen and pointed ends.2. structure of bark varies considerably according to gradual formation of secondary cork bands. 0.86 (blue). measuring 2.L. stone cells mostly in groups. below which a wide zone of secondary phloem present. secondary phloem commonly composed of well-developed fibre bundles traversed by 2 to 4 seriate phloem rays and transversely separated by bands of parenchymatous tissue of phloem.) three fluorescent zones at Rf. nimbidin.90 (green). simple starch grains. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Ci¼utuvarppu (CÁ¶õ˜Š¹). and 0. 2.Phosphomolybdic acid reagent and heating the plate until the colour develops . the plate shows four spots at Rf. T. 2. 0.2. simple. a few fairly large secretory cavities also occur in phloem. of Alcoholic extract of the drug on silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Ethyl acetate. lignified rectangular to polygonal. rectangular cells and one or two layers of cork cambium. Powder : Reddish-brown. Appendix 2.

Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹). Va½i N°yka½ (õO «ï£Œèœ) DOSE . Ma¸·£r¡ti A·aikku·in¢r (ñ‡Çó£F ܬ산®c˜) THERAPEUTIC USES Curam/K¡yccal (²ó‹/裌„ê™). M¡ntam (ñ£‰î‹). M£lam (Íô‹). C¢rakac C£ra¸am (Yóè„ Åóí‹). Curatt¡l U¸·¡kum U·al Tha½arcci (²óˆî£™ à‡ì£ °‹ àì™ î÷˜„C).Powder 2 .IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS C¢nthil Ney (Y‰F™ ªïŒ). T°l N°yka½ («î £™ «ï£Œèœ).4 g 218 .

corolla 5. Nimba Kannada : Bevu. syncarpous. bisexual. Arista Telugu : Vemu. 219 . long and 6 to 11 mm. individual flower 5 to 6 mm. SYNONYMS Tamil : Ari··am (ÜK†ì‹).72. V®mpu («õ‹¹) Bengali : Nim. Kahibevu. Limbado. Veppu Marathi : Balantanimba.«õŠð‹ Ì V®ppam P£ is the dried flower and flower bud of Azadirachta indica A. Margosa tree. free. superior.5 mm. Nimpam (G‹ð‹). Nimb Sanskrit : Nimba. Limba. long 2 mm. Limba. Bevinama Malayalam : Ariveppu. two ovules in each locule. style 1. V¡t¡ri (õ£î £K). and also cultivated as avenue trees. Meliaceae). wide.Sepal shows thin walled polygonal papillose epidermis. pentamerous. Nimgach English : Indian lilac. Neem tree Gujrati : Kohumba. (Fam. b) Microscopic Calyx . taste mildly bitter: odour indistinct. rosette crystals in cells of epidermis. short. elongated thin walled unicellular conical trichomes of varying lengths. wide. Nimba. staminal tube inserted at base of corolla. regular and hypogynous. calyx 5. VEPPAM POO (FLOWER) VÓPPAM PÍ (Flower) . Kadunimb. Oilevevu. stigma 3-lobed. Vepa Urdu : Neem DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Dried flowers are brown to deep brown. Melia azadirachta L. united at base. monoadelphous. Nim Oriya : Nimba Punjabi : Nim. gynoecium tricarpellary. Juss. Syn. spathulate. trilocular. or more under favourable conditions and found throughout the plains of India upto an altitude of 900 m. Limado Hindi : Nim. stamens 10. spreading.5 to 5. 4. a medium to large evergreen tree attaining a height of 15 to 20 m. Tu··ai (¶†¬ì). Picumarda.

L. Gynoecium . rosette calcium oxalate crystals and yellowish-brown pollen grains. 0. 0. tubular and hyaline. numerous vessels. Androecium . IDENTITY. PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°) V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : N¢ri¾ivu P°kki (cKN¾ «ð£‚A).64 (dark purple). T. 0. 0.2. with a smooth exine.Stigma sticky. Appendix 2. non-glandular unicellular trichomes.92 (purple). 2 per cent.12 (violet). neeflone.L. 0. numerous rosette crystals in epidermal cells. rectangular. over 150 µm long.C.Porous. 2. 2. Appendix 12 per cent. ovary superior. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. 0.Petals .51 (purple).17 (light pink). glandular trichomes of about 20 µm. elongated into extensive papillae. trilocular.. Appendix 14 per cent.2. parenchymatous epidermal cells.2. 4-colporate. Appendix 5 per cent. 2.Sulphuric acid reagent followed by heating the plate at 105ºC for about five minutes shows eight spots at Rf. Powder: Yellowish-brown. Appendix 5 per cent.85 (light purple).2.4. trichomes. CONSTITUENTS Nonacosane. 2. Pollen Grain .2. Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A). Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A) 220 . spherical 105 to 161 µm in dia.33 (violet).3. style thin walled.2. of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using Chloroform: Acetone (20:1) on spraying with 1% Vanillin.C.Petal shows epidermis of rectangular cells papillose at margins.6. azharone. Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbɇ®).Epidermis of staminal tube composed of thick walled rectangular parenchymatous cells and the endothecium of the anther walls.80 (light purple).7. fragments of parenchymatous papillose epidermal cells. 0. 0.

M£rccai (͘„¬ê). Cuvaiyiºmai (²¬õJ¡¬ñ).IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS T¡mpiraccent£ram (Hó„ªê‰Éó‹) THERAPEUTIC USES A¾al N°yka½ (Üö™ «ï£Œèœ). V¡nti (õ£‰F) DOSE . N¡va¼a·ci (ï£õø†C). N¢·itta Va½in°y (c®ˆî õO«ï£Œ).Powder 1 . Ku·a¼pu¾u (°ìŸ¹¿).2 g 221 .

Civatturumam (Cõˆ¶¼ñ‹). irregularly and shallowly ridged due to formation of longitudinal and transverse lenticels. SYNONYMS Tamil : Niºmali (G¡ñL) Assamese : Bengali : English : Gujrati : Hindi : Kannada : Malayalam : Marathi : Oriya : Punjabi : Sanskrit : Telugu : Urdu : DESCRIPTION a) Macroscopic Root cream yellow or pale yellowish-brown. Bilva Bael root. an armed.M™õ «õ˜ Vilva V®r is the dried root of Aegle marmelos (L. Bela. surface ruptured. polyhedral. peeling off in layers.) Corr. in the hills. Sriphal Bilva Koovalam Baela. consisting of large. fracture short. Bill. scattered throughout region. medium sized tree. Bilum Bel.Shows lignified and stratified cork consisting of 3 or 4 alternating bands of 4 to 14 layers of smaller cells and a few layers of larger cells having golden yellow contents. secondary phloem consists of sieve 222 . Bael. K£vi½am (ÃM÷‹). Vael Bela. M¡luram (ñ£½ó‹). thin. Sriphala Maredu Bel b) Microscopic Root . secondary cortex. VILVA VER (ROOT) VILVA VÓR (Root) . thick-walled. internal surface cream to light yellow. a wide zone. lignified. Bel Bela Bil Bilva. (Fam. occurring in the plains and upto 1000 m. Rutaceae).73. as well as cultivated throughout the country. particularly in sacred grooves. Bengal quince Bilivaphal. It grows in Marutham thi¸ai. taste sweet. parenchymatous cells and stone cells of varying shapes and sizes.

67. 0.L.2.78 and 0.67.0. the plate shows eight spots at Rf. T. prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate present. in groups of 2 to 5.27.L. On exposure to iodine vapours seven spots appear of Rf.27.Butanol: Acetic acid: Water (4:1:5) shows under UV (366 nm. 0. CONSTITUENTS Lupeol.2. crystal fibres numerous. 5 to 19 µm in dia. lignified generally with tapering ends but occasionally forked. Appendix 7 per cent. fibres thick-walled with blunt or pointed tips. 1 per cent. compound starch grains having 2 or 3 components. varying in shape and size. starch grains simple.84 (light grey) and 0. some have wavy walls. 2.38 (all grey).93 (brown). vessels scattered throughout xylem region.Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate until the colour develops.2. fibres. phloem fibre groups arranged in concentric rings.C. cambium consists of 3 to 7 rows of tangentially elongated to squarish cells.93 (bright sky blue).93 (all yellow). long.32.3. secondary cortex.6.C. 0. fibres and xylem parenchyma.54 (yellow) 0. Appendix 7 per cent. fibre groups in inner phloem region extend tangentially from one meduallary ray to another. medullary rays uni to triseriate in inner region while bi to pentaseriate in outer region of phloem.54 (bright sky blue). Appendix 2. phloem and xylem rays. 0. tail-like process at one end. secondary xylem consists of vessels tracheids. crystal fibres. 2.84 (light sky blue) and 0.. Appendix 6 per cent.2. numerous prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate. of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using n. skimmianine.elements. some sieve elements compressed. bi and triseriate rays more common. single vessels also found. parenchyma and crystals fibres traversed by phloem rays. 0. 1-phenyl-7-hydroxy-tetrahydro-quinazolin-4-one. Appendix 1 per cent. compound starch grains having 2 to 3 components present in inner few layers of cork cells.15. 0.7. phloem parenchyma radially and transversely elongated. 0.. but intact in inner phloem region.4. about 9 to 30 chambered. marmin and marmelide. forming tangential bands of ceratenchyma alternating with bands of lignified phloem fibres in outer phloem region. fibres long. medullary rays uni to triseriate. shows thick-walled. PURITY AND STRENGTH Foreign matter Not more than Total Ash Not more than Acid-insoluble ash Not more than Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than Water-soluble extractive Not less than T. 0. fragments of xylem vessels with bordered pits and thick-walled xylem fibres.) three fluorescent zones at Rf. 0.2.2. Powder: Grey to greyish-brown. 2. mostly drum-shaped. triseriate rays 12 to 40 cells high. On spraying with 5% Methanolic. IDENTITY.15. mostly round to oval with centric hilum. 2. 0. 5 to 19 µm in dia. 0. starch grains simple. with bordered pits some having a pointed. uniseriate rays 4 to 10 cells high.54. each containing a prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate. each group consisting of 2 to 35 or more cells. 0. xylem parenchyma rectangular in shape. 223 . angular cells of cork. mostly round to oval with centric hilum.

Tuvarppu (¶õ˜Š¹) Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°) V¢rium : Ta·pam (î†ð‹) Pirivu : K¡rppu (裘Š¹) Ceykai : K¡mamperukki (è£ñ‹ªð¼‚A) IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS Carapu´ka Vilv¡ti I½akam (êó¹ƒè M™õ£F Þ÷è‹). 10 . N¢rv®·kai (c˜«õ†¬è).Decoction 30. 224 . Pittacurak Ku·in¢r (Hˆî²ó‚ °®c˜). Mukku¼¼ak®·u (º‚°Ÿø«è´). U·al Ka·uppu (àì™ è´Š¹) DOSE . Kuºmam (°¡ñ‹). Vilv¡ti I½akam (M™õ£F Þ÷è‹) THERAPEUTIC USES Curam/K¡yccal (²ó‹/裌„ê™).50 ml twice daily. Mayakkam (ñò‚è‹).PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹).15 g coarse powder in 200 ml of water for preparing decoction.

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