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Shringar Manjari of Saint Akbar Shah

Shringar Manjari of Saint Akbar Shah

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Based on old Sanskrit Manuscripts in Devanagari and Telugu Scripts




Head of the Department of Sanskrit UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS Author of

, New Catalogue Catalogorum ', "Bhoja's Srngara Prakasa ', etc.





Director, Archaeological Department H'l'DERABAD GOVERNMENT





Based on old Sanskrit Manuscripts in Devanagari and Telugu Scripts





Based on old Sanskrit Manuscripts in Devanagari and Telug u Scripts




Head of the Department of Sanskrit UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS Author of

'N ew Catalogue Catalogorum', "Bhoja's srngara Prakliil.', etc.












The Tomb of Hazarat Sayyid Akbar Shah Husaini, Hyderabad The Tomb of Hazrat S_LYYld Shah RaJu, Hyderabad

Hazrat Sayyid Akbar Shah Husaini alias Bade Sahib (Author of Srngaramafijar i) and Hazrat Sayyid Shah RaJ1} (Preceptor of Abul Hasan Tana Shah

Abul Hasan Tana Shah's Sanad and Aurangazeb's Saaad A page and leaf from the Mysore and Tanjore Mss, Srngaramafijari

The Tomb of Gesu Daraz and other saints at Gulbarga NaYlkas-Mugdha and Navodha

" Parakiya Svadhinapatika and Kalahantarita

" Vasakasajjika

V irahotkanthita

of the



Prositapanka and Abhisarrka


Vl1-X Xl

1-116 1-55

i-VI Vll-xX

Faczng Page vu (Preface) vii ( " )

Vll (


) )

viii ( "

2 (Introduction) 5 ( " )

4 ( Text )

16 ( " )

18 ( .. )

20 ( " )

36 ( " )

Tomb of I:Ia~rat Sayyid Akbar Shah I;Iusaini, Hyderabad.


Sarnt Sayyid Shah Kalimullah Husami alms Akbar Shah and Bade $ahlb, a scholar, linguist, philosopher, poet and versatile genius who died young, flourished In Hyderabad City durrng the later half of 17th Century A D Due to passage of time and general slackness of interest in academic pursuits, he was totally forgotten So much so, that today It IS hardly possible to get any mforrnatron about him In the city whet e he lived and died Thanks to the mdefatigable efforts and scholarly zeal of my friend Dr. Raghavan, Head of the Sanskrit Dept, Madras Unrversity, the Sanskrrt version of his valuable work on an aspect of the rhetoric of love called srngaramafipri IS now bemg presented to the scholarly world for the first time. It 15 based on two manuscripts discovered by him at intervals, one in the Government Orrental Library, Mysore, and the other in the Maharajah Serf 0]1 Sarasvati Mahal library, Tanjore, Exceptmg for a few references 111 the prologue of this book, the hfe of the author IS shrouded in mystery The veil IS partly hfted through the generous help of one of his descendants Hazrat Sayyid Shah Haidar Husaini, present SaJJada of Shah Rajfi's Tomb near Hyderabad, and bearer of the spmtual torch that has been kept aflame by the family for about six hundred years III the Deccan He has kindly pointed out to me the unpretentious and modest tomb of Bade Sahib (Plate A) which is situated to the South-east of his father's magnificent mausoleum (Plate B) in the open courtyard

Here It may be added that each Qutb Shahi king VIed With hIS predecessor in buildmg a more dignified mausoleum for hrmself. Tana Shah was an exception to this. There IS no evidence of hIS havmg embarked on such an enterprise The incomplete mausoleum at Golconda, wrongly said to have been built by Tana Shah for 111m self, has been cleared of debris It has revealed a sarcophagus m the middle bearrng the name of Nizamuddin, brother in-law and rival of Tana Shah for throne, who died dunng the latter's reign Hence, It IS ObVlOUS that this tomb was not berng built for Tana Shah, But he did budd hIS preceptor Shah Rajfi's tomb mentioned above, which though in need of finishing touches here and there, is loftier and more impressive than any of the tombs of the Qutb Shahl Kmgs.

Hazrat Hardar Husami Sahib also lent me for a few days hfe time Immature paintmgs of the author and hIS reverend father, together WIth two Sanads, one granted by Abul Hasan Tana Shah and the other confirming the first Sanad, by Aurangazeb This valuable material has directly and mdirectly thrown much lrght on the life of the author

The paintings _ that' were lent to me are very good speCImens of late Seventeenth Century Deccan art The portrait of saint Akbar Shah (Plate C) represents him as a handsome person in the flush of youth wearing a costly turban With a 'turra' used mostly by royalty, dressed in a gold embroidered coat With beautiful rose flower and leaf designs upon it in red and green, holding a delicate flower 10 his hand and an showing the hrgh social status he might have been enjoying. The inscrrption 111 the nght hand top corner, reads



Hazrat Janab Sayyid Shah Kalirnullah Husaini Qaddasa Allahu Sirrahii, The last words

qaddasa Allahu sirrah ii ' wean 'May God make Ins spmtual abode celestial' and estabhsh that the painting might have been finished after the saint's demise The portrait of hIS father Hazrat Shah Rajfi (Plate c) IS also a very good specimen of late 17th Century Deccan art and fortunately It preserves the name of the artist as Rahim Khan.

The Sanad granted by Abul Hasan Tana Shah 15 dated ill 1086 A H (1675 A. D ; i.e withrn two or three )ears of his accession to throne. It IS remarkable for Its illurnination and records the grant of several villages to Hazrat Shah Ra]fl and his family But out of respect for the saint It 15 in the name of one of hIS sons Hazrat Sayyid !;Iusam alias Shah Sahib As It IS not 111 the name of his eldest son Bade Sahrb It IS to be presumed that he might not have been alive at that time, and must have expired In or earlrer than 1086 A H. (1675 AD)

The San ad granted by Aurangazeb (Plate D) 15 dated in 1105 A H (1693 A. D.). It also does not make any mention of Bade Sahib No reliable evidence regarding the dates of birth and death of Bade Sahib IS forthcoming. However, the mternal evidence of the book and material supplied by Hazrat Haidar Husami Sahib throw enough light on these problems From the prologue to the SrngaramafiJari it appears that the author was a fnend of Abul Hasan and had also studied With him, Therefore, he must have been born in or about the same year as Abul Hasan ~ e. 1056 A, H 1 l1646 AD). The prologue 1" also clear on the point that when the book was bemg translated from TeJugu Into Sanskrit Bade Sahib was alrve and that Tana Shah, who ascended the throne In 10~3 A H (1672 A. D ), was the ruling king. The above referred to Sanad of Tana Shah granted 1U 1086 A H. (1675 A. D ) implres that Bade ~ahlb was dead by that tune Consequently, his death must have occurred somewhere between 1083 and 1086 A. H.IThus he was hardly 30 years of age at the time of his death and durmg this short span of life hIS book SrngaramafijarI was produced in Telugu and translated rn Sanskrrt

In contrast to the above It will not be out of place to mention here the present day general apathy of the muslims of India towards Sanskrrt and regional languages. The K'ralifs of Baghdad had arranged for the translation of several Sanskrit books into Arabic and scholars like Alberum had specialrsed 10 the study of Sanskrit In the Deccan Itself there are several instances of muslims having evinced keen interest In regIOnal languages Some of them have been referred to by Dr. Raghavan, In his Introduction to this book. Among them Saint Akbar Shah holds a glOrIOUS position and It IS hoped that the publicatron of his Srngaramafijarl WIll be a land mark in making the cultural ties stronger and 111 inducing people to attain proficiency 1TI each others' languages,

I am giving, below the geneology of Bade Sahib as secured from the archives of Shalkh-ka-Rat17a, Gulbarga, whrch are in the charge of the Sajjada Sahib of that tomb. I believe that this IS more correct at least so far as the spellings of the names are concerned.

1 The correct date of Abdul Hasan's b.rth is not recorded But it IS gene+a.Iy beheved that he was twenty-eight years old when he ascended the throne 10 1083 A. H (1672 AD) Therefore 1056 A H (1646 AD) may be taken as tentative date of his birth

.t'late .



1 I

Hazrat SaYYId Muhammad Husarni' Banda Nawaz Gesii Daraz


Hazrat SaY)Id Akbar RUSal! i I


Hazrat Sayyid Safiru llah Husami

I 4

Hazrat Sayyid Askar ullah Ht,sami


Hazrat Sayyid Shah Asadullah Husaini

- ~

Hazrat SaYYHI Sh:ah '3afirulJ:ah Husaini II


Ha7rat SaYYld Shah Ra)ii.


Hazrat Sayyrd Shah Saf ir ullah Husamt

I 9

Bayyid Sadat Sayyid Yiisuf 'Urf Shah Ra)ii.



Hazrat SaYYI

Akbar Shah Husaini, alias Bade SahIb' (author of Srngaramanj ar i)

Much rnforrnation regarding the Issues of Bade Sahib IS not available, but III the course of a Judgment dated 10th Shaban 1357 A H rn case No 80, Sayyid Valiullah Husaini, Appelant versus Sayyid Shah Haidar I;Iusami, Respondent, It has been shown that Bade Sahib (Sayyid Muhammad Akbar Husami ) bad a son Sayyid Shah Safirullah Husami, who had two sons, namely (1) Sayyrd ;)1111h .1\11 Husaini and (2) Sayyid Shah Kalirnullah Husaini, The issues of each of them are g1Ven below separately -


l I

Sayyrd Shah Husain

Husamr, alias Shal-]. Salllb


Sayyid Shah Safirullah- Husam i, alias

Mir:an Sah,b


Hazrat Sayyid I Khunza KhadiJa2 alms Sultan Bib;


Sayyid Shah J\li H usami



'SaYYld Shah Saf irullah Husain!



Sayyid Akbar Husami

(no Issue)


Sayy.d Shah Jamalullah Husam i,

(mar ned to Fatima Shah BI)

I -

Sayyrd Shall Muhammad Chanda Husaml ,


Sayyid Muvtaf'a Husami


Sayy,d Akbar Husaini (no Issue)


Sayyid Sh5h :Ali Husami

(no lSSUt)


Ruqayyah S~ih Begum


Sayyid 'Shah Gesii. Dar az Hu samr (Ghandni Begum wife)

- I




SaYYI~tShah Fariduddin Husain (claimant)


Dastagir Begum, JamaJumsa Makhdiim Begum, KuJ.llium Begum,

daughter (died Begum, dau- wife of WIfe of

before marriage) ghter (died claimant claimant




Sayyid Shah Haidaruddin Husan.i (claimant)

1 So far as I have ascertained his name was Sayyrd KaJimullah HUS31U! and he was popularly called Akbar Sh;;'h and Bade Sa!1!b

2-The endorsement made on the reverse of Abul Hasan's Sanad by Aurangazsb's officers mentIons Sultan Bibi as Shah RaJu's daughter It IS to be presumed that this might have been the popular name of sa)Yldil. Khunza KhadiJ3, therefore, I have added It here



Sayyid Shah KjlimUWih HU3aIDI


Sayyid Shah Muhammad RaJu Husami


Sayyid Muhammad HusamI


Sayy id :;,afirullah Husami


Mah Begum, daughter


Sayyid Valiullah Husamj (defendant)

I H -

Sayyid Shah rU usami

Sayyfd Ibrahun Husaini I

Sayyid Ra)u Husami 'Urf

Sahib Piran


Brsmillah Bi (died without Issue)

1'------;-, -----,1 ----~I-----·-I

Fasihullah Safirullah Kalimullah Nadimullah FatIma Shah Bl,

Husami (died) Husami (died) Husarni (died) Husaini daughter (wife

(Begfibi, of Sayyid

wife died Shah j arnalu-

WIthout Ilah-Husami)

Issue) 1

Sayyid Shah Muhammad r'JJ.andan Husamj



Sayyid Shah Gesu Dar az Husami


Ruqayyah Shah Begum



Sayyid Shah Haidaruddin Husaiui (claimant)


Sayyid Sh;;.h

Fariduddtn Husaml (cla<1nallt)

A glance at the English Introduction and the edited text of the book wrll immcdrately reveal the high academic merits of Dr. Raghavan He has tackled each aspect of the subject III a masterly way. The edrting of the text, the comparauve study of the subject as treated by innumerable exponents, the addition of footnotes, all required profound knowledge and unabated zeal. Both the qualitres at e possessed by hun III great abund,lIlCe, and scholars shall ever remain grateful to him for his devotion to the task I am Immensely grateful to Hyderabad State for appioving of my proposal regarding the publication of this book 111 the Departmental series My specral thanks are due to the veteran educationist Mr Sajj ad MlrZ3., Secretary to Government m the ArchaeologIcal Department, who has always lent full support to all the progressive schemes submitted by: me.


Page Lme Read
11 18 importance on
20 Its author
13fn. 1 Mss. LIbrary
14 21 mtlzeu
16 3 from bottom _Abhyantara
2 from bottom Bahya
17 4 l:<rl&fij;!T
9 from bottom Silpakarika
25 25 Udatta
26 32 Pananganii.
40 Anya-sambhoga-cmha-duhkhlta
26f11. 1 Kavyamala Gucchaka 6
27 4 from bottom (Date of Rupagosvii.min).1550 A.D.
28 last hue Pra vatsyat-patika
29 4 Dhirii
24 Anya-sambhoga-duhkhita
4 from bottom. heading Nayakas
31 8 ~~~~llffilrf1:l
8 from bottom 011 erotrcs or the
32 last hue the SrngaramanJarii which gene-
rally makes It a pOInt
46 14-15 difference
26 ~r'1fr;e;e~:
7 from bottom Silpakarrka
50 fn. tfto~r~<iiT
71 5 Ulii.
72fn 16 Illustrated
73 29 class
100 15 utterance
102 13 aU
16 abroad
23 has gone
103 2 Vara-ruyama
104 34 Madhyama
106 28 Sanghatana
107 6 V;;l.1sika
5 10 ~~Tq-
17 ~~-
9 10 ~ftrm
9fn last line ai~:
23 16 l1Hm~<U~~llJr~~RflJ'
30 1 ' 'SiwrT<rn~r\1Rofr-
40 12 ;rr~Sl'm?! ~.'ijrr
41 20 Ht
42 9 ;J~;:r~l5llJll.
52 26 ~~:
52fu. Prataparudrayasobhu~a~a

While pursuing my interest m the hterai y products of the healthy cultural mteraction of Sanskrit and the Muslim patrons and authors, I happened to find In the Catalogue of the Government Oriental Library, Mysore (Supplemental Catalogue, 1928, p. 14, No C. 2096) the entry srngaramafIJarI, Bada Akbar. The names of the work and Its Mushm author excited my CUrIOSIty and led me to an exammation of the contents of the manuscript Sri H. R Rangaswami Ayyangar, Curator of the LIbrary, was ktnd enough not only to send first some extracts from the manuscript, but to supply later a complete transcript of the manuscript for my use,

In the same year (1943), m the middle of Decernber t, a paper of mine on the Srngaramanprl by Akbar Shah, a Muslim saint of Hyderabad, was read before the first session of the Hyderabad Telugu Academy, and the appreciatron and interest evmced by t.he then Education Member of H E H the Nrzarn's Government, Dr Nawab Mehdi Yar J ung Bahadur, who sent for a copy of my paper, led to the enthusiastic proposal of the Hyderabad Telugu Academy that they would publish this work under therr own ausprces ; but this Idea did not take shape

To draw the at! ention of the wicrer scholarly world to this mterestmg work, I pubhshed an account of It and the Muslim author to whom It 15 ascribed 1D the Dr. C Kunhan Raja Presentation Volume-' Cpp 325-335) in 1946 The twelfth'[sessjon of the AII-Indm Oriental Conference at N agpur, in the October of the same year, registered a favourable turn 111 my efforts to bnng out this work, It was here that I proposed to Mr Khwaja Muhammad Ahmad, Curator of the Museum and DIrector, Arch,.eologlcal Department, Hyderabad, Deccan, that the pubhcation of my editron of the Srngaramafijari through the H) derabad Archseological Department would he appropriate In VIew of its Muslim author's association WIth Gulburga and Hyderabad, Dn. Mr Khwaja Muhammad Ahmad welcomed the proposal and began making arrangements for Its finahsation

While Ins ar i angernents were under negotratron, and pohtical developments were causing a temporary interruption, I was fortunate to dISCO\ er in the Maharajah Ser foji Sarasvati Mahal Library, Tanjo i e, a second manuscript of this S[!lgaramafijari, and obtamed a transcrrpt of It The manuscript IS descrrled under No, 11001 111 Vol XVI of the new Desci iptrve Catalogue of the Sarasvati Mahal LIbrary (old Burnell Catalogue No 10556) While the Myscre manuscript IS 111 paper and Devanagari script, the Tanjore manuscript is In palm-leaf and Ti lugu scrrpt , and while the former 15 complete, the latter lacks the begrnmng , It does not have the first SIxteen mtroductory verses and the long prose passage devoted to a descripuon of the author and his genealogy, and begrns straight WIth the enumeration of the earner authorrtative works which It has used A noteworthy pomt regardmg the Tanjore manuscript 1S that It appears to mention Its author as Shahaji, son of Ekojr, the Maharatta ruler of Tanjore (A D 1684- L710) :

1 16-12-1943

2 The Adyar Library, Adyar.



~ffi ~rq;:ij~I{I::fr~{r:m:r!;!iC:Rcor(2:aijfoT~p11\!Fr.fT~::TI~a::q(UT-

" . ('

qi!i!~U::fO!{~a mi[{I::f t1~l1~ (?) ~H:ij~U B'i01~ II

It IS from the word Ekoji onwards that the colophon here 10 the Tanjore manuscript becomes different from the correct one found III the Mysore manuscnpt, the corrupt expression 'SaharaJasa1l!graham' may after all refer only to kmg Shahaji having secured or collected the manuscript of this work, If the scribe or discoverer of this manuscript had mistaken ItS author as king Shahaji of Tanjore, there IS some cause for such ,1 mistake, Shah Rap, as will be seen below, IS a name occurrmg frequently 111 the lme of the author of the SrngaramanJal i, Akbar Shah, and the scribe, who bad before b1111 a manuscript without the mtroductory verses and the prose passage descnbing the 1\01 ushm author to elucidate further the Incomplete colophon ment1011I11g Saharaja, must hav e taken kmg Shahajr- o t Tanjore as the author, as the latter was certainlv more famihar to him

Early m 1949, I was glad to heal from Mr Khwaja Muhammad Ahmad that the Hvderabad Government had approv ed of the mclusion of my edition of the Smgalamaiip~i of Akbar Shah 111 the pubhcations of the Arch.eological Department of Hyder abad,


The edition of the srngaramafiJ3ri that I am presenting here IS, as already stated, basedon the two manuscnpts of the work III the Mysore and Tanjore Iibrarres. The Tanjore manuscript proved highly useful, as I could correct many a slip 1U the Mysore manuscript with Its help Compared to the Mysore manuscript, It has many gaps, but It IS only in a single context towards the end of the work that there is an unfortunate gap 111 both the manuscripts which could not be made up by any means. Generally the headings 111 the Tanjore manuscript are in a longer and more precise form. In the text that I have presented here, the rejected readings of the two manuscripts, whether corrupt or not, are recorded in the foot-notes, I have reconstructed the text or suggested emendations at places were both the manuscripts were corrupt, and lines where even this could not be done are only a few

In the foot-notes, besides the readmgs, I have given here and there some other notes also On a work of such an attractrve theme I would have loved to wnte my Own Sanskrrt commentary, but exigencies of time, cost of pnntmg etc, forced me to renounce that pleasure I have therefore added 111 the foot-notes short explanatory notes, 111 Sanskrrt or English, on the meaning of a few passages whose drrft 15 rather obscure. The Srnga.ramanpri is closely related to two previous works, the Rasamafijari of Bhanudatta, and a commentary on It called the Amoda , It generally crrtrcises the Rasamafijari and adopts many of the views expressed m the Amoda, while the former IS printed and well

1 It may be of interest to note here that the names Shahaji and Serfoji borne by the first two sons of Ekoji of Tanjore are not Hmdu names, the great Shivajr's grandfather Maloji had no ISSU~. for a long time, finally, he IS said to have had two sons by the grace of the Muslim saint, Shah Sharif of 1;Tagar or Ahmednagar, these sons were respectively named, out of gratitude to the M uslim saint, Shah-ji and Sharif-jr. It IS after these first Shah-ji and Sharrf-ji that the two sons of Ekoji of Tanjore also bore the names Sahajr and Sarabhoji See James Grant Duff, History of the Mahrattas, 1873 edn , p. 40; Takkakav and Keluskar, Life of Shivaji Maharaj, 1921, pp. 6.7, and the Marathi mscnption of the Big Temple, Tanjore References to these were grven to me by Messrs V Srinrvasacbari, LIbrarian, Sarasvati Mahal, Tanjore and Khwaja Muhammad Ahmad, see also Tanjore Descrrptrve Catalogue, Vol XIX, Intrcductron, PP XXVlll-XX1X.

o- ee
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known, the latter IS still ill manuscript and Its views are not known at all , therefore, wherever the Amoda IS referred to m the Srngararnafijari I have, for the greater understanding of the text, given 10 a senes of separate foot-notes the relevant portions of the Amoda, together with necessary critical remarks, from the Adyar Library manuscript of that work Wherever possible I have identified the quotations m the Srngaramafijari, and references to these sources too, I have included 10 the foot-notes.



The Srngararnafi Jari 1~ not silent about Its author. After paying respect to Hmdu divmitres and the preceptor (guru) in the first two verses, the work proceeds to give an account of the author in a senes of verses, 3-16, followed up by a prose passage In verse 3, Bande Nawaz Hazarat (Bande Nav aja Haj aratr ) IS saluted m verse 4, the genealogy of the author IS begun, In the family of Bande N awaz Hazarat appeared Shah Raja (Saharaja ) ,verse 5 says that this Shah Raja had three sons, Shah RdJa, Shahnafezarullah, and Akbar Shah, from the second of the three brothers, was born Shah Raja, described as preceptor to the King (verse 6) This Shah Raja had a son named Akbar Shah, otherwise know-n as Bade Saheb (verse 7) , the next verse further extols the greatness of Akbar Shah, mentioned here as Safai Bade Saheb , verse 9 praises this Bade Saheb's knowledge, piety, eminence and fame; m verses 10 and 11, two younger brothers of tbis Bade Saheb, Akbar Shah, are mentioned, Mir Saheb and Shah Saheb , two more verses extol again the eldest brother Bade Saheb Akbar, the first refernng to hIS intelhgence, learnmg and high posrtion, and the second trying to explain etymologically that hIS name Akbar (A-ka-vara) means that not even the drvmities V isnu and Brauma are his superiors.

~Ofi~"'I{+!!!Ofi(~~'Ql1i[Fi'!;:i!:+!en\;:~ I ;q;:~ifqr;jf~\lRffiqa:r\fcr;:~ ~i.i;T q;:~ II ~ U

cfif1ITl<\_ Ef{!lmll1fcriR'ef fef+!~~m~~ 3n~\~q:_ I m~T~U~'lrj:1[ ~\+i~~ar lirr II \? II


. "\

arTtlffl~<I' ('!'t;;:rr ij' ~r~<fi.n~ ~T~ ~~T~: I

;gr&'l~~r~~r~Scq<fi\i{{ijr~;f§fq~a 'q ij{Q~qr: a '-\ II

:(fT~.,qffQ91i[19R!so!!llT, ~n&u~ ~~l1Ef~ I fq~CT~ql<l;:frqr +!~I~l1IEf: ~ijF~~: II a.. II

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"""\ A ~~

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tI~iiJ~tl'~iiJ~l1o:rTilT \1l1lfli\liI"~UJ: I


'if'Tm fei~CTq{~e:r,'hfqm a"iiiT<ltlT ij~l: II e: II

~ "" ~

en: Tenw crqm +J~ 8T lI1ITtlf ~Tif;; ~ 'l1lJ I

6fB<Ti<T(a B~~qfrf 'ifl1fa ij~tir~ijo:r tlq: II Q, II

~:m~{T'iftI.~: a~TOf~~fqenrRa (;q~llJ: I

<{ ifl~ijl~'I'r~4' 'if11a:~~ ij'~(f: ~ffr II ~ 0 Ii

SRNGARA l\1AN]ARI l>fl~!~{I~I1,~: a~~ltll~~ISliq~ollen~~: I

~ :ur&:~H~~!~<t B"~ ~q;I: ~g~f(f B~?f II Z ~ II

~lSfr 3q~: ~lm"'l:_ feI~l<t qfu+rr~Cfi\Rd ~~6~fJ!: I <:!~~ iSj~BT~iSj~~S:F·n0;1iifr ~a:4T: II Z:Z II

cfiI (sfT) M~!!J: <if ij~f al"lIT ~~tRmst[jCfi'5[US1:Jf{_ I ~~1:Jfa I1~YJ{c~ ll~ij iSj~B!~~frI "'n+!~<:[I+r_ II ~ ~ II

ThIS Akbar Shah was a patron of poets (verse 14) This Akbar, who \P'"

respected by the kmg, Inmsel] (sva)la1n) wrote In Te!ugu, the work called Srng;tramail j.u i (verse 15), and this IS Its Sanskrrt vel sion (verse 16)

61Cfi"T{~cr:q)lt:~H~I1T+!fq CfiCj<n ~p1!+!m 51;zrBfff I

llfcCfi6 a({_~UT'IR~H croTlQglTI;,:ir R~f! II Z ~ II

~FiJT;:~~TI:[(;(I<:! {RrR: '!WHq~U~;:q. I

~cp:rqq:;~itUT ~'Fg~C:+lfaT~J~cnrnCfil1~ij II ~ ~ II

a{[~I~aF~+lllSfrq;{8Af 5<lwr{q~~I';;~W:n<r_ I

~efl:;;f ~:gqpJ(h:firClt {fiallSfflTU6Cfi~'1I: Ii ~ a_ II

In the above vel ses, more than once, reference IS made to "\lbM ~ILlh Ill ...

father Shah Raja being the respected guru of the king' The rmpoi t.mt m kn m.u 1.1 hI • II the name of this king IS given 111 the prose passage which now folio ,vs TIll' \\ II ,I, : I '

acre which further eulozises the p'nlosophtcal, literni y, musical anel other .u u-.« <:1111.1\\

b' . ,:,

ments of the author Bade Saheb Akbai Shah, mentions this kmg at. t[,e .1

Sultan Abul Hasan


...... {'\ ...... " r-, r-; 1'\""" r-..

ij~Cfl <r._-~~~~'l.·~iOff~· af'~i1c:a:a:lc<:[!1Fl~l ~~R~(iiWfi(UT~ r{H~C'lq;;:;qrr~[CfiB6:q ijs5T "=f{IJT !I~U if)ff?'

r-: ~ +',;f'.. r-; r-; c--; r-: • r-;

~Tiifrnm+rl~a~UTlll{~q I~J+rF!l~C1erT'f<p:rnOs~~ml;;orl=fdq<:!ic'f 8q~'m.1;g:!;:C1[.,{;;R\ 8~;~p~.,n@~'1I::f{' m::: 11f i'

,:::._ ~'" r....."""''''''' f'.,"""_ r

.,o<:f~IJ!CfiCfi"l".,Fn{<:!c=rlq;I(?R6['ifI:TF1~1i.1~~{tqF1WHWfrr!ij[~qW-lW1l1!i'fiq;sr;cr-:TfEFll<:!'1rrrrr 1 Fflij?i, I! Ir~ i •

<, r-: r-, (' "",r-., r-cr-, r-; r-; r-; ,......., ......, "\ • f"\

~.,TjI5!l1~l~lll~~'ifnR+rlrrRI(_>5~mCfilar(i5C'l~c.r~!i1ll:Tqno'finJQ"C'lq;I"I":sj";:~rl15!q~ «r~~Ffi::r{;u-r ~: ~irrrFf~ -I,!-

".,...... r-:

~;;9-l(1~ ~l:q( !er\~~rC'f I (p 2)

I proceed now to identtfy the author, his revered ancestor, and lll~ roy .rl p.t! rr III Bande Nawaz Hazai at who l S saluted in verse 3 rs the renowned Mu-Jun ~ wit (''':'\' Daraz of Gulbarga According to the Hadrquat-ul-Alam, AUlanci,tzel;, duruu; h,,, lIl.tlll.! against the last Qutb Shant king Abu! Hasan alias Tana Shah, paid a visi: to (ill' (lim!) lit « Hazarat Saiyad Bande N'awaz Muhammad Gals1.l-Dctraza" at Gulbarg., t (on (J.1.2.[, .;:-\! I j_;, and distributed Rs 20,000 to the devotees and disciples there Fortunately, \\(. ;',l \ '. ample materials beanng on the life of this Muslim saint "This famous Muslim ',(!!It

was born at Dilh (Delhi) on the 4th Rajab, A H 721 (30th July A 1) 1321 J I

proper name 1S Sadr-ud-Dm Muhammad Hussami, but he was com.nonly called Xluh.unm,ul Gesu Daraz, on account of hIS havrng long rmglets He W<lS a disciple of Shekh X,I',!l-laL DID Chlragh of DIll! who sent him to the Dakhan 111 A H 802 (A D 1399) dUrIng tile ltl:_;n

1 See pp 120-126-Eoghsh part of the Govalkondyaer Qutbsahl, l:harat,\ rthdld~d Samsodhaka Mandal Series, Poona, No 39.

2 But on 30th October according to SIr' J Sarkar, Aurangazeb, Vol 1\', P 330

'" ...a






of the Sultan Frruz Bahrnanr The latter i ece ived him with much honour and respect, but afterwards quarrelled with htrn, and to this disagreement with the samt the author of the Burhan-i-Ma'asir attributes the subsequent misfortunes of Sultan Firuz "! Accordmg to Ferrshtah, the Sultan favoured GbU Daraz as the supreme samt m the place of He previously favoured farmly of Shekh Sirajuddrn, granted to him many towns, vill iges and lands near Kulbargah, together With a college anrl a monastery, the people of Deccan revered G!SU Daraz as even greater than the Pro »het 2 The Orieutal BIOgraphical Drctionary of Thomas Wrllrarn Beale- gives S0111e more mforrnatr.m about GISU Daraz Beale says that the saint IS said to be the author of several works among which are the " Adab al Murrd ", the" Wajadul-Ashikim ", contairung the whole duty of a Sufi disciple etc, and also a work of fables m Persia'! entitled" Asmar-ul-Asrar " He was burred at Hasanabad commonly called Kulbarga 4 Of hIS descendants Beale says that "durmg the reigns of the Dakhin Sultans, great sums of money were occasionally offered to his (GISU Daraz's ) descendants "" ho reposed near the saint, 111 vow and presents" Beale mentions also the son of GlSU Daraz who was known as Muhammad Akbar and was the author of the" Akaed Akbari " containing the prmciples of the Muhammadan f auh According to the Taskire-auliya-i-Hmd, I a 11 told.s the father of GISU Daraz was known as Shah Raja, and that the grandson of GlSU Daraz was known as Mrr Sadidullah

The' Hndrquat-ul-Alam also says m connect 1011 With the death and burial of Sultan Abul Hasa~ at Daul itabad near the tomb of the father of Gesu Daraz that Syed Raju Qattal was the name of the father of Gesu Daraz (, From the genealogy gn en Hi our SrngaramafiJafi, we mil} see these names Shahr aja, Akbar and Mlr recurrrng 111 the family

Mention 11<15 been made of GlSU Daraz by Prof H K. Sherwarn of the Osmania

Un.vei suy, Hyderabad, in hIS article enutled "TaJu'd-dm Firoz and Synthesis of Bhamaru Culture," m the New Indian Antiquary, Vol VI, No 4, pp 75-89 According to Mr Sherwaru, GlSU Daraz's father was Sved Y usu f who had visited Deccan during the time of Muhammad Tughlaq and had breathed his last at Khuldabad on 12-7-1331 AD G1SU Dar:1Z was born at Delhi on 10-7-1321, but was "eighty lunar years old" when he arrrved at Gulbarga With a host of disciples The first irnpressron of the saint and the regard which Firoz had for him did not last 7 (,ISU l)araz died on 1-11-1422 S Both Hindus and Muslims revered GISU Daraz and his tomb which was built by the successor of Frroz, Ahmad Shah I, Bhamatl1, who "perhaps knew the spmtual and moral mfluence" of the samt and "was not slow to take full advantage of It" \ p 87)

1 HIstory of the Bahmarn Dynasty (Founded on he Burh an-r-Ma'asrr ) by Major J S

Kmg Indian Antiquary, 28, 11:99 (:\lay), pp. 186-7 2 Ibid , p 186 fn,

a ASiatIC SOCIety of Bengal, Calcutta, 1381

4 A photograph of his tomb has been reproduced III this volume For an mterioi view of the tomb of Gesu Daraz, see Annual Report of the Archaeological Dept of H E H the Nizarn 1936-7, plate V The tomb was built by Errozs successor Ahmad Shah I (New Indian Antiquary, VI, 4, P 78, fn 15)

5 By Mr Sayyid Usha of the Islam.c Department, Madr-as Uruversity.

6 P 182, English translation, Govalkondyacr Qutbshahl,-Bharata Itihasa Samsodhaka Mandal Publrcation, Poona

7 On the details of this estrangement between the king and the saint, see Mr Snerwanr'j, article, p 87

S MI Sherwani refers to the works Hadrat GISU Dat az by Hamrd SIddIqI, Hyderabad, Zahirud-dtu's Sultan Ahmad Shah Bahmani, the manuscrrpt 10 tne tomb at Gulbarga of GISU Daraz's life by one ot hrs disciples Muhammad All Sarnarn and to- the Hyderabztr edrtion of the sarnt's work Khat-mali, coniaimng extracts from the last mentioned manuscript



From the above accounts and the hst supplied in the Srngaramafijari we met)" draw up the follow mg genealogy.

Sayyid Yusuf 01 Shfihraja I

son Gezu Daraz (Bande Na~az Hazarat) 1321-1-+22 A D (came to the Deccan 10 13S,9 A D dunng the time

of Firoz and Ahmad I Bahmam )


son Akbar


son Mrr Sadrdullah


descendant Shah Raja


3 SOl1S


Shah Raja




son Shah Raja

Preceptor of kmg ABu! Hasan (c


3 sons


Akbar Shah

16-1-4·170+ A D.)


Akbar Shah aiuis Bade

Saheb, author of the Srngararnafijari

According to the Tankh Qutb Shahi by Qadn Khan munshi, of Bidar, published m Matbai Burhanra, Hyderabad-Deccan, 1306 H, P 47, extract from which was kindly supplied to me by Mr Khwaja Muhammad Ahmad, the genealogy of Shah Raju, the father of our author and the preceptor of Abu! Hasan, upto Gesu Daraz IS as Iollows :

Gesu Daraz, son Muhammad Akbar SOI1 Safirulla (Dakan ) son Ask.u ulla son "\,,rt~ dulla SOI1 Shah Raju (of Bijapur, brother of Hussain Shah Walt), son Safirulla , son Asadulla son Shah Raju

Now the kmg of whom our author Akbar Shah's father Shah Raja j" described as guru IS rr entioned as Sultan Abul Hasan In the text mtroducing him, he IS described as a scholar of great culture and accomplishment 111 arts This IS in all hkehhood none else than Abul Hasan Qutb Shah of Golconda, known as Tana Shah as ,i result of his gaiety (ApnI 21st 1672-1687 AD) W110 was the last Qutb Shain kmg, was made captive by Aurangazeb on 21st Sept, 1687, and died In 1704 A D 1 Between.\ D. 1350 and 1650, $ e , between Gesu Daraz and Akbar Shah, time has elapsed for nearly twelve generatrons The name, of all the members of this family and the part which this family played III the political and cultural events of Deccan de'>erve to be brought to light by the historians and luterateurs of Hyderabad and Deccan

An independent corroboranon of the relationship between Sultan Abul Hasan and the saints of Gesu Daraz family at Gulbarga and of the krng being the puprl of Shah Raja IS furnished by the work Hadlquat-ul-Alam, available 111 an English translation in the pubhcation "Golkondyacl Qutbshahi" of the Bhard.ta Itihasa Samsodaka Mandal, Poona This work states twice that Abul Hasan was staying at the tomb of Gesu Daraz in his youth and was a student of a descendant of Gesu Dai az, Shah Raju, who happens to be the father of our author Akbar Shah



Shah Saheb

1 Sarkar, Aurangazeb, IV, pp. 333, 384.



as mentioned ill the genealogical hvt ill the Sr ngaramafijari The Hadtquat-ul-Alam says m connection with the maritage of Abu! Hasan 1 'It was resolved that the brrde (daughter of Abdullah Qu tbshah) should be given In marnage to Abul Hasan who was a near relative from the side of the long's mother As destined by God, the very night when the hour of marrrage was fixed, Abu! Hasan was sent for He was then taken to the bathroom, di essed . and the prrncess was at last given over to him. It is related that Abul HaS'll1 was 1 esrding for fourteen years previous to hIS marriage at the Takzyen of his M urslud Sayrd Shah Raju, who was one of the revered grandchildren- of HIS Holmess Saiyad Muhammad Gaizu Daraz and was a worthy successor to his great predecessor It was from this Takzyeh that Abul Hasan was taken 111 pomp to the bathroom and was decorated III the bridegroom's dress for the marriage with the prrncess ' The book goes on to narrate how Saiyad Shah Raj u foresaw this coming event on the day previous when Abul Hasan came to him to pay the usual respects to his teacher 3 The same source says later 111 connection with the death of Abul Hasan

He (the Qutladar of the Daulatabad fort) burred him (Abul Hasan) near the grave of Syed Raju Qattal (revered father of Syed Muhammad Gaizu Daraz) adjacent to the mausoleum The date of his death has not been mentioned 111 any of the existing books on history or biography. But because It IS told that he passed fourteen years of his Ide m childhood, and fourteen years 111 study as a disciple of his spintual preceptor Syed Shah Raju, and afterwards ruled for fourteen years, passed a further penod of fourteen years m captivrty, It can be said that he died III 1111 H or l l I? H (1700 AD) "

ThIS account confirms the mforrnatron m our Srngaramafijari that our author Akbar Shah's father was called Shah Raja, and that Abul Hasan was a student under that Shah R ija, our author's father The kmg was thus a fnend and co-student of our author himself It 15 but fitting that one who had spent hIS youth at the tomb of Gesu Daraz should pass away at Daulatabad and get buried by the side of the tomb of Syed Rap, father of Gesu Daraz.

In two verses 111 the begmnmg (15, 16), already quoted, this Sanskrit Srng;i! arnafijarf IS stated to be a translation of a Telugu work of that name by .Akbar Shah hrmself, A second reference to this I'elugu ongmal and 10 the Illustrative Telugu verse of old occurrmg in It are made III the course of the Sanskrrt version On p 13, In the section on Samanya Naylka, the work speaks of the Te1ugu illustratrve verse 111 the orrgrnal

>l1~I'1Fl'f~:n~~fl[\lJf[ay::gmq: ~;a:', cW:n~ re~Gi~f I

The work no doubt expressly mentions the Iitei ary gifts of Akbar Shah, and says that he himself (svayam) wrote It; but a Iegrnrnate doubt may be raised whether the Muslim Samt Akbar Shah wrote this work on 10ve4 in Telugu and Sanskrrt The doubt may be strengthened by the fact that one of the mtroductory verses here (no 14), as also the prose passage quoted above, refers to Akbar Shah as a patron of poets, and in the course of the work Akbar himself is eulogised In illustratron as the Nayaka on pp 9 (verse 49),11 (verse 62),21 (verses 108-9),49 (verse 281), 50 (verse 284) and 52 (verse 298) It may be that at the instance of Akbar, some Telugu scholar wrote the origmal Srngararnafijari in Telugu and then d Sanskrit scholar translated It 111to Sanskrit Obeisance to the Hmdu drvinities m the first stanza will be appropriate 111 that case The subject of Nayaka-NaYlkas had been made popular among Muslim patrons and authors by a number

1 pp 81-2, English translation 2 means descerdant

3 See also Sarkar, Aurangazeb, IV, p. 332

£ Buddhistic and Jam saints have Written treatises on love, and there IS no irnpossibility in Saint Akbar Shah writing on love



of Hrndr works dealmg with It and while on one hand the use of a nU111b~r of Alankara works of the Telugu country point to the association of a Telugu author \\ ith this work, the use here of Hmdi works on the subj ect would also show that Akbar should have been not a mere passive patron, but an active collabolator m the producuon of tlu-, work, also the employment of a simile like the npe whitish pan-leaf for the chc~k (\ erse 235) speaks of an rmagmation accustomed to Dakhmi poetry \v hether Akhat Shah w as the real author or only the patron, It IS all the same srgrnficant that In the Muslim cout t s of the Deccan, indigenous literature and art flourrshed It IS well known that the CJlltb Shalns were great promoters ot letters, both as authors! and patrons, .ind at then" hands Telugu lrtei atui e especially received great encouragement 2

A'_COlJll1g to the Hadrquat-ul-Alarn, as pomted out before, Abul Hasan \\ ,l~, before he was brought to Golconda and suddenly made Lmg, study wg in the tom» 0 Gesu Daraz at Gulbarga, under the then descendant and guardian of the tomb 0 f (;.::~tl Daraz V2::, Shah Raja. father of our author Akbar Shah He was thus ,111 asso. I,lte and Ir.end of Akbar Shah himself who must have succeeded Shah Raja a'> the Lmg'.., 'plliltul preceptor after his father The fr rendship must have persisted, and as Tana SI1"h ihe king given to pleasure, Abul Hasan might well have COml111SSlOned 111' giu u \ -on (0 produce a treatise on the types of heroes and heroines figm mg 111 Jove

The great populai ity of this subject among tilt: author, and then pati cus o I H11S tune and part of the country 1::, s to wn also by the fact that an author un tin, ,(')) subject of Nayakas and .:'idYlkas, the celebrated composer 01 I'elugu Pada-, K ,elL' l,-i,l. was patronised by Abdulla Qlltb Shah of G .ilconda (A D 1620-72) .md Ill;' t;c!lt:Ld. Tupakula Krsnappa , in hrs song 111 Devagandhari riga, Adl tala, Kseu ajii.i say , th.it 111.' had a contest With one Tulasimiirti 111 the court of the Padsh.ih of lrolcond,\ and that on that occasion, he composed 1,100 Padas

Balavantudai Golakonda Pad usa bahumanamosagi Tulasimiirtito vadu dalachu vela

velayu Muvva Gopaludu veyymniiru padarnulu naluvadi dinamnlalone nannukalasi vmupificene 3

It has already been remarked that the tomb of Ge~u Dai az was a meeting pam! of adoration for both the Hindus and the Muslims Besides, Akkanna and I'Ii,t(Lum<l, the two Hm.lu rnrrustei s of Tana Shah, kept up a Hindu atmosphere and it r-, r ecot dcd that one of the pleas WIth which Aurangazeb was induced to punish Abul Hasan Tan.t ~hdh was that, at the Instance 011115 two Hrndu mimsters, even Muh,11111TI<ldan couruer- of Abul Hasan were taking part In Hindu celebrations -1 Tradrtion glonGe::. Tuna ~h,lh WIth the story of Sarnt Ramadas of Bhadracala, the details or which ale well-known to all Down below all Its gaiety, Tana Shah's heart appears to have hac! a firm philo-oplucal

1 For the literary productions of the Qutb Shahis, sec Journal of the Bihar and Um;,;> Research Society, Vol 28, No II, pp 176-1t:l9

2 See Tnvem, XIV, 11 1942, Telugu Ltterature under the Kuiub Shalns, For a probable Telugu poet named Kumuda under the Qutb Shahis, bce my article on the subject In the Journal of the Andhra History and Culture, Guntur, Vol I

3 See my article on Hyderabad as a Centre if Sangua, J{Jurnal of the MUSIC Academy Madras, Vol XVI, 19+5, pp 118-9 and the 1945 Souvenir of the Krishna Gana Sabha' lfyderabad. '

According to Messrs R Anantakrrshna Sarma and Ch Papayya Sastri, In two Telugu books of songs of 1831 and 1912 (the former earlier than the Sangita sampradaya pradarsini (190.J.-5) from which I have quoted above), the hnes read "Golakonda pahadusa koka-vela nruci-Tolasimuruvaru bihcinavela-velaya Muvva Gopaludu-veyymniiru padamulu-naluvadl-dmamulu logananu galasi vinupnicane "

4 See p 91, Hadtquat-ul-Alam, Enghsh translation



anchor and none will fail to be struck by the sprrrtual dignity of his last testament, spoken by Abul Hasan on the eve of the fall of his fort and his capture by Aurangzeb. Abul Hasan said

= My belief 111 God, the Glonous and the Great, the Creator of the World and the sustamer of princes and paupers, IS such that He, may He be glorified, never keeps back HIs krnd and merciful glances from his slave at any time or under any circumstance and sends him his allotted food My paternal and maternal granc fathers passed their time always 111 peace and plenty and power Yet, for some time, God Willed that I should pass my days 111 poverty Again, With his bounteous glance falling upon me, d. humble fellow, He created for me such environments as, within only a short perrod of one hour, exalted me 111 the high positron of kingshrp Nobody includrng myself could have ever rmagined that I was to be a kmg He, praise be to Him, has now lett no desu e or yearnmg 111 my heart I gave away lacs and spent crores. Now, He may have taken the reigns of sovereignty out of my hands as a i ctrrbutron against some Improper acts of mille

I must not grudge against Hrs very kind treatment. "

It is therefore quite natural to suppose that some Telugu and Sanskrit poets assocrated With both the kmg and his spmtual preceptor were connected With the production ( Ithis SrngaramafiJari 111 Telugu and Sanskrit


Works and Authors cited 211 the Srngaramanjar'i

The Teluqu S1ngiiramanJari The Srngaramafijari, as it has already been noted, purports to be a Sanskrit version of a Telugu work of that name. Verses 15 and 16 in the mtroductlOn say

, a;:rr;~~Tf.1lir<r ~Rrc!: $>lWiT~11~tll1;:~:' and 'Qr~if-;:rcrr;~mliir1iiT~cH $>~l~+r~tl'"'~rlirli.' (p. 2). and in the discussion on Samanya-nayika, reference is also made to an old Telugu illustrative verse, evidently cited 111 this Telugu Srngaramafi]ari

J:IT:qBF$ll1l~<::r&:\orI<::t<r<[ij~: fu~:, ffi:<l"T~ f~~<[a- I (p 13).

It may also be noted in this connection that, among the works mentioned at the beginning as having been used by the author, a Narasa-kavya IS found, which may be, as shown below, the Telugu Alankara work, Narasabhiipaliya of Bhatturnurtr ; of the Sanskrit treatises too that are referr ed to and quoted from, rt is srgnificant, that some are works produced and popular m the Telugu country. I have not been able to find so far m any manuscript lrbrary a copy of a SrngaramauJar11l1 Telugu answenng to the descrrp, tion glyen above

At the begmnmg (p 2), the SrngaramauJarI mentions a number of earher works as forming Its basrs , Rasamafijarl, Amoda, P arimala, Srngaratilaka, Rasikapriya, Rasarnava, Prataparudriya, Sundarasi ngara, Narasakavya, Dasarfipaka, Vilasaratnakara, Kavyapariksa, and Kavyapi akasa While these names are merely mentioned at the begmning, m the body of the text, the foUowmg works are quoted the Rasamafijari and the Amoda frequently; Prataparudriya thrrce Cpp 16 (anon), 19, 21); Sahityaratnakat a (p. 19); Bharatiya (Natya sastra) Cpp 19,23); Nayakabhtisana (p 19), Raslkapnya (p. 37), and Vatsyayana (pp. 54) Dunng the dISCUSSions, reference 1S made many times to the older writers, Pracinas, WIthout specific mention of the name of any author or work. Besides, works of general Importance, the Amarakosa , (pp. 21, 37) and the Panmisutras (pp.23, 32, 33), as also Illustrative verses from the Amaruka, Meghasandesa, and Abhijfianasakuntala (p 33) are also quoted. Leaving




these last, we shall notice hei e the works on poetics, dramaturgy and erotrcs mentioned or Cited ill the Srngaramanpri

The works and authors noted above fall mto three classes those in Telugu, those 10 Hindi and those in Sanskrit Of the work\ whrcn are enumerated at the begmnrng, onl some are quoted 10 the body of the text. Regarding the rest, there IS no mdicntion to ~ow how far they have been utihsed by the author of the Srngaramaiijari While most of these works are 1dentlfiable, there are a few of them about which I have not been able to gather any mforrnation

Narasakiivya This may be the Narasabhiipaliya m Telugu, otherwise called Kavyalankarasangraha,l a work of rhetoric written by Bhattumfirti Based completely on the Prataparudriyayasobhusana of Vldyanatha, the work eulogrses m ItS Illustrative verses the author's patron Turagantt Narasaraju, a feudatory cluef and nephew of

Aliya RamaraJa (died 1565 AD).

While the greater possiblhty seems to be that It IS this Telugu work that the ~rngaramafiJari IS referrlllg to, It must also be mentioned that a Sanskrit Alankara work of the ldentlcal name, N arasabhupaliya. is also known Called more specifically Alank.iramuktavali, It was wntten by Vadhfila Krsna Yajvan, in praise of another patron of the same age and name, Gobbiirr Nrsimha, a nephew of Ahya RamalaJa,2 and a cousm of

the Narasrrnha figurmg in the Telugu work

It has already been pointed out while dealing With the authorship of the work that some Hmdr works are mentioned 111 It. Of the works first enumerated among the source"> and quoted 10 the body of the text, two are identifiableas Hindi works, the Sundara ~l ng,-lLL and the Raslkapnya The subject of classificanon of hero and herorne types 111 love I", one that received great attention at the hands of H111dl writers In the Mushrn-Rajput period The Bhakti movement, especially that centerrng round Krsna, gave a fillrp to the dct.ulc.l study or the sentiment of love and the different types of lovers, and the Hindi Varsn.rv a poets composed a number of erotic poems,_ classtfymg and describmg the varrou- I,mch o i Naylkas With reference to Krsna as the N ..tyaka As we shall see later, the subject attnmerl a further dllnenS1011 and attractiveness, when the art of pamtmg found 111 this a favourue


The Sundarasrngiira IS the work of a Brahman named Sundarad.is \\ 110 w ,I, court.poet of Shah Jehall (1627-1658) In the mtrocluctory portion of the work Sundai adas eulogises Sha~1 Jehan at Agra and gives his geneolog, Of hnuxelf, the author says that ~e ha~led hom Gw~ltor, ~nd that Shah Je!Jan honomed 111m With prevents and the titles, I\..avlraya and Mahakaviraya The woi k IS dated AD 1631 Anions the other works of Sundaradas may be mentioned a VlaJabhasa translation of tl S 1_"

re uri iasana-

dvatnmslka and a phl;osophlCal work called Jnanasamudra 3 The Slngd.lamafi]ari merelv mentions the Sundarasrngara as one of Its SOurces. .

The Rastkapnya 15, unlike the Sundarasrngara, once quoted in the course of the diSCUSSIons (p 37), and cnticised for holding a separate variety of Abhlslnkii called Prema-abhlsanka It was composed by Kesavadasa Sanadhya Misra of Bundlekhand who flourished about 1580 A D HIS onginal home was Tehn and he was patronised by Madhukar Shah of Urcha and hrs son Indrajit, the latter endowing him With twenty-one villages m Urcha In Indrajit/s court there was a gtfted courtezan-poetess Parbm Ral Pattin, whom Akbar wanted to

1. Edn. Vavilla Ramaswami Sastrulu & Sons, Madras

2. Adyar Library Ms See Catalogue Vol. n. p. 33 b and Adyar LIbrary Bulletin, VII 11 1943, pp. 155-120, Mss Notes by V Krtshnamacharya

3. See Grierson, The Modern Lzterary Hutory of Hindustani, pp 60-61, O.C. Gangoly, Rupam, 1927, April, pp. 47-51, Edztto Princeps of Sundara Srngara.



be sent to his presence, on Indraj It failing to 00 this, Akbar fined him ten million rupees and poet Kesavadas went as an ambassador to Akbar's court, moved RiJa Brrbal with his poetry and had the fine removed Kesavadas wrote an Alankara work on the ten limbs of poetry called Kavrpriya, the VIJnanagWi In the name of Madhukar Shah, the Rama-candrrka m Indrajrt's name and a work on prosody called Ram-alamkrt-mafijarf HIs Rastkapriya, cited here m the Srngaramafijarr was wi itten 111 AD 1591, and Its popularity IS borne out by the large number of commentaries on It 1

Of the Sanskrrt works quoted, the Bhiiratiya, the earliest, 15 the Natyasastra of Bharata , both the quotations made from It Cpp 19,23) are reproduced from the correspondmg context in the Amoda, and, as can be seen from my footnotes on both these pages (19,23), the citations here offer readings superior to those in the Kavyarnala and Kasl editions

Next comes the SrngiiratlZaka which IS certarnly the work of that name wrrtten by Rudrabhatta, It IS one of the early authoritative works devotmg much attention to tlus subject of Nayaka-Nayikas 2

The Dasan1paka mentioned IS the well-known work on dramaturgy by Dhanafijaya The Srngararnafijarl IS likely to have used this work also largely, as together with ItS commentary, the Avaloka by Dhanrka, it represents a text of considerable Importance 0 the subject of Nayaka-Nayikas,

The Kiivyaprakiisa mentioned is again a well-known work Though ItS autho Mamrnata does not deal wrth Nayaka-Nayikas, his work IS enumerated here because Rasa rn general and certain aspects of Srngara, which are all dealt with by Mammata, are touched upon at the end of the Srngaramafijari

The Pratiiparudliya (yasobhusana) IS a wbrk that the Srngaramanjali enumerates at the beginning and also quotes from 10 the body of the text, On p 16, ItS defimtion of the Vasakasaj jrka (1. 44) IS anonymously quoted, on p. 19, its definition of the Vrrahotkanthita (I 45) IS quoted, on p 21, ItS definitron of the Vrpralabdha (I 47) IS quoted. Except m the first case, the 51 ngararnafijari disapproves of the definrtrons given by; Vidyanatha. The Prataparudriya.f It IS well-known, eulogises Kakatiya Prataparudra (died 1323 AD) and forms one of the widely used text-books on poetics ancl dramaturgy

The work mentioned as Rasiirnaua IS, no doubt, the Rasarnavasudhakara+ of the Recerla Srngabhiipala, the Velama Kmg of Andhrac1da, (C 1400) The work deals briefly with Nayaka-Nayikas Beyond mentioning It, the Srngararnafijari makes no quotation from It

Like the last mentioned two works, the Sahztyaratntlkara, which IS once cited on P 19 along WIth some others, this whole series of quotations being taken from the Amoda, IS the work of a Te1ugu Alankarika, Dharmasiirr, C 1425 A D.5

1 Grierson, ibid , pp. 58-59 0 C Gangoly, Love Poems tn Hindi, Calcutta, 1';136, P 7

2. Kavyamala, gucchaka III, pp 111-152 One Padmasundara, a Jam monk of Akbar's trme, produced an Akbarasahi Srngaradarpana (Anup Sanskrit series, Brkaner, no. 1) by rehashing Rudrabhatta's work

3 Edn Balamanorama Press, Mylapore

4 Edn Trrvandrum Sanskru Serres, No 50

, ~. Edns Telugu script, Madras 1871, Devanagan script, Bamra, 1901. See E V V.

Raghavacharya, Proceed 9th On Conference, I'rrvandrum, pp 503-51 and New Indian Antiquary, II, pp 428-441 A fresh Devanagari edn of this work, popular In Andhradesa, would ~we It the greater vouge that it deserves



A V~liisaratnilkara IS mentioned among the source-books, but no quotatIon from It is made m the work Itself However m the Amoda on the Rasamafijari, as I have shown in a footnote on p. 17, It 15 found quoted as not tolerating the addrtion of a variety of Prositapanka called Pravatsyatpatika Beyond this nothmg 15 known of It, neither the author, nor Its date, No manuscript of It has yet come to light.

Along WIth the Sii!l1tyaratnakara etc., a Nayaka-bhl1,Sana IS CIted on p!9 As halo already been pointed out, thrs whole series of qnotattons IS taken from the Amoda, and there the name of the work IS found as Naylka-bhusana As Its name suggests, It seems to have exclusively dealt With the subject of Nayaka-Nayikas, but nothmg IS known of Its author or date, nor IS any manuscript of It to be found anywhei e.

There IS only one more work mentioned, the Kilvyapariksii, of which we cannot say anything It IS not also quoted m the Amoda, and Its rdentity IS obscure SrivatsaIan chana, commentator on the Kavyaprakasa, wrote an independent Kavyapariks.t, but this work 15 not likely to be the one referred to 10 the Srngiiramanjari, as It docs not deal, in Its five chapters, WIth either Rasa or Nayaka-NaYlkas (See India Office Ms. nos 1188-9)

At the end, while speaking of the classification of heroes and herornes as given in treatises on eroncs, Kama sastra, mention IS made of Vatsyayana ThIS IS the author of the Kamasiitras, which however does not give the classification of hero mes dealt WIth here, Padmmi etc In the same context, WIth reference to types of hero, the name Kucam.ira and Paficala occur These are two pre- Vatsyayana writers on erotics whom VatsyJ.y,tna

refers to as authorities who specialised in particular branches of erotics In 1. 1

Vatsyayana says that Kucamara dealt separately With Aupanisadrka, the subject to which Vatsyayana devotes hIS last section, the use of aphrodrsiac and other aids to attraction, enticement and enjoyment Paficala IS Babhravya, who summarised the entire subject of erotics In seven sections of one hundred and fifty chapters, VatSyaYclna'" own work being a further epitome of Paficala's work, after him, the elaboration of the sexual process into sixty-four acts took the name Paficalrki Catussasti (1. 3. 17-18, II. 2, 1~5)

The Rasaman;ari, Parnnalo and Amado. Of these three works which the Stllgill-,I_ rnafijari mentions In the 1001:1al Iist of authoritres, the Pai imala IS not quoted anywlu re In the body or the text It IS a commentary on the Rasamafijai i, wutten by a member of the well-known $esa family of Benai es, Sesa Cintamam, son of Sesa l;r'lmiJ" .ind younger brother of the more celebrated author $esa Ki sna Besides trie Rasamaiijnr i Panrnala mentioned here, Sesa Cintamani wrote a commentary on the Meghaduta, a treatise on prosody called Chandahprakasa and a play, Rukminiharana HIS brother Ses:1 Kr sn.i was the guru of Bhattoji Diksita and was patronised by Gcvardhanadharm, Todarmal's son, a manuscript of his Siidracaraslfomam III the Bhandaikar Orrental Research Institute IS dated 1591 A.D. Apart from these data, we have a manuscript of Sesa Cmtamaru's own Rasamafijari-vy.ikhya, described under no. 3115 in Rajendralal Mitra's Notices, bearing the date 1553 A D. which fixes his time 1 The Pall mala IS available m a number of manuscripts- and IS yet unpnnted.

The Pan mala IS severely handled in the commentary Amoda which criticises its interpretation of the RasamanJari at every step 8 The mentIOn of the Parimala In the

1. Dr. S K. De (SM PoetICS, I, p 251) who says that Sesa Cmtamani wrote before 1675 A D. had evidently not noted these data.

2. For instance, rn the Adyar, India Office and Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute librarres , In the last alone there are seven manuscnpts of the Parimala,

3. See for example-:a:r.lTmO'~~~ll;I:{~<lTfq ~'irT~~~r~ <il~+lfq~l'C!\1f~:;p~r~r

,~~clIT~<n~ !l:iT%ftfcr fer~+pn~'i~ I p 8. ·q~lre'iiro:l:f ~~;rll.-p. 86 qft+l~1iIU *,.. if'liIT;{ pp. 298.318. 337. qR~ro:<r ~~;j' ~~!l:l:fllll~~'fl'~~mf+I..1I p 412. Adyar Ms.



Srngaramafijari is secondhand, having been taken from the Amoda, which the Srngaramafijari has used to a considerable extent

Of the Amoda which the author of the Sn'lgaramafijari quotes frequently and with deference and approval, we have fortunately many manuscripts 1 It IS a commentary on the Rasarnafijari, and since considerable use of It IS made m the Srngaramafijari and it is a work in manuscript that deserves to be better known because of Its intrinsic merrts, it IS necessary to give here information about It rn some detail The author's name IS found either as Guru (-n-) jalasayrn or Guruj ala Rangasaym, Ms no R 802 1TI the Madras Government Orrental Mss Library, which has some additional introductory verses m the begmnmg, not found In the Adyar ms , informs us in verse 4 that the author Rangasayi was born of Dharmasiirr or Dharrnacarya, that Dharrnacarya was the youngest of four brothers, the three elders being Anantacarya, Varadacarya and Rangacarya, and that their father was Venkatacarya of Crlakamarrr family

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'ffr<rr~;ql~ ~ij~i('ifR <fil~~~ -'Sff?rm ~w~rqr II

The final colophon to the Amoda, which has some gaps and corruptions In the Adyar ms • but is full and free from errors m the Madras Government Library ms. (D no 12941), 15 mformmg in some other respects

mq[f'i~1l~i~fu<ji=cri(aHj~fu::frqre;~Wf6i1mq~Jl1ff6~C? m<:i E! ~~q.,. l5f1Rr~ 1i qf(~~ -

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:Jl'~<:fIC?~':i;~i~H~~>rEf;;1:f!''f+nlJf+nFIEfiOT ;:unp:r ~H=cjiji'lICfiji 8Trij~~~n<?S;urr'1qrlJs(Fr li:fU :;:raf':Jf

~Bq~Uo'11~l:fltlt B~<:{n~(ij~qot Tffll Q:~I':r ~0fii(1Jjl=f_ I

While the literary productions of the other members of this family are yet to be found out, It may be mentioned here that from a quotation in the Amoda Itself, on p 293, we learn that the author's grandfather (Venkatacarya ) wrote a medical work called Nadivrveka (a~:q;+f~lll~qQr+r~~a:ijr:flf~Er~). Gurujala that forms part of the author 's name IS a Village In Palnad Taluq of Guntur Dist 111 Andhradesa ; It IS therefore hkely that his real name IS Rangasayin , as lus father and grand father are referred to as Cilakamarrr Venkatacarya and Crlakamaj'rr Dharrnacarj a, Cilakamarrr 10 the East Godavari Drst. must have been their orrgrnal home.

From the numerous works and authors whom Guruj alasaym quotes or mentions, we can make a fair approximation to his date. As already shown, the Parimala that he frequently, crrticises cannot be later than 1553 Of the latest works quoted by him, the Kuvalayanauda CPp 76, 206) is by Appayya Diksita who wrote that work for Venkatapatiraya (A D. 1585-1614), and the Manorama, quoted on a grammatrcal pornt (p. 472), IS the Praudhamanorama of Bhattoj i Diksita who was a pupil of Sesa Krsna in the North and Appayya Diksrta in the South, and whose Iiterary actrvny may be placed in the last quarter of the 16th century 2 Gurujalasaym IS a Srivaisnava,

1. Adyar Library Catalogue II. p. 376; Madras Government Orrental Mss. Liberary, D. 12941-2; R. 802,2617, 3193. It IS the text 111 the Adyar ms X. J. 13, Paper, Devanagari, that I have used here and quoted from.

2. See also P.K. Gode, Annals of the Sri Venkatesvara Orrental Institute, Vol. I. no 2, p, 121.



and the VadhUla Mahadesika whom he mentions 10 the last colophon as hrs preceptor s the well-known Sriv,usnava teacher and author, Doddayacarya or Mahacarya of Glutlkii.calam, who flounshed Il1 the 16th century, and wrote the works Candama~uta, P:llft~alya_ VIJaya, Advaitavidyavijaya, VedantadeSlkavalbhavaprakaslka etc As the Amado. 1~ l1:ed by the author of the SrngaramaoJari, which W,tS wrrtten 111 the time of Abul Husan (16/ L 1687), we may safely place Gurujalasayin to the first half of the 17th century A.D

Besides the RasamafiJari-amoda, Guru]alasaytn composed a Srngaralaliari which he quotes on p 49 (;r<'.f'l."l"Or '8"l=ftu +r~11Fl~r<:~1rlt.) and agam on p. 77 The dramatic compostnons of I11S referred to in the colophon have not yet been known It IS more mtere-ung to know that Gurujalasayin was an eminent music composer, Vaggeyak3.r<1.-cd.klav,lrttlll_ In one of the introductory verses at the begmnmg of the Amoda, he refer ~ to hunself as SiiYl-vaggeyakara The mention of dance cornpcsmons, nrtya-prabandhas among I11S works and the fact that he IS an author interested 111 the study of Nayil.a-bheda lead u-, to the conclUSIOn that his contribuuon to music took the foi m of Pndas, most probably In Telugu. .md 111 him, we have a rare Padakai a of the eminence of Ksetrajfia hunself As pointed out already, Ksetrajfia belonged to the same time and was connected With the (;okond,\ crnn t , where this subject of Nayaka-Nayll,d.s was keenly studied, discussed and debated upon. That GuruJala~aY1!1 was of the same time, was a mUSIC composer, and was niter ested in the same subject of NJ.ylkas make us presume a much closer connection between h1111 and the Golconda court than IS borne out by explicit evidence. The Srng.iramafijar i composed m this melieu, while It refers to the author of the basic text Rasarnafijari 111 the smcul.u number, shows a personal touch of reverence towards the author of the 2\.modd whom It always refers to as Amodakirah 1U plural, this would go only to strengthen our sugge:,~ tion of an mtrmate conuection that all these authors and their WOI ks held til! ougb the Golconda court

The Rasan.aiiJari which IS regularly cirticised in the Srngaramafijai i IS the well, known work of Bhanudatta or Bhanukara or Bh.inu Pandita, The most popular and standard work 011 the subject, It has been much commented upon and also translated and adapted mto vernaculars Bhanudatta's time IS fairly dear and hIS works are quite famrliar to scholars, though there has been some controversy 011 the identification of Dhdnu(lcltta and Bhanukara and of the kings eulogrsed In his verses 1 In verse 121 of hi" Rasamafijari, rllustratmg Sattvika-bhavas, Bhanudatta refers to Nijama-dharanipj.Ia, who, as hIS commentator Anantapandita POints out, IS Ahmad Nrzarn Shah, who took Daulatnbad between 1499-1507 A.D, and founded the Nizarn Shah! dynasty of Deccan. and a manuscrrpt of a commentary on hIS Rasarnafijari by Gopalabhatta (Stew, I(ashmir Catalogue, extracts p 273) is dated 1572 A D

Besides the Rasarnafijari, which figures much 111 the SIllgaramanJari, as the basic text on the subject of Nayaka-Nayikas 111 love, Bhanudatta wrote the Jt,t5<ttarangl!li which dealt male fu~ly WIth the subject of Rasas, the Alankaratilaka, yet unprrntcd, ou rhetorlc,_ the R~sa Pan] ata an ,..elnt~olog;: a _ S~ngdradiplkd., 2 an irnrtatron of the Gitag()\, ilt<.!.. called Gitagauripatr, and the Kumarabhargaviya Campti.


Classuication of Naytkas and l\iayakas.

Bharata~defines drama as the representation of characters, Prakrtis, in emotional states, Avasthas, and characters of the world whose moods are to be represented


1. See S.K De, Sutnmanes of Papers, IVth AII-Ind1a Oriental Conference Allahab d 1927, pp 40-43,~ P K Gode, Annals BQRl, XVI pp 145-7, H D Sharma, An~als BO;I> XVII. pp 2-+3-2.)8 and Indian HIstorIcal Quarterly, X 1934, p. 483 .•

2 ,Catalogus Catalogorum, 1, p 661-ms With Pandit Gan adina, Oonao 0

Brownmg s Oudh Catalogue. fase III 1(l73, pp, 12-13. g , udh,



are mfinitely vaned not only m their emotional states, but also rn their very nature, SUa 1

~~"Fl'~lllt;q ~~tll rrrat ~r"fr~;tr~rr~ I 1 04 rr!rrlert~:H: !>T'lia~:

rrr'ir~r~r: !>T~a<:f: :rn~ rrr~ s:cfarnall_ I XXVI 119


Different persons 10 different ages, countries, levels of culture, character and emotional condltlOl1 will dress, walk, look, speak, react and behave differently In emotion whose representatIOn IS of paramount Importance, the same feeling' will exhibrt Itself differently 111 persons of different ages, temperaments and culture. To enable the actor, therefore, to understand completely this variety and cornplexrty In nature and mood m the characters that he IS to portray, Bharata analyses them and shows some leadmg classes Indicatory as Bharata's analysis is, It IS yet more detailed, more vaned and more cornprenensrve of the different aspects of character, conduct and condition than what IS found preserved or developed In later works of dramaturgy, poetics or erotica.

The first and basic classification which Bharata gives IS one of universal applrca, tron, refernng not only to both men and women, but also to the further classifications of these two, Bharata applies It even to the audience This classification of men and women as superior, rruddhng and inferrer, Uttama, Madhyarna and Adhama, 1S preserved 111 Alankara works on Nayaka-Nayrka, and In the Srngaramafijarl, It has been shown in great detail With reference to all classes and sub-classes of women and her fi iends and accomphces too (pp 39-41) To begrn WIth, Bharata shows this in Hasya Rasa, how the three kmds of Prakrtrs, the Uttarna or dignified, the Madhyarna or ordinary and the Adharna or base wil l each exhibrt hIS or her laugh differently, the exhibiuon startrng WIth the gentle srnrle of the first, the superior type, becommg less and less refined and exploding mto loudest laughter 111 the last, the base type (K M edn VI 52-60) The differences m dressing shown by these three krnds of persons are mentioned 111 the chapter on make-up (Ab:trya, XXI 114118-9) These three mam classes are mentioned 111 XXVI 54-56 WIth reference to members of the audience, Prcksakas, ThIS classification of character into three mam varieties IS agarn mentroned by Bharata, while ernaphasrsmg the need for actors to choose such parts as would be 111 conformity WIth their own natures and thus would be easily representable (Kasi edn XXXV 6-7) That It could be applied to special varrenes mdrvidually IS shown 111 XXII 227-8, where Bharata speaks of Uttarna, Madhyama and Adhama 111 the Vasakasajjika type It IS rn the next chapter that Bharata describes thrs classificatron as applying to all Nayikas in general 2 In XXIII. 34-40, Bharata says

The descnptlOns that follow show clearly that this classificatron applies to both Kulangana and Vesya The Uttarna does not speak unpleasantly to the lover even If he has erred> does not have longstandmg anger, covers up faults; is sought after by the lover by virtue of her pedigree, beauty and wealth, IS an adept in love; consrderate ; and knows. what to do and when, and has no jealousy, nor any anger without due cause The Madhyama herself seeks her lover and IS also sought after by hirn , IS Jealous, qU1ck to anger, and haughty but IS easily pacified. The Adhama IS angry WIthout reason and

lSee my Lokadharmi, Journal of Orrental Research, Madras, VIII pp.57-74

20ne of the late wrrters to remember Bharata's threefold classificatlOn into Uttama etc., and his definitrons of these IS Visvesvara see his Rasacaadrika, Kasi edn. pp 30-31;-m fact Vlsvesvara is one of the few late writers who goes frequently to Bharata whom he quotes on the eight Nayllds and five Nayakas,



for long, 15 severe and unfavourable While 10 XXIV. 1, Bharata emphasis:s _a¥am that this threefold classification pertarns to all, men and women, it 1S 10 ch, XXXIV. 1.12 (Kasl edn) 1 that he gives It as applying comprehensively to all persons, whether menor women Men of knowledge, self-control, consideration for others, COmpa%10~1, learning, dignity, depth, firmness and hberality are Uttarnas ; those who are clever 10 pleasmg society, accomplished In arts and pleasant in behaviour are Madhyamas , those of severe tongue, bad conduct and drsposinon, meagre brains, who ale angry, vlo1e~t, ungreateful, treacherous, arrogant, lazy, and gIVen to lust, quarrel and theft ai e Adh~ll1,LS. Among women, those who are soft, not fickle, smilmg, devoid of seventy, appreciative of others' ments, bashful, modest and beautiful, of good pedigree, and pleasant, firm and deep are Uttarnas , those possessed of a lower degree of these quahties and are 'VItiated by some defects arc Madhyarnas and those who are further mferioi in these respects arc



In ch XXII dealmg with Sarnanyabhmaya, Bharata has an elaborate classificauon of women on the basis of thea Sila, nature, behaviour, tastes etc, and In terms of gods, demigods, demons, human berng, buds and animals (verses 94-139, Kasi edn eli. XXIV 94-136).

,........... ,..

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:qf~ISIT~rll"l'ra:f.,r gi?q~r('3r: l~~: ~'l('H: I (9 ~-96)

The characteristics taken here for the purpose of this classification comprehend physical, psychological and sexual features and tastes m matters of food, dress and decoration, some of which form the baSIS of the later fourfold classrficauon of women into Padmmt, Cltnni, Sankhmi and Hastini Beyond this, this classification has 110 survival 111 works of Alankara sastra on Nayaka-Nayika-classificanon It was perhaps thought that this was more 10 place 111 treatises on Kama sd.slra, but even the! e, It IS found only m Kokkoka's Ratu ahasya and works following it, and not m ViitsyJ) ,ma':=. Kamasiitras In ch IV verses 14-20 of his Ratlrahasya, Kokkoka descrrbe-, bi ief'I» some of these classes; he leaves out many but adds a Kaka-sattv.i not found in llharnu; From the vel ses at the beginmng and end of this section 111 the Ratrrahasya (II 7,md 21), It would d.ppear that this classification follows the view S expressed 111 the work Gunapataka and by wnters like Miiladeva , and jyotir'lsvara's Paiicasayakn, which ton mentions some o t these classes, gives Babhravya and Miiladeva as the authoz itres for this classification J yotirisvara satisfies himself With Just four classes (L 29-32,) under this ~ead, Den, Gandharva, Yaksa and Preta, the last being found neither 111 Nat):'l~fistra nor 1U Ratirahasya Nine of these find mention also III Kalyanamalla's Anangaranga.

T~e next classificauon of women gIven by Bharata is another threefold One Bshya, Abhyantara and Bahyabhyantara (145-7). The Abhyantara or the De; 1S one's own wife born of a good family (kulastri), the Bahya or the external ~s the courtezan, V eSya, the Bahyabhyantara described as Krta-sauca IS obscure, if we can

lThe K M. edn. verses correspondmg to these Kasi edn, verses of XXXIV, are scattered, see K.M. edn. XXIV. 1-2.86-92, 108-110.



emend It to krta-asauca, she would be the Impure or unchaste wife who has erred with another man *

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Bharata then speaks of the eightfold classification of NaYlkii.s on the basis of their emotional states, which 15 fully preserved 111 all later works on the subject of NayakaNayika as well as of dramaturgy Vasakasajjrra, Vrr ahotkanthrta, Svadhmapatika, Kalahantar rta, Khandita, Vipralabdha, Prosstabhartrka and Abhrsarika (verses 197-206) Bharata defines these and shows how the} should be protray ed , taking SO'11e of these eight, he sets forth elaborately how characters in those states wrll or should act, m Abhisarika he shows how the three su b-varietres Kulaj a, Ve sya and Presya (I e womanattendant) Wll! proceed to the tryst (215-215), the actions of the Vasakasaj jika are then described e23-230) after which those of the Vu ahotkanthita are shown, Irsya or jealousy and Its four forms and the resultant type Kalahantarrta are then described

In Ch XXIII devotee! to Varsika, courtezan-Iove, Bharata speaks of three classes of the Vaisiki type, the courtezan-the 11adamHurfl or one cravmg for company and showmg it by openly disporting herself (verse 18), the Rakta or the courtezan who IS attached to a particular lover (19-22) and the Vlrakta' or the courtezan who IS averse (23-26)

In the next chapter, correspondmg to the four types of heroes, Dhiroddhata etc, Bharata gives four kmds of heromes the divine lady (Drvya ), the queen or pnncess (Nrpa-patni), the family-woman (Kulastri ) and the courtezan (Ganika ) (6-7). It does not mean that each of the male-types has one of the four woman-types as Its corrrespondmg herome, while the first, Dh iro ddhatas who are gods Will have only Divyas as their heromes, Dhiralalrtas like kmgs have for their heroines the Nrpa-patni 111 the main, and the Ganik.i , muusters etc. who are Dhirodattas, and Br ihmans and merchants who are Dhiraprasantas have Kulastr i prunarrly and the Ganika as their Nayikas Accordrng to verse S, we may <uppose that the four corresponding NaYlka-names are Dhira (for U ddhata), Lalita, U d:ttta and N luhrtd. (meaning Prasanra ) The Kulastri IS Udatta-nibhrta and the Ganika, Udatra-lalita (XXIV. 9). According to the Natyadarpana (p 200), the Kulastri IS only Nlbhrta and the Drvya and Nrpa-patni are of all the three kinds, Dhira, Lalrta and Udatra

In the same chapter, With reference only to heromes figurmg m a king's love, Bharata says that the ladles of the kmg are of various krnds and status, Mahadevi, Devi, Svarnini, Sthayinl, Bhogrni, Silpakarl, Natakiya and Nartaki, some of whom can be understood from plays like the Malavlkagmmltra 'Fhis, like the previous, IS a classrfication germane 111 works on dramaturgy only.

As pointed out already the Kamasfitras of Vatsyayana deal With classes of women in a different manner The types called after gods. demigods, animals and birds mentioned by Bharata are totally absent from l11S work, though later Karnasastra texts, taking material from other tradrtions too, mention some of them Apart from the drfference in tradition, the point of view from which Vatsyayana deals WIth types of men and women is different from that of Bharata, Bharata has to concentrate on the elaboration

* If however 'Krta-sauca' is the correct reading, it may mean that the Bahyabhyantara is a Bahya (Vesya) woman whose status Improves when some one, thekingor the hero, marnes her owing to hrs great love for her, as It sometimes happens.



of the feehng and Its representation, while Vatsyayana has to examine the material from the sexual aspect, but as there I~ common ground between the two 111 the emotion of 101'e we find In the Kamasurras some materral cornmg within the scope of our study There IS a further reason why the K:imasd.stra material has to be reviewed here, for wo:. find some ot the lata writers 011 t're subject of Nayaka-Nayik-l mcorporaung part of this material in their works

One of the classifications of women well-known in later Kimasirtra lrter.tturc rs that into Padrnini, Citrini, Sankhini and Hastmi, which works In Sanski It on NJ.) ak.iNaylka ig-iore as being more proper 111 regular Karnasastra treatises, but wlnch our work, Srng;tram1uprl, takes up, follow mg the example set In this respect by a few later works written rn Hrndi This classrfication, to which I shall devote some .ittentron below, i-, absent from Vats) ayana's work The allied fourfold cl.issificatton of men mto nh,\d r.i, etc 15 also not to be found 111 Vatsyayana

In I 5 3-4, Vat ,y5.yana mentions the Nayilds as bcw;; of three kinds, Kany.i, Punarbbfi and Ve~ja, the maiden, the remarried woman and the courtezan Au::oldmg ttl Gomkaputra, It IS said, the Par a-pangrhita, another's wife, IS also an ceca-tonal N1Ylk.-l Whrle later texts, both on dramaturgy an-i erotics, w.th the exception of Bhoj.r's work ... and some 111li10r ones, omit the Punarbhii, all of them rdd the other man's Wife, refer red to as Parakiya, as a regular type Tney omit Punarbuii altoaethci 1110"t proh.ihlv because of the lead given by Ru.lrabhatta who in his Srngaratllak,\ (K M Gucchnka ! II. 1,46) says that, as the Punarbhu 15 of the same nature as the Mt!\!;dh~l and a-, tllc difference between them IS very slight, the Punarbhu has not been shown sep.iratcly by writers The Paraklya, Vatsyayana mentions here as bemg introduced by GOl1lkii.putr,t as a Paksika-nayika to be sought only where she 15 known to have gone astray and ha-, rendered hereself, like a courtezan, open for righteous seekmg ([ 5 5-6) To Paradarrka or love affairs With such a woman, dealt with specially and separately by Gonikaputra himself (I 1 16), Vatsyayana too devotes one section of his work (Vth), and mentions the Parakiy.i 111 II 10 54 abo CJ,r~ty;1n,l who had separately elaborated the general, Sadharana, sectron of the .Klma~.lstra, adds the Widow, Vidhava, as the fifth Nayrka ([ 5 22) Other" add other Nayikas too Suvarnanabha, specialist 111 the section 011 the actual sexual acts, Samprayogika, adds the recluse-woman, Parrvrajrka , and Ghotakamukha, authorrtv on the secnon dealing with malden, adds the daughter of the courtez.m and tile fC;lJale attendant (I 5 23,24), Gonardiya, author of a special work on the wedded wife, to whom again Vatsyayana devotes a section of hts woi k, a-Ids appropriately the lawfully wedded virtuous wife, Kula-yuvati, as a separate N:tYlkJ., and this 1:> to be specially taken note of because, In later texts on Nd.yaka-N~lYlka. this Kula-yuvnt i with the name Sviy;l becomes the fbt regular N.lYlka-type Vatsyayana however thinks that the three classes Kanya, Punarbhii and VCbya would suffice, as all the others could be brought under these, particularly the Kula-yuvati could be brought under the Kanyaka. Gonardiya notes this explanation and therefore adds IJ] Ins proposuron a statement of the reason for the separate enumeration of the I~ul,l.-yuvah, according to hi-n, the Kula-yuvau IS different from the girl which Kanyaka IS, .she IS one who has entered youth and as the attentions that she should be paid are dtfferent, she IS a separate Nayika This difference in the circumstances and methods associated With the Kanyaka and the Kulastri has been well recognised by later writers who altgn the former not WIth the Kulastri as Va.tsyayana does, but With the Parakiya For purposes of the Karnasastra, Vatsvayana then mentions that a further type, the eunuch, IS meauoned.by some (I 5_.27) and devotes later a sub-secnon to this type ([1 9),;' but thra 15 Irrelevant to our subject of enquiry In 1. 5. 33 Babhravya (Piiiicala) mentions that the woman who has seen five men, whatever he; station 1U SOCiety, IS to be considered open for seektng and according to the commentary,



jayarnangala, this is the type called Svatrini whom Parasara designates Bandhaki (harlot), Vatsyayana himself mentions later the Kulatas and Svairmis in II. 9 21, and VI 6. 54 While In the latter context Vatsyayana gives them as varieues of Vesya, later works on Nayaka-:-JaYlka deal With this Kulata as a Parakiya-varrety,

In fo ir separate sections, Vatsyayana deals With Kanya, Bharya, Paradara and VeSya and we may note some of the Ideas here as these have been used by later wnters and have led to the formulation of sub-varieties under these types In his descrrption of Kanya-visrambnana, the gradual and delicate manner by which the newly wedded and Just adolescent wife IS to be mducted into responsive company, Vatsyayana speaks of her rrutial aversion (Ratau varna), her excessive bashfulness (Atrlajja.) and gralual growth of confidence (Vrsrarnbha}, all ot which have been noted an 1 illustrated by later writers while dealing WIth the Mugdhavariety under the Sviya-type , the lVIugdha IS abo mentioned m the Paradarika as one of the Dfitis (Mudhaduti ) who could be employed by her husb.ind or hIS secret beloved for furtherl11g thetr mutual clan estiue love atfai r (V 4 57) Under Bharya, Vatsyayana speaks of J yestha and Kanistha (l. V 2) 111 cases where there are two wrv es, this classificatlO11 of Svi)a 111to Jyestha and Kanistha IS adopted and adapted 111 Nayaka-NaYlka works (see SrngaramanJari, P 7), WIth the ir meaning changed in some later works 111to the very reverse of what they srgnrfy In Vatsyayana In tne Kamasiitras, the earher and senior w i Ie rs glVen as the jyestha and the later married second WIfe, as the Kanrstha , while tl11S 15 followed 111 many .Alanldira and Rasa works, Il1 some later Nayaka-Nayika works the later marned younger WIfe, who would be the object of the greater love of the husband: 15 the J yestha, and the earlier and older one, towards whom the husband would be less attached, IS the Kanistha The two varretres under Parodha Parakiya mentioned In our Srngaraman jar i (pp 8-9), U dbuddha and U dbodhrta, are assumed m the whole descriptron of the ways of Paradai ika-Iove m V. 1-3, particularly, Karnasfitras V. 333,34 speak of these two varretres 1 The elaborate tips given m V 4 for rousing her love refer to the Udbodhrta, one In whom love IS mduced by her paramour by several means. The Idea of 'secret' and 'open', introduced later to create two sub-varreties of the Parakiya, can also be seen to be foreshadowed 111 the open and the secret Ul110ns mentioned by Vatsyayana m Para.Iarrka (Prakasa-kamita and Pracchanna-yog.i V 5 28-30)

One of the points discussed at some length 111 the Srngaramafijarf IS whether real love as such could be associated WIth Vesv.i (pp 12-13), the Srngararnafijarl concludes that she has real love for one person, though for runnmg her profession, she pretends love toward" many. Ttns IS the vrew ot Bharata and Vatsyayana , the latter says many times that the Vesya has love and she C3.n be really devoted to one person, at the very openmg of the Vaisrka-secuon, we find Vatsyayana saymg that the Vesya seeks men for love and profit, and that the former end b the natural one and the latter artificial (VI 1 1,2) The courtezan devoted to one lover Iike the loyal wife is referred to as the Eka-canni In IV 1 54and VI 21 and answers to the Niyamita-variety of the Samanya given 111 the SrngaramanJari

The eight Nayikas classified by their emotional conditions are not directly mentioned by Vatsyayana, as they do not faU WIthin the scope of hIS work, but some of them are presupposed by him, and one IS even mentioned more than once In V 1 52, the Prositapatika IS mentioned as one of the women whose condrtion IS such as to make them easy objects of temptation IV 1 43££ de..!! elaborately With the Iife of the Prositapatikii among Bharyas, tit, the Pravasa-carya of the wedded lady of virtue whose husband has gone on travel II 10. 40-48, dealing With Pranaya-kalaha, contemplate a variety of the Kalahantarita.

1. In V 335, Vabyayana uses the expressions Dhira and (A)pragalbha, but not m the sense in which they are used In later Nayaka-NaYlka works.



The classification of men and women on the basts solely of the_Ir _physIcal sexual feature, Sasa, Vrsa and Asva, Mrgi, V,J.(java and Hastmi III Vatsyay,tnil II. 1 1-2 I"

irrelevant to our dISCUSSIon

For the next theoretical work containmg matenal perraming to the subject of Nayaka-Nayika varieties, we have to come to the Srngaratdaka of Rucllabhatta 1 Hci e, for the first time we find the subject of N,lyaka-Na) ika dealt with 1!1 a <;) stemauc u anne r with all the varreties and sub-vaneties dearly worked out What works existed rn the gap between the Natyasastra and the Kamasiitras on the one hand and the Smg:iraiILd';:,l on the other, and by what further stages the process of clear codificatIon of the types of lovers attained the systematic formulation found m the work of Rudrabhatta, we do not



Rudrabhatta first classifies the Nayd{ii into Svakiy.l, Parakiy.i and S:lln:ln) J., 0 f

these Svakiya, one's own wedded and VIrtuous wife, IS said to have the varieues i\1 ugdll:l, Madhya and Pragalbha , Mugdha who is the Nava-Vadhu (newly marr red ) IS de~u lli~'d ,I'> (1) Nava-Yauvana (Ju"t adolescent), (2) Nava-auang r-rahasy-i (ncw to the <eci cts of bye) and (3) Laj ia-praya-rati (beset by bashfulness 111 her enjoyrnent ) , and kudr.ibhatt.i Illustrates all these three aspects of the Mugdba (I 33.35) This kmd of dcsc npuon III the earlrer works of the Nayika-types by mention of the maJ11 aspects of then nature hit) be noted, because for a long time to come, writei s did not propose specific sub-v aru.t re-. under each Nayrka-type, but described only, 111 the above manner, the leading char actci rstICS of each type 2 The Madhya IS then described In terms of four leadmg l c.uure-, charactensmg her, growth of yo nth, growth of love, emboldened conver-,e, and <k ill m enjoyment, which are all similarly Illustrated (39) The 1\l,ldhya IS fur ther cla",iJ1ed into Dhira, Madhya, 2 e , Dhiradhlra and Adhira, according to the manner 11) which "he reacts to her nusband's misconduct; the first flings sarcastic remarks at hun (Vakroktr) m her anger, the next weeps, and the third taunts severely, the drstmctions bcmg c.ur-ed by the degree of self-possession and Its absence (I 41) The Pragalbha IS likewrse defined by four characteristics showing the posrtion she has gamed In the heart of her lover and her maturrty In the art of love. blandrshments and enjoyment (l .J.2) The description here 111 I 43 of the ecstatic enjoyment of the Pragalbha gave ri-c later to the sub-variety Ratyanandaparavasa (see Sr man p 5) The Pragalbha too bas the three varienes, Dhira, etc, the Dhira here hides her mental reaction, and shows mdtffercncs to her lover and hIS company, the Dhiradhfra assails him WIth her complaints full of }Cdrn- 111g, and the Adhlra threatens and strikes him The Madhya and Pragalbh.; arc agal!1 said to be drvisible into jyestha and Kamsth.i from the point of VIew of the love of the lover, m cases "here there are two wives (I 47-8)

The Parakiya 15 then classified into Kanya and Parodha (I 50) The third main type Samanya IS the common woman and Rudrabhatta says that though some consider her as interested only In money, and not III love. he IS of opmiou that she too, as ,1 woman, has her love, without which hers wiII become a Case of the semblance of scntunent, Rasabhasa (I 62-65)

Rudrabhatta then speaks of the eight Avastha-Nayikas, Svadhlnapatik5., Utka, Vasakasajjika, Attsandhita, Vipralabdha, Khandita, Abblsdnka and Prosrtapriya, and defines and rllustrutes them (I 72-82) The t}pe later designated Kalahantarita is it must be noted, called here Atisandhita Following Bharata, Rudrabhatta too shows how the different varieties of the, Aohisanka would.each proceed to her tryst All these are

1 Kavyamala, Gucchaka III, pp. llI-15Z.

2 See Dasariipaka, Sahrtyadarpana, etc But It IS From these descrrptions that specific seb-varienes were later deduced, see for e g Raryananda-paravasj in Pragalbha below, the epithet 'V1Cltra,vlbhrama·asakta' 111 1.74 on Svadhinapatlka Yielded for some Hmdi writers on this subject the Praudha-variety of that name,



again classifiable as Uttamas, Madnyamas and Adhamas (I. 88) The Uttama's anger IS in proportion to the fault of her lover, she IS pacified by entreaty, IS deeply attached, and is moved by the qualrties of her lover The Madhyarna IS enraged at slight faults, difficult of pacification, and shows her attachment only for some purpose The Adhama is one who gets angry without cause, becomes fond even without pacification by the lover and fickle and wayward 10 her acts Rudrabhatta S11ms up that the total varieties would thus come to 13+2+ lX8X3=384 (I 87-88), but he adds that by reason of class, time. age, conditron, feeling, love and lover, varreties of Nayikas have really no end The 5rngaratilaka 15 a baSIC text for the Nayaka-Nayika tOPIC, Its verses are used totally or With some changes, and Its mam heads of classification and computation of the total varreties are accepted by all later writers

There are also some other tOpICS on which too we might note the ideas in the Srngaratilaka, as these are all used m the later works While deahng w rth the Parakiya (I 50·51), Rudrabhatta refers to the rise of love by seeing or hearing, and to seeing bemg either actual or 10 paiutmg or dream This, already found in Bharata, has been adopted m all later works and some sub-varieties are also made out of this 111 our SrngaramafiJari: (p 21) In II 32-41, Rudrabhatta describes Mana and Its three vane ties, strong, ordinary and light, Guru, Madhy a and Laghu. Mana IS defined as the reaction born of Jealousy caused by the lover's relation WIth another lady, It IS strong when the lady finds her love I actually gone to another lady, bears marks of her company, and utters her name in dream, It IS ordinary when the lover IS seen talking to another lady or 15 reported by the Naytka's friend as interested m another lady, It 15 light when the lover IS noticed casting hIS graceful glance on another lady. Mana, rendered as anger, Kopa, IS then shown as bemg pacifiable either easrly or With great dunculty Even strong Mana is easily removed if the time and place are such as to excite love, for e g ,moonhght and sprmg Then are mentioned SIX means of rernoi ing this Mana, meek pleadmg, gift of ornament and the like, brmging her round by first winning over her friends, apparent indifference, straight prostration, and the extraneous Circumstance of a sudden change III the srtuation, each succeeding one being more potent than the previous (I 42-50). All these Ideas are used by later writers 111 their delmeation of the variety called Manavati

Closely related to Rudrabhatta's Srngarattlaka IS Rudrata's KayftIankaral, the mutual chronology of these two authors, confused as rdentical by many writers, ancient and modern, being one of the standmg problems m the history of Sanskrit poetics. 1\s the simrlarrty between these two texts on Nayaka-Nayikas IS very close, extendrng to verbal identrty 111 most passages, we need note here only the few points where some peculiarrties are seen In the descrrption of the Mugdha (XII. 18). the expression Navodha IS used, and this became later the name of one of the sub-varieties of the Mugdha. In fourteen verses that follow, noted as interpolation, the eight Avastha-Nayikas and the threefold classificatron, Uttama etc are gIven In a further verse It IS pointed out that while the Abhisarrka and Khandrta varieties occur III all the three main types, the Svlya has only the two varieties Svadhinapatika and Prositapatrka (XII 41). It would appear that Rudrata's text ongmally mentioned only these four out of the eight Avastha-Nayikas, Abhrsar ika, Khandita, Svadhinapatika and Prositapauka, as the fourteen ear her verses mentioning all the eight are not commented upon by Namisadhu, and what IS more, Narnisadhu expressly states 1D his comments on XII 44 that two of the other Nayikas, Vipralabdha and Kalahantarrta are included 111 Khandrta

In the Dasarfipaka and the Avaloka thereon, we have material on our subject which contributed further to the definite fixation of the types and their descrrptions and defini-

1 Kavyamala 2



~ f h W I - -types in ch 2 verses 15H

tions In later works. Dhanafijaya speaks 0 tel aynca ,

Sviya, Anyji, Sadharana-stri are mentioned first, Sviya IS ~haracten~ed by ch,\stlt!, straightforwardness and bashfulness, and classified into Mugdha, Madhya and Prag,tlb~J., Mugdha IS characterised by young age, mexperrence in love, aversion at bed, and soft temper, all the four of which are illustrated by Dhanika, with the remark that there are also other characteristic aspects of the Mugdha's behaviour, all of which, however, ar e COHtrolled by the dommant feature of bashfulness, Madhya IS characte~lsed ~y_gl~W:'-Ur age and love, and desire for enjoyment The three classes Dhira, Adhira, DhJr<Hlhu<l ,LfC then defined and Illustrated, Dhanika adding here again the remark that snnrlarlj other aspects of the Madhya's behaviour are to be gathered, their common feature bell1g the absence of the stifhng dormnatrcn of bashfulness that marked the ear her stage The Pragalbha 15 characterised by full development of youth, feelmg, art of JO\ e and the tendency to lose herself In enjoyment In rllustrattng these, the Ava loka ,HId" that there are y et other acts of the Pragalbha, their mam features being adeptness and the total elimmatron of the restrammg force of bash fullness The Dhira etc of this type are then shown, and the two, Madhya and Pragalbha, are again clissified mto JyesthJ <Inti Kanistha Anya-stri, falling into the two classes, Kanyak.i and Dcth:t (I C, P,\Iodh:t) are then mentioned, with the remark that the latter should not be featured In the leadmg theme The Avaloka adds the explanation for mcludmg the Kanyaka 111 An) .i-vt: i The Sadharana-stri IS descnbed as the courtezan accornphshed 111 arts, adept in 10\ e and !J() 1,1 m behavrour , though she 15 mainly intent on professional snnulatton of love, "he 1., to be featured 111 the Prakarana as a NaYlkii having real love (Rakta ), tne profes-ronnl t} Pt· being permissible only 111 the Prahasana (farce), Dhanafijaya adds further that. even the Rakta-Samanya ought not to be featured as a NaYlka 111 plays havmg drvmc bCU1t;~ or kmgs as heroes, ! e , Nataka and the like as the Avaloka explains Whatever the t} pe () f drama to which the Vikramorvasiya belongs, the Natyadai pana rrghtly feels th.it, wuh reference to this condition, an exception should be made In favour of h.:tlltJ;t:',I'., play featuring the drvrne courtezan Drvas! as the heroine and king Purtu av,i-, <l" the hero 1 The eight Avastha-Nayikas are then dealt with, the n.unc Au-nndlut.; 111 Rudrabhatta and Rudrata being replaced by Kalahantai it.i which became <,( tIled later The Avaloka clearly explains how these eight ai e mutually (':\dl1'l\ c ,lIltl cannot be reduced U1 number In Dhanafijaya's definrtions of these eight l\: ,-l}lk,-l', t \I,} POl11ts have to be noted First, he makes It clear that 111 the case or the Vu ,tl]()(k,tl1thlt:l, the delay caused In the arrrval of the lover should not be due to any attachment to another lady.c-ciraj at! avyalike, this 15 essential, as otherwise the defimtion WIll apply to Khandlta too Secpnd, the Abhrsarika 15 said to be of two kinds, one that goes he! "elf to her lover (Abhlsarah! and the other that bnngs the lover to her presence thi ougl; a messenger ~Abhlsarayatl), and Dhanika Illustrates both varietres ThIS b a que~t10n on which oprmon became divided later, some holding both varieties as AblusankJ. and other" omitnng the latter, and our text, the Srngaraman]all, has ct clear dlscu,,~i<Jn all tIll'" show1!1_? the impossrbility of the latter being a variety of the Ablusarrka (p 3{ )' Dhanafijaya concludes the section by pointing out that of these erzht the f t t'

b, Irs wo are

mark:d by JOY and dalhance by reason of union (Sambhoga) experienced Or expected, the

remaming eight bemg marke~ by moods and effects of separation (V Ipralambha) (II 28)' the Avaloka has here an elucidanon which has been regularly adopted by 1 t • :

a er Wt1ters;"

namely that of these eight states, the Paraklya has only three V h tk h;

Abhi - k- d V 1 bd - , Ira 0 ant Ita,

lsa~1 a an ipra a ha In the last chapter, while deahng with phases of 'love

Dhanafijaya has occasion to speak of Mana and Pravasa as part of Vipr I bh '" -'

IV 5867·) -, ' a am a ;:)rngara.

( • Mana IS here dJVlded mto Pranaya-tnana and Irliyii.mana, and the situations

1 See also Rasarnavasudhakara, p 29, sis. 112 Niitvadarpan GOS d 201

~ S H {'. , .CJ , a, , e n. p. •

ee emacandra, ~iiradatanaya, Smgabhiipala etc.



Ieading to the latter, Its three varieties, Guru, Madhya and Laghu, and the means of Its removal are also set forth (IV 58.64) Pravasa and Its varieties due to business (Karya), natural calamrtres and polrtrcal and social disturbances (Sambhrama ) and curse (Sapa) are then shown (IV 64-66) In VIeW of the later diSCUSSIons on the three possible varreties of the Prcsitapatrka with reference to past, present and future, it 15 relevant to note that in hIS comments and Illustrations here, Dhanika mentions all these three sub-varieties, one whose husband is to go (Yasyat-pravasa ), IS gomg (gacchatpi avasa ) and has gone (gata-pravasa) The case rn which the lover has returned, Avasrta-pravasa-pattka, IS taken by some later writers as a further vanety of the Prosrtapatika and our work Srngaramanjari discusses thrs question (pp 16-17) and concludes that the A vasrta-pravasa-pauka should go IOta the Vasakasajj ika In connection wah this dISCUSSIOn It IS mterestmg to note that Dharnka toucnes It and opines that the case m which the lover IS returnmg or has returned CAnnot be included in Pravasa DhanafiJa)a then gives the disu ibuuon of tue c1i5ht Avastha-Nayik.is am mg the different phases of love.s-=ttie Utkanthn.i figures 111 Pranaya-rnana r-vrpralambh s ) and Ayoga or Purvanurag 1 ( -vipralambha ) , Prositapatika rn Pra v as.l ( -VI pralambha) and Kalahan tarrta, V ipralabdha and Khandita 111 irS} a (-vlpralambha)

Bhoja deals wrth the Nayaka-Nayikas 111 both his walks, the Sarasvatikanthabharana- (S K A ) and the Sll1garaprakasa2 (Sr Pra) In ch 15 of the latter work, Bhoja speaks of the Na} ikas after dealing with the L";ayakdS (Mad Ms Vol 3, pp 111- 160) It was already remarked that the Punarbhii mentioned as a rnam NaYlkii.-type by Vatsyayana, hut given up by later writers, was revived by Bhoja This however IS not the only pornt on which Bhoja's treatment shows origmalrty The four prrmary classes of Niiylkas according to Bll0P are Svakiya, Parakiya, Punarbhii and Sarnanya , the Svakiya and the Parakiya ale each classified rnto Uttama, Madhyama, Kanistha, Ddha, Anudha, Adhira, Dhir I, Mugdha, Madhya and Pragalbha , this classrfication Yields a total number of 143 vane ties of NaYlkas for each of these two types The Punarbhii IS divided mto Aksata, Ksata, Yatayata and Yayavara The Sarnanya falls 111tO five sub-classes, Ddha, Anudha, S\ ayarnvara, ':WLtlfmi and V dyd., the last neing further sub-divided into Ganika, V rlasmi and [{iipfl.Jiva Further sub-varieties of Uttama etc under Punarbhii and Samanya are not worked out but left to be deduced The e1sht Avastha-Nayrkas are then enumerated and illustrated, See my BhoJa's $lngiira Praktisa, I, 01 I pp 3233 In I11S S K A., Bhoja mentions these varreties with some difference, and defines and Illustrates some of them 111 ch V pp 485-486, 592-601 On the Mugdha and Pragalbha, there IS no difference III Bhoja's defimtion, though he puts the definiuons here 111 a brief and compact manner,

'" 0 0 d ~ •

<.j<l' 9ir~(_;3r+'{T+rl3"'iIlfr, ;;P:fl3"f 'I_orr an q<r'<fir~~r+<1T l3"~r respectrv ely In both the works,

Bhoja omits under the Mana-varreties the third Dhii adhira, and gives only Dhlr.i and Adhira Uttarna, Madhyarna and Adhama, the last of which IS omitted in the Sr Pra , are again briefly defined as full, three-fourths full and half-full m excellences On jyestha and Kanistha, of which the former IS not given m the Sr. Pra , Bhoja follo ,,IS Vatsyayana and considers the earlrer married elder wife as ])estha and the later mari ied younger one as Kanistha 3 Ddha aud An fH;lh a .are .. only once Illustrated here but m the Sr. Pra. Bhoja illustrates them twice, under Svaklya , Parakiya and Sarnanya , the Ddha and Anudha under the former are illustrated from Kumarasarnbhava by Parvati after the marriage and before the marriage , the Ddha and Anudha under the Samanya are illustrated by Draupadi

1 Kavyarnala 95

2 Madras Manuscript

3 See Hemacandra, Kavyanubasana. K M. edn , p 305. where also the same VIew IS expressed.



who was the lawfully wedded common wife of five husbands, and SWi before her marriage Thus while the former, Ddha Samanya, win be a unique class created for Draupadi, the Anfidha Samanya appears to apply to all Ksatrtya-matden In Bhoja's definition of the Svakiya, Parakiya and Samiinya there 15 no departure, but tl,e sub-cb!oses of Samanya are to be noted, In the S K A., Bhoj a merely defines and illustrates the Samanyfl, but m the Sr. Pra he gives her five varreties, Udha and Aniidha, already explained, Svayarnvara, Svairrr'I and Vesyii The Svayamvara IS Illustrated by Indumati m the Raghuvamsa, she chosmg her husband 10 an open assemblage of suitors 'The difference between A.nudhfl Samanya Illustrated by SWi and Svayamvara Illustrated by Indumati seems to be that while both refer to Ksatriya-women open for free choice among suitors, the former, like the unique Ddha Samdnya illustrated by Draupadi, would be a special class created for heroines like SWi, 10 the case of both Draupadi and Sit a, there 1<, no doubt a Svayamvara, but what disnnguishes them from the third type, a mere Svayamvara like Indumati, 1S that m their case there IS a Viryasulka, the supulation of a herorc feat, which reduces the scope of the Svayarnvara The other two classes of SJIIl:In):I, Svamni and Vesya can for no special elucidation, as ihey are well-known mother works, the former as a sub-varrety and the latteras the main form of the SamiIn}J., but mention must be made of the sub-classes of VeSya which Bhoja grves in both the Sr Pra and the S K.A , the Ganlki who IS accomplished 10 all the arts, the Vrlasini who flirts, and the Riipajlva who trades on her physical beauty The Punarbhii re-mtroduced by Bhoja IS simply defined and Illustrated once in the S K A, but in the Sr Pra, greater attention IS paid to her she IS classified into Aksata, Ksata, Yiitayata and YiiYdVcLrd, three of theve tcrrn-, bemg adopted from the Duarrnasastra , Aksata, Illustrated by Satyavati, IS one who h.h had contact With a male before marnage, Ksata 15 a mar ned lady who, after her huvband's death, IS taken by another as wife ,1 Yatayata IS rllustrated by T:ir:i (the ",t.lf not Valin's Wife) who was Brhaspatr's wife, was seduced by Candra to whom she Lore Budha, but was then made to come back (Yata-ayata) to her orrgmal husband, YJ.y5.vm ,1, according to Devala's Smrtl, IS an itinerant varrety of the house-holder, GI hastha, as opposed to the Salina who had settled down 111 a fixed abode, on this analogy, tho lit gn l':-, the Yayavara variety of a Punarbhu, illustrated by Mfidhavi who was on the muvo from place to place, marrylllg four husbands successively, Krameria sad-bhart r-cnm-J.ix I bearmg each of the~ a son, and finally i etired to the Vindhyas for penance, tlus dg,llll'I": hke ~hat of Draupadi, a unique class created for Madhavi, who was the daughter of Yayatr and had a boon by which, immedtately after each delivery, her maidenhood w

restored (Mahabharata, Kurnbhakonarn edn, Ad1 87 U d 116. J 20) a ...

Among su~sequent writers, the author of the Manc1ara-maranda-campii notes these four classes Ksata etc. With the mentron of Bhoja's name (K M. 52, sect 7, p 80).

aT~(n :q ~oT ~l(n1.:l[oT 1.:llqr<l'~~fq I

3"~fJgir F.fi~or: tt~+llijfn~r~~~: II

The.se are defined and Illustrated later on pp. 84-5 of the work, where the author makes a mistake m the definition and illustration of the YaUiyat5. 2

1 Bhoja Illustrates this by Mandodart, givmg a verse that records a hitherto unknown traditron

~ f.tffiQT ~i'<;rT ~ ~o~r~"n:Irq I

~~ l@T ~mlTq~"(~lr';jq ~~rqtJT: , S. K. A. p, 598•

2 'mrr.mn g ~il~Gr:r~ ~~: I

~qy 't1~§~~ ~~ $mfffi II



In addition to these, Bhoja gives In the S K A. four Nayikas corresponding to the four Nayakas, Dhlra-udatta etc, which he omits In the Sr Pra, The Uddhata 15 haughty; Udiittii. IS one who has a deep hidden sense of prestige, gudha-miinarddhl, the Santa IS one whose Mana. has completely subsided, nirvana-mana , the Lalita IS one In whom the play of Mana. becomes delectable, sliighaniya-mana; in fact, up to a stage, this kind of Mana forms an essential part of love Correspondence With the four hero-types, Dhlroddhata, Dhirodatta, Dhirasanta and Dhiralahta is clear, and we may note here that these four classes have been defined on the basis of Mana, With reference to which the word Dhairya is used m the well-known Nayika-classification Dhira and Adhira In Bharata, however, the Nayika-types Dhira, Lalita, Udatta and Nrbhrta, given Immediately after the four Nayaka-types, Dhiroddhata etc., and Implying their mutual correspondence, bear a more comprehensive and general srgrnficance (XXIV. 6-9, K M edn)

The eight Avastha-Nayikas are mentioned m the S.K.A also.

The Bhavaprakasa t of Siiradiitanayd. makes up ItS matter on the Nayikas from Bharata, Rudrabhatta (referred to consistently as Rudrata ), Dhanafijaya and Bhoja (Pp 95-102, 109-112) Verses are completely reproduced from the N atyasastra, Srngaratilaka and Dasarfipaka As already mentioned, S.:iradatanaya is one of the few wrrters to include 111 their work Bharata's classification of women on the basts of differences In their behaviour, m terms of gods, demigods, animals and birds , the Bhavapsakasa reproduces the Natyasastra verses here (pp 109-112) Following Bhoja, Saradatanaya speaks of the Nayikas, Udatta etc., corresponding to the four Nayakas, Dhii odatta etc (Pp 95,lme 2 and 97-8, hnes 20-23, 1-15), but while Bhoja defines these 111 hIS Sarasvatikanthabharana only on the baSIS of the feeling Mana, Saradatana) a, working out the implication of their equation WIth the four hero-types, amplifies the definition of these. The Udatta is the lady of dignified type, well-dressed, endowed With aU material comforts and resources, firm m attachment, grateful, affectionate to dependents, paymg due honour to those that deserve, gwen to festrvities, delighting III the company of her kith and k111, and pleasant 111 speech. The Uddhata is proud of her endowments in beauty, wealth, culture etc, given to slight her relatrves, haughty, cunning and selfish. The Santa IS happy and contented, free from jealousy or pride, helpful even to her enemies, and attentive towards relatives. The Lalita IS one given to the enjoyment of fine clothes, ornaments, SIghts and seasons, with a taste in love, mdulgmg 111 graceful dalliance and accomplished in arts VVe need not notice the detailed acts of behaviour characteristic of each. useful from the P01l1t of VIew of Abhinaya, WhICh Saradiitanaya grves in descrrbing the eight Avastha-Nayikas, but should take note of his remarks on p. 95 that, according to some, the Anya or Parakiya has only three of these states, V irahotkanthita, Abhisarrka and Vipralabdha (hnes 10-15),2 which IS taken from the Dasarupaka-Avaloka (II 28).

The NatakaJaksanaratnakosa3 of Sagaranandin, it is well-known, follows a tradibon different from that handed down from Bharata on many P0111tS In the section on NaYlkas, It gives prirnarrly the eight Avastha-Nayikas only (Imes 2519-2593); and It is only while dealing with the Abhisarrka-varieties that it mentions the Kulaja and Vesyii, ~ e , the SVlya and the Samanya The Parakiya 1S not mentioned at all After quoting Bharata on how these different kinds of Abhisankas will proceed to their tryst, Sagara, nandm gives nine occasions as suitable for Abhisarana, of which dusk is considered by some as the only time proper for the Kulaja ; according to others, there IS no specific time or occasion for those 111 love-pangs (Imes 2586-89) Regarding these Avastha-Nayikas, what IS most interesting 111 Sagaranandin's work is that he mentions an additional ninth Nayika called Sabhaya, which some propose. The Sabhaya IS no doubt a type true to hfer she IS the wife 111 constant dread m her husband's home, who has Just some occasions

1 G. O. S edn,

l! See above p 22 and also Hemacandra, p. 303; Smgabhiipala, TSS. edn •• p. 37. 3 Oxford University Press, 1937.




of mechanical enjoyment, but whose feelmgs are all smothered within her own heart (Imes 2594-97) ; this, however, would not be an Avastha-NaYlka, but only a stlb-~artety under the Sviya, It IS mterestmg to find In such a late work as the Rasaratnahara of Tnpathi Slvarama1 an additional type mentioned as Gurujanabhita, which appears to be similar to this, but, from the illustration, seems to be a variety of the unchaste woman. A little earher 10 the same section, Sagaranandin speaks of Mana, where again the terrnmology adopted IS not the one that we are used to (Imes 2382ff). Instead of giving It as of three kinds, Guru, Madhya and Laghu, he mentions It as of four kinds, and called Mugdha, Mananmugdha, Samrddha and Atisamrddha , but we may equate Mugdha with Laghu, Mananmugdha with Madhya and the other two with Guru In describmg these varreties too, an origmal terminology .IS adopted, Vibh.ivana, Valeravacana and Prabhutva, of these the middle IS the Vakrokti famrliar to us, V ibh.ivan.i is explained as display of anger, and Prabhutva corresponds to Tarjana, Bandhana and Tadana, threatening, tying and striking with the garland, necklace etc Sagaranandin's citation of a verse here on these, as from Bharata, is naturally not to be found m the Natyasastra

In Hernacandra's Kavyannsasana, there IS nothing special to note on this subject, beyond what has already been referred to In the footnotes above under Bhoja and Saradfttanaya In the Natyadarpanaf of his pupil, Rarnacandra, we may note the paragraph in which mention is made of the Udatta etc, spoken of by Bharata, In the verses of Bharata, the drstributton of Udattii etc over the types KulaJa etc IS not quite clear, the Natyadarpana says on this point (p 200) that the Kulaja (Svi}ii) 15 Ud;\tt:t, the VeS):\ (Sarnanya.) 15 both U datta and Lalita, and the other two kinds of heroines Drvya and Ksatriya are composite in nature, Dhira, Udatta and Lalita The Santa type, Ramacandra and Gunacandra say, IS not to be figured along with divme or Ksatnya heroes Accordmg to Bharata, however, the Santa, who IS called NlbhrtJ., IS, along With Udatta, assigned to the Kulaja class, and It is quite reasonable to take the Santa or Nibhrta qualities as forming part of the Kulastri , in fact, Bharata mcludes the Nibhrta (Santa) III the DIV}:l and Raj angana (Ksatri ya) classes also

Vaghhata in his Alankaraf has a few noteworthy pomts Instead of giving the primary classes as three, he gives them as four, separating the Kanya from the Parakrv., 111 whom others include her, Aniidha (Kanya}, Svakiya, Parakiya and p,trJ.nga~J. (Ch V, 515. 8ff ) , the fact that reproach attaches to the Paraklya proper justifies the separation of the Aniidha from her. The Parakiya is further drvrded in J 111avardhana's gloss+ into three sub-classes, one With her husband alive (Sadhavaj the WIdow (V IdhavJ.), the WIdow who has been taken by another (kenapi svikrta ), z e , a Punarbhf;

Sridharadasa (A D 1205), III his anthology Saduktlkarnamrta5 (pp 66ff.

section II), gives_the follo:"lllg head:ngs and illustrative verses on the subject of NiiYlk:i~anet.le~. Mugd~a, Madhya, Praudha~ Navodhd., Visrabdha-navodhg , Kulaj i (Satyavati), Svairini or Asati classl~ed m~o Gu~ta, Vidagdha and Laksrta , Ve§yJ., Khandira, Any:tsambh~ga-cl~ha-d_uhk~lta, Vlr~hml, Vasakasajja, Sv.ldhrnabhartrkii., Vipralabdh.l, Kalahantanta, Mamm divided 111to Udatta-mamni and Anurakta-mtinmi P' d-

bh k- P bh k- P , ravasa

_ artr a, . _roslta- artr_ a, _ rosita-sombheda WhICh 15 Avaslta-pravasa-patikii Or

Agata-pattb) and Abhisarika (Divfi-, Tirmra-, jyotsna-, and Durdma-).

Another anthology, the Sarngadharapaddhat16 (c. 1300) IS noteworthy for men.

tlOning the many vanetles of women 111 terms of gods, demigods etc, gi;en first by

1 K M.6, p, 127.

2 G.O.S. edn,

a K M. 42.

41 Grantharatnamalg edn, a Punjab Onental Series, A Bombay Govt. Serres,



Bharata; four of these, Devastrf, Apsaras, Yaksastri and Raksasi, as we shall note below, are equated with the four types Padrnmi etc The verses on all these NaYlkas III this anthology are extracted from one SrIdhara, probably a Kamasastra writer,

The Prataparudrayasobhfisana of Vidyanatha bnefly deals with the Nayrkas ; Vidyanatha is one of the authors used and crrticised 10 the SrngaramafiJari, it has however no special pomt worth notmg here 10 this historical survey.

The Sahrtyadarpana of VIsvanatha (III 56ff) follows mostly the Srngaratl1aka, the Dasariipaka and the Avaloka in the treatment of this subject, various aspects of Mugdha etc, being mentioned, not by specifically named subvarieties, but by Ieading characteristics like Ratau varna, Mane mrduh and so on Of the two varreties of Paraki}a, Kanya and Parodha, Visvanatha calls the latter class itself by the name Kulata (III 66), whereas in the SrngaramafiJ ar!, Kulata figures as a subvariety under Parodha To the Vesya, VIsvanatha attributes occasional real love also (K vapi satyanuragini (III. 71) and Illustrates the Rakta Vesya by the herome of the Mr cchakatika. Following the Dasarfipaka, and in common with many, Rarnacandra, Vagbhata etc., VIsvanatha grves both varieties of the Abhisarrka (abhisarayati and abhrsaratr) In III 208, he gives also the three kinds of Pravasa, Bhavi, Bhavan and Bhutah,

The treatment in the Rasarnavasudhakara- of Smgabhftpala (pp 21 ff ), which IS one of the texts mentioned In the SrngaramafiJari, IS also on the same lmes as those 10 the Sahityadarpana, and calls for no detailed review Smgdbhup<iJa Just mentions in I 120 (p. 30) that, accordmg to some, all the NaYlkas are classifiable from another point of view mto U datta etc

The appearance of the Rasamaiijarf of Bhanudatta marks a definite period in the history of thrs subject of Nayika classificatron , before his time the subject was dealt with in works on drama or Rasa as one of the tOPICS, Bhanudatta for the first time made It the sale theme of a separate book, and thereby gave rise to a class of works devoted exclusively to this subject. No doubt, even after him, the subject was dealt with by many as part of their larger works on drama and Rasa, but it was after him that this subject came to gam a certain fancy and came to be wrrtten upon exclusively by some writers in Sanskrit as well as the vernaculars. As the Rasamafijari IS the basic text on which the Srngaramafijari bases itself, we shall deal with ItS classrfication in a separate section later where we shall examine It 10 the light of the crrticrsrns in the Srngaramafijai i.

Besides the Rasamafijari, Bhanudatta compiled an anthology called the Rasapar1Jata2 where he gives in sections IV and V (pp 34-51) the titles of the Naytka and Nayaka varreties followed by illustratrve verses The only addrtions here not found In the Rasarnafijari are a fresh Abhrsarika-variety caned Durd inabhisarrka, one that ventures out in the rains, and the four classes of women Padmmi etc, WhICh we find the Srngaramafijarl including m Its scope.

As has already been mentioned once, the subject of NaYlka-c!assificatlOn attained some Importance 111 the hands of the Vaisnava poets and rhetoricians who had to deal WIth it in connection WIth their description of Krsna and love towards him as the supreme Nayaka As an example of this class we may notice the Ujjvalanilamamf of Rupa Gosvamin (1150 A.D.), which 1S in fact the most leading text on the rhetoric of divme Srngara as elaborated by the school of Caitanya ; other works like the Alankarakaustubha+ (pp 181-197) of Kavikarnapjira Gosvamin (1575 A D.) generally follow the Ujjvalanflamani, According to Rfipa, there 15 no Samanya ill Krsna-rati, even a woman like the

1 T. S. S. edn,

2 Motrlal Banarsidas, Lahore, 1939. 3 K.M.95

<1 Varendra Research Socrety, 1926.

28 Sairandhri being considered as included In the Parakiya Therefore the baste classes ~f Naylkas here are only two, Svakiya and Parakiya (p. ~5) There 15 no depai ture on t e three sub-classes of Mugdha, Madhya and Pragalbha, but a remark IS added here that w~Il~ some take these sub-classes as applying only to the Sviya, others apply them to Pal akly~t too A new nomenclature is seen 1!l the Mana-vanetles un~er Mugdh~t <lnd_ MadhY,l, Mrdvi and Aksarna, Komala and Karkasa (pp. 91-95) It 15 striking that Rupa glorrfies the Madhya as the most delectable, as in her 15 to be seen the beauty _of the confluence of both innocence and art The distmction mto J yestha and Kanistha IS accepted (p 105) and on Abhrsarika, the VIew of writers who hold_ bo~h ~anet1es of a?blsarana and abhisarana IS followed (p 107) The eight Avastha-Nayikas are divided into two classes, the happy and the sorrow-stncken, hrstah and khinnah , the ~or~1er, characterised by full dress and decoration (Mandltah), comprises the three, Svadhinapatika, Vasakasajja and Abhrsarika, and the latter, marked by neglect of dress an~ decoration (Amandltah), comprises the other five The classtfication 111to Uttama, Madbyame and Kanistha (Adhama) 15 accepted and distinguished by the degree of Krsna-Iove. In the Alankarakaustubha, however, the last is omitted, and an AtyuttamfL IS 'added as the first (p, 182) 1

The Mandaramaranda campti. of Krsna Kav12, which carries the author's gloss called MadhuryaranjJni, has already been mentioned m the section on Bhoja, as a text that notes the rare varieties given m the Srngard.prakasa. Besides that. the noteworthy points 111 Krsna Kavr's treatment are his observations that the Sarnanya and Parakiy.l are always Praug.ha (p 80). that according to some the eight Avasthas, Svfldhinap,ltlkJtva etc, do not apply to the Mugdha, and the mclusion of the classification mto DIV)J, AdlVyJ and Divyadivya (p 80), which the Srngaramafi]ari rejects, as well as of the other classrficat1ons-Padl11lni etc, Udatta etc, and Kaphila, VJ.tala and Pittal.i (by physrcal constltutlOn) (p 80).

The Srngarii.mrtalahari3 of Samaraja Diksita IS a work which sometimes defends the positron of Bhanudatta According to Samaraja, Parakiy.i and SJ.manyfi. have only the Madhya and Pragalbha stages (p. 126). Visrabdha-navodha which both the Rasamafijari and the Srngaramau]ari give as the last variety of the Mugdhft,15 accordmgto San-araja, taken by some authors to the next stage of Madhya (p. 127). He does not admit Dhira etc. III Mugdhii. (p 128), following the older View, he does not also admit Dhira etc. In Parakiya (p, 129) While glVlng the twofold division into Jyestha and Kamstha, Sarnar.ija records the opmion of some who do not accept them in Mugdha, and has a long diSCUSSIOn wrth them (p. 130) Again, he disagrees with those who give a twofold classrfication, Pracchanna and Prakasa, for all, as It IS absurd to speak of a Pracchanna Sviya The varieties Gupta, V idagdha, Laksrt i, MudiUi, Kulatii and Anusayana ale all rncluded 111 Parakiya ; of these Gupta 15 given two Vanetie:, Vrtta-s~rata-gopa~a and Var~lsY~n:ana-surata.gopana, Vidagdha two, Kny;t-Vldag~ dha and Vag-vidagdha , and Anusayana three, Vartamana-sanketa-sthJ.na-vlghatJ.l1ena Bhiivl-sanketa-sthan!sankaya and Sva-anadhrsthna-sthanjsya bhartur adhisth;lnen~ (pp. 131-2). See Srngararnafijari pp. 8-12. Real love IS admitted m Samanyfl in cases like Vasantasena, Mana IS, as already noted, denied 10 Parakiya (p 134). Some writers ~re said to opine that the Mugdha does not have the eight Avastha-types (p. 136) Agam~syat-patika, i.e., a Prositapanka whose husband IS known to be returning, is included in Vasakasajjika, even as In the 5rngaramafipri.We find the Avasita-pravasa-pahkil. or the Agata-pauka Included in the same Vasakasajjika, Both varieties of Abhlsanka are given, and Pravasyatpatika is Included in Prosita-patika


1 See also S. K. De, I. H.Q.. VIII. pp, 674.679. 2 K. M. 52.

3 K. M. Gucchaka 14, pp. 116 ff.



Tripathi Sivarama, a wnter of the begrnning of the 18th century, touches upon this subject m his Naksatramala l and deals with It fully In hIS Rasaratnahara 2 In the former he illustrates a few of the Nayaka-Nayrka-varietres. In the latter, he systematically cnticises the defimtions of the Nayikas given m the Rasarnafijari On Dhira etc, Srvarama records the view (sl 19) that they pertain only to the Sviya according to the ancients and to Parakiya also according to the recent writers. The most noteworthy pomt in the Rasaratnahara IS, however, SlVarama's mention (p. 127), in the commentary, of two addrtional Nayika-types, one of which IS srmilar in name to the Sabhaya found m the Natakalaksanaratnakosa , Slvarama grves her name as Gurujanabhita, and from the illustration, whose meanmg, however, IS not clear, she seems to be a varrety of the unchaste Parakiya The other additional type given by Slvarama IS the Bhujangabhita ; Its illustration is agam obscure, but It seems to mean one afraid of a womanizer

Visvesvara, the well-known AJankanl,a of the beginmng of the 18th century. has written a treatise on Rasa called Rasacandrika't the first part of which is devoted to this subject The author follows the Sahrtyadarpana and takes some material from Bharata too but his defimtrons are cast 10 the Navya-nyaya style of which he gives us a great deal in hIS Alankarakaustubha, Visvesvara too, Iike Samaraja, mentions the view that, according to some, the V israbdha-na vodha IS to be brought under the Madhya, but gives hIS opmion 10 favour of callmg the Madhya, Atrvrsrabdha-navodha (p 5). Dhira etc. are held to be applicable to Madhya and Pragalbha only (p 6), but the VIew of the ancients thr t Dhir a etc. pertain only to Svlyii (pp 7-8) IS recorded. It is strange to note that he illustrates Kanyaka by an unchaste girl who marries and continues her love for the paramour of her malden days He gives no subvarieties under Sarnanya The threefold classification found in the Rasarnafijari, Anya-sambhoga-dunkhrta, Vakrokti-garvita and Manavati, which most other writers reproduce, IS given by V isvesvara too, but m view of the crrticism of this separate classificatron in the Srngaraman]ari, It is interesting to see V lSVeSvara saying that authoritative writers have not mentioned this classification. It IS true that older works do not mention such a separate classification. Again, like the author of the srngaramanJari, he too rejects the classification into D1V)a etc On another point also which most later writers reproduce from the A valoka, VU., that the two vaneties of Parakiya have only three of the eight Avasthas, V rrahctkantha, Abhisarana and Vrpralarnbha, Vrsvesvara is crrtical , he does not accept that view (p 18). On the eight Avastha-Nayikas, he reproduces Bharata (p 19). While dealmg with Khandita again, from which he does not consrder the Manavati as different, he says that standard wrrters did not give the classtficatron-group Manavati etc. (p. 24) It may be seen that Srngaramafijari also adopts the same crrtical attitude towards this separate classification group (p 15) In the SrngiiramafiJari there 15 a needlessly long dISCUSSIOn on Prosrta-patrka, the grammar of the ktanta Prosita, and the explanation of how the two other cases of the Pravasa to be and the Pravasa taking place (bhavr and vartamana ) must be included in it. Visvesvara solves this question easily by defining the Prcsitapanka as one unhappy as a result of Pravasa-Jiiana, the knowledge of her lord's Journey (pp. 26-7). On Abhisarika again, he exhibits his crrtical outlook by holding the causative tz1C 1D 'abhlsarayah' as nonsignificant, and consequently gives only one vanety of the Abhisarrka (abhisaratr) (p. 28). In the classification-group, Uttarna, Madhyama and Adhama, he says that It IS the last to waich the name Candi IS applied


Regarding the Nayaka and the various kinds into which Bharata classifies man, it has already been mentioned that the basic threefold classificanon into Uttama, Madhyama and Adhama apphes to him also. In XXII. 285-302, after deahng with the eightfold

1 K. M Gucchaka 5, pp. Hi5-11S.

2 K M Gucchaka 6, pp 118££.

3 Handas Sanskrrt Serres 53, Benares 1926


1 In the Kasi edn. (Ch. XXIV) the definitions of Natha and Svamm are l;terchanged.

While the ex~re~slOns like Priya, Kanta and JiV'lta emphasise the lover stage, the expressions Natha and Svamm emphasise the husband-stage at which the high fervour of the love-stage changes to a somewhat prosaic routine Compare the verse

\ at.l'r~~l=IT<ii 3it.l'~:n:IT'%+RIir Q~R:l.f aar ~ ~<i itl.f~ q~+rfCr ~Q'm: ~~cr+rr: I ~r.rr ;:rT~ <i'l.filfT1 ~sj ~ +rl.fTff !ff1lTr.'lT ~f~~~;j r.rt 'mf+i<{'l II

On the gradual loss of romance which affects the transition of the Parakiya kanya to the Sviya, see also the verse <.r: eil;rR~: quoted on p. 8 of the SrngaramanJarL



Nirlajja and Nlsthura of Bharata It rna} also be noted that in Bharata's detailed descriptions of these fourteen kinds of favourable and unfavourable men, there occur expressions hke Daksrna (verse 294) and Dhrsta (verse 296) which later become settled type-names

As he opens his next chapter (XXIII), Bharata gives us the Nayaka-type called Vaisrka, one specialismg In the company of courtezans, which persists as a major Nayakatype m later classification

~~lil:q~IJfl[lfq ~~tl ~~~Q: I

After describmg him in the next verse as an adept in the arts and in captivating a woman's heart, Bharata speaks of thirty-three qualitres of his, natural and cultivated (verses 3-7).

In the same chapter, Bharata speaks of another classification of men into five kinds In respect of their activities towards pleasing the beloved, Catura, Uttama, Madhyama, Adhama and Pravrttaka or Sampravrttaka Catura or the clever is he who can put up with sorrow and difficulties, IS pleasant In looks, and adept in courtmg and pacifying the lady m anger; In the Kasi edn. definition, he IS one who shares the lady's sorrow and difficulty and is an adept m bringmg her round when she is m Pranayakalaha The Uttama, Madhyama and Adhama, a basic classification that can be applied to any other classificatron also, IS taken here and explained thus Uttarna or the best IS, hke the Pnya descnbed earlier, one who does nothmg unpleasant, IS self-possessed and drgnified, talks sweetly, has no anger (Amani}, knows the heart and does not forget Another type of Uttama IS he who has a sweet drsposition, IS hberal, does not lose himself in love, and can give up the love when the woman slights him.t Madhyama IS one who, without much enthusiasm, tries to know and captivate the woman's heart, and gives up his love the moment some misunderstanding crops up. Another kind of Madhyama, found m the Kasi edn and missIng from the K M. edn. IS defined as one who shows hIS Iiberahty on occasions, does not become very much upset when he IS slighted. but detaches himself the moment he finds her unfaithful Adharna or the low type is he who courts desprte insult, and goes on loving the lady even when her infidelity is known and fnends dissuade him Pravrttaka or Sampravrttaka (Sampravrddha according to Kasi edn ) IS a further degenerate type, devoid of fear, anger, sense of shame and firmness, a mere plaything of women It IS to be noted that all these five are given as varieties of the Vaisika-nayaka

The characterrstics of Uttarna, Madhyama and Adhama given here may be compared with those given 1TI the Srngaramafijari lTI the sectlOn~on Uttarna etc. (p. 51). The Catura mentioned here IS also found m later works (see Srngaramanjart, p. 49), but all these have been preserved not as varieties of the Vaisrka-nayaka, but as general varieties applymg to all kinds of Nayakas

In ch XXIV, Bharata gives the fourfold classification of the hero mto Dhiroddhata~ Dhiralahta, Dhirodatta, and Dhiraprasanta, which IS the main classification accepted m works of dramaturgy, but left out in works on erotrcs on the Nayaka-Nayika varieties.

After mentioning the three classes of NaYlkas accepted by him, and the additronal ones suggested by others (I. 5 3-27), Vatsyayana says that Nayaka, however, IS only one, applymg to all kinds of Nayikas (1. S.28). Immediately he speaks of the Pracchannanayaka, the secret paramour (I 5. 29) which can refer only to the U papati later defined as the second main class of the Nayaka and figunng In Parakiya-Iove In IV. 4 85", Vatsyayana requires a man wrth many wives to be Sam a, which would correspond to the later Daksma-type, In V. 45, where the clever messenger (Duti) IS mstructed to induce

1 Dhanika quotes this 10 his Avaloka under the Daksma-nayaka (II. 7).



from the stand taken by the Rasamanjar'i:, accepts the Mani and Catura as separate varieties not included 1U the Satha (p 49). and following the Arr.oda, gives in addition to the Prosita, the Amihta and the Virahm (p. 51) as constituting another threefold classification of the Nayaka ; the Armlita is the hero in Piirvanuraga or Ayoga-vipralarnbha ; the Virahm is the type corresponding to the Virahotkanthrta.

It 15 interestmg to find that the post-Bhanudatta anthology, the Padyaracana of Laksmanat (sectIOn XI), gives, besides the Mani and the Catura (Vidagdha ), the Anabhijfia, and what IS more, adds two more in this last category, the Sli;u and the Vrddha Laksrnana also Illustrates a Desantaropagata, one returned from travel, corresponding to the Nayika Avasrtapravasapatika or the Agatabhartrka, as the Sundarasrngara calls her, this Bhanudatta gives m hIS anthology Rasaparijata (p 73).

Visvesvara mcludes the Mani and Catura not in the Satha, as others are said to do according to the Rasamafijari and Srngaramafijari, but m the Madhyama and Uttama respectively (Rasacandrika, p 37). He rejects the Anabhijfia also as Rasabhasa (p. 38). Quotmg from Bharata, Visvesvara mentions not only the threefold classificatron Uttarna etc., (pp. 30-31), but also the fivefold classification mto Catura, Uttarna, Madhyama, Adhama and Sampravrttaka (pp. 35-36), but considers the latter superfluous, as Catura could be brought under Uttama, Pravrttaka under Adhama, and Uttama, etc, have already been recognised as a main scheme of classrfication

Trrpathi Slvarama, author of the Rasaratnahara, gives the Mani and Catura as two sub-varieties of the S4ha In hIS Srngaramrtalahari, Sarnaraja Diksita includes the Mani and Catura in Satha, rejects the Anabhijfia as Rasabhasa, gives the Prosita, and mentions that the classification Uttama etc. pertains only to the Vaisika,

Paamm"i, Citrini, Sankhin'i and Hastint

The author of the Srngaramafijari says at the beginning, when he sets forth hIS method of treatment and the tOpICS to be dealt with by him, that one of the special features of his work 1S the description of the vane ties of women called Padrnmi etc., which the previous treatises on the subject of Nayaka-Nayrka enumerated by him earher do not deal with (purvoktagrantha-avarl]ita-padminyadlJatayan-p. 2). Accordingly, at the endof the work (pp. 54-55), he speaks of these four classes of women. He says that so far he has been deahng WIth the varreties of NaYlkas as dealt WIth m the Rasamafijari on the basis of different kinds of moods and reactions in love and that now he would deal WIth a classification of both Nayika and Nayaka by gunas, following the views of Vatsyayana (etavat-paryantam Rasarnafijary-anusarena cesta-visesa-bhedena na yikabheda nirfiprtah ; ulanirn Vatsyayana-matanusarena gUl)ai~ hastmyadi-nayika-bhedah bhadradi-nayakabhedasca mrfipyante, p 54) The gunas meant are natural features of both body and mind, and what these are m particular we shall see later. Vatsyayana here does not mean the author of that name who wrote the Kamasfitras ; we have to understand by the word Vatsyayana-mata, s. e , Kamasastra in general, which is not an unusual meaning. For, the Kamasfitras themselves do not speak of this fourfold classificatron of women, nor of a corresponding classification of men, such as the one rnentroned 1U the Srngaramafijarl Vatsyayana's threefold classification of me~ and women from the point of view of the nature of the male sexual feature,2 Sasa, V rsa and Asva (the rabbit, the bull and the horse) and the Mrg'i, Badavg and Hastini (the doe, the mare and the she-elephant), is different; Hastmi is found as a type-name here too, but rt has as httle to do with the Hastmi in the fourfold classification we are now considering as the Hasnni which, as we saw above, Bharata mentions among the numerous classes of women described by him,

]; K§.vyamala 89.

2 Kamasiitra II. 1. J, 2ff. But some texts speak of four "Such classes, adding a Mrga to 5



The earliest Kamasastra text now known to deal with this fourfold elassification of women 15 the Ratirahasya of Kokkoka, where these four classes are introduced as not dealt with by Vatsyayana, but dealt with by NandtkeSvara (tatra prathamam N andrkeSvara-Got,11kiiputrayor matarn adyam samgrahisyamah,' parato Vatsyayaniyam. Yad Vatsyayana-siHra-s,mgraha-bahlrbhutam kirnapyagame drs tam etc..... ., . Pad min im tadanu citrmim tatah etc ch. 1 51 9 ff, and Samksepad itr Nandrkesvara-mat-it tattvam kimapyuddhrtam gonrputraka-bhasno'yam adhuna samksipyate vlstarah ch 2 s1.5.) Following the Ratirahasya, v vhich later gamed equal, if not greater, popularity with Vatsyayana's Siitras, almost all the Karnasastra works descnbed these four types of women Padrnini etc But works on Rasa deahng with the Nayaka-NaYlka subject never included this classification, whicn they considered as more proper 10 works of Kamasastra, The Amoda 011 the Rasamafijari says , crr~..,"rf:qf-rcrfi~;:fril:~a-;::qrr~~G:r: <tim~R;;{.q~r ~;:<!ST ;:fl:mr: I Adyar Ms. p 283 The reason for the author of the Srngaraman]ari1l1cludmg these four classes also In his work 15, on the one hand, his desrre £01 elaboration and showing of some special features In his work, and on the other, the example of some of the Hindi works on the subject which Include a treatment of these four types of women, two of which are mentioned by the author among his sources , the Sundarasrngara deals with Padmmi etc 1

Bhadra, Datta, KiiCU(-t- ) mara, and Fancala

The author of the Srngaramafijari mentions four male types corresponding to the four female types discussed above. He says that as the charactensncs of the Nayaka types, Bhadra, Datta, Kiicumara and Paficala do not differ from those of Hastini Citrmi

.» 11 .. 1

Sankhtni and Padmmi, he IS not grving separate rllustrations for the former.

the Sasa, Vrsa and the Asva given by Vatsyayana and what IS more, equate these four with the four female types, Padrnmi etc. See Smaradipika, Madras Ms R. 3357 (c) p. 61.-

~m qfu;:ff gl!i ilySftl R~crft Cf~U I

~I(;fr 'l'5f~ g~:r I[ffifrfr ~qa i[q II

Ratimafijarl, ascribed to a ]ayadeva, a text which uses Ratirahasya, (Madras Ms. R. 3357 (d) says. (text printed 10 Giornale della Socteta ASlat!ca Italiana, XVII 317ft, Keith Skt Lit.p, 468; also In Hmdi and Bengali)

q~r ~~ufr ~q :(Iflofr I[mrijf (f~r I :(1m im rtrs'II~ ii'Illff: ijft~ijql~iCf: II

The Kamapurusarthasamgaraha, which I shall have OCcaSIOn to quote again below, says:

~:lli I[qr tI;n~q ~gij~g 'l'5f~llq: I

A Ratisastra printed with H1l1dI and ~nghsh translation (prmted also In Bengali), cast m the form a_ d:alogue between Siva and Parvati, which IS Identical with the Ratisastra, ascribed to a NagarJuna and partially printed by R Schmidt to the VJenna Omntal Journal (Wzt'Mt' ~e'tschriftfur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, XXIII. pp, lBOf.) says.

:q~R: !J~q{~ijffl \iI1ffiit't-r ~R I ~ifr ilTr '!'if~q ~g~~(iffiI~r 'II




q~ * * ~~",ijf I


i~ R~ ~T~ll ~ :rnt;fr ~q I

lffif;fr ~~cr 1


" ,

{ ,


What are these four male types? Their history IS rather intriguing and deserves to be set forth here with as much detail as can be gleaned for the present from works of Kamasastra, m prmt as well as manuscript. Kficumara and Paficala, as we ~ave already pam ted out whtle dealmg with the works and authors figuring in the Srngaramanjari, are two old pre- Vatsyayana wrrters on Karnasastra , the former IS our authority on aupamsadika dealt With m the closing section of the Kamasfitras, the use of special appliances and methods, aphrodisrac, mantras and other means of attraction and hlghtenmg of enjoyment, all of WhICh, called Kaucumara yogah, constitute one of the srxty-four arts enumerated by Vatsyayana as ancillary subjects (angavldyas) of Kamasastra (I 3 16) ,a separate treatise on this subject, called Kucimara tantra, IS also known 1 Pandila is Babhravya, who eprtormsed 10 seven sections the five hundred chapters of Svetaketu's work (Vatsyayana I 19-13), and the elaboration of the several stages and aspects of sexual enjoyment into SIxty-four items IS called Paficaliki catussastl after Babhravya Paficala who did It (Vatsyfiyana I 3. 17-19 and II 2 1-5.)

The names of the two other Niiyclkas are somewhat obscure While we cannot be very definite about It, we may suppose that as the two names discussed above are after two old wrrters, these two others, Bhadra and Datta, may also srgmfy two old Kamasastra authontles Datta, In that case, may stand for Dattaka who, Vatsyayana says (I. 111) elaborated separately the chapter on Vaisrka for the sake of the courtezans of Pataliputra 2 Dattaka's Sun as on this special branch are also known from references and quotations in the Bhanas of Siidraka, Syaml1aka and Isvaradatta, and was, according to an mscrrpt1on'3, commented upon by the Western Ganga kmg, Madhavavarman II (1st half of the 3rd century A.D)4 Of Bhadra, we are not In a position to say even this much.

In none of the early or authoritative and popular Sanskrit Kamasastra works IS this fourfold clasSIficatIOn of Nayaka Into Bhadra etc. found. So far as I have been able to find, the only works that mention these four classes are the srngaradiplka Ratirahasyas of Hanhara, son of Rama (15th cent. A. D ) and the encyclopsedra Slvatattvaratnakara of Basavaraja'' (A.D 1709) Though this classification IS rare in Sanskrit works and appears only 10 some late works, like the two mentioned above, It seems to have been wellknown 10 Telugu literature, and 111 Kannada too to some extent There IS a verse 10 the Kumarasambhava of Nanni Coda? (mid. 12th cent A.D), in canto eight, in which a Vdya Naylka says that she would have none of the four Nayakas, Bhadra, Paficala, Dattaka and Kficrmara, for each of them has his drawback, the first, excess of dalliance and sport, (snigiiditlcestii). the second, too fine and delicate a manner of drawing out the sentiment, the third, trying to purchase company by money, and the fourth using magic and medrcrne without glvmg the heart, and she wants a real lover free from all these flaws. Accordmg to Sri M. Ramakrishna Kavi who has a note on the question, 'Who is

1 See Madras Descriptrve Catalogue, VIII P. No. 3894; printed also from Lahore. 2 For the story of Dattaka, ,see Jayamangalii on Kamasiitras, I 1. 11.

3 Epr. Car. IX p 7. "

4. For a metrical resume of the Dattaka Siitras, see Madras Trrenmal Catalogues, R. No. 32,,0 (b) whicn is unfortunately tragrnentary.

I; Mss.- \1adras De-, Cat. D Nos 3899.39°0. Printed m ZDMG. 1903, pp. 705-739 by R. Schmidt. This work of Harihara IS 10 5 chapters; Madras D. No. 3889 and Schmidt's edn, go only upto ch 3, Madras R. 1731 (c) Snlgarabhedapradiplka noted as a different w~rk IS t~,e same and has chs 4 and 5, the 5th being incomplete. Smularly M~dras R 2889, Ratidarpana, mistaken as another work 15 also Identical and has ehs. 1-4, Tanjore Nos. 10981 (1-4 chs.),

10982-3 (incomplete), Srngarabandhapradiptka IS also the same work. '

• Printed, Madras. 1927. '

? For this and other Telugu reference'l, I arri'indebted to Sri N. Venkata Rao, Dept. of Telugu, Umversity of Madras and his son, Sri N. S. Sundareswara Rao



Bhadra ?'1, the Kannada treatise on erotics, Madanattlaka of Candraraja, (c, 1025 A.D.), refers to these four types rn a verse of eulogy on Candrarap, according to this verse, Babhraviya or Paficiila IS over zealous, Atilola, and Bhadra 1S angry Sn M R. Kavt quotes 111 the same place a verse from the Haramekhala and says that Bhadra IS Muladeva, the well-known social hero, who figures m many stones and was an authority on Kamasastra and worldly matters 2 It IS significant that like the Srngararnafijari, the two works Srngaradiplka Ratlrahasya and the Srvatattvaratn Ikar.i which mention this classification are works produced m the Deccan and South India under the mfiuence of Telugu and Kannada literature, We noted above that, according to the Srngaramafi]ari, these four male types are not different m characteristics from the four female types, Hastrni etc This IS exactly the VIew expressed m Harihara's SlIlgdradipika

+J~ c::~: ~R!I1R: ql~r<_?: ~~l: ~~cH: II

~~a~lgOJeq~1 +{~sffi ~~q: ~~a: I 13 (l~r BIH~~ ~ItR;:<1f g ~11~C::T 3 II Rff-tOJlgcrreq'llr C::~Hnra1!('f: ~lir;:r_ I 13li~mlTr%~il"q ~f,rofi G:'ij 8f1~qq_ II ;ufl.fl~01~q~: ~RrliR~{: ~o: I ij{grr.r~lli{o~ ~f'Cfl11(~ oi qi:rC!. II qf~;:figcrraq~: qfliW.?: 'iRehllclo: I ui?q~~'1f6~iJq qr~I~: qm.tt qi:rq:_ II

(ZDJl/IG 1903 P 721) Earlier, while describing the woman types, Hastmi etc., Harihara says (pp. 719-720): ~ ~~OJijq'ilf ~Raiijl Ofirfij~T +{Sr~ I of +{~:iJlffi~~1 q~C'lTrr~~~~q_ II

~r--"" r-.. .......

~r T"ITSIUma ~I I G:~~(iqllo{~1J1r {ijtW:<1~ f>p~rl{ II






aiR1~<_?~~1tg~f ;a~;fl QROflfrif('ft I ~l:Tf ~fqliH~Rf '(i{C'I atlIFfl:T: II

* * qflq;:fT ~re:. II af a~OJ~ijlq?f; ql~~: qWcfr qi't~ II

~hlS_ equ~tion of the f~m~:e and male types Hastrni-Bhadra, Crtrml-Datta, Sankhini-Kucumara and Padmmi-Paficala as rees With that given III the C - -" B B-1:> . erngaramanjari,

ut asavaraja not only gives the equation differently but also calIs the Datta bv d. durer-

ent animal name, Haya , according to his Srvatattvaratnakara (VI 12 - 262-)

C . - d Bh d verse" J-t,

itrini an a ra go together, Hastini and Haya (Datta) are equ 1 te .; kl •

d K- - f . a rna es, .,;1.11 11m

an ucumara orm an Ideal pair and Padrrnni finds her proper comp 1. I)- - -

, d fi anion m the ancaIa

Basava s e nitton of these male types 15 bnef and restncted as th f V- - '

, S" , t h f m e case 0 atsya-

yana s asa etc. 0 t e nature 0 the physical sexual feature of the male

RilsrufT!lUfij~m: !JtTl<'f.. l1i?r ifo{l~~~: t

r-, t\ .....

~J~C{·ngUftlq?fT ~~~I\ [I~;UI~: II

.......... '"'

;Ul,~qT: ~I~lir~:l~q: ~~"f: [~ql{] [1G:~I~: I

f''' -c

ql'WqT~6 g crrlij'{c_;sr if{qCfi~~l1l~ ~<iS: Ii

This equation of these four male types WIth the fo f 1

, If d 1 f di ur ema e types Hastinl t •

itse ue to oss 0 tra ition regarding their real sigmfi b . 1 e c. 15

icance, ut In the period later than

1 lournal of the Sri Venkateswara Oriental Jnstitut T -.:..,

pp.42-45. e, irupan, 1 v 2, Telugu section,

2 For Miiladeva as a Kama§iist '

'1 29 h di ra writer, see Rabrahasya IV 21 d

s • , ea mg. • , an Paiicasayaka

II In the text prmted by Schmidt in ZDMG 11'

~re mistakes; and as already pointed out, both ~s hwe ~s in the Madras ms. D. 3899, there Incomplete. c rmdt s text and Madras D. 3899 are



that of the above-noted works, these four male types were much less understood; SIvaramakavl, author of the Telugu Karnakalasastra, (Madras Ms. R. 320) allows absolute scope to hIS irnagmation in hIS descrrption of these four types. Dantalurr Narayana Raju Gajapati, in his Sanskrrt compilation Kamapura sarthasangrahat had to face the fact that besides these four male types, there were the three grven by Vatsyayana, Sa sa etc, he found that, as m Basava's work, Bhadra etc. were also defined in terms of the features by which Sasa etc. are defined by Vatsyayana , so he mechanically harrnomsed the texts by adopung for the four male types Sasa, Mrga, V rsa and Hayaf alternate names .i:'and.la, Kucumara, Datta and Bhadra (Sasaka eva Paficalah, Mrgah Kiicumara iu namantaramVrsabham Datta it! ca vadantr , Hayo Bhadra rtr bruvantr),

Sarngadhara, in hIS Paddhati (section 92; pp. 446-8, sIs 3091-3108) extracts from an otherwise unfamiliar Sridhara, evidently a Karnasastra wrrter, on the subject of the NaYlkas Sridhara takes the varreties of women named by Bharata after gods, demigods, ammals etc , but what IS strange 1S that he picks out four from this serres and equates them with the four varreties Padmmi etc Thus, m this scheme Devi IS equated with Padmmi, Apsaras with Crtrrni, Yaksini with Sankhini and Raksasi with Hastini The equation IS clearly prompted by the general idea that Padmmi IS the best type, Crtrrni the next best IS noted for artistrc accomplishment, and Hastrni is the most undesirable speermen, but even such a justification cannot be found for equating the Yaksmi and Sankhmi,

Gettmg beyond these Imaginary descriptions and fancifal equations, we can reconstruct to some extent the real and origmal srgruficance of these names Bhadra etc, If we collate together the facts known about the Kamasasrra writers after whom they are nan:ed and the references In Nanni Coda's Kum arasambhava which is an early text among works noticed above on this toprc Dattaka specialised ill the art of love as practised by courtezans and wrote for them his Siitras ; Nanni Coda says that the Datta-type threw money and courted women; from these data It IS possible to say that Datta is the Nayaka type called Varsika Kiicurnara is well-known as the authority on the use of the sexual aids of medrcme and magrc ; and Nanni Coda's remark only confirms this. PafidiIa's speciality 15 the =Catussasti", the adeptness in the soft execution of the sexual act, stage by stage, from embrace onwards, the Vesya ill Nanni Coda's work referring to him as drawing out the process In too dehcate a manner confirms this, Regarding Bhadra alone, we are m some difficulty, as we have to start and end with Nanni Coda's sale reference for finding out hrs specrality ; as already noted, N aunt Coda characterises him by; excess of dalliance and sport, srngaratlcesta.

Before we can say whether on the basis of these characterrstics, these four male types could be equated with the-four female types Hastini etc., we have to determine precisely the significance of the latter Their descriptions m the several texts, though they proceed on the same lmes, are not uniform 1U the details. Starting with Ratirahasya, we shall compare therr defimtions in the other texts and note the additional and different details mtroduced In the latter.


1 Printed In Te1ugu script, Vizagapatam 1881; -

2 Compare the Smaradiplka, Ratimafipri an41. 'the Rahsastra referred to Fcvious]y,


c <l)


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The above tabular analysis shows that the details regarding these four female types given In the Srngararnafijari show close relation to those given 111 ~-:!anhara's Srngaradlplka The statement 111 the Srngaramafijart regardmg the mixed type -hasnnyadmayikasu parasparaguna-sankaryena jatr-sankarah striyo jayante' (p 59), which

echoes the following 111 the Srngaradiplka ~rr'~:Jllfr <{'.if 'lara- ;g~:<:r ~A' i ;gr ~u Of~l:qr-II (5122), shows further that our author has used Harrhara's work.

The table would also show us that all the elaboration of the characteristics of each of these four types centres round a nuclear Idea, which we can analyse easily The Padmmi, It IS easy to see, IS the best type of woman and the elaboration of her features IS all based 011 this smgle Idea of her being the best type and being comparable to the lotus , her leadrng characterisnc IS not only beauty but delicateness Cnnni comes next 10 point of merit; her chief feature" IS her accomplishment and variety of tastes and flashy behaviour , all further elaboration IS based on this and on the word citra meanmg -manrfold' and -strikmg' Sankhini, It would appear, 1S not EO easy to be analysed to her essential characterrstic , but a careful scrutiny would show that we have to underlme the statement 1Il the Ratirahasya and other texts that her nerves and veins are visible on her frame, that ... he IS devoid of flesh, and that her body is full of hollows To this IS to be added the feature that she does not moisten easily, noi IS she, as the Paficasayaka says, easy to be enjoyed A" Sankha means shell and bone, she 15 to be understood as the fieshless WOI11<1!1, hal d 111 touch and hard of enjoyment Hastmi by all descrtption stands lowest III the order, "be IS, as her name suggests, the heavy corpulent type,

It IS not very easy to adjust to these four female types of such characterrsnc-, the four male types Bhadra etc We might yet tO'y to understand 1; there rs some approprr.ucness m the equation. The Citrini, bemg the artistically accomplished woman, of varicgated tastes, IS the t) pe to which courtezans as a class would answer , so, the assrgnmcn; of the Dattaka type of man to Citrmi may be significant. The Paficala IS the artist p.ir excellence in the delicate execution of the act of enjoyment and rt would similarly appear srgmficant to associate him with the Padmmi, the delicate woman As Kiicurn.lrn IS an adept m the matter of inducing love and augmenting It by various medicmal and other means, he may be paired off With the hard Sankhml from whom It i" difficult to derive pleasure The Hastmi IS a highly passionate type making heavy demands on the part 0 f the lover and only the Bhadra who can, as Nanni Coda says, indulge m Srng;tra-atlce"tii, excessrvejdalliance and sport, could possibly be her mate,

The Accomplices of the Nliyzktt and Nayaka

Works of the class to which the SrngaramafiJari belongs deal regularly With the accomplices who help the lovers 111 their love, and treatises of larger scope on Srng;lra Rasa or dramaturgy also speak of them, After dealing With the Varuka-hero and Ins thirty-three quahties, and his friend (XXIII. 8), Bhai ata gives a number of women who could be employed by the lovers as their messengers- Pratwe.{ya, Saklri, D{ISi, l{1/11liiri, Karu, Stlptni, Dhatri, Pa.Jandtniand iksamkti, the neighbour-woman, the female-friend, the servent-woman, the little girl, the artisan and artiste ladies, the nurse, the heretic 'Woman and the fortune teller (verse 4) An additional verse in the Kasi edn (XXV. 9) mentions the learned lady (VtJnana-guna-sampannti), story-teller (Kathani),l one in disguise (Lz1igtni), actress (Rangopaj"ivana) and the lady who IS an adept 111 understanding (Prattp€l~tt-vtcaksanti). Most of these are retained in later texts After pointmg out in a verse what kinds of men or women are not to be employed as messengers, Bharata sets forth the various acts which these messengers are to do, a topic dealt with in later texts under the heading Dut'ikarman. The acts mentioned by Bharata are Protsahana

1. The Abhinavabharati which has this verse says' <iit:RT 'i~~~~Mffi~<i (~) ~ p. 60, Madras Ms R. 2785 "



(enthusing the lovers), Anuraga-anukirtana (conveymg the love of one to the other), Yathokta-Kathana (truthful report of the message), Bhava-pradarsana (conveying the desire of one to the other), Kula-bhoga-dhanadrvikatthana (extolmg the pedigree and other merrts of one to the other), Karya-rnvedana (information of what IS to be done) and Artha-bhasana (speaking of the relevant Issues) (verses 12-13). Again, she IS to arrange through varrous means the union of the lover WIth the lady in fresh love and also pacify the elder Nayika when she becomes angry (verse 14) , she IS generally to study and grasp the mind of lovers (verse 17).

Of the male aids who help the hero, Bharata mentions In ch. {XIV, the Vita; eloquent, considerate, hterary, pleasant, resourceful and expert m the art of attendmg to the courtezan (verse 104) , the Vidiisoleo, the clown (106) who is the same as the friend, Vayasya, described In XXIII 8 as devoted, pure, clever and so on; and the C eta who is fond of the arts, speaks much and knows the comparative Importance of men, from the expresswn Gandhasevaka here, It would appear he was to help the hero in hIS toilette and was thus a miscellaneous attender upon the hero 1 It may be noted that the Ptthcmarda, so regularly mentioned m later works WIth the VIta, Ceta and Vidfisaka is not mentioned by Bharata here 2

The Karnasutras, by the very nature of their subject-matter, afford greater scope to the subject of accomplices used for the furtherance of love-affairs; they are particularly necessary, and m a large variety, m Paradarika love. References to them and the pal t to be played by them are profuse in Vatsyayana In I 3 15, Vatsyayana mentions the Dhatreyi (nurse's daughter), Saklzi (fnend), Savayajp m{ttrsvasii (mother's sister who IS of equal age), VrddhadasI (old servant), BlzzflsukI (rnendicanj woman known already) and Svasa (one's own SIster) as persons from whom a gIrl can take lessons on love I 4 48, rn the context of accomplices, speaks of Bhiksnkis, Kalavzdagdhas (artistes ), Mundas (WIdows), Vrsaiss (prostitutes or low caste women) and Vrddha-gamkas (superannuated courtezans ) In IV. 1. 9, where chaste wedded women are warned agamst bad characters who serve as agents of temptation, Sramana, K~apa1Ja (heretic mendicant women), K uhaka (woman magician ), Iksamki (fortune-teller) and Mii,la-kankiis (those that deal m enticing drugs) are mentioned In Paradarrka, a special section is devoted to Diita-karman (VA). In V. 442 here, In additron to some already mentioned, the Tapasi (the woman recluse) IS also given V. 4 44 classifies Diitis into eight kinds Of these the first three, Nisrstartha, Parirmtartha and Patraharaka, are distmgutshed by the extent of authonty as emissary vested In them and are parallel to the Diitas of the same names figuring m Ai thasastra Generally speaking, later works on erotics or the rhetoric of love have not taken them up, though an exhaustive work like Bhoja's Srngara Prakasa or one like the Ujjvalanilamani of Rupa Gosvamin speaks of them Of the other five, Svayamdut'i IS to be specially noted, for while this type, which IS found In later works, 15 always defined as the lady in love. who acts as her own messenger and arranges for union WIth her lover, Vatsyayana defines her differently. In V. 4 .)3-55, Varsyayana describes her elaborately and 111 two different ways, in the first variety, she 1S a messenger sent by another lady, but herself begins to woo that lover, thus approaching the Dun of the NaYlka-vanety called Duti-sambhoga , duhkhita in the class Anya-sambhoga-duhkhita under the Khandlta-type. The second variety described by Vatsyayana approac~es the Svayarndfiti of later texts, WIth this

1. He was of a servant-status, a Nica-patra as mentioned in the chapter on gait on the 'stage, gati-pracara. (XIII. 145. Kasi edn.) See also the Sthavaraka eeta in the Mrcehakatika,

where he acts also as the cart-driver. '

Z. Elsewhere also, in the chs. "speaking of galt, dress etc of the different characters (gati-pracara, aharya. etc.) where Vl~a, Vadiisaka and Ceta are mentioned, the Plthamarda is not found.


- - h h ld oach the object of her love as a

difference that according to Vatsyayana. s e S ou appr - - f h 1

messenger of 'another NaYlka, fiCt1CIOUS or real, and 1£ the Naylk'l lor w om ~~e :retends to be the messenger IS real, she should try to undermme her re ations WI im, Bhoja, 10 his Srngara Prakasa, as we shall see below, makes this second variety a separate Duti called C hadmadiiti Jl!It1dhadufi, the next, 15 the !nn~~~~t glrl:~lfe ofl ,t:~e lover to whom the Parakiya or the Vesya is attached, Bhm yaautl IS one sown 1::: witted wife whom the lover employs as a messenger Mukadiiti 1S of two kinds, }"tl.l the little girl and Paricarrka the servant, both of them moving about or gomg to the lover may be made to carr) consciously or unconscrously a secret letter or SIgn of love hidden 10 the zarland or ear-ornaments; 10 some later texts, the little girl who 15 innocent of matters of love (aluata-manmatha-vlkara bala ) IS mentioned as a regular messenger, Vatadn,t'i is another unconscious messenger, who conveys an enigmatic utterance or a double entendre which the lover alone understands, here the J ayamangaJJ. adds that accordlllg to the Babhraviyas, even animals, birds, dolls and pamtmgs could, In this manner, be employed as media of message Bhoja not only mentions birds etc., but adds four more to the eight Duds mentioned by Vatsyayana m this class

Of the opposite numbers on the male side, Vdtsyayana mentions an equal variety of accomplices In I 4 44-46, he speaks of persons descnbed by the J ayamangal.i ,l~ Upanagarakas, the minor men about town, who attach themselves to the maw Nlg'lr'l~,as, the Nayakas, and It ve by serving them m the advancement of their love-affairs. I he chief among them, whom VatS) ayana characterises in I. -t 47, as the ministers or Waf and peace between the courtezans and their lovers, are given by h1111 as the Pithomat da, Vue and Vuiasaleo The second and third, we have seen m Bharata too, but In V:tt"yJ.y<tlrl, we miss Bharata's Ceta, but find instead a Pithamarda, In I 5,35-37, \',i.hY:ly.m,l analyses these ards on three prmcrples, fnendship, qualities and occupation, Snclia, hWUI and liiti, aU of which, together WIth the enumerations under each, are taken and amplrfied by Bhoja m his treatment of Diitas III the Srngara Prakasa Here in sutra 37, we have in addition to the Pithamarda, Vita and Vidiisaka, the following miscellany drawn from avocations with which lovers in particular and men and women 10 general come into contact: RaJaka (washerman), Napzta (barber j t, l1;Jiiliikara, Galldhika and Sa u ril: a, (vendors of garlands, perfumes and wine ), Bhzksuka (mendicant). GoNlaka (cowherd), Tambuhka (vendor of betel) and Sauvarmka (gold-smith). In book V again devoted to courtezan-love, Vatsyayana has occasion to revert to these aids and mentions (V. 1 8-9) besides those already enumerated 111 1. 5 37, A:aksa!w-pttrusas (guards and policemen), D harmadhzkaranasfhas (those employed m courts 0 f justice}, Dazvariia \ ( astrologers), Vzkrantah Suriih (soldiers and brave men of the CIty), Samana-z1zdyas (those mterested rn the arts of mUSIC and dance practiced by courtezans) and kalt7-grahms (those learning these arts from them).

Rudrabhatta's Srngaratl1aka mentions 111 II 65 the Karu, Ddsi, Natl Dhfitr!

Frative~ya, Silpmi, Bala and Pravrajita as friends who serve as accomphces f~r women and adds 10 the next verse their quahficatlOns. Earlrer, in 1. 29-32, Rudrabhatta speaks of t~e accomphces of the hero, where we find the Pithamarda WIth the Vita and the Vidiisaka, but the Ceta 15 not to be seen, their qualities are mentlOned in 1. 29 and their defimtions are very bnefly given in I 30-31 , the Pithamarda is here defi~ed merely

as an attendent on the lover and the beloved. Rudrata, who gives the same thr 1

r f P- ee rna e

accomp rces, says 0 Ithamarda more definitely that he is an 'Anucara' of the hero.

While Rudrabbatta mentions the female-accomplices under the heading hel f 1 f d

S khi h Dh - P u rren s,

a i-janan, ananjaya gives them as messengers, Dfityah, and adds for the first time

among such works, the Svayamdiiti (Svam ca-Dasariipaka II. 29. Svayo,'l'1Z duti-


_ 1~ _ For a promment employment of the Naplta see Ksemendra's Samayamatr,ka,

Kavyama/a 10. '



Avaloka). In II 8-9, Dhanafijaya also mentions the same three accomplices on the hero-side. the VIta, Vrdiisaka and the Pitharnarda ; it 15 to be noted that these are dealt with here definitely 10 relation to their appearance as characters in a play.

Bhoja devotes two full chapters of hIS Srrigara Prakasa to Diitas, Diitis and their work (cbs XXVIII, XXIX) and I have set forth 10 detail the information here In my Bhojn:« Srngara Prakasa, Vol I pp 54-57 These two chapters form an elaborate commentary on the Siitras of Vatsyayana on Diitas, Dfitis and Diitakarman, and the Malatimadhava which closely follows Vatsyayana, as it itself says expressly-, is extensively reproduced here for illustranon The three grounds of classification, Sneha, Guna and ]iitl, given by Vatsyayana are amplified by Bhoj.i into ten. Jat~,-God, demi-god, human being, monkey, parrot, mina, dove and swan, Guna, -qualities like heridrtary ties, faithfulness, selflessness, etc, K1Zyu,-aSsoclated m activities lrke playmate from childhood, grateful by reason of former help received, class-mate, one in similar SItuation and so 011; Dravya,-dlfferent categories of persons hke vendors of garland, betel, perfume and wrne, the Pithamarda, Vita, Vidusaka, Pasandms and frrends In general, Sambandha, personal relationship like teacher, friend, puprl, servant, oneself, kinsman, son, and younger brother, Artha and Prayo jona, the next two prrnciples of classification, are subtley drstmguished by Bhoja as an object to be sought after and brought into being and an already existent object the desire for which prompts activity, the classes under these two are not exactly persons serving as messengers but conditions or situatrons under which messengers have to act; these are, Anarthapratighata, Saharthata, Prapti, Pratarana, A.nrnya, Kirti and Prin ; Daya, Sneha, Kutuhala, Abhiprayopalambha, Piirva Prarthana, Anyataraprarthans, Sila and Sangha! sa, Prayoga,-'I12odus operandi, open and secret, low and high, etc, Yogyata, quahficatron and status and means employed It IS here that Bhoja adds four more to the eight mentioned by Vatsyayana in V. 444, Nisrstartha, Parrmitartha, Patraharaka, Svayamdfitl, Miikadiiti, Miidhadiiti, Bharyadfiti, Vatadfiti, Chadmadan, Vveioaan, .11 antradiita and Tantrcdata; Chadmadiiti IS, as already pointed out above, the second variety of Svayamdiiti mentioned by Vatsyayana , (~~'3~ ~o::1.il+rfu~;:<Trl1 q~<m:;:r~;U-<J>~;:r· "[T~1Jf ;:rr<{~ ~f'olira:., err ~~;:<{la:. er ~cfr p 495, Vol III, Madras Ms ); the Vyajadiiti IS said 10 adopt a yelled speech (an Anyapadesa or Vyajoktr) for conveyrng the message (<j"F<ic<fT~I~+l'f4er~ ~r ~111'Sl''t('j1 tbzd ) and IS Illustrated by the message of the courtezan 111 Malati's retinue 10 Act I of the Malatimadhava, in which the words referring to the Vakula garland signify really Madhava himself , the Mantradfita and Tantradiita are persons of supernatural powers who help the lovers With their miracles (zbzd p 496), the tentn prmciple is sex, Siruoa, and refers to females like Iksamkii. Bhrksuki, Sakhi, Dhatreyika, Vidhava, Dasi, Sllpakank:i and Silpmi, On p 497, tbui a few mmor varieties like the doctor and the priest, Vaidya and Vardika are ad Jed , the total number of these messengers IS given by Bhoja as 84

One of these eighty-four requires some special elucidation. Under Sambandha, the fifth class, Bhoja mentions A.tman which refers to the Nayaka hrmself, and Illustrates this Atmaduta by Ravana approachrng Sitd. m the guise of a sage (:am+lT +l'&:f&~~ ~:rcrur(<r BTaT~Of p 482, zbzd). TIns would therefore correspond on the male side to the Svayamdiiti included among the messengers on the female SIde, It should also be noted that Bhoja does not separate the ards as those on the male side and those on the female Side. The varieties resulting m the intermixture and inter-application of these ten prmciples are also worked out and Illustrated by Bhoja. A large number of the quahties of messengers is then given with 11lustratlOn. Twenty-four kinds of Duta-karmal1 are then


1. See :afj;j[~+l'f<t)f;;J~<fjI+l'~1l. 1. 4 and at the end of the MIsra Vl~kambha m Act 1. alir~ot f;:r~~ta't'll,P:r: ~;.rf<rGc<{: i



enumerated and illustrated In the latter part of ch XXVIlI and the whole of the next chapter again IS devoted solely to the further elaboration of the messenger's 1/I,0rl(~h ;" of Bhoja's shorter work IS brief on this subject the Sarasvatikanthabharana V 1-1 Just mentions the inferrer characters (hina-pd.tras), Prthamarda, V rdiisaka, Vita, Ceta and the Sakhi ~, in their brief definitions and Illustrations that follow on pp 601-6()..J. (N S Press edn ), we meet with the Pithamarda, Vidiisaka, Vita, leta, and the Sakhi, the last classified into Sahaja, Piirvaja and Agantt1, the equal, the elder and the occasional friend As in the Dasariipaka, here too, these ale dealt with as included 111 drasnati, pellOllac.

In most of the other works noticed previously under NaYlkd. and Nayaka, there IS no special addition or omissron to be noted on the subject of the accomplices of the hero and herome The Prataparudriya (I 40 and 55) gives among the Nayaka-sahfiyas both the Pithamarda and Ceta besides the VIta and the Vidusaka, and among the N;iYlkj.-:,ah,-lva::-, gives Sva or the Svayamdiiti The Sabityadarpana also has the Svayamdiitl (III. 129) Of male accomplices, V IS vanatha mentions all the usual four (Ill 46) The on 1y differeace In the Rasarnavasudhakara IS that ~!llgabhiipiila omits the SV:l from the list of Duff!:, (p 37, TSS. edn )

The Rasamafijari gives all the four male accomplices On the srde of the N;tYlk.1.

Bhanudatta mentions the friend and the messenger, Sakhi and Dtiti, separately and In general Without any classification , but he devotes some attention to the different aspects of their work (karman ),

Of the Vaisnava Alankankas of Bengal, Kavrkarnapiira Gosvarnin adopt'> ,\ different and general classification of the frrends of Kr sna and the Sopis into four m.nn kinds accordmg to the mtensrty of frrendshrp and mtimacy (Prernan and Narman). Hi" Alankaraka~siubha says that Krsna's aids are of four kmds, S.tkh;l, Pnya~akh:t, Narmasakha and Priyanarmasakha

~~I<iT~~~~~~:q~::t~a- +l'Cff.er :qg~~f: I

" (' '"

tI~~~ l~q~@11 a~u ijilij@i 6J17 II


SImilarly N arrnasakhi and

the female aids of the Nayikas Priyanarmasakhi

-e~lJ~n tf@1 +l'~q_ ! I

...... r-, ~ r-, "

~rqCf qr~~~ler ijq I~tr~lgr ~~(n I

ij{6 .,qrOJ (err ~Cf ij~tr~"1 ~arq:_ II

• ..... ,..........,..... ....... t-;

., ~efir=q ~;qr :qnCf <fiFer., ~I~nm~ffr I

6JTffl~ ~er\-'~Cf f?r;qij4~@r g ~T II V

II 87-8~

of Krsna are Sakhi, Privasakhl

. ,


In his Uj jvalanilamnni, Riipa GOSVdU11U crves the male iccomph fi ddi

to the four old ones, Vita, Ceta, Vtdiisaka and Pitharnard., ( th ces as 1) ve, a dm.g

kha h f d ' e new one rryanarma

sa a, t e most rren ly confidant illustrated by Subala of Gokul I "2 "6) ~ , -

h d f h d. \ pp o -.) 0 £ those

on t e SI e 0 t e heromes, Rupa mentions the Svayamdiin and th A d _ _ ~

among the latter, besides the usual Srlpakari, DalvaJua Sakhi e Phta Utl (p. ,37) ~ and

d t- h 1 ' 1 etc, e adds the \' ana

eva a or t e sy van derry as a special friend and aid 111 the ca f K' -

( 126 145) 1 h - - se 0 rsna I:> Iove-sporr, pp'. - ,t e Sakhi, Rupa furthe- elaborates (p 155ff) and s e k f •

classification of her Into one attached more to Krsna, one att h d a :, 0 'L.,~hre:fold one attached equally to both. . ac e more to Il.adha and

Following the Rasamanjari, our Srngaramafijari gives the Sakhi d D - -

Iy, for, though the Sakhi may become a Duti the two ar f t llan un separate---:---=-_~_---_-_--..:.'-=.::-:~ e unc IOna y dIstinct (p 41).

p.679.1 See also S. K. De, ; the Bhakh-rasa-sJstra of Bengal ValsnavIsm, I H.Q VII.



Among Dfitis, our text first gIves eight, Dns; (servant), Sakh; (friend), Kar« (a women employed in some callmg ); Dhiitreyi (nurse's daughter), Pranoesm: (nergbbour-womau) , Ltngtni (one m disguise), Szlpmi (artiste like a pamter or one dealmg in art-wares like pictures) and Sva (the heroine herself who arranges for union with her lover) The text adds that the Amoda on the Rasamafijari mentions some other woman-accomplices too, the recluse woman (Yogtni pravrCiJitti), the lrttle girl innocent of love (aJf:iiita-mamnatha'l)ikilr1i Billa), the omen-reader (takunaJntzpzka VzpraSmkii), the music and dance artiste (gana-natana-patava-vafi NatI) , in fact, the Amoda adds two more; the Sazrandhri who helps toilette and vendors of betels etc. (Vzkretri Uimbulakarznzprabhrtzh) 1 The 5rngaramanJari then adds two more, the Vikretri, given already rn the Amoda, and the 5 ankzta, the Vikretri refers to vendors of articles, four of whom are accordmg to the text, of special interest here, the vendors of gJass (bangles etc ), perfumes, gems and flowers, the Sankita IS a special psychological type who hastens to the hero lest he should learn of the angry words of the heroine and get upset The text pornts out further that if the recluse, omen-reader and miscellaneous vendors are 10 those roles in coqniio they will come under Lmgmi On the SIde of the Nayaka, the SrngaramafiJari glVes the four aids, Pitharnarda, Vita, Cet a and Vidusaka

Of the later works noticed above under Ndyaka-NaYlka classification, the Mandaramaranda carnpfi (P 86) gives a number of Sahayas, the only mmor addition here bemg the vendor of buttermilk (taha-vlk1'etri) The Rasacandrika of the crincal Vl~vesvara briefly deals With the female accomplices by saymg that the single type Karu would comprehend all the possible varreties of women 10 different callings like the washerwoman (Kdrupadam rajakyadiparam, p. 33); regarding the male accomplices, Vrsvesvara has some remarks on the Pitharnarda which we shall notice shortly. The Srngaramrtalaharf of Sarnaraja deserves notice on this subject of Dfitis, for it takes a errtical and independent stand and says that the Diiti-type called Sva or Svayamdiiti, referring to the herome functlOning as her own accomphce, which has been handed down from very early nrnes, IS not to be accepted, she IS really a Nayika and not a Dirt! and It IS the view of some that she IS to be included III the Nayika-varrety called Vag-vzdagdhii.

o ,..._....... ,-..... ('"

~ij;q1!~r~g ifHllq;rcilfi'f OOllcOfFHClT;Z CfrW{~err;qTq;:(fl1rijrcr. I P. 142

Sarnaraja accepts only three kinds of accomplices, Sakhi, Duti and cen and says that the rest Dasi etc are all included here

Before we take leave of this section, there are two points to which we must devote some atten1.lOn Just as, m later times, the subject of Nayaka-Nayikas was separated from «eneral treatises on poetics, dramaturgy or erotics, and special tracts arose devoted exclu:lvely to its elaborate treatment, a further step towards specialisation resulted in the productlOn of a text solely devoted to the elaboration of the work of the accompltces 10 love In Kiivyama1ii gucchaka XIII, pp 25-32 we have a text of this class called Dfitikarrna, prakasa The author's name IS printed III the heading as well as 10 the body of the text tWice as Pandar! Vihvala 2 There IS an editorial footnote saying that nothmg IS known of the author. I may state here that the author IS none else than the famous musrciolo-, snst Punddrika Vittnala, author of the Sadragacandrodaya, Nartamlmrnaya etc It has 'already been known that this author SIgns himself 111 his works on music and dance as Karnata- Jatiya Pundarika V itthala, that he haded from the K argata country, that' he was first In the court of Burhan Khan of the F arukhi family where he wrote Ius Sadragacandrodaya, then came under the patronage of Madhavasimba .and Manasimha of Jalpur mentioned 111 his RagamanJari, and through tnem got introduced to Akbar for whom he wrote the Nartanamrnaya, and that he flourrshed thus 111 the latter half of the 16th cent •

. '

1 P.494 Adyar Ms The Amoda quotes here earlier Anustubh verses 'from a Sahi-

tyadarpana givmg thirteen kinds of Diitis, but they are not from Visvanatha's' work . .' '

2 The text as printed here shows corruptions and gaps.



AD 1 I have pointed out elsewhere- that, like some of the other tl1uslcolog!st<;, Punaa:

, • h t k 1 dee and in the SJO'hrabodhlnl

rika V itthala was also a writer m other branc es 0 now e '" '"

Nama~aIa. preserved m a manuscript in the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calct!~ta, (~r", t1?, G. 760, Des Cat. VoL VI No 4709), we have a lexicon comp:led by him .. In thl~ Diitikarmaprakasa we have yet one more work of the same Pundarika Vltthal~, ,as ca~ be seen dearly from the following evidence The begmnmg word: of the opent_ng !\Iang:tl~slob of the Diitikarmaprakasa are Identical with those 10 the Sighrabodhtnl nam,UiMI,l

;rr~lij" ~mfr rrro I The colophon of the work runs ~f;;y q;urfu:'ilT<fr<r't;fr'fi£r!i<fiT~: ,\ hich I"

probably a scribal ellipsis for the fuller <1i!.7{~~ra"r<{s;u~~'Ii~~c;l' e~c_ found at the end,O: all Ius other works Further, at the end of the treatment of the Diitis and at the beginning of the treatment of the aids of the Nayaka, we have a verse here which informs u- that the patron Burhan Khan son of Farukt Taja Khan, whose 1S mentioned m his Sadr.igacandrodaya, asked Vitthala to compose this tract on the accomphc.es in love.

~ffi~(~)~r (~~ff);r: 't!~<firm(ffr)~t{~: CfifiQra-ri6;:{r-rT ~8~ iiire-+lf§:: I Ofi~{ ~ ~TOfi&or(ij)~~<fiI:ir ~O(ffi r(~ffi i\a ffcqa:S{13~~(~)~;r II r. 31

In this tract, Pnndarika Vitthala clearly appears as using the Rasarnafijuri of Bhanudatta, On the Nayika-side, the following' addinonal female aids are mentioned b: him. Vtcttravacanii, an eloquent and capable advocate; Ganavati, one that could srng the praise of the lover's qualrties , Prasangm'i, one that happens to go to the 10\ er's place on private work and is availed of to carry the love message also; Skltahta, whose definition and illustration are not very clear, but who appears to refer to two kinds, the messenger who fails to bring about the umon and is scolded later for the farlurc, and the messenger who IS saved the mission by the sudden arrival of the lover on his own behalf; (both are Skhalrtas, the former's mission having failed, the latter's not having come off at all) , Paro-atta-odesatiia, the psychological expert who can understand others' mind well, who is the same as the Pratipattr-vicaksana of Bharata , Ces!a-Jankcta-lwvu£{j" an adept in ernploying and mterpretmg secret signals and symbols, and Saltczkr, the tailor-woman Vitthala's definition and illustration of Svayarndiiri are very weak, for these present her as the NaYlka. suggestmg her feelings to the lover by a clever act or speech, which would explain how some writers, as noted above, suggested her mc1U&10n in the V~lg-yidagdh1i NaYlka. Vesadharmi is given as comprehendmg several guises and Maniharmi as the vendor of glass-bangles On the Side of the hero, Vitthala gives the four well-know n accomplices, Plthamarda, VIta, Ceta and Vi diisaka

Among the accomplices nonced above, there are only three, one on the female side and two on the male side, about whom there IS some difference of opmion among wrrters, which It IS necessary to refer to In this historical and critical survey The former I" the case of the Naylka herself becoming a messenger, Svayamdiiti or Svii , the meanings given to this term by Viitsyayana and the later wrrters, as also the VIew of certain writer" alluded to by Samala)a that she is really a variety of the N{lYlk~l and not of the Dtlti have all been touched upon already The latter, the two male-accomplices, are the VIta and the Pithamarda, It has already been pointed out that the Pithamarda 15 not to be seen 10 Bharata, that he IS found in Vatsyayana who omits Bharata's Ceta, and that while some of the earlier texts give Vatsyayana's list of tnale~aids


1. See my Later Sangita Literature, Journal of the Madras Music Academy Vol I V p 58' and P. K. Gode, dnd , Vols VI-VIII pp 119-126, Chronology of the Works of' Pu~d~rIk~

Vrtthala, .

2. See my Non-musical Works of Some Leading Music Writers Journal oj the Madras

MUStc Academy, Vol. XX, p. 153. '

3. The colophons In the ms. of the Sighrabodhtni namamaUl also read P andari(ka) ;

so does a colophon 10 a BORI ms. of hts Sadra<Yacandrodaya 646 (a) of 1899-1902' D

Cat. of the BORI Mss., XII. p. 393. e ,see es,



Pithamarda, Vita and Vidiisaka, later texts cornbme both Vatsyayana and Bharata and give them as four including the Ceta. The Vidiisaka IS too well-known to need any special elucidation here As already pointed out, the Ceta IS an mfenor character, of a ser-vant's status; though obviously on a par with the very common Ceti on the female-side, the Ceta as such IS very rare in drama, later texts which define hun Simply as <sandhana-kusala', adept 111 brmgrng together or 111 making up the differences between the lovers, do not brmg out Ius exact Identity, we get a picture of hun from Sthavaraka tn the Mrcr hakatrka and the Ceta attending upon the VIta Sekharaka H1 Act. III of the Nagananda The Vita In the Nagananda IS far more debased 10 conception than

the one m the Mrcchakatika Earlier texts Irke the Srngaratrlaka and the Dasarii

paka define the Vita as 'eka-vrdya", one endowed with knowledge III one of the arts,

"T'1H~T~'!.l'r~T +f~~ ;:rr<r1i"'rq~rfh;:frrrl~"lil:<n f;r?;ff<rT ~l~Qr T~:-A valoka , Q;<Ji <:r5'lTq~TT<I f"liT~,\ <l1qT(<::~ +!<~ ~f~fr~~r1r,\ fori'!' ~<r ~fu-Natyadarpana, p 199 This does not give an adequate idea of the Vita Our Srngararnafijari ts more correct when it defines him as a master of all arts and lores -sakala-vidya.parangata ' The meanmg of the word Vita has on one Side got debased as In the Nagananda, and on tne other, gene! all sed mto a voluptuary. Syarrulaka's Bhana, the Padataditaka t, glonfies h1111 mto a knight of love For the exact conception of the Vita, however, we have to go to Vatsyayan.i tJ whose text, Bhoja of all Alankarikas is nearer Bh01a quotes Vatsyayana's Siitra Itself on Vita In his Srngara Prakasa (p.481, Vol III JVhdras M~), and mills Sarasvatikanthabharana (p 603) he summarises the Kamasfitra thus

iiI::!!': Cfi(_i5srOfI~ ~mf.fo:j'cfl ~lJfeH~ fore: I

The Vita was once a Nagaraka and a hero (Nayaka) himself when he was a man of means , he has his own permanent abode and family life 10 the city , a man of parts and greatly experienced in love affairs, he, having lost most of his own personal resources" has now attached himself to other Nagarakas of means

~mfei+JEftg !JOTEfA:_ ~Ofi~~r st~ m3"~t :q Efi+rffiii~~<fl :q fcte: I Vatsyayana I 4 45. HIS learnmg, Wide culture, experience and capacity and above all his noble character and integrity, all stand enlivened before us In the Vita depicted by Siidraka He IS therefore hardly the 'ekavidya' that some texts call hlln.2

The Pith imarda was far less understood m later times Works of dramaturgy so generaitsed his meaning as an accessory helpful to the r-iain character that they called him the Pataka-nayaka, hero of the subsidiary plot or episode 111 the play, and illustrated him by characters like Makarauda attached to Madhava In the Malati-madhava and Sugri:va attached to Rarna m the Rarnayana plays

qdTOfiI.,rqOfi~(C!;:q: q1oq~ f;:l:q~O'J: I

~ ..... r-.. if',. ~

a~qql~=q~T +JQ}': TCfif~~if~ ~~OT: II II 8 Dasariipaka

~tjr ijR?ijlql!:T~ ij~;:~:, ~:rijl~Ot ij~(,l: -A valoka

So much so that Visvesvara says that according to some writers, the Pithamarda has nothmg to do With love'

~Rr~ qlOij~~~rrqsnq~~T ., ~wk I P 39, Rasacandrika,


1. In the Caturbhani, Daksma Bharati Series, Madras, 1922, pp. 6-7 See also Isvaradatta's Dhiirta-vita-samvada 10 the same collection.

2. Probably 'eka-vrdya' in the definrnon of Vita III these texts in due to some confusion With the word 'ekadesavidya' at the begmmg of the Vrdiisaka-definrtron which immediately follows 10 Vii.tsyayana; even 'ekadesa-vidya' here means 'one capable of dabbhng 111 all Vldyas' .. and not one proficient m one Vtdya only. (Vatsyayana 1. 4.46 and j ayamangala thereon).




Bhoja who reproduces Vatsyayana In his Srngara Prakasa on both the Vita and the Pitharnarda (p.481, Vol. HI Madras Ms), and remembers Vatsyayana's Sfitra on the Vita in his Sarasvatikanthabharana has however the Iollowmg on the Pithamarda 10 h1'5 S K. A , which approaches more the' conception m texts hke the Dasariipaka.

8i+n~l~rwilt: qrqOii~r tft6ij~: I o~l~ql~~ qlt>q!il~ "l.:rr * * !It qR"O~S; ~{:;~l * ~qr *, * I P 602

Other writers who do not consider the Pithamarda in connection with the plot of the drama, but deal wrth him as formmg part of the milteu of love mtrigue, g'lVe yet only a vague definition of him Thus, while at one end texts like the Bhavaprakasa (p 94, line 5) and our Srngaramafijarf (p 51) descnbe him as one pacifying the lovers when they fall out, at the other end the Srngaratilaka, with greater vagueness, calls him simply one attached to the Nayaka and Nayika (I 30) When the office of the Pithamarda gets so generalised, some writers try to make a weak distincnon between hun and the VIta 1I1 the matter of bnnging round a woman, the former employing his verbal dexterity and the latter, methods shown m the Kamasastra,

...... e P " ,...... "''' -, ,..... P 9

SF~ g tftoq~: ~<fil?tlaSJTlJl1: T~q Bqp.;f~, lCIGt'g <firq~r~!qrqrri'qij;: I 3 , Rasacandnk,"i

saradatanaya thought about hIS name but by saying that the Pithamarda was one who attended to hrs work seated on a seat before the Nayaka,2 he added nothmg to our knowledge of this character. Working on the etymology of the word again, the Jain Abhidhanarajendra explains him as a scrambler for a seat 111 a gathering It 15 therefore necessary to enquire 111to the correct significance of Pithamarda.

There is no specific character 10 the extant plays gomg by this name to guide US, as in the case of the VIta 3 Vatsyayana depicts his distinct nature in I 4 44.

an~g ~{Rql?f: ij~{itrp.fillfrqijl?ftTR~~: 'I.~!n~~r~:rrra: <fi~ij ~:q~Uf: ij'~~;:r iftBqf ~~~'a =q {~ ijp:l:q({fNUc:r'mffi QToq({: I

The Pithamarda is distmgutshed from the Vita In that, unlike the latter who I::' a local man and has his own settled abode and family hfe, he IS pen pate tic and IS an immigrant to the place from another reputed centre of Iearrnng and high life, and is devoid ot ,( horne or family of hIS own He IS, like the VIta, proficient 10 all the ar ts, but IS a regular teacher

1 The Srngiira Prakiiba mentions the Pasandin, Illustrated by Bhalraviin,lnda of the Karpilram~fiJarj, separately, 111 addrtion to VIta, Vtdiisaka, Pithamarda etc Also the condinon 'asanarha' here "one deservmg of a seat" IS contradicted expressly by the jayaman 'alii which

says of him 'qua-ifiFm~;f g ;;~fq' -s

2 tfto;:r''1r€<:(" ~:(q: II<fl'mT 'lP-l''Ii€'1 <1': I r. 94, Bhavaprakiisa.

3. rn the Malavikagmmttrn, the Vidiisaka exclaims at the ParlVlii.]Ika ~IH a:rfEiln 1

~trnT tfto~'lir qidsmfu'lft S;~tf,('q t<ft I Act 1 13/14 This however does not mean that there was a fe.male variety oj.. this character called the Ptthamardrka As Kiita\ avema says, owm~ Sl=r;ty c;; f:nctton, the ~umorous Vidtisaka ascrrhes to her that deSignatIOn :

a:J'Sf ''1", ... 'Ii: '11 .... ~rerr QI'l.ilr"iFfiP11 ~n~~T (!4I:1i+rrtr'1'i~ +r~clJ~ I In hi I' - P k~'

Bh Il - h IS srngara rra as a,

oja 1 ustrates the PIt arnarda In the £OllOWlllg obscure and possibly corrupt words:

tfto~ a:~'Ii: '1ltEf~ 'IiT~<rrfcrt!~1:r I P. 482, VoL III. Mad. Ms.

A Pithamarda named Dardaraka IS mentioned In Sildraka's Bhana Pad -bhrt k ( 6 Caturbhani). In the Mahabharata, IV. 22. 33, Kicakavadhaparv;n (seem~~j:rai:h~ ;r1t;:in~

Press edn.), we have ~Itrrr: tfto+rG:f~ where all the comme tat N-I k h A' .

. ~ _ n ors, 1 a at,l~ a, rjunamisra,

Caturbhuja and Sarvajfia Narayana quote the Medrni '~a.Tsre~ ~I'i:. ~P1~ t'4'4SN :q'

and take him generally as a favourite of the hero.



of these arts to the courtezans and one who lives by tilts callmg, Bereft of personal resources, he carries no effects beyond his own person and three objects which are essential and characterisuc of hun These three things which exhaust hIS portable luggage and WhICh Vats)a)ana gives as Malhka, Phena and Kasaya form a puzzle The Malhkii. which IS the same as the Pltha that composes hIS name Pitharnarda and IS the symbol of hIS profession as an art-teacher, i'i probably a kind of collapsible seat which he carries about hanging on Ins back The other two, Phena and Kasaya are two medicinal 01 toilette appliances, two powders, with which, as one stil! havmg his sexual craving, he rubbed hIS shanks and thighs to maintarn their strength and Iightness 1

1 The J ayamangala on the Kamasirtras e cpla ms that Malhka I;, Dandasamka, th I

It supports lum, and that It nangs on lus back +r~'f.T ({1lsr~r;:r'f.r, 1J~~mlJfr-'i_~;:rFrffi:qffl-:

..... -, -, , ,..... ~"'t" .......

~<fir(lcrr I l=!~ +!~ 'CJr~1J) ~ 'CJTg'HQ'Tq_ I 'JT (ll.:<l 'lll(l 'Q;qra~T:q 'lilP:~d I Regardmg the two other

tlungs earned by him, Phena and Kasaya, the jayamangala show- dearly that they are two

medicinal or toilette materials used for rubbing the shanks or thIgh- WIth Q"~~~l'.ftr:;;~r~ ~~err<l~lJfr~ q..;:r'f.9i"I\lT<lrfel'ia- I Of Phenaka we get an Idea eat her also In Vatsyayana's description of the Nagar aka's routin. , Nagaraka-vrtta, I 4 17, where Vatsyayana says that he should

have bath dally, massage once m two nays and Phenaka every Hurd day (qFf"r~: it;r'f.:), here agam the J a} arnangala explains that Phenaka IS to be applied to the shanks or thighs lest they should become rough.

qcn~S~R" ~I;j'<l"r 't;r~f ~>:i~<::<l"rij_ I f[~;:rr;:(lRd ~i<l'q. I :a:r~~~u Bi"<f 'Oi~ <fii~ l.:<iFHB- I

There are two ObVlOUS meanings that easrly suggest themselves, something producmg Phena or froth, an ancient counterpart of the modern soap, and Samudraphena or cuttlefish bone. H. C. Chakladar (Studies zn Vdt.ryiiya'la's Kama Sutra, Greater India Society, Calcutta, 1929. Pp 146,153). takes It 10 the for.ner sense and R. Schmidt, eDas Knmasatra, LeIpZig, 1900) in the latter r'henaka, exactly as meant by Vatsyayana, does occur m Susruta, Clkltsasthana, ch 23, among preventive measures, anagatabadha-pratisedha, where Susruta details the datly routine of healthy habits ; here (verse 54-55), 10 the midst of various kinds of massage, Utsadana, Udvartana and Udgnarsana, the last meanlUg rubbmg IS said to include Phenaka,

~~~1Jf ~ fq~<l" <fiU~ir~rf;:rC¢fq~~ I BieITl:~&rr<l"~r~ tf.rr<ii: ~4~~rer';r II There is no doubt that thrs IS what Vatsyayana refers to, but the text, the commentators, editors and translators of Susruta do not help us to get at a conclusive meamng for Phenaka, From the text itself and Dalhana's commentary, we ale not able to determine 1£ Phenaka IS an act, a varrety of Udgharsana or rubbing, or the material With which such a rubbmg IS done An edrtorial footnote here m the second revised N S Press edn With Dalhana's commentary (19H) identifies Phenaka as the. material Samudraphena Quotmg the same Iine from Susruta, the Sabda-

• ~ "'" ,p.,. .....

kalpadruma says that It IS an act hke rubbmg-~TT"'f+rr~;rrr~qr~;ifi>:iT'91J!Sl: I Kavrraj Kunjalal

Bhisagratna says 10 his translation of Susruta (Vol 2 P 487) ('Phenaka IS a kind of frictron (Udgharsana) of the bo Iy With small wooden rollers 1" We have to Ignore the narve gloss of Bha~kara Nrsimha Sastnn on th~ Kjirnasiitras (m Ms , Madras D 39U) which says that Phenaka IS an ornament ~~'liRrq~q: I From all this It appears reasonable to suppose that Phenaka 15 Samudraphena and Its powder WIth WhICh the shanks or thighs were rubbed to ensure their strength and hghtness, and the rubbing Itself thereby came to be called Phenak a. Kasaya, occunng along With It, in the same act, IS evidently another powder, powder IS a well. known meaning of Kasaya, and Chakladar's 'piece of dyed cloth' and Schmidt's 'brown red cloth' do not seem to be Justified. Mallika IS indeed the most essential emblem of the Pithamarda, on the face of It, the J ayamangala's explanation seems to suggest a collapsible or at least a pe"cuhar kind of portable seat cal ned about by him Schmidt and Cbakladar take It so, as 'a peculrar seat' or <a folding chair", But It appears to me that It IS not so easy of mterpretation '. It IS the ... s~e 'seat' ~h!ch c0t?poses ~lS name Pitha-marda , the J ayamangala says: ~ tftO'+rG; ~q~~SI~~cn'l. lIT~<iiT~<r tft~ ~r~cr ~ I It IS a pity that we do not have more helpful materrals to reconstruct this very mterestmg and mevitable personality In the msliet: of ancient Indian love.


Some Unpublzshed Works all the Subject

The subject of Nayaka-Nayika classificauon attained, as already no'ed, great popularity III later times Wide as the foregone survey IS, It does not take into con"lder~tion the literature on this subject which IS still in manuscript. The prmted works on this subject reviewed above make sometimes references to views which are not traceable In the extant pnnted literature, and these have evidently to be looked for In works of this class which have not yet seen the light of prmt, or which have not even been traced ill manuscnpts like the VlIii,aratnakara and N@Ylkiibhusana CIted In the Amolia and the Srngaramafijai i, The manuscript literature on this subject compnses four classes of wort." comprehersive treatises on poetics and dramaturgy, exclusive treatises on Rasas and Srng.ira m particular, and separate works dealmg only With the subject of Nii}aka-N,tyik,-l classification I therefore append to the. above-given survey a list of works I1l manuscript which are known to deal With our subject The hst IS natui ,lIly not exhaustive, and includes or.ly such works as are described in some of the Descriptn e Catalogues of manuscripts which give adequate extracts and rndicatron of contents


Srngfirarnafijar'i of AJltasena-Madras Government Oriental Mss Library. D No. 12957.

Nayrkavarnana by Ramasarmap-Ibld. D No. 12901,49 verses

Laksanadipika or Padarthadiprka by Gauranarya-Ibzd D Nos 1494, 12951. Ch 6 here is Nayrka-rnrfipaua,

Srngarasara by Venkatanariiyal,la Dikslta-Ibid D. Nos. 12958-9 Ch.2 here is Nayrka-nayaka-Iaksana-vibhaga,

Alankaraslrobhusana-Ib2d R. No 168 The last ch (10th) here IS On Nayal<aNa yikii-bheda.

Rasakalika=-Madras Government Oriental Mss Library R No 2241. One chapter is devoted to WiYlkii-mrupana.

Rasatarangini of Ramananda, son of Devaniitha-Ibld R No 2307. Here cbs 1-6 deal with the NaYlkii-Niiydka varreties , Ist-Sviya , 2nd Parakiya; 3rd Samft!l1}u and her 16 varretres , 4th the 8 Nayikas , 5th Dutis and Sakhis , 6th Nayakas,

Kavyollasa by Nilakagtha-Ibd R No 2422 Opening ch hei e I!> on N~1Y<tkaN ayikii-bheda.

Kavicintamaru by Gopinatha kavlbhiisana-Ibld R 2925 5th ch here IS on ; ayakaNa}lkfts

Raslkarasayana-Ibzd. R 5251 3rd ch here IS NaYlk5.prakar,ma Quotes Dasarfipaka, Bhavaprakasn, and Prataparudnya

SrngiiramafiJarl-Adyar Library, II p.38b (23 G 18)

Rasabtndu-Bhandarkar Oriental Research Instrtute, 703 of 1891-95 D <. C'

XII 212 P 241 A Caitanya sect work which names partrcular Nii\,lkas )f' Tr cs" 'ttl'

d ti fi h -, ; (L"\,.r na a.11(

1 en lies t err type, e.g Lalna-Khandna, Vlsakha-Sviidhinabhartrkii. and so on.

Ras..tdirghtldi-B 0 R. I -336 of 1814-86. Des Cat XII 210 p. 243: Nayika. bheda-varnana,

Ka!yanak~llola by Gmdhara, patronised by Kd.lyiinadiisa, Son of Todal amalia

-Royal ASIatIc Society of Bengal, 4932. first two chs. here on Navlkas ... .

Caturaclfltiimam by Gangadhara rmsra, SOil of Sal1doha~lsra_R A S B 4934 chs, 2.6 here on NaYlkas. . . '. •

, , Rasacandra of Gha~irama of Gautama vamsa Composed rn 1696 A.D.-India Office, 1210 (pp 352-3). Seems to follow the RasJ.mafijari.


Srngarasarani (or Sr sarasi ) by Crtradhara Quotes the Sahityadarpana -I O. 1241 Des Cat of Mss III \ ithila, Vol Ll No 51

Adrpur ana->- I 0 3335 On the story of Krsna and his sports and on Radha. Chs 42,43 and 44 here are repectrvely Nayaka-bheda-vamana, Nayika-bhede Svakiy a-bhedavarnana arid Vrvtdha-nayika-varnana

Krsnavijaya by Ramacandra, S011 of Varkunthapati, a Madhva writer -I. 0 5233-4 Has a Nayaka-Nayika-prakarana

I 0 5262-A Fragment of 5 leaves devoted to Nayrka-bhedas.

Caturacudamant by Dasrraj a, son of ::'tmharaJ1. of the Kshatri Sanka ravara Family - Des Cat of Mss 111 Mithila, Vol II No. 26

Srngarasarasi by Bhavamisra -I bid No 50 Des Cat of Skt Mss In the Calcutta Skt College, Vol VII No 43 - Strin.rm bhedah, tallaksanani

As potnted out e lse w here m this Introducuon .m.: In the footnotes to the text here, the commentaries on the Rasarnafijar i, like those of '\nanta Pandita and GuruJalasaYl Pandita refer, wrt h or without mention of source, to a large variety of vre w s on this subject From the citatrons III the comrnentarres on the Arna rusataka, extracts from which are given ttl Richard SIlTI0n',. edition of the Amai usataka, (Kiel, 1893) we cr me to know of some rare View" on this subject Thus Ravtcand ra quotes In his comments on Amant 18 (p 66, Simon's edn ) a work called Ka ~ ikanthahara, and a type of Nayaka called Vidagdha defied m rt , the same commentator gives also the definrtion of the Nayaka-type called Catura (P 132) Kokasambhava says on verse 14 (P 63) that there are three types of Nayakas called Grarnya, Anyasakta and Kautuki, and speaks of three of the more commonly known Nayakas, Daksma, Satha and Dnr sta as subvarieties of the second type Anyasakta ; similarly under verse 15 (P. 64), he gives a new threefold classification of Na}'lkas to be approached by Vitas.

~,..... , ..... ~ ~ r-: r... r-; .....

P. 63. ISTrq.~I i1I<.ICfi: ~T~llIS;:<.II~'iji: Ef,r~9'lr :q I ar-=llHjm~ lS!l~~: ~T~OT: ~oT I[§:~ I

,.......,..... r-; ",...... ,.......,..... r-; r-;

P 64_ f?{II:f~T fi{ i1nQCfiI fqliwn 110£Iff - Sff>l'lIT>l'!'.Jr, 8f~6ml~FU, ~;~r :q I

Nayaka-Nayzkiis sn Poems and Plays

Hitherto we have been taking note of the varreties of Nayaka and Nayika as dealt with rn theoretical treanses m the field of poetics, dramaturgy and erotics We shall now make a bnef reference to the works of the poets themselves, poems and dramas, where these varretres are presupposed, mentioned by name 01 illustrated That these classes were known to Kahdasa IS clear In Act III of the Vikramorvasiyn, be mti oduces Drvasi as an \bhlsanka, mentioning her as such both 1I1 the stage-dn ection and the dIalogue The picture 0 f the Yaks! painted by hun 10 the Meghasandesa I., that of a Prositabhartrka Express mdrcatron of l ravati m hrs Malavikagmrrntra bemg the Khandua type is also to be had, In the same pla y, the hero tv l-'e Daksrna, and the Satha too, are named The Khandita IS meuuoued It1 RagnuI'amsa V 67 and IX 38 , The Iove-ard Vrdirsaka IS too common In the plays to need any special notice Bhasa's Svapna-vasavadarta features Vasavadatta as a Prosrtabhartrka, tlns clesrguanon being expressly mentioned there Visakha, datta's 10,t romance on the Udayana-story , the Abln-ar rka-vaficrtaka, as the name it-elf shows, features the Abhisarika-type A Sankirna-Prakarana, by defirnnon, features a Samanya Na) Ik3., and in the leading specimen of this class, the Mrcchakatika, we have not only this class of heroine, but also the love-aids called Vita and Ceta In Bhavabhutr's Prakarana, as already noted, It IS said 111 50 many words that phases of love as formulated 111 the Kamasutr,ts will be Illustrated In Prahasana s and Bhanas especially, authors get greater scope to present vaneties OJ both Samanya and Parakiya classes, as well as the Vaisika class of heroes, and categories of characters among whom we can recognise several of the accomplices, of erther sex, mentioned III the texts as helpful ards in love-affairs.

The four Bhanas 11 the Ci.turbhani collecnon are, ru.h 111 tllustratrve material relevant to the subject of our study here, Siidraka's Padmaprabhrtaka, besides men-



Pith d Vita Sak' abhrksuki M;tlakaradanh:i, and the

uonmz such char aciers as 1 amar a, ,J '1 ell - - J )

c _ - - "I" atur ) 1,lm C( 11 •

friend of the type Sahapamsu1..ndlta given by Vats)a}ana (p 2,

describes a series of courtesans m different situations, whom we can identifv _ as PIO"It.I:

k- (K d t- 18) fTald.hantanta (Sonadasi pp 20-21), and. V,l"',I!,:\'-"llJlk,t

bhartr a umu va I, p ,-" ' - , I •

M dh d - 22) Greater theoretical conSClOusnes~ characterrses 1::>\ ai <.\( at la b

( aga asun an, P - - ,I h:

Dhf t t mvada auart from occurrence here of MaDGtvctll, Pr,\l\,\y,l-k,\ ,\ in,

ur a-vI a-sa r" . - - - - -, , I '

Abhisara etc we have specific diSCUSSIOns as to whether a Saman)a N,\Ylk,\ ha- re.il ,)\ e

or not (pp 14-15, Caturbhani edn ), the relative efficacy of the ValIO\lS me,\I1S of fmngmga Iadv's Mana to an end (Manapanodanopayas, pp 16-17), and the man.: pomt s on ,\hl(!l as e~ts of love differ ill the case of a Vdya from those of a Kula-vadhii In V,UHIUt'I b U~hayabhlsanka, the phase of love showing the K<lI~han1.ilnt.l, and the help () f !1;termedraries like the V I!a and the Par icaraka (Ceta) (p 2) ai e depicted, not oulv " I .u ivraJlka, but an eunuch, Trtiy l Praki tr, held as d. N aYlkJ.-type by some <ltt."nll11~ to Vatsya)ana (I 5 27) IS also mtroduced (See above, p 18). Above .ill, Ill,lklllg llt\lh the hero and the heroine go after each other (Abhl 'i.lra) , (p 14), \\ Inch g"n l''' till' t i tie to the piece (Ubhayabhlsdrlka), this Bhana seems to lend support to those t Ilcufj"b \\ hn hold two varreties of the Abhisanka, the Nayika who goe~ to meet the lover and ..,he who makes the lover go to herself Whue presentrng tne same nul ieu of cOllrtc/.,m-hne. tile Padntaditaka of Syamrlaka may be taken as a special glol1ilc,ltlon of the char.u ter (,tlk(l V Ita and hIS role

Of poetical works, Rala's Gathasaptasat! leads both by chronology and nuportance It IS a storehouse of verses depictmg a large variety of mooch, srtuations .md character ~ in love, and forms thus appropriate illustrative literature for 011l ~Ltl)Jed. ,\" b,l)) been shown ill the Introduction to Its 1933 edition Issued by the N II nay« Sag,tl 1

as also 111 the footnotes !11 the Amarusataka published by same Press, :'0111(' of the verses of the Arnarusataka are directly based on verses ll1 tlus Pl:lkrt collectron , fUI ther, Hala's Saptasati formed the baSIS not only 01 the H!I1cl1 SaJ;lal,1 of TUJ,I~il.' :['> (dIed 1623) and Brharilal (C. 1603-1663), but, III the field of Sanskrit itself, of the Aryasaptasati of Govardhana (12th cent. AD) The commentator s on IUld's collec tron, Sadharanadeva and Gangadhara have classified Its seven hundred vel scs under ddll..H·!lt subject-heads, 111 the classificatron of the former.I only a few subject-heads bear direct reference to the types of NaYlkas, for instance Marnni, Bhavisyadviraluni, A~aU, S,lti ami Kulavadhii and Vesya, while a few refer mainly to the Nayaka (c 9 Virahm ), tile love-messengers and their work (e 9 Sandesa, DUll, Sakhi-sarnasv.isa ) and mood" and situations In love such as Gotraskhalana which may lead to the types I{!Jnndit;1 etc. Stmilar subject-heads are also to be seen 111 Gangadharu's vrajya-classrficauon

An independent examination of these Prakrt verses shows that wlule It IS not probably true that all of them were written fr0111 the POInt of view of love anti the lovecontexts assigned to some categories of these verses by commentators like (langJ.dhllra may only be arbitrary, the majority of them are love-verses, and do betray a knowledge of the classification of NaYlkas and the nomenclature pertanung thereto 1\ few ot the type-names expressly occur 10 the verses, a few Occur 111 :,}nol1)11l0US form; and with regard to some more, It may be said the verses presuppose or foreshadow some of the disuncnons that were later clearly recognised Apt illustrauons for most of the vaneues which rhetorrcians later ramified can be found here. Slllgabhupala mentions the Saptas,iti as contammg illustrative rnaterral especially for the Paraklj 'a-NaYlka (R. A S. P, 109) .

. An analysis of the Saptasati shows that the theme of the Prosltapatlka in all its vaneues claims the greatest attention of the p~ets in this collection. The Nayaka-variety called Prosita, and the situation called Pravasa form the emphasis In some verses, the

former In 1. 17. II. 29. III. 22. 61 83 IV 76 V. 43 65 66 85 VI 21 39 94 I l'

, . . • anc t Ie

1. See Intro, to the 1889 N.S. Press edn.



latter m n 11 43. In most of the other verses in this class (I 29 39 66. 70 98 III. 6 8 22 83 VI 15 76 V 43 53 VI. 38 40 65 65 85 VII. 16 21 39 73. 94), the picture IS of the Nayika separated thus by Pravasa, referred to either by the name Pathika-jaya or by the more common name Prosrta-patika, which IS adopted In NaYlkaclassification , OCc,lSIOnaU} she 15 referred to also as Gata-patika (IV. 22 V 93), a name found m the srngarattLlka (I 82). In I 66, 39, 98 etc the verse Itself mentions the name Prosita-patrka what IS more rnterestmg IS that quite a large number of verses 10 this class depict the tender and most appealing situation of the lover about to leave and the belove I III the pang of irnpe idmg separation, which later came to be formulated as a subdiVISIOn called Pravatsyat-patika (I 46 47 II 11 43 61 VI 2 86); the verse 1. 47 ubes for the NaYlka here the designation Bhavisyat-pathika. StIllmore interesting It IS to find 10 verse V 100 an exact illustration of the case in whrch the Nayaka cancels his Journey on seeing the Nayika's sorrow, a case recog-nised later as a subvariety called Vlgaltta-prasthana-patlk:i. (see Srngaramafijari PI)' 34 35) VI. 37 depicts the lover on Journey returnrng, which 15 the later Avasrta-prav.isa-panka, which some mcluded 10 Prositapatika, but which our Srn ,;~iramaiiJlri argue" (pp 16.17) should be included 10 the Vasakasajj ika The next NaYlka-type figunng frequently in these verses IS the Parakiyavariety called K111ata, Asati or Jar111i, With whom Srngabhiipala pr ormnently associates the Saptasati (l 94 II 3 4 9 71 75 III 28 31 3L 40 94 95 97 VI 1 18 50 65 V. 15 16 17 61 VI 24 49 VII 16 61 62 93) The verse IV 1 answers exactly to the sl1bvarltcty called Pativaficanarupuna later recognised, and Its illustrauon 1t1 the Sf11gararnafijari (p 11 verse 58) bears very close likeness With above noted Saptasati-ver se, The situatron of Mana, which gives scope to the P )et~ to mtroduce the pacifying lover and the Dun comes next 10 Importance In the Saptasati , the Mamni figuring here is the Manavati commgunder the Khandua-type (I 11 87 88 fI.8 29 IV 9 IV 14 68 74 9J V 32 65, VI 21 22 VII 5).75) Of verses portraying the several methods of removing the Mana (Mana-vmoda-upayas), the lover fallmg at the feet of the beloved (padapatana) 15 Illustrated by II 8 I V 90 V 32 65 (Rabhasa-cumbua.j , Gotraskhalana which IS one of the causes of Mana IS found m IV 43 V 40 52 96 Besrdes


Khandita 111 generaliS delmeated also In 1. 32.90 II 26 79 82 IV 74 V.51 52 VII. 53. 57. Another Nayika who gets a number of verses is the Vadhii who IS the Svlya of the texts and she 15 mostly presented as the Navavadhii or the Navodha Mugdha of the texts (I 15 55 III. 40 90 92 93 VI 25 VII 44 45 46 47. 83) Vrraha and V lrahot~anthlta claim a few verses (I 50 II. 78. VI 33 VII 9. 58 68) , Kalahanra, uta 15 shown In I 10 66 85 II 63 81 IV 89 VI 39, Its Pranaya-kalaha variety IS seen 10 1. 27, V II 99 depicts Krtaka Ot feigned Kalaha V dyd. or Samanya of the texts may be seen III II 56 74 V 74 Auhisarrka 15 described In III 49 and I V 13 I 39 portrays the Svadhinapauka, the former verse US1l1g the words constituting this typename II 2 refers to Vrpralabdha , I L 98 and V 1I 43 to Parakiya Kanya II 19 on 'yauvanonmdtta', II 73 on Saubhagyagarvita, and IV 97 on Prema-garvltci come under tne Vakrokti-garvrta class (see Srngaramafija ri, pp. 29-32) 1. 86 describmg Tadana or the beating of the lover by the beloved is on the type Adhira,

The Vajjalaggarn (B2b. Jnd edn) which 15 another collection of Prakrt gathas has srrmlar and also common verses , some of Its sections are On the followmg Mana, Pravasa, Viraha, Sati, Asati, Vdya and Diiti

The next important work which is of rllustrative value for our subject of NayakaNaYlka clasSIficatlOn IS the Arnarusataka It IS very difficult to idenuty exactly the particular NaYlka-vanety In each of the century of verses ascribed to Amaruka, As can be seen from the table grven below, the commentators themselves do not agree in their Nayaka-Nayika-tdenttficatlOns in these vel ses Vemabhupala who is most regular among the commentators to specify Nayaka-Nayikas' and who mentions this determinanon of the Nayaka-NaYIka-bheda as one of the objects of Ius commentary, expressly says In his



comments on 4, Sandastadhai a etc that there IS no questron of the N;tyak,\-N,-l) IhJ veriety here, under 5, Alasavalrtaih, he cite-, the different rrlenttficauons of the !\T,i.} ILi proposed by other c nnmentators The differences are sorneumes between ,\ 111,\111 cL\'i~ and a subvariety thereof, where a Niiylka type h to be fully characterised by the applri.anon of hoth the general classificatton, With Its subclasses, and the AV..1.::'lb;t-cla~'lftc.tt.lOt\ one commentator may mention only one aspect, wlule another, Without gIvIng nsc to any contradiction, mention another aspect All these being excepted, we still hnd that sometimes commentators make mutually c mtradictoi y identrficauons

An !o1uependel1t analysis of the Arnarusatak.i shows ,\ pi epo nderancc of the Manavari type 111 which an erring lover, the l idy In slight or strong Mana, the ple.ulrng messenger, die all agam and again portrayed by the: poet Next In Frequency IS the I «ly whose lover 15 to go or IS gorng or IS gone on travel, Pi avatsy it- or Pt av.isai-or Prosita-patika , verses 10, 12, 35,61 an 185 (:J S PIC::'S eln ] present the Prav.itsv.upatrka , 62 answer" exactly to the subvariety V I,;alltd-pra "a::',l-p,IUk:\ recognised l.itcr , i:{8 would answer smularly to the Avasita-pravasa-paukfi 01 Agat.lpallka formulated 1,[t<:1 It 15 not as If all the verses bear an ernpha-rs on the NaYlkd, 111 some the Nay.lk,l I:' the centr C

of attention, ill some the lole played by the messenger or frrcnd .

1 hat by the 11111th centur y the Amaruka verses had attamed g"! eat cc lebi rty l~ know II flO111 Anandavardhana's citations of tuem and reference to them III tei m-, of lugh pr.n-e Earlter than all the commentators, Dhamka cites ,I' illu-tr.mon-, mostly wrth menuon of the name Arnaruka, a number of these verses Il1 Ins j),Lsal u[ldkilvdloka ll1 this s.une context of Nayika varienes


Dhiradhira Pragalbha

(Bhava ) Pragalbha (anon)

Dhrsta-Nay aka

Mad Iya (anon)

Richard Simon grves in hIS edmon of the poem (KIel, 1893) extracts from -everal commentators and I append here a table of the Nayaka-Nayika identtfications accor.lmg to these drfrerenr commentators.

m.le natha-«

Kante talpamKvacit tambiilaktah-« Ekatr asana-«

A}asta kalahamKopat komalaDrstvarkasana-eNlssvasa vadanam Adrsnprasarat

Lrasi mhitah Praharaviratau Desaih antarrta

Kopo yarra

Na Jane sarnmukhayate Laksalaksma

Madhya Dhirfidhii a

(Rata) Pragalbha (anon)

,I "

Savahrtthadara Dhira Pragalbha,

Ratau lIdasina (anon)

Adhira Pragalbha

jyestha & Kanistha Kalahantarrta



Bhavat-pr avfisn or Ga.chat-pravasa




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In Govdrdhana'" Arya.saptasati (Kavyama.la) which was composed, according to

If S 1 t 1 of Hala's seven hundred verses, we come across the

the poet himse ,as a ans en rep ica ,;- A"

Nayakl.-Niivlldi-classtficatl011, Guna-garv lta,!>,ttl,

followmg expresslOl1s o.::curnl1g 111 - - - - ~. J;' .

K I - Dhl - P dh- Daksma Ahhisarrka Mugdha Navodhd, Prauvesika O.f ara

U ala, tra, rau a, , , , - - - - N " :: 1 d - ~

U ) V 1 bdha S ubhagya garvita Pathika-j aya etc Dutl, 1:,1 start 1,t uu-

(~ e , papati ), ipra a a, a . ,

Gotraskhahta, J yotsnabhisara etc. are also to be seen.

Illustrations of these Nayaka-NiiYlka types with suitable verses in the different anthologies have already been referred to See above pp. 26, 27, 32, 33.

Among later mmor poems, the work called Jatlm.a.lii available In the mss. collection of the Astatic Society, Bengal (G 8267, Des Cat no 4936) rllustrates 111 fifty-one verses the Nayika-varieties I have been able to identify Its author Sakalakala 1:Llullgah Somanatha as the musicologist who wrote the Ragavibodha m A D. 160) 1 In Ills Ragavibodha Itself Somanatha relates some Ragas to some h erome-types, Velih aliUtkanthita, BhupalI-VasakasajJlka etc. In his JatlmJ.la, Mugdha, 1Ltul1y~\, Pr,tg,dbtlJ., mixed varieties (n115rii), and the eight Avastha-Nayikas are illustrated,


Nayaka-NaY'~kas m some other Indian Lallgltages and MtiSic

The SrngiiramanJari, It has alredy been mentioned, refer s to works 011 this subject in both Hmdi and Telugu Of the Hmdi works on this subject, two are referred to rn II, the Sundarasrngara and the Rasikapnya , a brief account of these two works ha-, already been given above and mention WIl! again be made 0 f them 111 another -ection lx-low, Under Giithiisaptasati, reference has already been made (p, 54) to the Hindr of Biharilal, which later formed the basis of two Sanskrit Saptasatis, by lla t !Ill ,I~,i.d of Benares (c 1775) and Paramananda (Srngarasaptas'ltl-1869) 2 That the SrngiiramaiiJari itself 15 based on a Telugu origmal of that name and

the Narasa Kiivy'a referred to m It 1S probably a Telugu work have al-o been mentioned. Mention has also been made above (p.8) of the most 0llht.m1lmg contributron in Telugu on this subject, VIZ. the musical composrtrons called by the celebrated Carnatrc musician-composer Ksetragfia who was P,1.[lotlhc(1 at the 'lame court with which the author of our Srngaramafijari was connected closely, K"ettagn.t',; Padas number some thousands and have not been cornpletelv published For a long time the Important part of the repertoire of the courtesans doing Bharata natya and the of the Bhava-abhinaya portion of their dance-recitals, these Padas came to he widely Imitated, some of the later Pada-composers approdl_hmg almost the excellence of K sen

In the Tamil country, where tne Telugu dance and music heutage was most carefully preserved: Tamil versions and _Tanl1! Padas also on the mo.lel of K~etr,t6fi t'S COI111k~!>ltHm" arose. Each Pada of Ksetragfia depicts a mood of love and a dtsunct variety of ':-';lyikli., and answers exactly to definmons of NiiYlka-vauetles described in tbeonw;::.l treatisev like the Rasamafijari In fact, there IS a manuscnpt in the Madras. Govt. Oriental Mss, Library called the SrngiiraaSamanjMI 10 which the RasatnafiJdri and its Nil} Iklvarieties have all been Illustrated each With a Pada of Ksetragfia.3

The Tamil counterparts of the Telugu Padas of KsetraJfia were referred to previ-

ously. More strictly adhermg to the purpose of lilustralinO' and deprctmg th " I 1. '

_ - u- b" e severa c al>l:!es

of Naytkas and Nayakas, a composer named R~ma Bharati who fIounshed at Tmlvayyar

1 See my Non-musical WOIb of Some Leading MUSIC Writers, Journal ol'lke Madras

MusIC Academy. XX, pp 153-4 :J

2. See Madras Govt. On Mss Library D 11989 for a srm I '" _ ,_

" I ar .;)rngarasapta~atl.

3. See Prof Vrssa Appa Rao 111 the Journal of the Madr M: A:t.

pp 41-44 as usu; ca~my, Vol. XVI, 1945,



near Tanjore m the time of Kmg Shahaj i composed Tamil songs which are preserved in a manuscript in the Sarasvati Mahal Library, Tanjore 1 Another, Vasudeva Kavi of the same court composed similar Nayika-songs m Tamil, Telugu and Sanskrit 2

Independent of this tradition, classical Tamrl literature had Its own old scheme of classifying both the hero and heroine mto different classses according to their age Ul 15 one of the mnety-stx kinds of Tamil compositions (Prabandhas), It describes a ddt} or hero gorng m procession through the street where courtezans Iive and the women-fblk there, from the young onwards, giving expression to their love for the deity or the hero The Adi-ula on Ceraman of the 9th cent A D. is the earliest composition in this class. The women are described In the Ulas 10 distinct classes represented by seven stages m their growth According to the authorrty Poihaiyar, the seven stages are as follows

Name Age Number of years
Pedal 5-8 4
Pedumbai 9-10 2
Mangal 11·14 4
Madandal 15-18 4
Arrvai 19-24 6
Terrvai 25-29 5
Perrlarnpen 30-56 7 But according to the Vaccanandimalai and Ilakkanavilakkam, the age and duration of these classes are as follows'

5-7 (3),8-11 (4),12-13 (2), 14-19 (6),20--25 (6),26-31 (6) and 32-40 (9).

See Panniruppattiyal, Saiva Siddhanta Publication Society Series, Madras and Tirunelveli, pp. 74-79. According to Prof. S Vaiyapun Pillai, this classificatron as such is not known to the Sangam works, though a general use IS found therein of the expression Pedai-p-paruvam, the very early age of innocence

Men are also similarly classified; though those between the ages of 16 and 48 are specified as fit to be theme for an UIa, men are also.generally classified from their tender age onwards into seven stages:

Balan-c-I-Z years; Mi:lt-8-lO, Maravon-1l-14, Tlrav6n-15th year only; KaJai-I6th year only, Vldalai-17-30; Mudu-mahan-e-beyond 30.


NaytkiiS in Paznhng

Th'e subject of Nayaka-Nayika types attained a further dimension by the aSSOC1ation of the art of pamtmg. The attractive delmeatron of the several moods of love and the condition of lovers proved a theme of great fascmation to painters, The earliest work of love poems of which we have an Illustrated manuscript 15 the celebrated Arnarusataka , 10 the Mayurbhafij State m Orissa, a palm-leaf manuscnpt of it m Orrya scnpt, assignable to c 1600, has been discovered, and Dr St Kramnsch has given an account of this rnanuscrrpt together With reproductions of four of the

1. See N V Venkatasubrahmanya Sastri, Journal of the Tanjore Sarasoat: Mahal Ltbrary ..

Vol VI, No 2, pp 6-9, No 3, pp 15-22. 2. n« VII. 1, pp 11-12,14-17.



d th J I of the Inaia» Society of Ortental Art 1 The Rasam;lfiJ"ri,

rawings In It in e ourniu f

k f b th "ran' h of study has also been Illustrated hy arust-, 0 ..

a wor 0 aSlC Importance 111 15 u ~, _ r: _ _ _

h K P 1 d (l_f II) h 1 A fine IllustratlOn of the }yesiha-I\.anlstl1.l. N",Ylk,t"l

t e angr a or a la I-H sc 00 , • 1

m this Rasamafijari-ser ies IS reproluced in Rajpui Pamtmg <)(I<aber (ra} er y of

Oriental Art with IntroductIOn and Notes by Basil Gray. Plate 1) w ACc()rdll1g_~()?:,n O.C. Gangoly, this illustrated manuscript of the RasamafiJari IS dated In Saurvat 11 ,':l-: , ttl the, reign of Raja Kirapala, the chief of Bhasholi III the Panj.ib Hnnalay.rs, I he Hmdi works on this subject, which we have already noted an_d, WhlC~l ai c mentioned In our SrngalamafiJar'i Itself, V!Z, the Ras1kapnya of Kesavada-a ,and the Sundarasrngara of Sundaradasa have also been illustrated by the same! i ill School of

amters and attention to the rllustrated manuscnpts of these works ha-, been drawn 11) ~nanda' K Coomaraswami and Sr: 0 C Gangoly". That similar lovC'P()C~ll" were Illustrated by painters of other schools in other parts of th~ country can be g,ltilercd from the fact that we have a .nanuscript of the middle of bth century 11l1l"U at lllg: the Vasanta vilasa and beloogmg to the Western Indian S<..11001

Thanks to the courtesy of Sn O.C Gangoly, I have beeu able to include III tlu-, volume some painungs illustratmg Nayika-types.


The Slngaramaii;arI, the Rasasnoiijar), the Ra.santaiiJar'i-dmoda and Estimate oj 11«' srngararnafiJari

As already mentioned, the SrngaramafiJar'i bases itself mainly 011 the R.I",UllaiIJ<l1 j which soon became a standard WOI k on the subject The Srngiiramafij ,11 i I ~'~I1I.(rl \' submitS the Rasamafijari to a critical examrnatron, and on most OCUt~lOl1" ddt!.'l:-' It; while some of the points made by the Srngaramafijar! against Bhanudatta arc no di mIl!

1. See Vol Vl l I 1940 pp 225-240 Plate X fig.2 'Salltycvfttra glil(' :.;! he' -the Nii.}lkii. Illustrated IS Sviya Madhya (guru) Manavati; fig. -+ 'Allum according to Vema but Svairmi according to Arjunavarman , fig ,t 'Smarar as.m The last verse 'Smararasanadi' and Its illusti.ruon in fig 3 at e not 1)1 opell) undvr ,tood h\ Kramrisch The three figures in between the two lovers are the Gun},', the ckk is, III t he "Xpression 'gurusetubhih", they are not, as she says, three women rl'pres(.'lltmg a requisrte III the rllumrnatron of the manuscrrpt, who do not occur m the verse hut. 0111 v III the illustranon, and who are Sakhis discussing the nature of this strong (guru) dam ("CHl).

2 This publication reproduces also a Nayrka-prcture (plate 10) from the ! .ldv Rothenstern collection (Kangra School, early 19th rent), rdentrl-ed as of thi.: V;baka~nJJ ,1,,1 but more correctly Vrrahotkanthua It IS also mentiom.d here that the Lalbhai c!!Jl~'et !(iI, III Ahmedabad has a large number of Nayika-Pamtrngs

3 See Ananda Coomaraswami, Bulletin oj the Boston Museum, Apul, 1!)20. Vol :.... \' II L pp 50-52

O. C Ganguly, Rapam, 1927, Apnl, pp 47 51, An Edrno Pnnceps of Sundar.i Srngara based on an 1l1u~trated ms of the work belonging to Mr Apt (rhns,t\ lind LOll(> Poems tn Huuli, Calcutta, 19.)6

See also on this subject of paintmgs of Nayikas, Coomaraswnm, 'bghl Journal of Indian Art, No 128, Oct 1924, Kannomal, 'Some Notes on Hindu Er" tIC'!' R. () , 1920, o« "pp 2027, Eric GIll, 'Art and Love' Rupam 1925, pp l-8; Co~mar~S\V~~:'1~ Catalogue oj the Indian Collections In the Museum oj Fmc Arts Boston Part VI pp 2~n), III

PI 8 I , I , • c-cv; ustra-

non ates -19 Vicrtravibhramasakta Praudha and Labdhayatt PI audhJ. I.: '-fIr' . , •

Navodha bala, and If Goetz, the ~\larwar School of Rajput P,unll1" blll'- \:1" 1'~11!1:'tll' l

r l "-I~ '1.0 I.£. n (',) H~ ,JI\l,~·.',.

Museum and Picture Gallery Vol V pt. 1-2 1947.,18 pp 47 48 49 11111St t . f 'f

II d " '" . ra ron, Ig •• ). rom

an I ummate ms of the Rasrkaprrya in the Lallgarh Palace Collection of the MaharaJ'ah of Blkaner



sigrnficant, there are a few which are not so ; however, that this crrticism IS not prompted by' any animus against Bhanudatta, such as, for instance, exhibrted by J agannatha Pandita against Appayya Dikslta, IS amply borne out not only by the language of the cnucism but also by certam contexts in which the Rasarnafijart IS expressly accepted and followed and certain others where the treatment in the Srngaramafijari 1S indebted to that in the Risamafijari , there are even illustrative verses m our text which are adaptations of those found In Bhanudatta's work

Almost as regularly as the Rasarnafijari IS crrtrcised, the commentary on It called Amoda IS followed As already pointed out, while the author of the baSIC text. Bhanudatta, IS invariably referred to In singular number, his Commentator, the Amodaauthor, GuraJalas~Yl Pandita, IS always cited In our text With the reverential plural, and in one place, the ~modak5.ra is mentioned as a gifted writer, Praudha Amodakarab, p 11, line 25. As the Arnoda on the Rasamafijari IS an unprinted work, I have extracted in the footnotes to the text here the relevant portions of the Amoda from ItS manuscrrpr, wherever the Srll.;aramafiJari menn ms or presupposes It, and the extent of the indebtedness of the Srngaramafijari to the Amoda IS much more than IS evident from these footnotes But here again It should not be supposed that the author of the Srng aramafijari slavishly follows the Amoda. On the other hand, always open in mrnd and crincal in outlook, our author does dot refram from criticrsmg and rejecting some of the views of the Amoda

In the detailed summary of contents that follows, and in the table of Nayakas and NaYlkas accepted by the srngaramafijari appended to It, the VIews of the srngaramafijarI can be seen In full; also, in the foregoing lnstorical survey, some of the views of our author, in their relation to the views of other wrrters, earher and later, have been touched upon. In this section, I shall review particularly the contexts in which the Rasarnafijari and the Amoda figure in the discussions m the Srngaramafipri Frrst I shall deal WIth the defimtrons of the different Nayikas, and then With the classifications,

(it) Definitums

Sviya (p 3). The Rasamafijart and most other works of this calss define the Sviya as one who loves one's legally wedded lord only ~OIrf;!f~Q;el a:r~ ~cft<ir f The Srngaramafijari argues that the word 'eva', 'only' I In the defimtion IS needless. It is not only superfluous

. but also wrong in as much as it prevents a Sviyii becommg a Parakiya, As explained in the Amoda and other commentaries, the need for 'eva' 15 to ward off overlapping, Ativyaptr, With P arakiya who has, according to these writers, love to the paramour as wen as to her wedded lord The SrngaramafiJari does not accept this posuion, as, accordmg to It, love is love and It can, really speaking, be towards only one, the wedded lord or the paramour The Amoda's further explanation (p, 34, Adyar Ms ) that love IS possible towards both the husband and the paramour and that, to keep the former off the scent, the unchaste WIfe may sun indulge in enjoying the former's company too, IS not acceptable to the Srngaramafijar i It contends tnat love is not mere sexual enjoyment and that Anuraga or love so called being npphcable only to one, there need be no adjunct like leva' to drstmguish the Sviya from the Paraklya

, Of the two crrtrcisms thus offered by the author of the StngaramafiJari, the former

that ff <eva' is added, no SV,ly3. could become Parakiya is Irrelevant; we are dealing here only with th'e Sv5ya and she 1S so only as long as she is attached solely to her lord; when she is also attached to a paramour, she Ceases to be Sviya.l This classification into Sviya,

1 See Rasamafijari ;Y:;!if qftqfmT~T ~ilnw<il'lWo<rffa: I ~ qfoli~rqr ~ 'ii3~J<i. {po 12) and Amoda thereon (p 37) <:j1"fIii1!il~ ~T aR~~ ~ * '" * tR!!~iIftr~~ ~

~,;qvf.l'or a~T ;Y ~~fa ~r<i: I '




Parakiya and Samanya IS, comparatively speakln~, fund~mental, and not contmgent on changing situation, avastha, like that into Svadhmapatlka etc The other cntlC'lsm rest'; completely on the over-refinement of the meaning of Aouraga or love

Mugdha (pp 3-4) The first sub-class under Sviya, Mugdhl is usually ddlned_hy writers mcludmz Bhanudatta as one m whom love has Just sprouted (ankul It,t-) auvana ) The 5riJ.garamafiJari cntrcises tins as being too wide and as applying also to Pal and Samanya. But as Ananta Bhatta points out, the defi01tlOn of Mugdba ha-, to he j aken along with the Sviya-defillltion and not independently

~;;j :q qRfijr7rI~~liJ~'C1r tim ~~i{~er~(er{iHa' l:fi~cT ~16<>.lOT+{ I R M V y:t.

Thrs obvIOUS quahficauoo of the defimtlOtl removes Its apprehended ,\pplkallility

to Parakiya and Samanya

A further objection to thrs defimtion IS that it is based on age and I'> out of place m this study which 15 based on guna or quality The question of age can never he dissotlated fro~l the threefold classification Mugdha, Madhya and Pragalbbs ; a lu tlc below, the text Itself speaks of prmcesses of grown-up age, atiprauc;lha-vayask::ih raJat..:my5.h, Further the condition of 'sproutmg youth or love' IS not necessarily (10(;' of mere aae ; it

can well be taken as one of guna or qualrty,

Another equally well known defimtion of Mugdha, given in the PratfiparuurIya, is that she 1S one in whom bashfulness gets the upper hand over love (ldjJa-vtj lta-manmalh1i). The Amoda says that this definttion means the same as the prevrous one. The mafijarl objects to thts also. The first variety of M ugdhii is ajitita-yauvan;l this will not apply, for in this stage, there 1" neither love nor bash ftllne~,> nor any quc..,tion of the latter overpowering the former 1

Therefore the new definition of Mugdha proposed by the Sp'lg,lramaiip,ri is thil.t she 15 one who does not yet have the finer appreciation of man, puru~a-vi~c~a-an,tbltljfi;l. ThIS innocence of the finer appreciation, which IS very vague, can only mean m love-matters m general. The negative character of the defirnnon IS also fraught with the danger of taking away the Mugdha totally out of the scope of N'ayika-swdy; and tn its significance on the positive side it comes to the same thing as 'one in nascent youth'.

The Navogha-definitton (p. 4) 10 the Srngaramafijari is the same as In

Rasamafi J ari.

At~-v~srabdha-1laV()~hii (p 4) . In the Rasamafijari, Immediately after the defimtion of Madhya, we find a sentence that this Madhya, owing to her experience heing of a further developed nature IS a~so called Att-visrabdba-navodba, This sentence is, according to Ananta Bhatta, not found m aU manuscripts of the Rasarnafijari, and is an mterpolanon there being also no illustrative verse for It. •

~i i:nfaSi~ql~ffi~fA'iI:l.,ei!iRt ,tfiTRR~: 'lT~il SRft~ ~Iitn+w(ef~f "~ IitlitlQ'~liqCfQJijij~i{ Sf~~'i!ffiCfl'« SGql~~: I P. 31

Apart from absence 10 some mss, and lack of illustrative verse the conception itself, Ananta Bhatta says, is inherently wrong. as such a degree of confidence or boldness

does not belong to the Madhya stage. But according to the Atnoda. this sentence forms ~art of the text; according to it, a separate illustrati ve verse is not necessary for tbi~ as it

IS only another name for Madhy a. ~

1. Some do not give such a meaning to AJuiita-yauvanli; aecordine to them 1M know, that youth has sprung up 10, her, but others are not able to know that. Ananta Bhatta. says in

his Rasamafijari-vyakhya 'Fi ij, ;f m ~ ~r:, ~ ~ ~ ~<1tir tftt ~:' I p.27.



~if atfrr~~~lcrr:qT aJ~~rfFl'tq[<t ~~~~qfo (ffi ~qf~~q(]f~~ii iit~Q01.if(_ I P.84.

Visvesvara, as already pointed out (p. 29 ahove ) , accept" this alternate name for Madhya The SrngaramanJari however (p 4). adopting the line of argument seen In Atlanta Bhatta's commentary, criticises and discards tins Atrvisrabdha-navodha ; it argues that atlVisrambha pertains only to Pragalbha, and Navodha is always a Mugdha and the conception of an At! visrabdha-navodha IS self-contradictory.

Pragalbha (p 5) While considering the Rasamafijari-definirion of Svi)a, our text, we noted above, pointed out that the adjunct leva' 10 'svaminyeva' was unnecessary A Similar objection 1S raised here against the Rasamafijari-definition of the Pragalbha, that she is one whose proficiency in love IS with reference solely to her wedded husband (patimatra, etc.). The reason why the SrngaramafiJari objects to the restrictive 'matra" here IS that such a definition would be too narrow, and apply only to the Sviy a-pragalbha and not to the Parakiy a and the Samanya Earlier while examining a definition of Mugdha, the Srngaramafijari pointed out that there was no Mugdha III Parakiya and Samanya, Here it adds that of these three stages, Mugdha, Madhya and Pragalbha, the first two are only In the Sviya and the last would apply also to the Par akiya and SallJanya. The ~rngaramafijari, which follows the Amoda here, adopts the definition of Pragalbha given 10 that commentary, namely, one whose love has overcome bashfulness

~q~lfi~<t ~~rqi1~ elT a~~l!.; vr ~ ~~rcrftre<m'R:, ~t~~r~: ~Pw:ir ~ mn.<rri'.TiljT~Srq mlJ~~er.p.Pi1f~:q~emt I Pp. ('0-91. And earlier also on p. 55 q;ega~ 3i~;r~ ~iljqre-; qfu~:rm~I5f~{lI~ q~iflQj'~ qfa;rISff<M~m ~~ 'l~+!rnmSiam<ir ~q~q~ij-I

Dh"ira etc (p. 6) : In the View of ear her writers, the distinction into Dhira, Adhirii and Dhiradhira applies only to Sviya, and not to Parakiya and Samanya. Bhanudaua differs from them and accepts these classes for the Parakiya also. It IS noteworthy that, on this pomt, while the Amoda disagrees with the Rasamafijari (see fn. p. 6 of the text), the ~rnga:ramafiJari which generally disagrees with the Rasamafijarf and follows the A.moda, follows the former and disagrees with the latter. It may be added here that Ananta Pandita holds, m his gloss 011 the Rasarnafijari, that Mana and consequent varieties Dhira etc., are possible in the Mugdha-variety called Jiiata·yauvana. and that the failure to mention these vaneties under Mugdha constitutes a gap in the Rasaman jari.

eRgo~g illTc:i~hqi{I~!l~i:r~qa- ~t li~giji;;::cfu~ o~I~s:rr-u~,~sr i p. 44.

This too, the Amoda discountenances'

~~I~r ar(q ijT.ns~iffi" mfta~~ll~~~T: €{li<r-:?1lm ~VJR~tfi, ~9;m~ I etc. P. 1131,

That the later writers hold these varieties for all, as against the earlier authors, who confine them to the Sviy ii, IS recorded by Visvesvara and Trrpathi Srvarama ; Samaraja follows the ancients (see above Intro pp. 28-29)

M aahya Adh'ira (p. 6) . Bhanudatta defines this variety as using harsh words to show her. anger against her lord (Rasamanjar! p. 42); the SrngaramafiJari, considers harsh words rmpossible m one of such tenderness as the Madhya and therefore defines

1. Here, as also elsewhere, certain crrtictsms found In the A.moda seem to refer to Ananta Pandita's gloss on the Rasamafijari. If these an m) mous allusions III the Amoda are really to Ananta Pandrta we may take this as addrtronal e vidence for Guru]alaSayin's date (see abo, e Intro. p. 14), Ananta Pandita wrote his gloss on the Rasamafijari 10 1636 A.D (India Office Ms 1224-5) and GUl'ujalasayin should have followed WIth hIS gloss soon after




. d f an anyap<lcic;,\ to ~how her

the Madhya Adhira as one adopting the viele censure 0

anger (p 7) , k-: . on who l~ III secret love

Parakiya (pr 7-8) : Bhiinudatt<l defines the Para I)<L as 0 e . . - -) The

dd d h b d (aprakata-para PUl usa-anuf,tg,t .

with a person other than her we e us an "cdie'l \ '1 here ,11 e

h t' d ti t wtroduetn" 'secrecy 1;' 110 ••

Srngar.lmafiJari cnncises t at ne a J nc '" 1 f cis and others (Lak5ttl

varreties of Parakiya whose love-aff,ur IS known to their c use rren 11 to the Igllor,UlCe of

ami Kulata ) It IS not possible to explam 'secrecy' as referrtng 01 : ' 1

c , h f unchd"te women to w 10m

the affair to the wedded husband, for t ere are cases 0 - - ,1 k- r " '1· ",' ,11C

, tid I t The Amoua dr,l re Ill ... !> u

husbands are attached, knowlOg their wives m ely. 1 .

adjunct 'oeeret' and says that 111 any case an original element of sect ccy at the lleg~nnlt;g

Was alwavs and unavoidably present The srngaramaii lad's answer to tlus I::' l.ll'~t!l1 t l~ .J on a f r ient ~ report

case of a sravaniinuraktii one who has developed love tor a paramour c .-

about his beauty etc, e~en ihrs trace of ongwal secrecy ~is ln1po"slbl~ :11 a~ much ;1" th~ friend IS a witness Therefore, the Srngaramafijari defines ParaktY<i "'Imply ,l~ one attached to a lover other than her husband. As there IS no dlQtinctlOll of htl',balld <U1d another for a courtezan, the ObVIOUS purpose suggessted for the adjunct 'aprak~ta'. m~. that It is to ward off overlapping With the courtezan whose love h open, IS to ,H.~ dispensed WIth Trrpatht Slvarama, like our author, rejects the word 'apI'(limta' introduced

by the Rasamafijari.

er~ ij"~rqT: q~~~~ q{<ti~~sTtq~'1 ~{ff 'SfllOfiG' ~~l~~~m~ I

Rasaratnahcira, K. M. Gucch, VI, p,

Just as the A.moda Justified 'aprakata-' by explaming it as 'an element of secrecy at sometime', some others seem to have justified the adjunct by adoptmg the 'aprakat~ta' This is known from Ananta Pandita's gloss (p 64- ~~ <If~'fik:afu' !:!To: :1. Accordmg to these commentators, it does not matter If the love affair of thi:, l<l.dy h known, but so far as she herself IS concerned, she does not show it and strrves to lnde iI. Ananta Pandita's own View 15 that the Parakij a is one who 1S in love with man not purely for pecunrary consrderatrons,

fill ij ~'6ijr~r~qrN-<fiq~3~I~UI1~~~ q{<t'rllTi:~firffi ~mI1T~!rct I 64

But the Srngaramafijarl would not agree to this kind of distinction of the P:tUkiya from the Samiinya and to its author, there IS, In the first place, no question ,)f

or Sviya for the Siimanya, and then, the Samanya 1~ not to be defined solely on the

of 'money'

Samiinya (pp. 12-13) : In the Rasamafijarl-defimtton of thrs Niiyik.-t, the mafijari criticises both the condrtions said to characterise her love, first, bdng solely by money, vitta-matra-upadhika, and second, the love havmg for It!> object body, sakala-purusa-anuraga Bhanudatta lays some emphasis on 'the sole wnl-lidenllion of money' and argues that even in cases of real love, material consrderarion has played the chief role at least at the begmmng, The Srngararnafijar! contends {hat Jove ail such cannot be caused by money, nor can It be for many ; on such a definition there fort there can be neither love nor a NaYlka. It IS not possible to dilute the meaning of love to refer to such relanonslnp as a ,courtezan exhibits for money towards a person; love is a spectfic feeling between a lover and a beloved and not any kmd of relation. If some kind of vague desire for many should be meant, there WIll hardly be any Sviyas left. The Amodo. tries to

1. In the Benares Skt ", Ser edn, the passage IS not free from mistake; in the Gop.al Narayan Co edn. (Bombay), It 1S much more defective, some more words ha'in~ !,\'cn l~fl out. It IS well-known that the prmted editions do not conta.n the verses mentiemnz th • ,'J~ 11'1 which Ananta wrote thrs gloss, which are found Itt the India Office ms A ht"kr 1"';1 _,)1 of the Rasamafijari With new commentanes IS desirable.



explain that the love of a Samanya is not the semblance of sentiment, Rasabhasa, by reason of the many persons towards whom it is directed, because at the time she IS engaged to one, she 15 attached to that person only, and so far as that particular engagement 1S concerned rt IS real love. This explanation too IS not acceptable to the author of the Srn,::-a ram afijar! To him, even the Kulata, the Parakiyawho resorts to many paramours, IS really searching for a best lover for herself, therefore, the Samanya too has real love and that towards a particular person of her choice, but she merely consorts with several persons for prof essron. On the subject of Vesya and real love, I have also added a note in the end.

According to the Amoda, there may be Parakiyas too who accept pecuniary considerations and It IS to ward off such cases that the word 'matra', 'solely', 1S added to -vitta' m the Samanya-defimuon. This again IS not acceptable to the author of the Srngaramafijari who considers the Parakiya as being prompted solely by love 1 Any material gam that comes 1S not to be taken as essential, for otherwise even a wedded wife's S\flya-stJ.tus would be jeopardised on this ground Therefore, the definition offered by the Srngaramafijari IS that the Samanya IS one who, in the absence of marriage, consorts with many In expectation of a return phala-mmzttaka. The phala Or purpose IS actual love in case the Samanya IS really attached, In other cases the purpose 15 money and what she exhibits IS a mere general desire which IS not love. Sarnaraja proposes that the Samanya be defined simply by two conditions, love for many and such love 10 public, by the former, the Sviya IS distmguished, by the latter the Parakiya, That such. a defirution was proposed by another ear her writer too, we learn from the Amoda which Cites and refutes it

(~ 229) •

AnyasambhogaauhkhiUi, Vahokttgarv#ii and lJ;fana'Z-ati After dealmg wrth the three main types together with their sub-classes, Bhanudatta grves a special classification applicable to aU these three, according to which they fall into the three classes, the names of which are given above The constrtution of these three into a separate class like this IS an innovation of Bhanudatta, V!svesvara, as already pointed out, says that authoritatrve writers do not have this special threefold classification (p.24, Rasacandrika). The Srngaramafijari rejects this separate group; It brings Anyasarnbboga-duhkhita and Manavati, both based on the anger of the offended beloved. under Khandita ; the remaining variety Vakrokti-garvita is added to the next group of classification. It is, however, somewhat incongruous to club the Vakrokti-garvita with the eight Avastha-Nayikas.


This next group gives an eightfold classification which an writers from Bharata downwards have mentioned. To the time-honoured eight 10 this group, the Srngalamailjari adds the Vakrokti-garvita and thus, alone among wrrters on this subject, gives this group as comprising rune vaneues In the defimtion of these also, the Srngaramanjari expresses its differences with the Rasamafijari,

Svadh'inapatzka (p 15) The Rasamafijari defines this type as one having a lover who IS always obedient. The Amoda rightly explains that the word 'always' It to avoid overlapping with the other varieties in all of which the lover may be occasumally obedient or favourable Tne S,.nga.ramar, ~ar:) however, does not see the reason why the condition 'always' should be added, 'one endowed with a favourable lover' is sufficient according to rt ; its argument is that this is a contingent classification governed by states and moods which change, and no adjunct should be introduced which would make any class absolute. This again IS an argument srmilar to the one used by the Srngal arnafij ad against the word 'eva' in the Sviya-defimtion There 15 no need to provide for such conti agency in tb~

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