POWER AND POLITICS

CHAPTER 13

DEFINITION OF POWER ‡ ‡ ‡ POWER REFERS TO CAPACITY THAT X HAS TO INFLUENCE THE BEHAVIOUR OF Y SO Y ACTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH X¶S WISHES DEFINITION IMPLIES POTENTIAL THAT NEED NOT BE ACTUALISED TO BE EFFECTIVE AND A DEPENDENCY RELATIONSHIP IN OTHER WORDS POWER MAY EXIST BUT NOT BE USED ± MAKING IT A CAPACITY OR POTENTIAL MOST IMPORTANT ASPECT OF POWER IS FUNCTION OF DEPENDENCY GREATER Y¶S DEPENDENCE ON X ± THE GREATER IS X¶S POWER IN THE RELATIONSHIP DEPENDENCE IN TURN IS BASED ON ALTERNATIVES THAT Y PERCEIVES & THE IMPORTANCE THAT Y PLACES ON THE ALTERNATIVES THAT X CONTROLS A PERSON CAN HAVE CONTROL OVER YOU ONLY IF HE/SHE CONTOLS SOMETHING THAT YOU DESIRE ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

CONTRASTING LEADERSHIP AND POWER ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ONE DIFFERENCE RELATES TO GOAL COMPATIBILITY POWER DOES NOT REQUIRE GOAL COMPATIBILITY ONLY DEPENDENCE LEADERSHIP REQUIRES SOME CONGRUENCE BETWEEN GOALS OF LEADER & THOSE BEING LED 2ND DIFFERENCE RELATES TO THE DIRECTION OF INFLUENCE ON ONE FOLLOWERS LEADERSHIP FOCUSES ON DOWNWARD INFLUENCE ON ONE¶S FOLLOWERS MINIMISES IMPORTANCE OF LATERAL AND UPWARD INFLUENCE PATTERNS POWER DOES NOT 3RD DIFFERENCE DEALS WITH RESEARCH EMPHASIS LEADERSHIP RESEARCH EMPHASIS STYLE ASKS QUESTIONS LIKE: HOW SUPPORTIVE SHOULD A LEADER BE? RESEARCH ON POWER IN CONTRAST HAS TENDED TO EMCOMPASS A BROADER AREA & FOCUS ON TACTICS FOR GAINING COMPLIANCE .

COERCIVE POWER DEPENDENT ON FEAR .BASES OF POWER ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 5 CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FIRST ID BY FRENCH & RAVEN AUTHORS PROPOSED 7 BASES OR SOURCES OF POWER 1. MOST OFTEN CONDEMNED & MOST DIFFICULT TO CONTROL AT AN ORG LEVEL ± X HAS COERCIVE POWER OVER Y IF X CAN DISMISS. SUSPEND.REACT TO THIS POWER OUT OF FEAR RESTS ON APPLICATION OR THREAT OF APPLICATION OF PHYSICAL SANCTIONS LIKE INFLICTION OF PAIN ETC« THE POWER TO HURT OTHERS IS MOST OFTEN USED. OR DEMOTE Y ASSUMING THAT Y VALUES HIS/HER JOB ALSO IF X CAN ASSIGN WORK ACTIVITIES TO Y THAT Y FINDS UNPLEASANT OR FINDS EMBARRASSING ± THEN X HAS COERCIVE POWER OF Y ‡ ‡ ‡ .

LEGITIMATE POWER ‡ IN FORMAL GROUPS & ORG¶S ± MOST FREQUENT ACCESS TO ONE OR MORE OF POWER BASES IS ONE¶S STRUCTURAL POSITION CALLED LEGITIMATE POWER REPRESENTS THE POWER A PESON RECEIVES AS A RESULT OF HIS/HER POSITION IN FORMAL HIERARCHY OF AN ORG POSITIONS OF AUTHORITY INCLUDE COERCIVE & REWARD POWERS LEGITIMATE POWER IS BROADER THAN POWER TO COERCE & REWARD INCLUDES ACCEPTANCE BY MEMBERS OF ORG OF AUTHORITY OF POSITION IF A SCHOOL PRINCIPAL SETS DOWN A RULE ± TEACHERS AND STUDENTS LISTEN AND NORMALLY COMPLY ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

EXPERT POWER ‡ IS INFLUENCE WIELDED AS A RESULT OF EXPERTISE. SPECIAL SKILL OR KNOWLEDGE EXPERTISE HAS BECOME ON OF THE MOST POWERFUL SOURCES OF INFLUENCE AS THE WORLD HAS BECOME MORE TEHNOLOGICALLY ORIENTED AS JOBS BECOME MORE SPECIALISED WE BECOME MORE DEPENDENT ON EXPERTS TO ACHIEVE OUR GOALS WHICH TYPE OF PEOPLE IN THE WORLD DO YOU SEE AS HAVING EXPERT POWER? ‡ ‡ ‡ .

REWARD POWER ‡ PEOPLE COMPLY WITH WISHES OR DIRECTIVES OF ANOTHER BECAUSE IF THEY DO IT PRODUCES POSITIVE BENEFITS ONE WHO CAN DISTRIBUTE REWARDS THAT OTHERS VIEW AS VALUABLE WILL HAVE POWER OVER PEOPLE REWARDS CAN BE ANYTHING THAT ANOTHER PERSON VALUES WHAT DO YOU CONSIDER AS REWARDS IN A BUSINESS CONTEXT? ‡ ‡ ‡ .

REFERENT POWER ‡ BASE IS IDENTIFICATION WITH A PWERSON WHO HAS DESIRABLE RESOURCES OR PERSONAL TRAITS IF YOU ADMIRE SOMEONE AND IDENTIFY WITH THEM ± THEY CAN EXERCISE POWER OVER YOU BECAUSE YOU WANT TO PLEASE THEM REFERENT POWER DEVELOPS OUT OF ADMIRATION OF ANOTHER & A DESIRE TO BE LIKE THAT PERSON IF YOU ADMIRE A PERSON TO THE EXTENT OF MODELLING YOUR BEHAVIOUR & ATTITUDES AFTER HIM/HER THIS PERSON POSSESSES REFERENT POWER OVER YOU REFERENT POWER EXPLAINS WHY CELEBRITIES ARE PAID MILLIONS OF RANDS TO ENDORSE PRODUCTS IN COMMERCIALS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

INFORMATION POWER ‡ PEOPLE POSSESS INFORMATION POWER IF THEY HAVE ACCESS TO INFORMATION THAT OTHER PERSONS REGARD AS VALUABLE OR SIGNIFICANT BY CONTROLLING THE INFO OR ACCESSIBILITY TO THIS INFO THESE PEOPLE CREATE SOME FORM OF DEPENDABILITY BY POSITIONING THEMSELVES CENTRALLY OR IN AN IMPORTANT LINKING-PIN FUNCTION ARE THERE PEOPLE YOU KNOW OF THAT HAVE INFORMATION POWER? ‡ ‡ .

1 HERE IT IS CLEAR THAT SOME OF THESE SOURCES OF POWER ARE LINKED TO THE PERSON IN HIS/HER INDIVIDUAL CAPACITY AND SOME TO FORMAL POSITION OF PERSON LIKE THAT OF SUPERVISOR OR MANAGER REMEMBER THAT POWER POTENTIAL IS ALWAYS A FUNCTION OF PERCEPTION A LEADER OF MANAGER ONLY HAS THE AMOUNT OF POWER OR POWER POTENTIAL THAT IS GRANTED TO HIM BY FOLLOWERS OR SUBORDINATES ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .CONNECTION POWER ‡ HERE INDIVIDUALS HAVE DIRECT ACCESS TO PEOPLE IN HIGHER POSITIONS IN THEORG HIERARCY OR ALTERNATIVELY HAVE ACCESS TO PEOPLE IN POWERFUL POLITICAL POSITIONS OUTSIDE THE ORG LOOK AT FIG 13.

DEPENDENCY: KEY TO POWER .