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Teme de casă liber alese, de preferat realizate la locul de muncă şi bazate pe un studiu de caz real. Sugestii de teme realizate la liberă alegere : 1. 2. 3. 4. Supply chain management ( Managementul lanţului logistic) – Concepţia lanţului logistic şi modul de rezolvare a problemelor care apar în cadrul acestuia.. Managementul aprovizionării. Sistemul MRP - ERP Utilizarea sistemului KANBAN pentru programarea şi urmarirea fluxului de producţie dintr-un atelier.
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Introduction Method and Implementation Approach Implications for Environmental Performance Useful Resources
Just-in-time production, or JIT, and cellular manufacturing are closely related, as a cellular production layout is typically a prerequisite for achieving just-in-time production. JIT leverages the cellular manufacturing layout to reduce significantly inventory and work-in-process (WIP). JIT enables a company to produce the products its customers want, when they want them, in the amount they want. Under conventional mass production approaches, large quantities of identical products are produced, and then stored until ordered by a customer. JIT techniques work to level production, spreading production evenly over time to foster a smooth flow between processes. Varying the mix of products produced on a single line, sometimes referred to as "shish-kebab production", provides an effective means for producing the desired production mix in a smooth manner. JIT frequently relies on the use of physical inventory control cues (or kanban) to signal the need to move raw materials or produce new components from the previous process. In some cases, a limited number of reusable containers are used as kanban, assuring that only what is needed gets produced. Many companies implementing lean production systems are also requiring suppliers to deliver components using JIT. The company signals its suppliers, using computers or delivery of empty, reusable containers, to supply more of a particular component when they are needed. The end result is typically a significant reduction in waste associated with unnecessary inventory, WIP, and overproduction. Top of page
Method and Implementation Approach
Key elements of JIT, and techniques for achieving JIT, are discussed below. Load leveling. This technique involves determining appropriate quantities and types of products needed in a given day to meet customer orders. This technique allows organizations to produce products with a variety of customer specifications each day (using a daily schedule), in a smooth
2/ 4 . each step uncovers and then corrects the defects that are found. Only products that are 100 percent defect-free continue on through the production line. and production kanban (indicate operating instructions for processes within a line). a key form of manufacturing waste. In implementing a kanban system. expressed in amount of time per part. • • • • Kanban works from upstream to downstream in the production process (i. before any more can be produced. Different types of kanban include: supplier kanban (indicate orders given to outside parts suppliers when parts are needed for assembly lines). The kanban contain information on the exact product or component specifications that are needed for the subsequent process step.e. kanban is a key technique that determines a processes production quantities. By constantly reducing the total number of kanban. Minimizing the total number of kanban is the best way to uncover areas of needed improvement. Overproduction affects the environment in three key ways: 1. Top of page Implications for Environmental Performance Potential Benefits: JIT/kanban systems help eliminate overproduction. labeled container. kanban serves to ultimately eliminate overproduction. kanban's "pull" system creates greater flexibility on the production floor. The number of kanban should be decreased over time. in-factory kanban (used between processes in a factory). The necessary parts in a given step always accompanies the kanban to ensure visual control. a kanban1 is a card. At each step. organizations typically focus on four important "rules". increases the number of products that must be scrapped or discarded as waste.sequence that minimizes inventory and delay. or other device used to signal that more products or parts are needed from the previous process step. Kanban are used to control work-in-progress (WIP). by calculating the takt time for the daily quantity of each type. Takt time is critical to the daily scheduling required in leveled production described above. only as many parts are withdrawn as the kanban instructs. Often referred to as the "nervous system" of lean production. such that the organization only produces what is ordered. continuous improvement is facilitated by concurrently reducing the overall level of stock in production. helping ensure that only what is ordered is made. More specifically. and only producing the number indicated on the kanban. In this way. and in doing so. Contrary to more traditional "push" methods of mass production which are based on an estimated number of expected sales. It is the rate at which each product must be completed to meet customer needs. facilitates JIT production and ordering systems. The upstream processes only produce what has been withdrawn. production.. computer order. In this way. Production Sequencing. and inventory flow. starting with the customer order). This includes only producing items in the sequence in which the kanban are received. Kanban. This involves calculating the pattern for making each product type in the required amount for any given day. Kanban are a critical part of a JIT system.
1998). as well as environmental impacts associated with additional fuel use and vehicle emissions. air conditioning. Reductions in square footage can reduce energy use for heating. Through efficient load planning. Oregon: Productivity Press. 5. 2002). increases the amount of raw materials used in production. reducing the spatial footprint of production can reduce the need to construct additional production facilities. and lighting. Excess inventory results in increased energy use associated with the need to transport and reorganize unsold inventory. Frequent inventory turns can also eliminate the need for degreasing processes for metal parts. JIT typically require less floor space for equal levels of production ("this is a factory.. as workers are more motivated to make product improvements when there is no excess inventory remaining to be sold. or through deterioration or spoilage over time. can just push inventory carrying activities up the supply chain. along with the associated environmental impacts from overproduction. Even more significantly. Kanban means card or sign in Japanese. etc. cleaning supplies). JIT/kanban may not succeed at reducing or eliminating overproduction and associated waste if the products produced have large and/or unpredictable market fluctuations. JIT. and construction wastes. Kanban for the Shopfloor (Portland. damaged goods. however. since the parts may not need to be coated with oils to prevent oxidization or rust while waiting for the next process step. emissions. JIT/kanban systems also help facilitate worker-lead process improvements. Useful Resources Productivity Development Team. JIT/kanban systems reduce the amount of necessary in-process and post-process inventory. land use. Utilizarea sistemului CONWIP (Constant Work – In – Process)pentru programarea şi regularizarea fluxului de producţie dintr-un atelier 3/ 4 . inventory storage space heating and lighting. Just-in-Time for Operators (Portland. leading to an increased number of transport trips. not a warehouse"). and wastes (solid and hazardous) that are generated by the processing of the unneeded output. Such damaged inventory typically ends up being disposed of as solid or hazardous waste. 3. This can contribute to traffic congestion. Footnotes 1. the environmental implications of increased milk runs can be significantly reduced or eliminated. thereby reducing the potential for products to be damaged during handling and storage.g. Potential Shortcomings: JIT can result in more frequent "milk runs" for parts and material inputs from sister facilities or suppliers.2. Reduced square footage can also reduce the resource consumption and waste associated with maintaining the unneeded space (e. as well as the associated environmental impacts resulting from construction material use. Productivity Press Development Team. Oregon: Productivity Press. when not implemented throughout the supply chain. increases the amount of energy. flourescent bulbs.
9. 3. o Prezentarea rezultatelor obţinute. 7. Tema va fi susţinută în faţa grupei. prin prezentarea ei în PowerPoint. o Prezentarea temei şi răspunsul la întrebări – o notă (asociată verificării finale). o Prezentarea paşilor parcurşi pentru aplicarea metodei / conceptului propus. Tema de casa este obligatorie Tema va fi predată în ziua de ………. Notarea se face astfel : o Conţinutul temei şi modul de soluţionare – o notă (asociată Temei de casă) . o Prezentarea situaţiei actuale (înainte de aplicarea metodei / conceptului propus).pe suport scris (în dosar) şi electronic (va fi copiată pe unul din calculatoarele din sala I 107). susţinerea şi notarea 1. 2. 4. Structura unei astfel de teme va fi următoarea: o Definirea obiectivului temei..6. Managementul sistemului de transport şi manipulare Managementul sistemului de depozitare. 8. Managementul distribuţiei – Strategii de distribuţie. Observaţii privind predarea. o Concluzii : avantaje / dezavantaje. Utilizarea sistemului Lean Manufacturing pentru îmbunătăţirea fluxului de producţie dintr-un atelier. 4/ 4 . perspective de ameliorare.
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