You are on page 1of 19

Guy Ndjeng

 Also know as “Land Change”.

 Refers to the human modification of earth’s terrestrial


surface.

 Has emerged as a prominent area of scientific research


known as “Land-change science”.

 Land-change science investigates the physical/biological


cover of a land surface in relation to human activities and
external factors.
 Composed of multiple interacting sub systems
 water
 Vegetation
 Bare soil
 Climate
 Human activities
▪ Agriculture
▪ Construction initiatives
▪ Hydrology
▪ Etc……
 Modeling interactions/reactions between sub systems.

 Modeling dynamic processes


 Representing time and change (continuous, discrete..)
 Capturing space-time information

 Providing a framework to qualitatively assess real world


phenomena.

 Can these models be verified and validated?


 Equation-based models
 Requires simplified assumptions to achieve analytical or
computational results.
 Often based on empirically implausible assumptions to
stabilize the overall system (equilibrium).

 System models
 Do not simplify assumptions but uses time as step to
allow feedback between components.
 Operates at a very coarse spatial and temporal
resolution.
 Cellular models

 Cellular Automata model (CA)


 Markov model
 Cellular models offer greater flexibility for representing
spatial and temporal dynamics based on stationary
transitions probabilities.

 Have proven to be useful for modeling ecological


aspects of LUCC, but they face a challenge when
incorporating human decision making.
 Comprise of multiple, interacting agent situated within a
model or simulation environment

 Relationship between agents is specified, linking to other


agent and/or entities within a system.

 Agents behavior can be scheduled to take place


synchronously or asynchronously.
 Are well suited to represent autonomous human
interactions agents.
 Autonomy
 Heterogeneity
 Active
 Goal oriented
 Reactive
 Bounded rationality
 Interactive/communicative
 Mobile
 Adaptive/learning
 Consists of
 Cellular model to represent and replicate ecological/
biophysical phenomena.

 Agent based to represent human interactions in the


decision making process.
 Schelling segregation model
 Natural resource management
 Study how herdsmen search for suitable grazing locations in the
dry season and negotiate with farmers for the use of their land

 Agricultural economics
 Farmers investment decision in new technologies /impact of
governmental policies

 Urban simulation
 Archeology
 Modeling emergent phenomena
 Aggregate outcomes that cannot be predicted by examining
the element of the system in isolation but rather by
considering the system as a whole.

 Flexibility
 Alternative causes can be built in and outcomes can be
tested and explored.

 Modeling complex interactions.


 Appropriate model framework
 Inherently suited to simulating people and objects in a very
realistic way. i.e. densities
 Remains a complex task since the nature of the system
being modeled may not convey qualitative/quantitative
metrics.

 Interpretations of the simulation output may not reflect


real world phenomena.

 Might not be appropriate for the wide range of users.

 Considers systems at a disaggregated level, thus agents


can potentially involve the description of many agent
attributes, behaviors and interactions within the modeled
environment.
 Explanatory approach
 Does not seek to predict future behavior of the system
nor provide a real world replication of the studied
phenomena.

 Strives to explore and generate hypotheses, new


models.

 Places emphasis on some details of a phenomenon and


ignoring others in the hope of generating empirical
relevant insights.
 Descriptive approach
 More concerned with the empirical validity and /or
predictive capacity.
 Used for extrapolation of trends, evaluation of scenario,
and prediction of future systems states.

 May be constructed to replicate a variety of goals:


▪ Landscape composition and function
▪ Examine the impact on biophysical environment of policies that
influence socioeconomic behavior.
 Computer simulation can deal more easily with parallel
process and processes without well defined order or
actions than systems of mathematical equations.

 Computer model can include heterogeneous agents, while


this is usually difficult with mathematics.

 Programming languages are more expressive than most


mathematical techniques.
 Open source
 NetLogo
 Respast
 Testfatsion
 Obeus
 MASON
 Proprietary/licenses
 AgentSheets
 Geospatial Analysis, A comprehensive guide to principles,
techniques and software tools.

 Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-agent_system)