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Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli
Solved Problems
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapters
Chapter 1 Introduction: Waves and Phasors
Chapter 2 Transmission Lines
Chapter 3 Vector Analysis
Chapter 4 Electrostatics
Chapter 5 Magnetostatics
Chapter 6 Maxwell’s Equations for TimeVarying Fields
Chapter 7 PlaneWave Propagation
Chapter 8 Wave Reﬂection and Transmission
Chapter 9 Radiation and Antennas
Chapter 10 Satellite Communication Systems and Radar Sensors
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapter 1 Solved Problems
Problem 14
Problem 17
Problem 115
Problem 118
Problem 120
Problem 121
Problem 124
Problem 126
Problem 127
Problem 129
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 1.4 A wave traveling along a string is given by
y(x, t) = 2sin(4πt +10πx) (cm),
where x is the distance along the string in meters and y is the vertical displacement. Determine: (a) the direction of wave
travel, (b) the reference phase φ
0
, (c) the frequency, (d) the wavelength, and (e) the phase velocity.
Solution:
(a) We start by converting the given expression into a cosine function of the form given by (1.17):
y(x, t) = 2cos
4πt +10πx −
π
2
(cm).
Since the coefﬁcients of t and x both have the same sign, the wave is traveling in the negative xdirection.
(b) From the cosine expression, φ
0
=−π/2.
(c) ω = 2π f = 4π,
f = 4π/2π = 2 Hz.
(d) 2π/λ = 10π,
λ = 2π/10π = 0.2 m.
(e) u
p
= f λ = 20.2 = 0.4 (m/s).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 1.7 A wave traveling along a string in the +xdirection is given by
y
1
(x, t) = Acos(ωt −βx),
where x = 0 is the end of the string, which is tied rigidly to a wall, as shown in Fig. (P1.7). When wave y
1
(x, t) arrives at the
wall, a reﬂected wave y
2
(x, t) is generated. Hence, at any location on the string, the vertical displacement y
s
will be the sum
of the incident and reﬂected waves:
y
s
(x, t) = y
1
(x, t) +y
2
(x, t).
(a) Write down an expression for y
2
(x, t), keeping in mind its direction of travel and the fact that the end of the string
cannot move.
(b) Generate plots of y
1
(x, t), y
2
(x, t) and y
s
(x, t) versus x over the range −2λ ≤x ≤0 at ωt = π/4 and at ωt = π/2.
Figure P1.7: Wave on a string tied to a wall at x = 0 (Problem 1.7).
Solution:
(a) Since wave y
2
(x, t) was caused by wave y
1
(x, t), the two waves must have the same angular frequency ω, and since
y
2
(x, t) is traveling on the same string as y
1
(x, t), the two waves must have the same phase constant β. Hence, with its
direction being in the negative xdirection, y
2
(x, t) is given by the general form
y
2
(x, t) = Bcos(ωt +βx +φ
0
), (1.1)
where B and φ
0
are yettobedetermined constants. The total displacement is
y
s
(x, t) = y
1
(x, t) +y
2
(x, t) = Acos(ωt −βx) +Bcos(ωt +βx +φ
0
).
Since the string cannot move at x = 0, the point at which it is attached to the wall, y
s
(0, t) = 0 for all t. Thus,
y
s
(0, t) = Acosωt +Bcos(ωt +φ
0
) = 0. (1.2)
(i) Easy Solution: The physics of the problem suggests that a possible solution for (1.2) is B =−A and φ
0
= 0, in which case
we have
y
2
(x, t) =−Acos(ωt +βx). (1.3)
(ii) Rigorous Solution: By expanding the second term in (1.2), we have
Acosωt +B(cosωt cosφ
0
−sinωt sinφ
0
) = 0,
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
or
(A+Bcosφ
0
)cosωt −(Bsinφ
0
)sinωt = 0. (1.4)
This equation has to be satisﬁed for all values of t. At t = 0, it gives
A+Bcosφ
0
= 0, (1.5)
and at ωt = π/2, (1.4) gives
Bsinφ
0
= 0. (1.6)
Equations (1.5) and (1.6) can be satisﬁed simultaneously only if
A = B = 0 (1.7)
or
A =−B and φ
0
= 0. (1.8)
Clearly (1.7) is not an acceptable solution because it means that y
1
(x, t) =0, which is contrary to the statement of the problem.
The solution given by (1.8) leads to (1.3).
(b) At ωt = π/4,
y
1
(x, t) = Acos(π/4−βx) = Acos
π
4
−
2πx
λ
,
y
2
(x, t) =−Acos(ωt +βx) =−Acos
π
4
+
2πx
λ
.
Plots of y
1
, y
2
, and y
3
are shown in Fig. P1.7(b).
Figure P1.7: (b) Plots of y
1
, y
2
, and y
s
versus x at ωt = π/4.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
At ωt = π/2,
y
1
(x, t) = Acos(π/2−βx) = Asinβx = Asin
2πx
λ
,
y
2
(x, t) =−Acos(π/2+βx) = Asinβx = Asin
2πx
λ
.
Plots of y
1
, y
2
, and y
3
are shown in Fig. P1.7(c).
Figure P1.7: (c) Plots of y
1
, y
2
, and y
s
versus x at ωt = π/2.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 1.15 A laser beam traveling through fog was observed to have an intensity of 1 (µW/m
2
) at a distance of 2 m
from the laser gun and an intensity of 0.2 (µW/m
2
) at a distance of 3 m. Given that the intensity of an electromagnetic wave
is proportional to the square of its electricﬁeld amplitude, ﬁnd the attenuation constant α of fog.
Solution: If the electric ﬁeld is of the form
E(x, t) = E
0
e
−αx
cos(ωt −βx),
then the intensity must have a form
I(x, t) ≈[E
0
e
−αx
cos(ωt −βx)]
2
≈E
2
0
e
−2αx
cos
2
(ωt −βx)
or
I(x, t) = I
0
e
−2αx
cos
2
(ωt −βx)
where we deﬁne I
0
≈E
2
0
. We observe that the magnitude of the intensity varies as I
0
e
−2αx
. Hence,
at x = 2 m, I
0
e
−4α
= 110
−6
(W/m
2
),
at x = 3 m, I
0
e
−6α
= 0.210
−6
(W/m
2
).
I
0
e
−4α
I
0
e
−6α
=
10
−6
0.210
−6
= 5
e
−4α
e
6α
= e
2α
= 5
α = 0.8 (NP/m).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 1.18 Complex numbers z
1
and z
2
are given by
z
1
=−3+ j2
z
2
= 1− j2
Determine (a) z
1
z
2
, (b) z
1
/z
∗
2
, (c) z
2
1
, and (d) z
1
z
∗
1
, all all in polar form.
Solution:
(a) We ﬁrst convert z
1
and z
2
to polar form:
z
1
=−(3− j2) =−
3
2
+2
2
e
−j tan
−1
2/3
=−
√
13 e
−j33.7
◦
=
√
13 e
j(180
◦
−33.7
◦
)
=
√
13 e
j146.3
◦
.
z
2
= 1− j2 =
√
1+4 e
−j tan
−1
2
=
√
5 e
−j63.4
◦
.
z
1
z
2
=
√
13 e
j146.3
◦
√
5 e
−j63.4
◦
=
√
65 e
j82.9
◦
.
(b)
z
1
z
∗
2
=
√
13 e
j146.3
◦
√
5 e
j63.4
◦
=
13
5
e
j82.9
◦
.
(c)
z
2
1
= (
√
13)
2
(e
j146.3
◦
)
2
= 13e
j292.6
◦
= 13e
−j360
◦
e
j292.6
◦
= 13e
−j67.4
◦
.
(c)
z
1
z
∗
1
=
√
13 e
j146.3
◦
√
13 e
−j146.3
◦
= 13.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 1.20 Find complex numbers t = z
1
+z
2
and s = z
1
−z
2
, both in polar form, for each of the following pairs:
(a) z
1
= 2+ j3, z
2
= 1− j3,
(b) z
1
= 3, z
2
=−j3,
(c) z
1
= 3∠
30
◦
, z
2
= 3∠
−30
◦
,
(d) z
1
= 3∠
30
◦
, z
2
= 3∠
−150
◦
.
Solution:
(d)
t = z
1
+z
2
= 3∠
30
◦
+3∠
−150
◦
= (2.6+ j1.5) +(−2.6− j1.5) = 0,
s = z
1
−z
2
= (2.6+ j1.5) −(−2.6− j1.5) = 5.2+ j3 = 6e
j30
◦
.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 1.21 Complex numbers z
1
and z
2
are given by
z
1
= 5∠
−60
◦
,
z
2
= 4∠
45
◦
.
(a) Determine the product z
1
z
2
in polar form.
(b) Determine the product z
1
z
∗
2
in polar form.
(c) Determine the ratio z
1
/z
2
in polar form.
(d) Determine the ratio z
∗
1
/z
∗
2
in polar form.
(e) Determine
√
z
1
in polar form.
Solution:
(c)
z
1
z
2
=
5e
−j60
◦
4e
j45
◦
= 1.25e
−j105
◦
.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 1.24 If z = 3e
jπ/6
, ﬁnd the value of e
z
.
Solution:
z = 3e
jπ/6
= 3cosπ/6+ j3sinπ/6
= 2.6+ j1.5
e
z
= e
2.6+j1.5
= e
2.6
e
j1.5
= e
2.6
(cos1.5+ j sin1.5)
= 13.46(0.07+ j0.98)
= 0.95+ j13.43.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 1.26 Find the phasors of the following time functions:
(a) υ(t) = 9cos(ωt −π/3) (V)
(b) υ(t) = 12sin(ωt +π/4) (V)
(c) i(x, t) = 5e
−3x
sin(ωt +π/6) (A)
(d) i(t) =−2cos(ωt +3π/4) (A)
(e) i(t) = 4sin(ωt +π/3) +3cos(ωt −π/6) (A)
Solution:
(d)
i(t) =−2cos(ωt +3π/4),
¯
I =−2e
j3π/4
= 2e
−jπ
e
j3π/4
= 2e
−jπ/4
A.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 1.27 Find the instantaneous time sinusoidal functions corresponding to the following phasors:
(a)
¯
V =−5e
jπ/3
(V)
(b)
¯
V = j6e
−jπ/4
(V)
(c)
¯
I = (6+ j8) (A)
(d)
˜
I =−3+ j2 (A)
(e)
˜
I = j (A)
(f)
˜
I = 2e
jπ/6
(A)
Solution:
(d)
¯
I =−3+ j2 = 3.61e
j146.31
◦
,
i(t) = Re¦3.61e
j146.31
◦
e
jωt
¦ = 3.61 cos(ωt +146.31
◦
) A.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 1.29 The voltage source of the circuit shown in Fig. P1.29 is given by
v
s
(t) = 25cos(410
4
t −45
◦
) (V).
Obtain an expression for i
L
(t), the current ﬂowing through the inductor.
Figure P1.29: Circuit for Problem 1.29.
Solution: Based on the given voltage expression, the phasor source voltage is
¯
V
s
= 25e
−j45
◦
(V). (1.9)
The voltage equation for the lefthand side loop is
R
1
i +R
2
i
R
2
= v
s
(1.10)
For the righthand loop,
R
2
i
R
2
= L
di
L
dt
, (1.11)
and at node A,
i = i
R
2
+i
L
. (1.12)
Next, we convert Eqs. (2)–(4) into phasor form:
R
1
¯
I +R
2
¯
I
R
2
=
¯
V
s
(1.13)
R
2
¯
I
R
2
= jωL
¯
I
L
(1.14)
¯
I =
¯
I
R
2
+
¯
I
L
(1.15)
Upon combining (6) and (7) to solve for
¯
I
R
2
in terms of
¯
I, we have:
¯
I
R
2
=
jωL
R
2
+ jωL
I . (1.16)
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Substituting (8) in (5) and then solving for
¯
I leads to:
R
1
¯
I +
jR
2
ωL
R
2
+ jωL
¯
I =
¯
V
s
¯
I
R
1
+
jR
2
ωL
R
2
+ jωL
=
¯
V
s
¯
I
R
1
R
2
+ jR
1
ωL+ jR
2
ωL
R
2
+ jωL
=
¯
V
s
¯
I =
R
2
+ jωL
R
1
R
2
+ jωL(R
1
+R
2
)
¯
V
s
. (1.17)
Combining (6) and (7) to solve for
¯
I
L
in terms of
¯
I gives
¯
I
L
=
R
2
R
2
+ jωL
¯
I. (1.18)
Combining (9) and (10) leads to
¯
I
L
=
R
2
R
2
+ jωL
R
2
+ jωL
R
1
R
2
+ jωL(R
1
+R
2
)
¯
V
s
=
R
2
R
1
R
2
++jωL(R
1
+R
2
)
¯
V
s
.
Using (1) for
¯
V
s
and replacing R
1
, R
2
, L and ω with their numerical values, we have
¯
I
L
=
30
2030+ j410
4
0.410
−3
(20+30)
25e
−j45
◦
=
3025
600+ j800
e
−j45
◦
=
7.5
6+ j8
e
−j45
◦
=
7.5e
−j45
◦
10e
j53.1
◦
= 0.75e
−j98.1
◦
(A).
Finally,
i
L
(t) = Re[
¯
I
L
e
jωt
]
= 0.75cos(410
4
t −98.1
◦
) (A).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapter 2 Solved Problems
Problem 25
Problem 216
Problem 234
Problem 245
Problem 248
Problem 264
Problem 275
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 2.5 For the parallelplate transmission line of Problem 2.4, the line parameters are given by: R
/
= 1 Ω/m,
L
/
= 167 nH/m, G
/
= 0, and C
/
= 172 pF/m. Find α, β, u
p
, and Z
0
at 1 GHz.
Solution: At 1 GHz, ω = 2π f = 2π 10
9
rad/s. Application of (2.22) gives:
γ =
(R
/
+ jωL
/
)(G
/
+ jωC
/
)
= [(1+ j2π 10
9
16710
−9
)(0+ j2π 10
9
17210
−12
)]
1/2
= [(1+ j1049)( j1.1)]
1/2
=
¸
1+(1049)
2
e
j tan
−1
1049
1.1e
j90
◦
1/2
, ( j = e
j90
◦
)
=
1049e
j89.95
◦
1.1e
j90
◦
1/2
=
1154e
j179.95
◦
1/2
= 34e
j89.97
◦
= 34cos89.97
◦
+ j34sin89.97
◦
= 0.016+ j34.
Hence,
α = 0.016 Np/m,
β = 34 rad/m.
u
p
=
ω
β
=
2π f
β
=
2π 10
9
34
= 1.8510
8
m/s.
Z
0
=
¸
R
/
+ jωL
/
G
/
+ jωC
/
1/2
=
¸
1049e
j89.95
◦
1.1e
j90
◦
1/2
=
954e
−j0.05
◦
1/2
= 31e
−j0.025
◦
·(31− j0.01) Ω.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 2.16 A transmission line operating at 125 MHz has Z
0
= 40 Ω, α = 0.02 (Np/m), and β = 0.75 rad/m. Find the
line parameters R
/
, L
/
, G
/
, and C
/
.
Solution: Given an arbitrary transmission line, f = 125 MHz, Z
0
= 40 Ω, α = 0.02 Np/m, and β = 0.75 rad/m. Since Z
0
is real and α = 0, the line is distortionless. From Problem 2.13, β = ω
√
L
/
C
/
and Z
0
=
L
/
/C
/
, therefore,
L
/
=
βZ
0
ω
=
0.7540
2π 12510
6
= 38.2 nH/m.
Then, from Z
0
=
L
/
/C
/
,
C
/
=
L
/
Z
2
0
=
38.2 nH/m
40
2
= 23.9 pF/m.
From α =
√
R
/
G
/
and R
/
C
/
= L
/
G
/
,
R
/
=
√
R
/
G
/
R
/
G
/
=
√
R
/
G
/
L
/
C
/
= αZ
0
= 0.02 Np/m40 Ω= 0.6 Ω/m
and
G
/
=
α
2
R
/
=
(0.02 Np/m)
2
0.8 Ω/m
= 0.5 mS/m.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 2.34 A 50Ω lossless line is terminated in a load impedance Z
L
= (30− j20) Ω.
Figure P2.34: Circuit for Problem 2.34.
(a) Calculate Γ and S.
(b) It has been proposed that by placing an appropriately selected resistor across the line at a distance d
max
from the load
(as shown in Fig. P2.34(b)), where d
max
is the distance from the load of a voltage maximum, then it is possible to
render Z
i
= Z
0
, thereby eliminating reﬂection back to the end. Show that the proposed approach is valid and ﬁnd the
value of the shunt resistance.
Solution:
(a)
Γ =
Z
L
−Z
0
Z
L
+Z
0
=
30− j20−50
30− j20+50
=
−20− j20
80− j20
=
−(20+ j20)
80− j20
= 0.34e
−j121
◦
.
S =
1+[Γ[
1−[Γ[
=
1+0.34
1−0.34
= 2.
(b) We start by ﬁnding d
max
, the distance of the voltage maximum nearest to the load. Using (2.70) with n = 1,
d
max
=
θ
r
λ
4π
+
λ
2
=
−121
◦
π
180
◦
λ
4π
+
λ
2
= 0.33λ.
Applying (2.79) at d = d
max
= 0.33λ, for which βl = (2π/λ) 0.33λ = 2.07 radians, the value of Z
in
before adding the
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
shunt resistance is:
Z
in
= Z
0
Z
L
+ jZ
0
tanβl
Z
0
+ jZ
L
tanβl
= 50
(30− j20) + j50tan2.07
50+ j(30− j20)tan2.07
= (102+ j0) Ω.
Thus, at the location A (at a distance d
max
from the load), the input impedance is purely real. If we add a shunt resistor R in
parallel such that the combination is equal to Z
0
, then the new Z
in
at any point to the left of that location will be equal to Z
0
.
Hence, we need to select R such that
1
R
+
1
102
=
1
50
or R = 98 Ω.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 2.45 The circuit shown in Fig. P2.45 consists of a 100Ω lossless transmission line terminated in a load with
Z
L
= (50+ j100) Ω. If the peak value of the load voltage was measured to be [
¯
V
L
[ = 12 V, determine:
(a) the timeaverage power dissipated in the load,
(b) the timeaverage power incident on the line,
(c) the timeaverage power reﬂected by the load.
Figure P2.45: Circuit for Problem 2.45.
Solution:
(a)
Γ =
Z
L
−Z
0
Z
L
+Z
0
=
50+ j100−100
50+ j100+100
=
−50+ j100
150+ j100
= 0.62e
j82.9
◦
.
The time average power dissipated in the load is:
P
av
=
1
2
[
¯
I
L
[
2
R
L
=
1
2
¯
V
L
Z
L
2
R
L
=
1
2
[
¯
V
L
[
2
[Z
L
[
2
R
L
=
1
2
12
2
50
50
2
+100
2
= 0.29 W.
(b)
P
av
= P
i
av
(1−[Γ[
2
)
Hence,
P
i
av
=
P
av
1−[Γ[
2
=
0.29
1−0.62
2
= 0.47 W.
(c)
P
r
av
=−[Γ[
2
P
i
av
=−(0.62)
2
0.47 =−0.18 W.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 2.48 Repeat Problem 2.47 using CD Module 2.6.
Solution:
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 2.64 Use CD Module 2.7 to design a quarterwavelength transformer to match a load with Z
L
= (100− j200) Ω
to a 50Ω line.
Solution: Figure P2.64(a) displays the ﬁrst solution of Module 2.7 where a λ/4 section of Z
02
= 15.5015 Ω is inserted at
distance d
1
= 0.21829λ from the load.
Figure P2.64(b) displays a summary of the two possible solutions for matching the load to the feedline with a λ/4
transformer.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 2.75 Generate a bounce diagram for the voltage V(z, t) for a 1m–long lossless line characterized by Z
0
= 50 Ω
and u
p
= 2c/3 (where c is the velocity of light) if the line is fed by a step voltage applied at t = 0 by a generator circuit with
V
g
= 60 V and R
g
= 100 Ω. The line is terminated in a load R
L
= 25 Ω. Use the bounce diagram to plot V(t) at a point
midway along the length of the line from t = 0 to t = 25 ns.
Solution:
Γ
g
=
R
g
−Z
0
R
g
+Z
0
=
100−50
100+50
=
50
150
=
1
3
,
Γ
L
=
Z
L
−Z
0
Z
L
+Z
0
=
25−50
25+50
=
−25
75
=
−1
3
.
From Eq. (2.149b),
V
+
1
=
V
g
Z
0
R
g
+Z
0
=
6050
100+50
= 20 V.
Also,
T =
l
u
p
=
l
2c/3
=
3
2310
8
= 5 ns.
The bounce diagram is shown in Fig. P2.75(a) and the plot of V(t) in Fig. P2.75(b).
Figure P2.75: (a) Bounce diagram for Problem 2.75.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Figure P2.75: (b) Time response of voltage.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapter 3 Solved Problems
Problem 39
Problem 317
Problem 319
Problem 320
Problem 322
Problem 323
Problem 325
Problem 333
Problem 335
Problem 336
Problem 341
Problem 350
Problem 355
Problem 357
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.9 Find an expression for the unit vector directed toward the origin from an arbitrary point on the line described
by x = 1 and z = 2.
Solution: An arbitrary point on the given line is (1, y, 2). The vector from this point to (0, 0, 0) is:
A = ˆ x(0−1) + ˆ y(0−y) +ˆ z(0−2) =−ˆ x−ˆ yy −2ˆ z,
[A[ =
1+y
2
+4 =
5+y
2
,
ˆ a =
A
[A[
=
−ˆ x−ˆ yy −ˆ z2
5+y
2
.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.17 Find a vector G whose magnitude is 4 and whose direction is perpendicular to both vectors E and F, where
E = ˆ x+ ˆ y2−ˆ z2 and F = ˆ y3−ˆ z6.
Solution: The cross product of two vectors produces a third vector which is perpendicular to both of the original vectors.
Two vectors exist that satisfy the stated conditions, one along EF and another along the opposite direction. Hence,
G =±4
EF
[EF[
=±4
(ˆ x+ ˆ y2−ˆ z2)(ˆ y3−ˆ z6)
[(ˆ x+ ˆ y2−ˆ z2)(ˆ y3−ˆ z6)[
=±4
(−ˆ x6+ ˆ y6+ˆ z3)
√
36+36+9
=±
4
9
(−ˆ x6+ ˆ y6+ˆ z3) =±
−ˆ x
8
3
+ ˆ y
8
3
+ˆ z
4
3
.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.19 Vector ﬁeld E is given by
E =
ˆ
R 5Rcosθ −
ˆ
θθθ
12
R
sinθ cosφ +
ˆ
φφφ3sinφ.
Determine the component of E tangential to the spherical surface R = 2 at point P = (2, 30
◦
, 60
◦
).
Solution: At P, E is given by
E =
ˆ
R 52cos30
◦
−
ˆ
θθθ
12
2
sin30
◦
cos60
◦
+
ˆ
φφφ3sin60
◦
=
ˆ
R 8.67−
ˆ
θθθ1.5+
ˆ
φφφ2.6.
The
ˆ
R component is normal to the spherical surface while the other two are tangential. Hence,
E
t
=−
ˆ
θθθ1.5+
ˆ
φφφ2.6.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.20 When sketching or demonstrating the spatial variation of a vector ﬁeld, we often use arrows, as in
Fig. P3.20, wherein the length of the arrow is made to be proportional to the strength of the ﬁeld and the direction of
the arrow is the same as that of the ﬁeld’s. The sketch shown in Fig. P3.20, which represents the vector ﬁeld E = ˆ rr, consists
of arrows pointing radially away from the origin and their lengths increase linearly in proportion to their distance away from
the origin. Using this arrow representation, sketch each of the following vector ﬁelds:
(a) E
1
=−ˆ xy,
(b) E
2
= ˆ yx,
(c) E
3
= ˆ xx + ˆ yy,
(d) E
4
= ˆ xx + ˆ y2y,
(e) E
5
=
ˆ
φφφr,
(f) E
6
= ˆ rsinφ.
Figure P3.20: Arrow representation for vector ﬁeld E = ˆ rr (Problem 3.20).
Solution:
(b)
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Figure P3.20(b): E
2
=−ˆ yx
(e)
Figure P3.20(e): E
5
=
ˆ
φφφ r
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.22 Convert the coordinates of the following points from Cartesian to cylindrical and spherical coordinates:
(a) P
1
= (1, 2, 0),
(b) P
2
= (0, 0, 2),
(c) P
3
= (1, 1, 3),
(d) P
4
= (−2, 2, −2).
Solution: Use the “coordinate variables” column in Table 32.
(a) In the cylindrical coordinate system,
P
1
= (
1
2
+2
2
, tan
−1
(2/1), 0) = (
√
5, 1.107 rad, 0) ≈(2.24, 63.4
◦
, 0).
In the spherical coordinate system,
P
1
= (
1
2
+2
2
+0
2
, tan
−1
(
1
2
+2
2
/0), tan
−1
(2/1))
= (
√
5, π/2 rad, 1.107 rad) ≈(2.24, 90.0
◦
, 63.4
◦
).
Note that in both the cylindrical and spherical coordinates, φ is in Quadrant I.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.23 Convert the coordinates of the following points from cylindrical to Cartesian coordinates:
(a) P
1
= (2, π/4, −3),
(b) P
2
= (3, 0, −2),
(c) P
3
= (4, π, 5).
Solution: (b) P
2
= (x, y, z) = P
2
= (3cos0, 3sin0, −2) = P
2
= (3, 0, −2).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.25 Use the appropriate expression for the differential surface area ds to determine the area of each of the
following surfaces:
(a) r = 3; 0 ≤φ ≤π/3; −2 ≤z ≤2,
(b) 2 ≤r ≤5; π/2 ≤φ ≤π; z = 0,
(c) 2 ≤r ≤5; φ = π/4; −2 ≤z ≤2,
(d) R = 2; 0 ≤θ ≤π/3; 0 ≤φ ≤π,
(e) 0 ≤R ≤5; θ = π/3; 0 ≤φ ≤2π.
Also sketch the outlines of each of the surfaces.
Solution:
Figure P3.25: Surfaces described by Problem 3.25.
(d) Using Eq. (3.50b),
A =
π/3
θ=0
π
φ=0
R
2
sinθ
R=2
dφ dθ =
(−4φ cosθ)[
π/3
θ=0
π
φ=0
= 2π.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.33 Transform the vector
A =
ˆ
Rsin
2
θ cosφ +
ˆ
θθθ cos
2
φ −
ˆ
φφφ sinφ
into cylindrical coordinates and then evaluate it at P = (2, π/2, π/2).
Solution: From Table 32,
A = (ˆ r sinθ +ˆ zcosθ)sin
2
θ cosφ +(ˆ r cosθ −ˆ zsinθ)cos
2
φ −
ˆ
φφφ sinφ
= ˆ r(sin
3
θ cosφ +cosθ cos
2
φ) −
ˆ
φφφ sinφ +ˆ z(cosθ sin
2
θ cosφ −sinθ cos
2
φ)
At P = (2, π/2, π/2),
A =−
ˆ
φφφ.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.35 Transform the following vectors into spherical coordinates and then evaluate them at the indicated points:
(a) A = ˆ xy
2
+ ˆ yxz +ˆ z4 at P
1
= (1, −1, 2),
(b) B = ˆ y(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
) −ˆ z(x
2
+y
2
) at P
2
= (−1, 0, 2),
(c) C = ˆ rcosφ −
ˆ
φφφ sinφ +ˆ zcosφ sinφ at P
3
= (2, π/4, 2), and
(d) D = ˆ xy
2
/(x
2
+y
2
) −ˆ yx
2
/(x
2
+y
2
) +ˆ z4 at P
4
= (1, −1, 2).
Solution: From Table 32:
(c)
C = (
ˆ
Rsinθ +
ˆ
θθθ cosθ)cosφ −
ˆ
φφφ sinφ +(
ˆ
Rcosθ −
ˆ
θθθ sinθ)cosφ sinφ
=
ˆ
Rcosφ(sinθ +cosθ sinφ) +
ˆ
θθθ cosφ(cosθ −sinθ sinφ) −
ˆ
φφφ sinφ,
P
3
=
2
2
+2
2
, tan
−1
(2/2), π/4
= (2
√
2, 45
◦
, 45
◦
),
C(P
3
) ≈
ˆ
R0.854+
ˆ
θθθ0.146−
ˆ
φφφ0.707.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.36 Find the gradient of the following scalar functions:
(a) T = 3/(x
2
+z
2
),
(b) V = xy
2
z
4
,
(c) U = zcosφ/(1+r
2
),
(d) W = e
−R
sinθ,
(e) S = 4x
2
e
−z
+y
3
,
(f) N = r
2
cos
2
φ,
(g) M = Rcosθ sinφ.
Solution: (d) From Eq. (3.83),
∇W =−
ˆ
Re
−R
sinθ +
ˆ
θθθ(e
−R
/R)cosθ.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.41 Evaluate the line integral of E= ˆ xx−ˆ yy along the segment P
1
to P
2
of the circular path shown in the ﬁgure.
Solution: We need to calculate:
P
2
P
1
E d.
Since the path is along the perimeter of a circle, it is best to use cylindrical coordinates, which requires expressing both E
and d in cylindrical coordinates. Using Table 32,
E = ˆ xx −ˆ yy = (ˆ r cosφ −
ˆ
φφφ sinφ)r cosφ −(ˆ r sinφ +
ˆ
φφφ cosφ)r sinφ
= ˆ r r(cos
2
φ −sin
2
φ) −
ˆ
φφφ2r sinφ cosφ
The designated path is along the φdirection at a constant r = 3. From Table 31, the applicable component of d is:
d =
ˆ
φφφ r dφ.
Hence,
P
2
P
1
E d =
φ=180
◦
φ=90
◦
ˆ rr(cos
2
φ −sin
2
φ) −
ˆ
φφφ 2r sinφ cosφ
ˆ
φφφ r dφ
r=3
=
180
◦
90
◦
−2r
2
sinφ cosφ dφ
r=3
=−2r
2
sin
2
φ
2
180
◦
φ=90
◦
r=3
= 9.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.50 For the vector ﬁeld E = ˆ xxy −ˆ y(x
2
+2y
2
), calculate
(a)
n
C
E dl around the triangular contour shown in Fig. P3.50(a), and
(b)
S
(∇E) ds over the area of the triangle.
Solution: In addition to the independent condition that z = 0, the three lines of the triangle are represented by the equations
y = 0, x = 1, and y = x, respectively.
Figure P3.50: Contours for (a) Problem 3.50 and (b) Problem 3.51.
(a)
n
E dl = L
1
+L
2
+L
3
,
L
1
=
(ˆ xxy −ˆ y(x
2
+2y
2
)) (ˆ xdx + ˆ ydy +ˆ z dz)
=
1
x=0
(xy)[
y=0,z=0
dx −
0
y=0
x
2
+2y
2
z=0
dy +
0
z=0
(0)[
y=0
dz = 0,
L
2
=
(ˆ xxy −ˆ y(x
2
+2y
2
)) (ˆ xdx + ˆ ydy +ˆ z dz)
=
1
x=1
(xy)[
z=0
dx −
1
y=0
x
2
+2y
2
x=1,z=0
dy +
0
z=0
(0)[
x=1
dz
= 0−
y +
2y
3
3
1
y=0
+0 =
−5
3
,
L
3
=
(ˆ xxy −ˆ y(x
2
+2y
2
)) (ˆ xdx + ˆ ydy +ˆ z dz)
=
0
x=1
(xy)[
y=x, z=0
dx −
0
y=1
x
2
+2y
2
x=y, z=0
dy +
0
z=0
(0)[
y=x
dz
=
x
3
3
0
x=1
−
y
3
0
y=1
+0 =
2
3
.
Therefore,
n
E dl = 0−
5
3
+
2
3
=−1.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
(b) From Eq. (3.105), ∇E =−ˆ z3x, so that
∇E ds =
1
x=0
x
y=0
((−ˆ z3x) (ˆ z dy dx))[
z=0
=−
1
x=0
x
y=0
3x dy dx =−
1
x=0
3x(x −0) dx =−
x
3
1
0
=−1.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.55 Verify Stokes’s theorem for the vector ﬁeld B = (ˆ r cosφ +
ˆ
φφφ sinφ) by evaluating:
(a)
n
C
B d over the path comprising a quarter section of a circle, as shown in Fig. P3.55, and
(b)
S
(∇B) ds over the surface of the quarter section.
Solution:
(a)
n
C
B d =
L
1
B d +
L
2
B d +
L
3
B d
Given the shape of the path, it is best to use cylindrical coordinates. B is already expressed in cylindrical coordinates, and
we need to choose d in cylindrical coordinates:
d = ˆ r dr +
ˆ
φφφr dφ +ˆ z dz.
Along path L
1
, dφ = 0 and dz = 0. Hence, d = ˆ r dr and
L
1
B d =
r=3
r=0
(ˆ r cosφ +
ˆ
φφφ sinφ) ˆ r dr
φ=90
◦
=
3
r=0
cosφ dr
φ=90
◦
= r cosφ[
3
r=0
φ=90
◦
= 0.
Along L
2
, dr = dz = 0. Hence, d =
ˆ
φφφr dφ and
L
2
B d =
180
◦
φ=90
◦
(ˆ r cosφ +
ˆ
φφφ sinφ)
ˆ
φφφr dφ
r=3
= −3cosφ[
180
◦
90
◦ = 3.
Along L
3
, dz = 0 and dφ = 0. Hence, d = ˆ r dr and
L
3
B d =
0
r=3
(ˆ r cosφ +
ˆ
φφφ sinφ) ˆ r dr
φ=180
◦
=
0
r=3
cosφ dr[
φ=180
◦ = −r[
0
3
= 3.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Hence,
n
C
B d = 0+3+3 = 6.
(b)
∇B = ˆ z
1
r
∂
∂r
rB
φ
−
∂B
r
∂φ
= ˆ z
1
r
∂
∂r
(r sinφ) −
∂
∂φ
(cosφ)
= ˆ z
1
r
(sinφ +sinφ) = ˆ z
2
r
sinφ.
S
(∇B) ds =
3
r=0
180
◦
φ=90
◦
ˆ z
2
r
sinφ
ˆ zr dr dφ
= −2r[
3
r=0
cosφ
180
◦
φ=90
◦
= 6.
Hence, Stokes’s theorem is veriﬁed.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.57 Find the Laplacian of the following scalar functions:
(a) V = 4xy
2
z
3
,
(b) V = xy +yz +zx,
(c) V = 3/(x
2
+y
2
),
(d) V = 5e
−r
cosφ,
(e) V = 10e
−R
sinθ.
Solution:
(a) From Eq. (3.110), ∇
2
(4xy
2
z
3
) = 8xz
3
+24xy
2
z.
(b) ∇
2
(xy +yz +zx) = 0.
(c) From the inside back cover of the book,
∇
2
3
x
2
+y
2
=∇
2
(3r
−2
) = 12r
−4
=
12
(x
2
+y
2
)
2
.
(d)
∇
2
(5e
−r
cosφ) = 5e
−r
cosφ
1−
1
r
−
1
r
2
.
(e)
∇
2
(10e
−R
sinθ) = 10e
−R
sinθ
1−
2
R
+
cos
2
θ −sin
2
θ
R
2
sinθ
.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapter 4 Solved Problems
Problem 45
Problem 49
Problem 412
Problem 429
Problem 437
Problem 447
Problem 457
Problem 460
Problem 462
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 4.5 Find the total charge on a circular disk deﬁned by r ≤a and z = 0 if:
(a) ρ
s
= ρ
s0
cosφ (C/m
2
)
(b) ρ
s
= ρ
s0
sin
2
φ (C/m
2
)
(c) ρ
s
= ρ
s0
e
−r
(C/m
2
)
(d) ρ
s
= ρ
s0
e
−r
sin
2
φ (C/m
2
)
where ρ
s0
is a constant.
Solution:
(c)
Q =
a
r=0
2π
φ=0
ρ
s0
e
−r
r dr dφ = 2πρ
s0
a
0
re
−r
dr
= 2πρ
s0
−re
−r
−e
−r
a
0
= 2πρ
s0
[1−e
−a
(1+a)].
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 4.9 A circular beam of charge of radius a consists of electrons moving with a constant speed u along the
+zdirection. The beam’s axis is coincident with the zaxis and the electron charge density is given by
ρ
v
=−cr
2
(c/m
3
)
where c is a constant and r is the radial distance from the axis of the beam.
(a) Determine the charge density per unit length.
(b) Determine the current crossing the zplane.
Solution:
(a)
ρ
l
=
ρ
v
ds
=
a
r=0
2π
φ=0
−cr
2
r dr dφ =−2πc
r
4
4
a
0
=−
πca
4
2
(C/m).
(b)
J = ρ
v
u =−ˆ zcr
2
u (A/m
2
)
I =
J ds
=
a
r=0
2π
φ=0
(−ˆ zcur
2
) ˆ zr dr dφ
=−2πcu
a
0
r
3
dr =−
πcua
4
2
= ρ
l
u. (A).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 4.12 Three point charges, each with q = 3 nC, are located at the corners of a triangle in the x–y plane, with one
corner at the origin, another at (2 cm, 0, 0), and the third at (0, 2 cm, 0). Find the force acting on the charge located at the
origin.
Solution: Use Eq. (4.19) to determine the electric ﬁeld at the origin due to the other two point charges [Fig. P4.12]:
E =
1
4πε
¸
3 nC (−ˆ x0.02)
(0.02)
3
+
3 nC (−ˆ y0.02)
(0.02)
3
=−67.4(ˆ x+ ˆ y) (kV/m) at R = 0.
Employ Eq. (4.14) to ﬁnd the force F = qE =−202.2(ˆ x+ ˆ y) (µN).
Figure P4.12: Locations of charges in Problem 4.12.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 4.29 A spherical shell with outer radius b surrounds a chargefree cavity of radius a < b (Fig. P4.29). If the
shell contains a charge density given by
ρ
v
=−
ρ
v0
R
2
, a ≤R ≤b,
where ρ
v0
is a positive constant, determine D in all regions.
Figure P4.29: Problem 4.29.
Solution: Symmetry dictates that D is radially oriented. Thus,
D =
ˆ
RD
R
.
At any R, Gauss’s law gives
n
S
D ds = Q
S
ˆ
RD
R
ˆ
R ds = Q
4πR
2
D
R
= Q
D
R
=
Q
4πR
2
.
(a) For R < a, no charge is contained in the cavity. Hence, Q = 0, and
D
R
= 0, R ≤a.
(b) For a ≤R ≤b,
Q =
R
R=a
ρ
v
dV =
R
R=a
−
ρ
v0
R
2
4πR
2
dR
=−4πρ
v0
(R−a).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Hence,
D
R
=−
ρ
v0
(R−a)
R
2
, a ≤R ≤b.
(c) For R ≥b,
Q =
b
R=a
ρ
v
dV =−4πρ
v0
(b−a)
D
R
=−
ρ
v0
(b−a)
R
2
, R ≥b.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 4.37 Two inﬁnite lines of charge, both parallel to the zaxis, lie in the x–z plane, one with density ρ
and located
at x = a and the other with density −ρ
and located at x = −a. Obtain an expression for the electric potential V(x, y) at a
point P = (x, y) relative to the potential at the origin.
Figure P4.37: Problem 4.37.
Solution: According to the result of Problem 4.33, the electric potential difference between a point at a distance r
1
and
another at a distance r
2
from a line charge of density ρ
l
is
V =
ρ
l
2πε
0
ln
r
2
r
1
.
Applying this result to the line charge at x = a, which is at a distance a from the origin:
V
/
=
ρ
l
2πε
0
ln
a
r
/
(r
2
= a and r
1
= r
/
)
=
ρ
l
2πε
0
ln
a
(x −a)
2
+y
2
.
Similarly, for the negative line charge at x =−a,
V
//
=
−ρ
l
2πε
0
ln
a
r
//
(r
2
= a and r
1
= r
/
)
=
−ρ
l
2πε
0
ln
a
(x +a)
2
+y
2
.
The potential due to both lines is
V =V
/
+V
//
=
ρ
l
2πε
0
¸
ln
a
(x −a)
2
+y
2
−ln
a
(x +a)
2
+y
2
¸
.
At the origin, V = 0, as it should be since the origin is the reference point. The potential is also zero along all points on the
yaxis (x = 0).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 4.47 A cylindershaped carbon resistor is 8 cm in length and its circular cross section has a diameter d = 1 mm.
(a) Determine the resistance R.
(b) To reduce its resistance by 40%, the carbon resistor is coated with a layer of copper of thickness t. Use the result of
Problem 4.44 to determine t.
Solution: According to the result of Problem 4.33, the electric potential difference between a point at a distance r
1
and
another at a distance r
2
from a line charge of density ρ
l
is
V =
ρ
l
2πε
0
ln
r
2
r
1
.
Applying this result to the line charge at x = a, which is at a distance a from the origin:
V
/
=
ρ
l
2πε
0
ln
a
r
/
(r
2
= a and r
1
= r
/
)
=
ρ
l
2πε
0
ln
a
(x −a)
2
+y
2
.
Similarly, for the negative line charge at x =−a,
V
//
=
−ρ
l
2πε
0
ln
a
r
//
(r
2
= a and r
1
= r
/
)
=
−ρ
l
2πε
0
ln
a
(x +a)
2
+y
2
.
The potential due to both lines is
V =V
/
+V
//
=
ρ
l
2πε
0
¸
ln
a
(x −a)
2
+y
2
−ln
a
(x +a)
2
+y
2
¸
.
At the origin, V = 0, as it should be since the origin is the reference point. The potential is also zero along all points on the
yaxis (x = 0).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 4.57 Use the result of Problem 4.56 to determine the capacitance for each of the following conﬁgurations:
(a) Conducting plates are on top and bottom faces of the rectangular structure in Fig. P4.57(a).
(b) Conducting plates are on front and back faces of the structure in Fig. P4.57(a).
(c) Conducting plates are on top and bottom faces of the cylindrical structure in Fig. P4.57(b).
Solution:
(a) The two capacitors share the same voltage; hence they are in parallel.
C
1
= ε
1
A
1
d
= 2ε
0
(51) 10
−4
210
−2
= 5ε
0
10
−2
,
C
2
= ε
2
A
2
d
= 4ε
0
(53) 10
−4
210
−2
= 30ε
0
10
−2
,
C =C
1
+C
2
= (5ε
0
+30ε
0
) 10
−2
= 0.35ε
0
= 3.110
−12
F.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Figure P4.57: Dielectric sections for Problems 4.57 and 4.59.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 4.60 A coaxial capacitor consists of two concentric, conducting, cylindrical surfaces, one of radius a and another
of radius b, as shown in Fig. P4.60. The insulating layer separating the two conducting surfaces is divided equally into two
semicylindrical sections, one ﬁlled with dielectric ε
1
and the other ﬁlled with dielectric ε
2
.
(a) Develop an expression for C in terms of the length l and the given quantities.
(b) Evaluate the value of C for a = 2 mm, b = 6 mm, ε
r
1
= 2, ε
r
2
= 4, and l = 4 cm.
Figure P4.60: Problem 4.60.
Solution:
(a) For the indicated voltage polarity, the E ﬁeld inside the capacitor exists in only the dielectric materials and points
radially inward. Let E
1
be the ﬁeld in dielectric ε
1
and E
2
be the ﬁeld in dielectric ε
2
. At the interface between the two
dielectric sections, E
1
is parallel to E
2
and both are tangential to the interface. Since boundary conditions require that the
tangential components of E
1
and E
2
be the same, it follows that:
E
1
= E
2
=−ˆ rE.
At r = a (surface of inner conductor), in medium 1, the boundary condition on D, as stated by (4.101), leads to
D
1
= ε
1
E
1
= ˆ nρ
s1
−ˆ rε
1
E = ˆ rρ
s1
or
ρ
s1
=−ε
1
E.
Similarly, in medium 2
ρ
s2
=−ε
2
E.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Thus, the E ﬁelds will be the same in the two dielectrics, but the charge densities will be different along the two sides of the
inner conducting cylinder.
Since the same voltage applies for the two sections of the capacitor, we can treat them as two capacitors in parallel. For
the capacitor half that includes dielectric ε
1
, we can apply the results of Eqs. (4.114)–(4.116), but we have to keep in mind
that Q is now the charge on only one half of the inner cylinder. Hence,
C
1
=
πε
1
l
ln(b/a)
.
Similarly,
C
2
=
πε
2
l
ln(b/a)
,
and
C =C
1
+C
2
=
πl(ε
1
+ε
2
)
ln(b/a)
.
(b)
C =
π 410
−2
(2+4) 8.8510
−12
ln(6/2)
= 6.07 pF.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 4.62 Conducting wires above a conducting plane carry currents I
1
and I
2
in the directions shown in Fig. P4.62.
Keeping in mind that the direction of a current is deﬁned in terms of the movement of positive charges, what are the directions
of the image currents corresponding to I
1
and I
2
?
Figure P4.62: Currents above a conducting plane
(Problem 4.62).
Solution:
(a) In the image current, movement of negative charges downward = movement of positive charges upward. Hence, image
of I
1
is same as I
1
.
Figure P4.62: (a) Solution for part (a).
(b) In the image current, movement of negative charges to right = movement of positive charges to left.
Figure P4.62: (b) Solution for part (b).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapter 5 Solved Problems
Problem 55
Problem 535
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 5.5 In a cylindrical coordinate system, a 2mlong straight wire carrying a current of 5 A in the positive z
direction is located at r = 4 cm, φ = π/2, and −1 m≤z ≤1 m.
(a) If B = ˆ r0.2cosφ (T), what is the magnetic force acting on the wire?
(b) How much work is required to rotate the wire once about the zaxis in the negative φdirection (while maintaining
r = 4 cm)?
(c) At what angle φ is the force a maximum?
Solution:
(a)
F = IB
= 5ˆ z2[ˆ r0.2cosφ]
=
ˆ
φφφ 2cosφ.
At φ = π/2,
ˆ
φφφ =−ˆ x. Hence,
F =−ˆ x2cos(π/2) = 0.
(b)
W =
2π
φ=0
F dl =
2π
0
ˆ
φφφ [2cosφ] (−
ˆ
φφφ)r dφ
r=4 cm
=−2r
2π
0
cosφ dφ
r=4 cm
=−810
−2
[sinφ]
2π
0
= 0.
The force is in the +
ˆ
φφφdirection, which means that rotating it in the −
ˆ
φφφdirection would require work. However, the force
varies as cosφ, which means it is positive when −π/2 ≤φ ≤π/2 and negative over the second half of the circle. Thus, work
is provided by the force between φ = π/2 and φ = −π/2 (when rotated in the −
ˆ
φφφdirection), and work is supplied for the
second half of the rotation, resulting in a net work of zero.
(c) The force F is maximum when cosφ = 1, or φ = 0.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 5.35 The plane boundary deﬁned by z = 0 separates air from a block of iron. If B
1
= ˆ x4−ˆ y6+ˆ z8 in air (z ≥0),
ﬁnd B
2
in iron (z ≤0), given that µ = 5000µ
0
for iron.
Solution: From Eq. (5.2),
H
1
=
B
1
µ
1
=
1
µ
1
(ˆ x4−ˆ y6+ˆ z8).
The z component is the normal component to the boundary at z = 0. Therefore, from Eq. (5.79), B
2z
= B
1z
= 8 while, from
Eq. (5.85),
H
2x
= H
1x
=
1
µ
1
4, H
2y
= H
1y
=−
1
µ
1
6,
or
B
2x
= µ
2
H
2x
=
µ
2
µ
1
4, B
2y
= µ
2
H
2y
=−
µ
2
µ
1
6,
where µ
2
/µ
1
= µ
r
= 5000. Therefore,
B
2
= ˆ x20000−ˆ y30000+ˆ z8.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapter 6 Solved Problems
Problem 68
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 6.8 The transformer shown in Fig. P6.8 consists of a long wire coincident with the zaxis carrying a current
I = I
0
cosωt, coupling magnetic energy to a toroidal coil situated in the x–y plane and centered at the origin. The toroidal
core uses iron material with relative permeability µ
r
, around which 100 turns of a tightly wound coil serves to induce a
voltage V
emf
, as shown in the ﬁgure.
Figure P6.8: Problem 6.8.
(a) Develop an expression for V
emf
.
(b) Calculate V
emf
for f = 60 Hz, µ
r
= 4000, a = 5 cm, b = 6 cm, c = 2 cm, and I
0
= 50 A.
Solution:
(a) We start by calculating the magnetic ﬂux through the coil, noting that r, the distance from the wire varies from a to b
Φ=
S
B ds =
b
a
ˆ x
µI
2πr
ˆ xc dr =
µcI
2π
ln
b
a
V
emf
=−N
dΦ
dt
=−
µcN
2π
ln
b
a
dI
dt
=
µcNωI
0
2π
ln
b
a
sinωt (V).
(b)
V
emf
=
40004π 10
−7
210
−2
1002π 6050ln(6/5)
2π
sin377t
= 5.5sin377t (V).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapter 7 Solved Problems
Problem 77
Problem 723
Problem 728
Problem 733
Problem 736
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 7.7 A 60MHz plane wave traveling in the −xdirection in dry soil with relative permittivity ε
r
= 4 has an
electric ﬁeld polarized along the zdirection. Assuming dry soil to be approximately lossless, and given that the magnetic
ﬁeld has a peak value of 10 (mA/m) and that its value was measured to be 7 (mA/m) at t = 0 and x = −0.75 m, develop
complete expressions for the wave’s electric and magnetic ﬁelds.
Solution: For f = 60 MHz = 610
7
Hz, ε
r
= 4, µ
r
= 1,
k =
ω
c
√
ε
r
=
2π 610
7
310
8
√
4 = 0.8π (rad/m).
Given that E points along ˆ z and wave travel is along −ˆ x, we can write
E(x, t) = ˆ zE
0
cos(2π 6010
6
t +0.8πx +φ
0
) (V/m)
where E
0
and φ
0
are unknown constants at this time. The intrinsic impedance of the medium is
η =
η
0
√
ε
r
=
120π
2
= 60π (Ω).
With E along ˆ z and
ˆ
k along −ˆ x, (7.39) gives
H =
1
η
ˆ
kE
or
H(x, t) = ˆ y
E
0
η
cos(1.2π 10
8
t +0.8πx +φ
0
) (A/m).
Hence,
E
0
η
= 10 (mA/m)
E
0
= 1060π 10
−3
= 0.6π (V/m).
Also,
H(−0.75 m, 0) = 710
−3
= 10cos(−0.8π 0.75+φ
0
) 10
−3
which leads to φ
0
= 153.6
◦
.
Hence,
E(x, t) = ˆ z0.6π cos(1.2π 10
8
t +0.8πx +153.6
◦
) (V/m).
H(x, t) = ˆ y10cos(1.2π 10
8
t +0.8πx +153.6
◦
) (mA/m).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 7.23 At 2 GHz, the conductivity of meat is on the order of 1 (S/m). When a material is placed inside a microwave
oven and the ﬁeld is activated, the presence of the electromagnetic ﬁelds in the conducting material causes energy dissipation
in the material in the form of heat.
(a) Develop an expression for the timeaverage power per mm
3
dissipated in a material of conductivity σ if the peak
electric ﬁeld in the material is E
0
.
(b) Evaluate the result for an electric ﬁeld E
0
= 410
4
(V/m).
Solution:
(a) Let us consider a small volume of the material in the shape of a box of length d and cross sectional area A. Let us
assume the microwave oven creates a wave traveling along the z direction with E along y, as shown.
Along y, the E ﬁeld will create a voltage difference across the length of the box V, where
V = Ed.
Conduction current through the cross sectional area A is
I = JA = σEA.
Hence, the instantaneous power is
P = IV = σE
2
(Ad)
= σE
2
V .
where V = Ad is the small volume under consideration. The power per mm
3
is obtained by setting V = (10
−3
)
3
,
P
/
=
P
10
−9
= σE
2
10
−9
(W/mm
3
).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
As a time harmonic signal, E = E
0
cosωt. The time average dissipated power is
P
/
av
=
¸
1
T
T
0
σE
2
0
cos
2
ωt dt
10
−9
=
1
2
σE
2
0
10
−9
(W/mm
3
).
(b)
P
/
av
=
1
2
1(410
4
)210
−9
= 0.8 (W/mm
3
).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 7.28 A wave traveling in a nonmagnetic medium with ε
r
= 9 is characterized by an electric ﬁeld given by
E = [ ˆ y3cos(π 10
7
t +kx)
−ˆ z2cos(π 10
7
t +kx)] (V/m)
Determine the direction of wave travel and average power density carried by the wave.
Solution:
η ·
η
0
√
ε
r
=
120π
√
9
= 40π (Ω).
The wave is traveling in the negative xdirection.
S
av
=−ˆ x
[3
2
+2
2
]
2η
=−ˆ x
13
240π
=−ˆ x0.05 (W/m
2
).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 7.33 Consider the imaginary rectangular box shown in Fig. P7.33.
(a) Determine the net power ﬂux P(t) entering the box due to a plane wave in air given by
E = ˆ xE
0
cos(ωt −ky) (V/m)
(b) Determine the net timeaverage power entering the box.
Figure P7.33: Imaginary rectangular box of Problems 7.33 and 7.34.
Solution:
(a)
E = ˆ xE
0
cos(ωt −ky),
H =−ˆ z
E
0
η
0
cos(ωt −ky).
S(t) = EH = ˆ y
E
2
0
η
0
cos
2
(ωt −ky),
P(t) = S(t) A[
y=0
−S(t) A[
y=b
=
E
2
0
η
0
ac[cos
2
ωt −cos
2
(ωt −kb)].
(b)
P
av
=
1
T
T
0
P(t) dt.
where T = 2π/ω.
P
av
=
E
2
0
ac
η
0
ω
2π
2π/ω
0
[cos
2
ωt −cos
2
(ωt −kb)] dt
= 0.
Net average energy entering the box is zero, which is as expected since the box is in a lossless medium (air).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 7.36 A team of scientists is designing a radar as a probe for measuring the depth of the ice layer over the antarctic
land mass. In order to measure a detectable echo due to the reﬂection by the icerock boundary, the thickness of the ice sheet
should not exceed three skin depths. If ε
/
r
= 3 and ε
//
r
= 10
−2
for ice and if the maximum anticipated ice thickness in the area
under exploration is 1.2 km, what frequency range is useable with the radar?
Solution:
3δ
s
= 1.2 km = 1200 m
δ
s
= 400 m.
Hence,
α =
1
δ
s
=
1
400
= 2.510
−3
(Np/m).
Since ε
//
/ε
/
<1, we can use (7.75a) for α:
α =
ωε
//
2
µ
ε
/
=
2π f ε
//
r
ε
0
2
ε
/
r
√
ε
0
√
µ
0
=
π f ε
//
r
c
√
ε
r
=
π f 10
−2
310
8
√
3
= 6 f 10
−11
Np/m.
For α = 2.510
−3
= 6 f 10
−11
,
f = 41.6 MHz.
Since α increases with increasing frequency, the useable frequency range is
f ≤41.6 MHz.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapter 8 Solved Problems
Problem 83
Problem 814
Problem 832
Problem 836
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 8.3 A plane wave traveling in a medium with ε
r
1
= 9 is normally incident upon a second medium with ε
r
2
= 4.
Both media are made of nonmagnetic, nonconducting materials. If the magnetic ﬁeld of the incident plane wave is given by
H
i
= ˆ z2cos(2π 10
9
t −ky) (A/m).
(a) Obtain timedomain expressions for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in each of the two media.
(b) Determine the average power densities of the incident, reﬂected, and transmitted waves.
Solution:
(a) In medium 1,
u
p
=
c
√
ε
r
1
=
310
8
√
9
= 110
8
(m/s),
k
1
=
ω
u
p
=
2π 10
9
110
8
= 20π (rad/m),
H
i
= ˆ z2cos(2π 10
9
t −20πy) (A/m),
η
1
=
η
0
√
ε
r
1
=
377
3
= 125.67 Ω,
η
2
=
η
0
√
ε
r
2
=
377
2
= 188.5 Ω,
E
i
=−ˆ x2η
1
cos(2π 10
9
t −20πy)
=−ˆ x251.34cos(2π 10
9
t −20πy) (V/m),
Γ =
η
2
−η
1
η
2
+η
1
=
188.5−125.67
188.5+125.67
= 0.2,
τ = 1+Γ = 1.2,
E
r
=−ˆ x251.340.2cos(2π 10
9
t +20πy)
=−ˆ x50.27cos(2π 10
9
t +20πy) (V/m),
H
r
=−ˆ z
50.27
η
1
cos(2π 10
9
t +20πy)
=−ˆ z0.4cos(2π 10
9
t +20πy) (A/m),
E
1
= E
i
+E
r
=−ˆ x[25.134cos(2π 10
9
t −20πy) +50.27cos(2π 10
9
t +20πy)] (V/m),
H
1
= H
i
+H
r
= ˆ z[2cos(2π 10
9
t −20πy) −0.4cos(2π 10
9
t +20πy)] (A/m).
In medium 2,
k
2
=
ε
2
ε
1
k
1
=
4
9
20π =
40π
3
(rad/m),
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
E
2
= E
t
=−ˆ x251.34τ cos
2π 10
9
t −
40πy
3
=−ˆ x301.61cos
2π 10
9
t −
40πy
3
(V/m),
H
2
= H
t
= ˆ z
301.61
η
2
cos
2π 10
9
t −
40πy
3
= ˆ z1.6cos
2π 10
9
t −
40πy
3
(A/m).
(b)
S
i
av
= ˆ y
[E
0
[
2
2η
1
= ˆ y
(251.34)
2
2125.67
= ˆ y251.34 (W/m
2
),
S
r
av
=−ˆ y[Γ[
2
(251.34) = ˆ y10.05 (W/m
2
),
S
t
av
= ˆ y(251.34−10.05) = ˆ y241.29 (W/m
2
).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 8.14 Consider a thin ﬁlm of soap in air under illumination by yellow light with λ = 0.6 µm in vacuum. If the
ﬁlm is treated as a planar dielectric slab with ε
r
= 1.72, surrounded on both sides by air, what ﬁlm thickness would produce
strong reﬂection of the yellow light at normal incidence?
Solution: The transmission line analogue of the soapbubble wave problem is shown in Fig. P8.14(b) where the load Z
L
is
equal to η
0
, the impedance of the air medium on the other side of the bubble. That is,
η
0
= 377 Ω, η
1
=
377
√
1.72
= 287.5 Ω.
The normalized load impedance is
Figure P8.14: Diagrams for Problem 8.14.
z
L
=
η
0
η
1
= 1.31.
For the reﬂection by the soap bubble to be the largest, Z
in
needs to be the most different from η
0
. This happens when z
L
is
transformed through a length λ/4. Hence,
L =
λ
4
=
λ
0
4
√
ε
r
=
0.6 µm
4
√
1.72
= 0.115 µm,
where λ is the wavelength of the soap bubble material. Strong reﬂections will also occur if the thickness is greater than L by
integer multiples of nλ/2 = (0.23n) µm.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Hence, in general
L = (0.115+0.23n) µm, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
According to Section 27.5, transforming a load Z
L
= 377 Ω through a λ/4 section of Z
0
= 287.5 Ω ends up presenting an
input impedance of
Z
in
=
Z
2
0
Z
L
=
(287.5)
2
377
= 219.25 Ω.
This Z
in
is at the input side of the soap bubble. The reﬂection coefﬁcient at that interface is
Γ =
Z
in
−η
0
Z
in
+η
0
=
219.25−377
219.25+377
=−0.27.
Any other thickness would produce a reﬂection coeffﬁcient with a smaller magnitude.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 8.32 A perpendicularly polarized wave in air is obliquely incident upon a planar glass–air interface at an
incidence angle of 30
◦
. The wave frequency is 600 THz (1 THz = 10
12
Hz), which corresponds to green light, and the index
of refraction of the glass is 1.6. If the electric ﬁeld amplitude of the incident wave is 50 V/m, determine the following:
(a) The reﬂection and transmission coefﬁcients.
(b) The instantaneous expressions for E and H in the glass medium.
Solution:
(a) For nonmagnetic materials, (ε
2
/ε
1
) = (n
2
/n
1
)
2
. Using this relation in Eq. (8.60) gives
Γ
⊥
=
cosθ
i
−
(n
2
/n
1
)
2
−sin
2
θ
i
cosθ
i
+
(n
2
/n
1
)
2
−sin
2
θ
i
=
cos30
◦
−
(1.6)
2
−sin
2
30
◦
cos30
◦
+
(1.6)
2
−sin
2
30
◦
=−0.27,
τ
⊥
= 1+Γ
⊥
= 1−0.27 = 0.73.
(b) In the glass medium,
sinθ
t
=
sinθ
i
n
2
=
sin30
◦
1.6
= 0.31,
or θ
t
= 18.21
◦
.
η
2
=
µ
2
ε
2
=
η
0
n
2
=
120π
1.6
= 75π = 235.62 (Ω),
k
2
=
ω
u
p
=
2π f
c/n
=
2π f n
c
=
2π 60010
12
1.6
310
8
= 6.4π 10
6
rad/m,
E
t
0
= τ
⊥
E
i
0
= 0.7350 = 36.5 V/m.
From Eqs. (8.49c) and (8.49d),
¯
E
t
⊥
= ˆ yE
t
0
e
−jk
2
(xsinθ
t
+zcosθ
t
)
,
¯
H
t
⊥
= (−ˆ xcosθ
t
+ˆ zsinθ
t
)
E
t
0
η
2
e
−jk
2
(xsinθ
t
+zcosθ
t
)
,
and the corresponding instantaneous expressions are:
E
t
⊥
(x, z, t) = ˆ y36.5cos(ωt −k
2
xsinθ
t
−k
2
zcosθ
t
) (V/m),
H
t
⊥
(x, z, t) = (−ˆ xcosθ
t
−ˆ zcosθ
t
)0.16cos(ωt −k
2
xsinθ
t
−k
2
zcosθ
t
) (A/m),
with ω = 2π 10
15
rad/s and k
2
= 6.4π 10
6
rad/m.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 8.36 A 50MHz righthand circularly polarized plane wave with an electric ﬁeld modulus of 30 V/m is normally
incident in air upon a dielectric medium with ε
r
= 9 and occupying the region deﬁned by z ≥0.
(a) Write an expression for the electric ﬁeld phasor of the incident wave, given that the ﬁeld is a positive maximum at
z = 0 and t = 0.
(b) Calculate the reﬂection and transmission coefﬁcients.
(c) Write expressions for the electric ﬁeld phasors of the reﬂected wave, the transmitted wave, and the total ﬁeld in the
region z ≤0.
(d) Determine the percentages of the incident average power reﬂected by the boundary and transmitted into the second
medium.
Solution:
(a)
k
1
=
ω
c
=
2π 5010
6
310
8
=
π
3
rad/m,
k
2
=
ω
c
√
ε
r
2
=
π
3
√
9 = π rad/m.
From (7.57), RHC wave traveling in +z direction:
¯
E
i
= a
0
(ˆ x+ ˆ ye
−jπ/2
)e
−jk
1
z
= a
0
(ˆ x− j ˆ y)e
−jk
1
z
E
i
(z, t) = Re
¯
E
i
e
jωt
= Re
a
0
(ˆ xe
j(ωt−k
1
z)
+ ˆ ye
j(ωt−k
1
z−π/2)
)
= ˆ xa
0
cos(ωt −k
1
z) + ˆ ya
0
cos(ωt −k
1
z −π/2)
= ˆ xa
0
cos(ωt −k
1
z) + ˆ ya
0
sin(ωt −k
1
z)
[E
i
[ =
a
2
0
cos
2
(ωt −k
1
z) +a
2
0
sin
2
(ωt −k
1
z)
1/2
= a
0
= 30 V/m.
Hence,
¯
E
i
= 30(x
0
− jy
0
)e
−jπz/3
(V/m).
(b)
η
1
= η
0
= 120π (Ω), η
2
=
η
0
√
ε
r
2
=
120π
√
9
= 40π (Ω).
Γ =
η
2
−η
1
η
2
+η
1
=
40π −120π
40π +120π
=−0.5
τ = 1+Γ = 1−0.5 = 0.5.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
(c)
¯
E
r
=Γa
0
(ˆ x− j ˆ y)e
jk
1
z
=−0.530(ˆ x− j ˆ y)e
jk
1
z
=−15(ˆ x− j ˆ y)e
jπz/3
(V/m).
¯
E
t
= τa
0
(ˆ x− j ˆ y)e
−jk
2
z
= 15(ˆ x− j ˆ y)e
−jπz
(V/m).
¯
E
1
=
¯
E
i
+
¯
E
r
= 30(ˆ x− j ˆ y)e
−jπz/3
−15(ˆ x− j ˆ y)e
jπz/3
= 15(ˆ x− j ˆ y)[2e
−jπz/3
−e
jπz/3
] (V/m).
(d)
% of reﬂected power = 100[Γ[
2
= 100(0.5)
2
= 25%
% of transmitted power = 100[τ[
2
η
1
η
2
= 100(0.5)
2
120π
40π
= 75%.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapter 9 Solved Problems
Problem 917
Problem 924
Problem 937
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 9.17 Repeat parts (a)–(c) of Problem 9.15 for a dipole of length l = λ.
Solution: For l = λ, Eq. (9.56) becomes
S(θ) =
15I
2
0
πR
2
¸
cos(π cosθ) −cos(π)
sinθ
2
=
15I
2
0
πR
2
¸
cos(π cosθ) +1
sinθ
2
.
Figure P9.17: Figure P9.17: Radiation pattern of dipole of length l = λ.
Solving for the directions of maximum radiation numerically yields
θ
max
1
= 90
◦
, θ
max
2
= 270
◦
.
(b) From the numerical results, it was found that S(θ) = 15I
2
0
/(πR
2
)(4) at θ
max
. Thus,
S
max
=
60I
2
0
πR
2
.
(c) The normalized radiation pattern is given by Eq. (9.13), as
F(θ) =
S(θ)
S
max
.
Using the expression for S(θ) from part (a) with the value of S
max
found in part (b),
F(θ) =
1
4
¸
cos(π cosθ) +1
sinθ
2
.
The normalized radiation pattern is shown in Fig. P9.17.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Figure P9.24: Problem 9.24.
Problem 9.24 The conﬁguration shown in Fig. P9.24 depicts two vertically oriented halfwave dipole antennas pointed
towards each other, with both positioned on 100m–tall towers separated by a distance of 5 km. If the transit antenna is
driven by a 50MHz current with amplitude I
0
= 2 A, determine:
(a) The power received by the receive antenna in the absence of the surface. (Assume both antennas to be lossless.)
(b) The power received by the receive antenna after incorporating reﬂection by the ground surface, assuming the surface
to be ﬂat and to have ε
r
= 9 and conductivity σ = 10
−3
(S/m).
Solution:
(a) Since both antennas are lossless,
P
rec
= P
int
= S
i
A
er
where S
i
is the incident power density and A
er
is the effective area of the receive dipole. From Section 93,
S
i
= S
0
=
15I
2
0
πR
2
,
and from (9.64) and (9.47),
A
er
=
λ
2
D
4π
=
λ
2
4π
1.64 =
1.64λ
2
4π
.
Hence,
P
rec
=
15I
2
0
πR
2
1.64λ
2
4π
= 3.610
−6
W.
(b) The electric ﬁeld of the signal intercepted by the receive antenna now consists of a direct component, E
d
, due to the
directly transmitted signal, and a reﬂected component, E
r
, due to the ground reﬂection. Since the power density S and the
electric ﬁeld E are related by
S =
[E[
2
2η
0
,
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
it follows that
E
d
=
2η
0
S
i
e
−jkR
=
2η
0
15I
2
0
πR
2
e
−jkR
=
30η
0
π
I
0
R
e
−jkR
where the phase of the signal is measured with respect to the location of the transmit antenna, and k = 2π/λ. Hence,
E
d
= 0.024e
−j120
◦
(V/m).
The electric ﬁeld of the reﬂected signal is similar in form except for the fact that R should be replaced with R
/
, where R
/
is
the path length traveled by the reﬂected signal, and the electric ﬁeld is modiﬁed by the reﬂection coefﬁcient Γ. Thus,
E
r
=
30η
0
π
I
0
R
/
e
−jkR
/
Γ.
From the problem geometry
R
/
= 2
(2.510
3
)
2
+(100)
2
= 5004.0 m.
Since the dipole is vertically oriented, the electric ﬁeld is parallel polarized. To calculate Γ, we ﬁrst determine
ε
//
ε
/
=
σ
ωε
0
ε
r
=
10
−3
2π 5010
6
8.8510
−12
9
= 0.04.
From Table 71,
η
c
≈η =
µ
ε
=
η
0
√
ε
r
=
η
0
√
9
=
η
0
3
.
From (8.66a),
Γ

=
η
2
cosθ
t
−η
1
cosθ
i
η
2
cosθ
t
+η
1
cosθ
i
From the geometry,
cosθ
i
=
h
(R
/
/2)
=
100
2502
= 0.04
θ
i
= 87.71
◦
θ
t
= sin
−1
sinθ
i
√
ε
r
= 19.46
◦
η
1
= η
0
(air)
η
2
= η =
η
0
3
.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Hence,
Γ

=
(η
0
/3) 0.94−η
0
0.04
(η
0
/3) 0.94+η
0
0.04
= 0.77.
The reﬂected electric ﬁeld is
E
r
=
30η
0
π
I
0
R
/
e
−jkR
/
Γ
= 0.018e
j0.6
◦
(V/m).
The total electric ﬁeld is
E = E
d
+E
r
= 0.024e
−j120
◦
+0.018e
j0.6
◦
= 0.02e
−j73.3
◦
(V/m).
The received power is
P
rec
= S
i
A
er
=
[E[
2
2η
0
1.64λ
2
4π
= 2.510
−6
W.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 9.37 A ﬁveelement equally spaced linear array with d = λ/2 is excited with uniform phase and an amplitude
distribution given by the binomial distribution
a
i
=
(N−1)!
i!(N−i −1)!
, i = 0, 1, . . . , (N−1),
where N is the number of elements. Develop an expression for the array factor.
Solution: Using the given formula,
a
0
=
(5−1)!
0!4!
= 1 (note that 0! = 1)
a
1
=
4!
1!3!
= 4
a
2
=
4!
2!2!
= 6
a
3
=
4!
3!1!
= 4
a
4
=
4!
0!4!
= 1
Application of (9.113) leads to:
F
a
(γ) =
N−1
∑
i=0
a
i
e
jiγ
2
, γ =
2πd
λ
cosθ
=
1+4e
jγ
+6e
j2γ
+4e
j3γ
+e
j4γ
2
=
e
j2γ
(e
−j2γ
+4e
−jγ
+6+4e
jγ
+e
j2γ
)
2
= (6+8cosγ +2cos2γ)
2
.
With d = λ/2, γ =
2π
λ
λ
2
cosθ = π cosθ,
F
a
(θ) = [6+8cos(π cosθ) +2cos(2π cosθ)]
2
.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapter 10 Solved Problems
There are no solved problems for Chapter 10
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c (2010 Prentice Hall
Chapters
Chapter 1 Introduction: Waves and Phasors Chapter 2 Transmission Lines Chapter 3 Vector Analysis Chapter 4 Electrostatics Chapter 5 Magnetostatics Chapter 6 Maxwell’s Equations for TimeVarying Fields Chapter 7 PlaneWave Propagation Chapter 8 Wave Reﬂection and Transmission Chapter 9 Radiation and Antennas Chapter 10 Satellite Communication Systems and Radar Sensors
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics
c 2010 Prentice Hall
Chapter 1 Solved Problems
Problem 14 Problem 17 Problem 115 Problem 118 Problem 120 Problem 121 Problem 124 Problem 126 Problem 127 Problem 129
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics
c 2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 1.4
A wave traveling along a string is given by y(x,t) = 2 sin(4πt + 10πx) (cm),
where x is the distance along the string in meters and y is the vertical displacement. Determine: (a) the direction of wave travel, (b) the reference phase φ0 , (c) the frequency, (d) the wavelength, and (e) the phase velocity. Solution: (a) We start by converting the given expression into a cosine function of the form given by (1.17): y(x,t) = 2 cos 4πt + 10πx − π 2 (cm).
Since the coefﬁcients of t and x both have the same sign, the wave is traveling in the negative xdirection. (b) From the cosine expression, φ0 = −π/2. (c) ω = 2π f = 4π, f = 4π/2π = 2 Hz. (d) 2π/λ = 10π, λ = 2π/10π = 0.2 m. (e) up = f λ = 2 × 0.2 = 0.4 (m/s).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics
c 2010 Prentice Hall
Hence.1) (i) Easy Solution: The physics of the problem suggests that a possible solution for (1. Figure P1.7: Wave on a string tied to a wall at x = 0 (Problem 1.Problem 1. we have A cos ωt + B(cos ωt cos φ0 − sin ωt sin φ0 ) = 0. and since y2 (x. ys (0.t) = B cos(ωt + β x + φ0 ).2) (1. the vertical displacement ys will be the sum of the incident and reﬂected waves: ys (x.t) is generated. Eric Michielssen. with its direction being in the negative xdirection.t) = y1 (x.t) = −A cos(ωt + β x). y2 (x.t) = y1 (x. y2 (x.t) and ys (x.t).t).t). The total displacement is ys (x. (P1. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . where x = 0 is the end of the string. Solution: (a) Since wave y2 (x.7 A wave traveling along a string in the +xdirection is given by y1 (x. (1. Hence. (a) Write down an expression for y2 (x.2).t). ys (0. Since the string cannot move at x = 0. at any location on the string. When wave y1 (x. (b) Generate plots of y1 (x.7).3) (ii) Rigorous Solution: By expanding the second term in (1. keeping in mind its direction of travel and the fact that the end of the string cannot move.t) is given by the general form y2 (x. Ulaby.t) + y2 (x. where B and φ0 are yettobedetermined constants.2) is B = −A and φ0 = 0. and Umberto Ravaioli. a reﬂected wave y2 (x. in which case we have y2 (x. the two waves must have the same phase constant β . which is tied rigidly to a wall.t) arrives at the wall.t) was caused by wave y1 (x.t) = A cos(ωt − β x).7). the point at which it is attached to the wall. the two waves must have the same angular frequency ω. Fawwaz T.t). Thus.t) versus x over the range −2λ ≤ x ≤ 0 at ωt = π/4 and at ωt = π/2.t) = A cos ωt + B cos(ωt + φ0 ) = 0.t) is traveling on the same string as y1 (x. as shown in Fig.t) + y2 (x.t) = 0 for all t. (1.t) = A cos(ωt − β x) + B cos(ωt + β x + φ0 ).
7(b).6) (1. 4 λ π 2πx y2 (x.7) (1. Fawwaz T.4) gives B sin φ0 = 0. Equations (1. it gives A + B cos φ0 = 0.5) (1. (1.6) can be satisﬁed simultaneously only if A=B=0 or A = −B and φ0 = 0. Eric Michielssen. The solution given by (1.t) = −A cos(ωt + β x) = −A cos + .4) Plots of y1 .3). y2 . Ulaby. and y3 are shown in Fig.t) = 0.7: (b) Plots of y1 .t) = A cos(π/4 − β x) = A cos π 2πx − . 4 λ (1. (1. At t = 0.8) Clearly (1. and ys versus x at ωt = π/4.or (A + B cos φ0 ) cos ωt − (B sin φ0 ) sin ωt = 0. (b) At ωt = π/4.5) and (1. y1 (x. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Figure P1. which is contrary to the statement of the problem. P1. and Umberto Ravaioli.8) leads to (1. and at ωt = π/2. y2 . This equation has to be satisﬁed for all values of t.7) is not an acceptable solution because it means that y1 (x.
7(c). λ Plots of y1 . Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . y2 . P1.At ωt = π/2. y2 . Eric Michielssen. y1 (x. and y3 are shown in Fig.t) = −A cos(π/2 + β x) = A sin β x = A sin .t) = A cos(π/2 − β x) = A sin β x = A sin 2πx . λ 2πx y2 (x. and ys versus x at ωt = π/2. Ulaby. Figure P1.7: (c) Plots of y1 . and Umberto Ravaioli. Fawwaz T.
(W/m2 ). Eric Michielssen. and Umberto Ravaioli.15 A laser beam traveling through fog was observed to have an intensity of 1 (µW/m2 ) at a distance of 2 m from the laser gun and an intensity of 0. then the intensity must have a form I(x.Problem 1. 10−6 I0 e−4α = =5 I0 e−6α 0. Ulaby. We observe that the magnitude of the intensity varies as I0 e−2αx . Given that the intensity of an electromagnetic wave is proportional to the square of its electricﬁeld amplitude.2 (µW/m2 ) at a distance of 3 m. Solution: If the electric ﬁeld is of the form E(x. Hence. I0 e−4α = 1 × 10−6 I0 e−6α = 0. ﬁnd the attenuation constant α of fog. at x = 3 m. at x = 2 m.2 × 10−6 e−4α · e6α = e2α = 5 α = 0. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .t) = I0 e−2αx cos2 (ωt − β x) 2 where we deﬁne I0 ≈ E0 .8 (NP/m).t) = E0 e−αx cos(ωt − β x). Fawwaz T.2 × 10−6 (W/m2 ).t) ≈ [E0 e−αx cos(ωt − β x)]2 2 ≈ E0 e−2αx cos2 (ωt − β x) or I(x.
−1 2/3 z1 z2 = √ √ ◦ ◦ 13 e j146.6 = 13e− j67. and Umberto Ravaioli.3 )2 = 13e j292.4 2 (c) √ ◦ ◦ z2 = ( 13)2 (e j146.3 × 13 e− j146.4 . 13 j82.3 ◦ ◦ ◦ = 13. Ulaby. 5 (b) √ ◦ 13 e j146.3 z1 = √ = ◦ z∗ 5 e j63. and (d) z1 z∗ .7 √ ◦ ◦ = 13 e j(180 −33. (c) z2 .7 ) √ ◦ = 13 e j146. all all in polar form. 2 1 1 Solution: (a) We ﬁrst convert z1 and z2 to polar form: 32 + 22 e− j tan z1 = −(3 − j2) = − √ ◦ = − 13 e− j33.3 . z2 = 1 − j2 = √ −1 1 + 4 e− j tan 2 √ ◦ = 5 e− j63. (b) z1 /z∗ .Problem 1.3 × 5 e− j63.6 1 = 13e− j360 e j292. Eric Michielssen.9 .4 √ ◦ = 65 e j82. (c) z1 z∗ = 1 √ √ ◦ ◦ 13 e j146. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .4 . Fawwaz T.18 Complex numbers z1 and z2 are given by z1 = −3 + j2 z2 = 1 − j2 Determine (a) z1 z2 .9◦ e .
Eric Michielssen.Problem 1. for each of the following pairs: (a) z1 = 2 + j3. both in polar form. z2 = 3∠−150◦ .6 − j1.6 + j1. and Umberto Ravaioli. z2 = 1 − j3.6 + j1. z2 = 3∠−30◦ . Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Ulaby. s = z1 − z2 = (2. (b) z1 = 3. (c) z1 = 3∠ 30◦ .20 Find complex numbers t = z1 + z2 and s = z1 − z2 .5) − (−2.5) = 5.5) = 0.5) + (−2. z2 = − j3. ◦ Fawwaz T. Solution: (d) t = z1 + z2 = 3∠30◦ + 3∠−150◦ = (2.6 − j1. (d) z1 = 3∠ 30◦ .2 + j3 = 6e j30 .
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Determine the product z1 z2 in polar form. Ulaby. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Solution: ◦ z1 5e− j60 − j105◦ .25e z2 4e j45 Fawwaz T. 2 Determine the ratio z1 /z2 in polar form. z2 = 4∠45◦ . Eric Michielssen. Determine the ratio z∗ /z∗ in polar form.Problem 1. and Umberto Ravaioli. Determine the product z1 z∗ in polar form. 1 2 √ Determine z1 in polar form.21 Complex numbers z1 and z2 are given by z1 = 5∠−60◦ . = (c) ◦ = 1.
07 + j0.95 + j13. Ulaby.6+ j1.5) = 13.46(0.6 (cos 1. Eric Michielssen. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .5 = e2.6 × e j1. and Umberto Ravaioli.5 ez = e2. z = 3e jπ/6 = 3 cos π/6 + j3 sin π/6 = 2.43.Problem 1.98) = 0.24 Solution: If z = 3e jπ/6 .5 = e2.6 + j1. ﬁnd the value of ez . Fawwaz T.5 + j sin 1.
Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Ulaby.Problem 1. Eric Michielssen.26 Find the phasors of the following time functions: (a) υ(t) = 9 cos(ωt − π/3) (V) (b) υ(t) = 12 sin(ωt + π/4) (V) (c) i(x. I = −2e j3π/4 = 2e− jπ e j3π/4 = 2e− jπ/4 A. Fawwaz T. and Umberto Ravaioli.t) = 5e−3x sin(ωt + π/6) (A) (d) i(t) = −2 cos(ωt + 3π/4) (A) (e) i(t) = 4 sin(ωt + π/3) + 3 cos(ωt − π/6) (A) Solution: (d) i(t) = −2 cos(ωt + 3π/4).
31◦ ) A.31 e jωt } = 3. and Umberto Ravaioli.Problem 1. Eric Michielssen. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . ◦ ◦ Fawwaz T. Ulaby.27 Find the instantaneous time sinusoidal functions corresponding to the following phasors: (a) V = −5e jπ/3 (V) (b) V = j6e− jπ/4 (V) (c) I = (6 + j8) (A) ˜ (d) I = −3 + j2 (A) ˜ (e) I = j (A) ˜ (f) I = 2e jπ/6 (A) Solution: (d) I = −3 + j2 = 3.61 cos(ωt + 146.31 .61 e j146. i(t) = Re{3.61 e j146.
(1. Figure P1. i = iR2 + iL . (2)–(4) into phasor form: R1 I + R2 IR2 = Vs R2 IR2 = jωLIL I = IR2 + IL Upon combining (6) and (7) to solve for IR2 in terms of I. R2 iR2 = L and at node A. and Umberto Ravaioli.15) (1.16) (1.10) ◦ (V). we have: IR2 = jωL I.9) Fawwaz T. the current ﬂowing through the inductor.Problem 1.11) (1. dt (1.29 The voltage source of the circuit shown in Fig.29 is given by vs (t) = 25 cos(4 × 104t − 45◦ ) (V). Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Eric Michielssen.29. Solution: Based on the given voltage expression.29: Circuit for Problem 1. Next.14) (1. Ulaby.12) diL . the phasor source voltage is Vs = 25e− j45 The voltage equation for the lefthand side loop is R1 i + R2 iR2 = vs For the righthand loop. Obtain an expression for iL (t). P1. R2 + jωL (1. we convert Eqs.13) (1.
Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .1◦ ) (A).75e− j98. and Umberto Ravaioli. we have IL = 30 j4 × 104 × 0.75 cos(4 × 104t − 98. L and ω with their numerical values.5 − j45◦ 7. iL (t) = Re[IL e jωt ] = 0.1◦ 6 + j8 10e 25e− j45 ◦ (A). Finally.18) (1. Eric Michielssen. Fawwaz T. R2 . R2 + jωL (1. = R1 R2 + + jωL(R1 + R2 ) R2 I.Substituting (8) in (5) and then solving for I leads to: jR2 ωL I = Vs R2 + jωL jR2 ωL I R1 + = Vs R2 + jωL R1 R2 + jR1 ωL + jR2 ωL = Vs I R2 + jωL R2 + jωL I= Vs .4 × 10−3 (20 + 30) 20 × 30 + ◦ 30 × 25 = e− j45 600 + j800 ◦ ◦ 7. Ulaby.17) Using (1) for Vs and replacing R1 .5e− j45 e = = 0.1 = j53. R1 R2 + jωL(R1 + R2 ) R1 I + Combining (6) and (7) to solve for IL in terms of I gives IL = Combining (9) and (10) leads to IL = R2 R2 + jωL Vs R2 + jωL R1 R2 + jωL(R1 + R2 ) R2 Vs .
Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .Chapter 2 Solved Problems Problem 25 Problem 216 Problem 234 Problem 245 Problem 248 Problem 264 Problem 275 Fawwaz T. Eric Michielssen. and Umberto Ravaioli. Ulaby.
L = 167 nH/m.05 = 31e− j0.01) Ω. ω 2π f 2π × 109 = = = 1. up . and Z0 at 1 GHz.016 + j34. the line parameters are given by: R = 1 Ω/m.4.1)]1/2 = 1 + (1049)2 e j tan ◦ −1 1049 × 1.97◦ = 0.1e j90 ◦ 1/2 .025 ◦ 1/2 (31 − j0. G = 0.22) gives: γ= (R + jωL )(G + jωC ) = [(1 + j2π × 109 × 167 × 10−9 )(0 + j2π × 109 × 172 × 10−12 )]1/2 = [(1 + j1049)( j1.95 ◦ 1. Ulaby. β β 34 1/2 up = R + jωL Z0 = G + jωC = 1049e j89. Application of (2. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .1e j90 = 1154e j179.1e j90 ◦ ◦ 1/2 = 954e− j0.85 × 108 m/s. Hence.Problem 2.97◦ + j34 sin 89. Find α.97 = 34 cos 89. Eric Michielssen.95 × 1. ( j = e j90 ) ◦ = 1049e j89.016 Np/m. Solution: At 1 GHz.5 For the parallelplate transmission line of Problem 2. ω = 2π f = 2π × 109 rad/s. β = 34 rad/m. and Umberto Ravaioli. and C = 172 pF/m. Fawwaz T. β . α = 0.95 ◦ ◦ ◦ 1/2 1/2 = 34e j89.
02 Np/m)2 = = 0.75 rad/m. R 0. Since Z0 √ is real and α = 0. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .16 A transmission line operating at 125 MHz has Z0 = 40 Ω.02 (Np/m).2 nH/m = = 23.2 nH/m. and β = 0. and β = 0.75 rad/m.8 Ω/m Fawwaz T. From Problem 2. Solution: Given an arbitrary transmission line.75 × 40 = = 38. therefore. Z0 = 40 Ω. α = 0. Find the line parameters R . ω 2π × 125 × 106 √ R = RG G L = αZ0 = 0. and C . the line is distortionless. Eric Michielssen. Ulaby. L = Then. and Umberto Ravaioli.5 mS/m.6 Ω/m C α 2 (0. α = 0.02 Np/m × 40 Ω = 0.Problem 2.02 Np/m. C = From α = √ R G and R C = L G . L .13. from Z0 = L /C . R = and G = √ RG L 38. f = 125 MHz. 2 402 Z0 β Z0 0. β = ω L C and Z0 = L /C .9 pF/m. G .
dmax = θr λ λ + = 4π 2 −121◦ π 180◦ λ λ + = 0.79) at d = dmax = 0. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . 4π 2 Applying (2. for which β l = (2π/λ ) × 0.34 A 50Ω lossless line is terminated in a load impedance ZL = (30 − j20) Ω. Figure P2. Solution: (a) Γ= ◦ ZL − Z0 30 − j20 − 50 −20 − j20 −(20 + j20) = = = = 0. ZL + Z0 30 − j20 + 50 80 − j20 80 − j20 1 + Γ 1 + 0.33λ = 2. Show that the proposed approach is valid and ﬁnd the value of the shunt resistance. the value of Zin before adding the Fawwaz T. the distance of the voltage maximum nearest to the load. Ulaby.33λ .07 radians. 1 − Γ 1 − 0. P2. and Umberto Ravaioli.34 (b) We start by ﬁnding dmax .33λ . thereby eliminating reﬂection back to the end. (b) It has been proposed that by placing an appropriately selected resistor across the line at a distance dmax from the load (as shown in Fig.70) with n = 1.34(b)). Eric Michielssen.34 S= = = 2. where dmax is the distance from the load of a voltage maximum.34: Circuit for Problem 2.34.Problem 2.34e− j121 . Using (2. (a) Calculate Γ and S. then it is possible to render Zi = Z0 .
Hence. Eric Michielssen.07 = 50 50 + j(30 − j20) tan 2. Fawwaz T. then the new Zin at any point to the left of that location will be equal to Z0 . Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . and Umberto Ravaioli. Thus. If we add a shunt resistor R in parallel such that the combination is equal to Z0 .shunt resistance is: Zin = Z0 ZL + jZ0 tan β l Z0 + jZL tan β l (30 − j20) + j50 tan 2.07 = (102 + j0) Ω. the input impedance is purely real. at the location A (at a distance dmax from the load). we need to select R such that 1 1 1 + = R 102 50 or R = 98 Ω. Ulaby.
18 W.Problem 2. Figure P2. Solution: (a) Γ= ◦ ZL − Z0 50 + j100 − 100 −50 + j100 = = = 0. If the peak value of the load voltage was measured to be VL  = 12 V.47 W. and Umberto Ravaioli. (b) the timeaverage power incident on the line.45: Circuit for Problem 2. Fawwaz T. Eric Michielssen. ZL + Z0 50 + j100 + 100 150 + j100 The time average power dissipated in the load is: 1 Pav = IL 2 RL 2 1 VL = 2 ZL = (b) i Pav = Pav (1 − Γ2 ) 2 RL 50 1 1 VL 2 R = × 122 × 2 = 0.45 consists of a 100Ω lossless transmission line terminated in a load with ZL = (50 + j100) Ω.45 The circuit shown in Fig. Ulaby.622 (c) r i Pav = −Γ2 Pav = −(0. P2.9 .29 = = 0. (c) the timeaverage power reﬂected by the load. 2 L 2 ZL  2 50 + 1002 Hence.29 W. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .45. 2 1 − Γ 1 − 0.62e j82.62)2 × 0. determine: (a) the timeaverage power dissipated in the load. i Pav = Pav 0.47 = −0.
Eric Michielssen.Problem 2. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . and Umberto Ravaioli. Ulaby.6.47 using CD Module 2. Fawwaz T.48 Solution: Repeat Problem 2.
and Umberto Ravaioli. Ulaby.Fawwaz T. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Eric Michielssen.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby. and Umberto Ravaioli. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Eric Michielssen.
and Umberto Ravaioli.Fawwaz T. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Eric Michielssen. Ulaby.
and Umberto Ravaioli.64 to a 50Ω line. Fawwaz T. Ulaby.5015 Ω is inserted at distance d1 = 0.64(b) displays a summary of the two possible solutions for matching the load to the feedline with a λ /4 transformer. Eric Michielssen. Use CD Module 2.64(a) displays the ﬁrst solution of Module 2.7 where a λ /4 section of Z02 = 15.21829λ from the load.7 to design a quarterwavelength transformer to match a load with ZL = (100 − j200) Ω Solution: Figure P2. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Figure P2.Problem 2.
Ulaby. Eric Michielssen. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .Fawwaz T. and Umberto Ravaioli.
Ulaby. Rg + Z0 100 + 50 150 3 ZL − Z0 25 − 50 −25 −1 = ΓL = = = . ZL + Z0 25 + 50 75 3 Γg = From Eq.75. Fawwaz T.Problem 2.75 Generate a bounce diagram for the voltage V (z. Solution: Rg − Z0 100 − 50 50 1 = = = . Use the bounce diagram to plot V (t) at a point midway along the length of the line from t = 0 to t = 25 ns. = = up 2c/3 2 × 3 × 108 Vg Z0 60 × 50 = = 20 V. P2. V1+ = Also. (2.t) for a 1m–long lossless line characterized by Z0 = 50 Ω and up = 2c/3 (where c is the velocity of light) if the line is fed by a step voltage applied at t = 0 by a generator circuit with Vg = 60 V and Rg = 100 Ω. The line is terminated in a load RL = 25 Ω.75: (a) Bounce diagram for Problem 2.149b). Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Eric Michielssen. Figure P2. P2.75(a) and the plot of V (t) in Fig.75(b). and Umberto Ravaioli. Rg + Z0 100 + 50 The bounce diagram is shown in Fig. T= l l 3 = 5 ns.
Ulaby.75: (b) Time response of voltage. and Umberto Ravaioli. Fawwaz T. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .Figure P2. Eric Michielssen.
Eric Michielssen. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Ulaby.Chapter 3 Solved Problems Problem 39 Problem 317 Problem 319 Problem 320 Problem 322 Problem 323 Problem 325 Problem 333 Problem 335 Problem 336 Problem 341 Problem 350 Problem 355 Problem 357 Fawwaz T. and Umberto Ravaioli.
0. Solution: An arbitrary point on the given line is (1. 2). Ulaby. ˆ A −ˆ − yy − z 2 x ˆ ˆ . Eric Michielssen.9 Find an expression for the unit vector directed toward the origin from an arbitrary point on the line described by x = 1 and z = 2. The vector from this point to (0. and Umberto Ravaioli. y. a= = 2 A 5+y Fawwaz T.Problem 3. 0) is: ˆ ˆ ˆ A = x(0 − 1) + y(0 − y) + z(0 − 2) = −ˆ − yy − 2ˆ . x ˆ z A = 1 + y2 + 4 = 5 + y2 . Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .
Eric Michielssen. one along E× F and another along the opposite direction. Hence.17 Find a vector G whose magnitude is 4 and whose direction is perpendicular to both vectors E and F.Problem 3. 9 3 3 3 Fawwaz T. Ulaby. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . × Two vectors exist that satisfy the stated conditions. Solution: The cross product of two vectors produces a third vector which is perpendicular to both of the original vectors. G = ±4 × ˆ × y ˆ (ˆ + y 2 − z 2)× (ˆ 3 − z 6) x ˆ E× F = ±4 × F × (ˆ 3 − z 6) ˆ ˆ E× (ˆ + y 2 − z 2)× y x ˆ ˆ ˆ (−ˆ 6 + y 6 + z 3) x = ±4 √ 36 + 36 + 9 8 8 4 4 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x x = ± (−ˆ 6 + y 6 + z 3) = ± −ˆ + y + z . where ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ E = x + y 2 − z 2 and F = y 3 − z 6. and Umberto Ravaioli.
67 − θ 1.6. Solution: At P. Fawwaz T.5 + φ 2. ˆ The R component is normal to the spherical surface while the other two are tangential. 60◦ ). R Determine the component of E tangential to the spherical surface R = 2 at point P = (2. Hence.5 + φ 2. ˆ ˆ Et = −θ 1.Problem 3. and Umberto Ravaioli. E is given by ˆ 12 ˆ ˆ E = R 5 × 2 cos 30◦ − θ sin 30◦ cos 60◦ + φ 3 sin 60◦ 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ = R 8. Ulaby. 30◦ . Eric Michielssen.19 Vector ﬁeld E is given by ˆ 12 ˆ ˆ E = R 5R cos θ − θ sin θ cos φ + φ 3 sin φ . Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .6.
sketch each of the following vector ﬁelds: (a) E1 = −ˆ y. and Umberto Ravaioli. consists of arrows pointing radially away from the origin and their lengths increase linearly in proportion to their distance away from the origin. ˆ ˆ (c) E3 = xx + yy. The sketch shown in Fig. ˆ ˆ (d) E4 = xx + y2y. P3. (e) E5 = φ ˆ (f) E6 = r sin φ . which represents the vector ﬁeld E = rr. x ˆ (b) E2 = yx.20: Arrow representation for vector ﬁeld E = rr (Problem 3.20 When sketching or demonstrating the spatial variation of a vector ﬁeld.20. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . ˆ Figure P3. Using this arrow representation. wherein the length of the arrow is made to be proportional to the strength of the ﬁeld and the direction of ˆ the arrow is the same as that of the ﬁeld’s. Eric Michielssen. we often use arrows. Solution: (b) Fawwaz T. ˆ r.20. as in Fig. P3. Ulaby.20).Problem 3.
Ulaby.20(e): E5 = φ r Fawwaz T.20(b): E2 = −ˆ x y (e) ˆ Figure P3. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . and Umberto Ravaioli. Eric Michielssen.Figure P3.
Problem 3.22 Convert the coordinates of the following points from Cartesian to cylindrical and spherical coordinates: (a) P1 = (1, 2, 0), (b) P2 = (0, 0, 2), (c) P3 = (1, 1, 3), (d) P4 = (−2, 2, −2). Solution: Use the “coordinate variables” column in Table 32. (a) In the cylindrical coordinate system, √ P1 = ( 12 + 22 , tan−1 (2/1), 0) = ( 5, 1.107 rad, 0) ≈ (2.24, 63.4◦ , 0). In the spherical coordinate system, P1 = ( 12 + 22 + 02 , tan−1 ( 12 + 22 /0), tan−1 (2/1)) √ = ( 5, π/2 rad, 1.107 rad) ≈ (2.24, 90.0◦ , 63.4◦ ). Note that in both the cylindrical and spherical coordinates, φ is in Quadrant I.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics
c 2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.23
Convert the coordinates of the following points from cylindrical to Cartesian coordinates:
(a) P1 = (2, π/4, −3), (b) P2 = (3, 0, −2), (c) P3 = (4, π, 5). Solution: (b) P2 = (x, y, z) = P2 = (3 cos 0, 3 sin 0, −2) = P2 = (3, 0, −2).
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics
c 2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.25 Use the appropriate expression for the differential surface area ds to determine the area of each of the following surfaces: (a) r = 3; 0 ≤ φ ≤ π/3; −2 ≤ z ≤ 2, (b) 2 ≤ r ≤ 5; π/2 ≤ φ ≤ π; z = 0, (c) 2 ≤ r ≤ 5; φ = π/4; −2 ≤ z ≤ 2, (d) R = 2; 0 ≤ θ ≤ π/3; 0 ≤ φ ≤ π, (e) 0 ≤ R ≤ 5; θ = π/3; 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π. Also sketch the outlines of each of the surfaces. Solution:
Figure P3.25: Surfaces described by Problem 3.25.
(d) Using Eq. (3.50b),
π/3 π φ =0
A=
θ =0
R2 sin θ
R=2
dφ dθ =
(−4φ cos θ )θ =0
π/3
π φ =0
= 2π.
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics
c 2010 Prentice Hall
Problem 3.33
Transform the vector ˆ ˆ ˆ A = R sin2 θ cos φ + θ cos2 φ − φ sin φ
into cylindrical coordinates and then evaluate it at P = (2, π/2, π/2). Solution: From Table 32, ˆ ˆ ˆ A = (ˆ sin θ + z cos θ ) sin2 θ cos φ + (ˆ cos θ − z sin θ ) cos2 φ − φ sin φ r r ˆ ˆ ˆ = r (sin3 θ cos φ + cos θ cos2 φ ) − φ sin φ + z (cos θ sin2 θ cos φ − sin θ cos2 φ ) At P = (2, π/2, π/2), ˆ A = −φ .
Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Eric Michielssen, and Umberto Ravaioli, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics
c 2010 Prentice Hall
ˆ ˆ ˆ C(P3 ) ≈ R0. 2). Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . ˆ ˆ (b) B = y(x2 + y2 + z2 ) − z(x2 + y2 ) at P2 = (−1. ˆ sin φ + z cos φ sin φ at P3 = (2. 2). π/4 = (2 2.707. −1.854 + θ 0. −1. Solution: From Table 32: (c) ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ C = (R sin θ + θ cos θ ) cos φ − φ sin φ + (R cos θ − θ sin θ ) cos φ sin φ ˆ ˆ ˆ = R cos φ (sin θ + cos θ sin φ ) + θ cos φ (cos θ − sin θ sin φ ) − φ sin φ . and Umberto Ravaioli. 0. Eric Michielssen. 45◦ . Fawwaz T. 45◦ ). and ˆ ˆ (c) C = r cos φ − φ ˆ ˆ ˆ (d) D = xy2 /(x2 + y2 ) − yx2 /(x2 + y2 ) + z4 at P4 = (1. 2). 2).146 − φ 0.Problem 3. π/4. Ulaby. √ P3 = 22 + 22 . tan−1 (2/2).35 Transform the following vectors into spherical coordinates and then evaluate them at the indicated points: ˆ ˆ ˆ (a) A = xy2 + yxz + z4 at P1 = (1.
(d) W = e−R sin θ . and Umberto Ravaioli. (g) M = R cos θ sin φ . Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . ˆ ˆ ∇W = −Re−R sin θ + θ (e−R /R) cos θ . (c) U = z cos φ /(1 + r2 ). (3.Problem 3. Ulaby. Solution: (d) From Eq. Eric Michielssen.36 Find the gradient of the following scalar functions: (a) T = 3/(x2 + z2 ). (e) S = 4x2 e−z + y3 . (b) V = xy2 z4 .83). (f) N = r2 cos2 φ . Fawwaz T.
and Umberto Ravaioli. Since the path is along the perimeter of a circle. φ =90◦ r=3 Fawwaz T. Hence. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ E = x x − y y = (ˆ cos φ − φ sin φ )r cos φ − (ˆ sin φ + φ cos φ )r sin φ r r ˆ ˆ = r r(cos2 φ − sin2 φ ) − φ 2r sin φ cos φ The designated path is along the φ direction at a constant r = 3. P2 P1 E·d = = φ =180◦ φ =90◦ 180◦ 90◦ ˆ ˆ ˆ r r(cos2 φ − sin2 φ ) − φ 2r sin φ cos φ · φ r dφ r=3 r=3 −2r2 sin φ cos φ dφ sin2 φ 2 180◦ = −2r2 = 9. From Table 31. which requires expressing both E and d in cylindrical coordinates. Solution: We need to calculate: P2 P1 E·d . Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . it is best to use cylindrical coordinates. Eric Michielssen.Problem 3.41 ˆ ˆ Evaluate the line integral of E = x x − y y along the segment P1 to P2 of the circular path shown in the ﬁgure. Ulaby. the applicable component of d is: ˆ d = φ r dφ . Using Table 32.
(a) n E · dl = L1 + L2 + L3 . L2 = = ˆ ˆ ˆ x (ˆ xy − y(x2 + 2y2 )) · (ˆ dx + y dy + z dz) x 1 x=1 1 (xy)z=0 dx − 2y3 3 1 x2 + 2y2 −5 . x = 1.51. Ulaby. Eric Michielssen.50 (a) (b) S n ˆ ˆ For the vector ﬁeld E = xxy − y(x2 + 2y2 ). and C × (∇× E) · ds over the area of the triangle. 3 0 x=y. L1 = = x=0 ˆ ˆ ˆ (ˆ xy − y(x2 + 2y2 )) · (ˆ dx + y dy + z dz) x x 1 0 (xy)y=0. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . 3 3 Fawwaz T. and Umberto Ravaioli. respectively.z=0 dx − x2 + 2y2 0 y=0 dy + z=0 z=0 (0)y=0 dz = 0. Solution: In addition to the independent condition that z = 0. and y = x.50 and (b) Problem 3.Problem 3. Figure P3. y=1 dy + z=0 z=0 (0)y=x dz = Therefore.50: Contours for (a) Problem 3. 0 z=0 dx − x2 + 2y2 = 2 . calculate E · dl around the triangular contour shown in Fig. 3 0 y=0 dy + x=1.z=0 z=0 (0)x=1 dz = 0− y+ L3 = = x=1 +0 = y=0 ˆ ˆ ˆ (ˆ xy − y(x2 + 2y2 )) · (ˆ dx + y dy + z dz) x x 0 0 (xy)y=x. the three lines of the triangle are represented by the equations y = 0. x3 3 − y3 x=1 0 +0 y=1 n 5 2 E · dl = 0 − + = −1.50(a). P3.
Fawwaz T.105). ∇×E = −ˆ 3x. and Umberto Ravaioli. Ulaby. Eric Michielssen. so that z 1 x ∇×E · ds = =− x=0 y=0 1 x ((−ˆ 3x) · (ˆ dy dx))z=0 z z 1 3x dy dx = − x=0 y=0 x=0 3x(x − 0) dx = − x3 1 0 = −1. (3.(b) From Eq. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .
r=3 = ◦ −3 cos φ 180 90◦ ˆ Along L3 . it is best to use cylindrical coordinates. Ulaby. Eric Michielssen. dz = 0 and dφ = 0. and C × (∇× B) · ds over the surface of the quarter section. d = r dr and r=3 B·d = L1 r=0 3 ˆ ˆ (ˆ cos φ + φ sin φ ) · r dr r φ =90◦ = r=0 cos φ dr φ =90◦ = r cos φ 3 r=0 φ =90◦ = 0. and Umberto Ravaioli.Problem 3. P3. dr = dz = 0.55. Solution: (a) n B·d = L1 B·d + L2 B·d + L3 B·d C Given the shape of the path. dφ = 0 and dz = 0. d = φ r dφ and B·d = L2 180◦ φ =90◦ ˆ ˆ (ˆ cos φ + φ sin φ ) · φ r dφ r = 3. Hence. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . as shown in Fig.55 (a) (b) S n ˆ Verify Stokes’s theorem for the vector ﬁeld B = (ˆ cos φ + φ sin φ ) by evaluating: r B · d over the path comprising a quarter section of a circle. ˆ Along path L1 . d = r dr and B·d = L3 0 r=3 0 ˆ ˆ (ˆ cos φ + φ sin φ ) · r dr r φ =180◦ = r=3 cos φ drφ =180◦ = −r0 = 3. ˆ Along L2 . Hence. 3 Fawwaz T. and we need to choose d in cylindrical coordinates: ˆ ˆ ˆ d = r dr + φ r dφ + z dz. B is already expressed in cylindrical coordinates. Hence.
n B · d = 0 + 3 + 3 = 6. Ulaby.Hence. Eric Michielssen. Stokes’s theorem is veriﬁed. Fawwaz T. and Umberto Ravaioli. 180◦ φ =90◦ = 6. r r 3 180◦ 2 ˆ ˆ (∇ × B) · ds = z sin φ · z r dr dφ r S r=0 φ =90◦ ˆ ∇×B = z = −2r3 cos φ r=0 Hence. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . C (b) 1 ∂ ∂ Br rBφ − r ∂r ∂φ ∂ 1 ∂ ˆ (r sin φ ) − (cos φ ) =z r ∂r ∂φ 1 2 ˆ ˆ = z (sin φ + sin φ ) = z sin φ .
Problem 3. . Eric Michielssen. (b) V = xy + yz + zx. and Umberto Ravaioli. (c) V = 3/(x2 + y2 ). Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . ∇2 (d) 1 1 ∇2 (5e−r cos φ ) = 5e−r cos φ 1 − − 2 r r (e) ∇2 (10e−R sin θ ) = 10e−R sin θ 1 − cos2 θ − sin2 θ 2 + R R2 sin θ . (b) ∇2 (xy + yz + zx) = 0. Ulaby. 3 x2 + y2 = ∇2 (3r−2 ) = 12r−4 = 12 (x2 + y2 )2 .110). (d) V = 5e−r cos φ . ∇2 (4xy2 z3 ) = 8xz3 + 24xy2 z. Solution: (a) From Eq. Fawwaz T. (c) From the inside back cover of the book. (e) V = 10e−R sin θ .57 Find the Laplacian of the following scalar functions: (a) V = 4xy2 z3 . (3.
Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Eric Michielssen.Chapter 4 Solved Problems Problem 45 Problem 49 Problem 412 Problem 429 Problem 437 Problem 447 Problem 457 Problem 460 Problem 462 Fawwaz T. Ulaby. and Umberto Ravaioli.
Eric Michielssen.Problem 4. and Umberto Ravaioli. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Fawwaz T. Ulaby. Solution: (c) a 2π Q= r=0 φ =0 ρs0 e−r r dr dφ = 2πρs0 a 0 re−r dr a 0 = 2πρs0 −re−r − e−r = 2πρs0 [1 − e−a (1 + a)].5 Find the total charge on a circular disk deﬁned by r ≤ a and z = 0 if: (a) ρs = ρs0 cos φ (C/m2 ) (b) ρs = ρs0 sin2 φ (C/m2 ) (c) ρs = ρs0 e−r (C/m2 ) (d) ρs = ρs0 e−r sin2 φ (C/m2 ) where ρs0 is a constant.
Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . (b) J = ρv u = −ˆ cr2 u z I= = r=0 φ =0 a (A/m2 ) J · ds a 2π ˆ (−ˆ cur2 ) · z r dr dφ z r3 dr = − πcua4 = ρl u. (a) Determine the charge density per unit length. Eric Michielssen. Solution: (a) ρl = = r=0 ρv ds a r4 −cr · r dr dφ = −2πc 4 φ =0 2π 2 a =− 0 πca4 2 (C/m). The beam’s axis is coincident with the zaxis and the electron charge density is given by ρv = −cr2 (c/m3 ) where c is a constant and r is the radial distance from the axis of the beam. and Umberto Ravaioli. (b) Determine the current crossing the zplane. (A). 2 = −2πcu 0 Fawwaz T.Problem 4.9 A circular beam of charge of radius a consists of electrons moving with a constant speed u along the +zdirection. Ulaby.
02) y + = −67. 0).12]: E= 1 3 nC (−ˆ 0. Fawwaz T. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . 2 cm.4(ˆ + y) (kV/m) at R = 0. each with q = 3 nC. with one corner at the origin. Solution: Use Eq. P4. and Umberto Ravaioli. are located at the corners of a triangle in the x–y plane.Problem 4.02) (0. Eric Michielssen. (4. x ˆ 3 4πε (0. (4.19) to determine the electric ﬁeld at the origin due to the other two point charges [Fig. Ulaby. x ˆ Figure P4. Find the force acting on the charge located at the origin.12 Three point charges. and the third at (0. 0). 0. another at (2 cm.12.02) x 3 nC (−ˆ 0.12: Locations of charges in Problem 4.2(ˆ + y) (µN).14) to ﬁnd the force F = qE = −202.02)3 Employ Eq.
Solution: Symmetry dictates that D is radially oriented. and DR = 0. Ulaby. R where ρv0 is a positive constant. − R Fawwaz T. 4πR2 (a) For R < a. At any R. Q= R=a ρv dV = ρv0 · 4πR2 dR R2 R=a = −4πρv0 (R − a).29). and Umberto Ravaioli. ˆ D = R DR . no charge is contained in the cavity.29. a ≤ R ≤ b. R R ≤ a.29: Problem 4. (b) For a ≤ R ≤ b. determine D in all regions. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Hence. If the shell contains a charge density given by ρv0 ρv = − 2 .29 A spherical shell with outer radius b surrounds a chargefree cavity of radius a < b (Fig. Thus. P4.Problem 4. Gauss’s law gives n D · ds = Q S ˆ ˆ RDR · R ds = Q S 4πR2 DR = Q DR = Q . Eric Michielssen. Figure P4. Q = 0.
Eric Michielssen. DR = − (c) For R ≥ b. Q= R=a ρv dV = −4πρv0 (b − a) DR = − ρv0 (b − a) . and Umberto Ravaioli. R2 R ≥ b. b ρv0 (R − a) .Hence. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . R2 a ≤ R ≤ b. Ulaby. Fawwaz T.
37: Problem 4. the electric potential difference between a point at a distance r1 and another at a distance r2 from a line charge of density ρl is V= ρl r2 ln 2πε0 r1 . Similarly. lie in the x–z plane.37. y) at a point P = (x. At the origin. Ulaby. Solution: According to the result of Problem 4. y) relative to the potential at the origin.Problem 4. V = = The potential due to both lines is V = V +V = ρl ln 2πε0 a (x − a)2 + y2 − ln a (x + a)2 + y2 . and Umberto Ravaioli. Fawwaz T.33. Obtain an expression for the electric potential V (x. −ρl a ln 2πε0 r −ρl ln 2πε0 a (x + a)2 + y2 (r2 = a and r1 = r ) . which is at a distance a from the origin: V = = a ρl ln 2πε0 r ρl ln 2πε0 (r2 = a and r1 = r ) a (x − a)2 + y2 . Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .37 Two inﬁnite lines of charge. Applying this result to the line charge at x = a. both parallel to the zaxis. one with density ρ and located at x = a and the other with density −ρ and located at x = −a. Eric Michielssen. Figure P4. V = 0. The potential is also zero along all points on the yaxis (x = 0). for the negative line charge at x = −a. as it should be since the origin is the reference point.
(b) To reduce its resistance by 40%. Applying this result to the line charge at x = a. (a) Determine the resistance R. The potential is also zero along all points on the yaxis (x = 0). Use the result of Problem 4. Similarly. a −ρl ln 2πε0 r −ρl ln 2πε0 a (x + a)2 + y2 (r2 = a and r1 = r ) .44 to determine t. Solution: According to the result of Problem 4. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . At the origin. V = 0.Problem 4. Fawwaz T. and Umberto Ravaioli. Ulaby.33. V = = The potential due to both lines is V = V +V = ρl ln 2πε0 a (x − a)2 + y2 − ln a (x + a)2 + y2 . Eric Michielssen. the carbon resistor is coated with a layer of copper of thickness t. as it should be since the origin is the reference point.47 A cylindershaped carbon resistor is 8 cm in length and its circular cross section has a diameter d = 1 mm. for the negative line charge at x = −a. the electric potential difference between a point at a distance r1 and another at a distance r2 from a line charge of density ρl is V= r2 ρl ln 2πε0 r1 . which is at a distance a from the origin: V = = a ρl ln 2πε0 r ρl ln 2πε0 (r2 = a and r1 = r ) a (x − a)2 + y2 .
Problem 4. Ulaby. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . P4. P4. d 2 × 10−2 C = C1 +C2 = (5ε0 + 30ε0 ) × 10−2 = 0.57 Use the result of Problem 4. (b) Conducting plates are on front and back faces of the structure in Fig. d 2 × 10−2 A2 (5 × 3) × 10−4 C2 = ε2 = 4ε0 = 30ε0 × 10−2 . Eric Michielssen. (5 × 1) × 10−4 A1 = 2ε0 = 5ε0 × 10−2 . (c) Conducting plates are on top and bottom faces of the cylindrical structure in Fig.57(a).1 × 10−12 F. and Umberto Ravaioli.56 to determine the capacitance for each of the following conﬁgurations: (a) Conducting plates are on top and bottom faces of the rectangular structure in Fig.57(b).57(a). Solution: (a) The two capacitors share the same voltage. P4.35ε0 = 3. C1 = ε1 Fawwaz T. hence they are in parallel.
Ulaby. and Umberto Ravaioli. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Eric Michielssen.57: Dielectric sections for Problems 4.59.Figure P4. Fawwaz T.57 and 4.
r At r = a (surface of inner conductor).101).Problem 4. Eric Michielssen. the E ﬁeld inside the capacitor exists in only the dielectric materials and points radially inward. Since boundary conditions require that the tangential components of E1 and E2 be the same. Ulaby. Let E1 be the ﬁeld in dielectric ε1 and E2 be the ﬁeld in dielectric ε2 . as shown in Fig. in medium 1. The insulating layer separating the two conducting surfaces is divided equally into two semicylindrical sections. one of radius a and another of radius b. E1 is parallel to E2 and both are tangential to the interface. b = 6 mm. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . εr2 = 4. the boundary condition on D. leads to ˆ D1 = ε1 E1 = n ρs1 ˆ −ˆ ε1 E = r ρs1 r or ρs1 = −ε1 E. Fawwaz T. Similarly. P4. one ﬁlled with dielectric ε1 and the other ﬁlled with dielectric ε2 .60. Figure P4. εr1 = 2. At the interface between the two dielectric sections.60 A coaxial capacitor consists of two concentric. and l = 4 cm.60: Problem 4. conducting. cylindrical surfaces. as stated by (4. and Umberto Ravaioli.60. (b) Evaluate the value of C for a = 2 mm. it follows that: E1 = E2 = −ˆ E. Solution: (a) For the indicated voltage polarity. (a) Develop an expression for C in terms of the length l and the given quantities. in medium 2 ρs2 = −ε2 E.
ln(b/a) πl(ε1 + ε2 ) . C2 = and C = C1 +C2 = (b) C= π × 4 × 10−2 (2 + 4) × 8.116). Since the same voltage applies for the two sections of the capacitor. ln(b/a) πε1 l .114)–(4. but we have to keep in mind that Q is now the charge on only one half of the inner cylinder. but the charge densities will be different along the two sides of the inner conducting cylinder. C1 = Similarly. and Umberto Ravaioli. (4. we can treat them as two capacitors in parallel. For the capacitor half that includes dielectric ε1 . Hence. πε2 l . the E ﬁelds will be the same in the two dielectrics. Eric Michielssen. we can apply the results of Eqs.85 × 10−12 ln(6/2) = 6.Thus.07 pF. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . ln(b/a) Fawwaz T. Ulaby.
movement of negative charges downward = movement of positive charges upward. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Fawwaz T.62). and Umberto Ravaioli.62 Conducting wires above a conducting plane carry currents I1 and I2 in the directions shown in Fig.62: (b) Solution for part (b).62. movement of negative charges to right = movement of positive charges to left.62: (a) Solution for part (a). image of I1 is same as I1 . Hence.Problem 4. Ulaby.62: Currents above a conducting plane (Problem 4. Solution: (a) In the image current. (b) In the image current. Eric Michielssen. Figure P4. Keeping in mind that the direction of a current is deﬁned in terms of the movement of positive charges. what are the directions of the image currents corresponding to I1 and I2 ? Figure P4. P4. Figure P4.
Chapter 5 Solved Problems Problem 55 Problem 535 Fawwaz T. Ulaby. and Umberto Ravaioli. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Eric Michielssen.
which means it is positive when −π/2 ≤ φ ≤ π/2 and negative over the second half of the circle. Eric Michielssen. Hence. what is the magnetic force acting on the wire? (b) How much work is required to rotate the wire once about the zaxis in the negative φ direction (while maintaining r = 4 cm)? (c) At what angle φ is the force a maximum? Solution: (a) F = I ×B = 5ˆ 2× [ˆ 0. Thus. the force varies as cos φ .2 cos φ (T). resulting in a net work of zero. Fawwaz T. x (b) 2π 2π W= φ =0 F · dl = 0 ˆ ˆ φ [2 cos φ ] ·(−φ )r dφ r=4 cm 2π = −2r 0 cos φ dφ r=4 cm = −8 × 10−2 [sin φ ]2π = 0. φ = π/2. Ulaby. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . and Umberto Ravaioli. =φ ˆ At φ = π/2. which means that rotating it in the −φ direction would require work. work ˆ is provided by the force between φ = π/2 and φ = −π/2 (when rotated in the −φ direction). However. ˆ (a) If B = r 0. 0 ˆ ˆ The force is in the +φ direction. and work is supplied for the second half of the rotation. a 2mlong straight wire carrying a current of 5 A in the positive zdirection is located at r = 4 cm. φ = −ˆ . and −1 m ≤ z ≤ 1 m.2 cos φ ] z × r ˆ 2 cos φ .Problem 5. x F = −ˆ 2 cos(π/2) = 0. (c) The force F is maximum when cos φ = 1. or φ = 0.5 In a cylindrical coordinate system.
Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . B2y = µ2 H2y = − 6. given that µ = 5000µ0 for iron. from Eq. Therefore. Therefore. from Eq. (5. µ1 µ1 where µ2 /µ1 = µr = 5000. B2z = B1z = 8 while. (5.79).ˆ ˆ ˆ Problem 5. x µ1 µ1 The z component is the normal component to the boundary at z = 0. µ1 µ1 or µ2 µ2 B2x = µ2 H2x = 4. Solution: From Eq.35 The plane boundary deﬁned by z = 0 separates air from a block of iron. (5. Eric Michielssen. Ulaby.85). and Umberto Ravaioli. If B1 = x4 − y6 + z8 in air (z ≥ 0). Fawwaz T.2). ﬁnd B2 in iron (z ≤ 0). H2x = H1x = 4. 1 1 H2y = H1y = − 6. ˆ ˆ ˆ B2 = x20000 − y30000 + z8. H1 = B1 1 ˆ ˆ = (ˆ 4 − y6 + z8).
Chapter 6 Solved Problems Problem 68 Fawwaz T. Ulaby. and Umberto Ravaioli. Eric Michielssen. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .
5 sin 377t (V). the distance from the wire varies from a to b µcI µI b ˆ · x c dr = ln 2πr 2π a S a dΦ µcN b dI Vemf = −N =− ln dt 2π a dt µcNωI0 b = ln sin ωt (V). b Fawwaz T. Solution: (a) We start by calculating the magnetic ﬂux through the coil. as shown in the ﬁgure. P6. µr = 4000.8 The transformer shown in Fig. and Umberto Ravaioli. 2π a Φ= B · ds = ˆ x (b) Vemf = 4000 × 4π × 10−7 × 2 × 10−2 × 100 × 2π × 60 × 50 ln(6/5) sin 377t 2π = 5.8. around which 100 turns of a tightly wound coil serves to induce a voltage Vemf . (b) Calculate Vemf for f = 60 Hz.Problem 6. (a) Develop an expression for Vemf . Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . c = 2 cm. The toroidal core uses iron material with relative permeability µr . and I0 = 50 A.8 consists of a long wire coincident with the zaxis carrying a current I = I0 cos ωt. coupling magnetic energy to a toroidal coil situated in the x–y plane and centered at the origin. b = 6 cm. Eric Michielssen. a = 5 cm.8: Problem 6. noting that r. Figure P6. Ulaby.
Ulaby.Chapter 7 Solved Problems Problem 77 Problem 723 Problem 728 Problem 733 Problem 736 Fawwaz T. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Eric Michielssen. and Umberto Ravaioli.
t) = y 10 cos(1.6◦ ) (V/m). k= ω√ 2π × 6 × 107 √ εr = 4 = 0. ˆ Given that E points along z and wave travel is along −ˆ .8πx + 153.6π cos(1.8π c 3 × 108 (rad/m). 0) = 7 × 10−3 = 10 cos(−0. and given that the magnetic ﬁeld has a peak value of 10 (mA/m) and that its value was measured to be 7 (mA/m) at t = 0 and x = −0. Assuming dry soil to be approximately lossless. E0 = 10 (mA/m) η E0 = 10 × 60π × 10−3 = 0. η (V/m).6π Also.75 + φ0 ) × 10−3 which leads to φ0 = 153. develop complete expressions for the wave’s electric and magnetic ﬁelds.t) = z E0 cos(2π × 60 × 106t + 0. (7. we can write x ˆ E(x. ˆ E(x.t) = z 0.t) = y Hence.8πx + φ0 ) (A/m). Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . The intrinsic impedance of the medium is η0 120π = 60π η=√ = εr 2 ˆ ˆ With E along z and k along −ˆ . and Umberto Ravaioli. E0 cos(1.7 A 60MHz plane wave traveling in the −xdirection in dry soil with relative permittivity εr = 4 has an electric ﬁeld polarized along the zdirection.39) gives x H= or ˆ H(x.75 m.Problem 7. Solution: For f = 60 MHz = 6 × 107 Hz. H(−0. Hence.2π × 108t + 0. Ulaby. Fawwaz T.75 m.2π × 108t + 0. εr = 4. Eric Michielssen. µr = 1.6◦ .8π × 0.2π × 108t + 0. 1 ˆ × k× E η (Ω). ˆ H(x.8πx + 153.6◦ ) (mA/m).8πx + φ0 ) (V/m) where E0 and φ0 are unknown constants at this time.
the E ﬁeld will create a voltage difference across the length of the box V . the presence of the electromagnetic ﬁelds in the conducting material causes energy dissipation in the material in the form of heat. and Umberto Ravaioli. P = P = σ E 2 × 10−9 10−9 (W/mm3 ). the instantaneous power is P = IV = σ E 2 (Ad) = σ E 2V . (a) Develop an expression for the timeaverage power per mm3 dissipated in a material of conductivity σ if the peak electric ﬁeld in the material is E0 . as shown.23 At 2 GHz. Ulaby. where V = Ad is the small volume under consideration. Conduction current through the cross sectional area A is I = JA = σ EA. Fawwaz T. where V = Ed. Along y. the conductivity of meat is on the order of 1 (S/m). The power per mm3 is obtained by setting V = (10−3 )3 . Solution: (a) Let us consider a small volume of the material in the shape of a box of length d and cross sectional area A. Eric Michielssen. When a material is placed inside a microwave oven and the ﬁeld is activated. (b) Evaluate the result for an electric ﬁeld E0 = 4 × 104 (V/m). Hence.Problem 7. Let us assume the microwave oven creates a wave traveling along the z direction with E along y. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .
The time average dissipated power is Pav = 1 T T 0 2 σ E0 cos2 ωt dt × 10−9 1 2 = σ E0 × 10−9 2 (b) Pav = (W/mm3 ). 1 × 1 × (4 × 104 )2 × 10−9 = 0. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Fawwaz T.8 2 (W/mm3 ). Eric Michielssen. E = E0 cos ωt. and Umberto Ravaioli. Ulaby.As a time harmonic signal.
Solution: η The wave is traveling in the negative xdirection. and Umberto Ravaioli. Fawwaz T. Ulaby.05 x 2η 2 × 40π (W/m2 ). η0 120π √ = √ = 40π εr 9 (Ω).Problem 7. Eric Michielssen. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Sav = −ˆ x [32 + 22 ] 13 = −ˆ x = −ˆ 0.28 A wave traveling in a nonmagnetic medium with εr = 9 is characterized by an electric ﬁeld given by E = [ˆ 3 cos(π × 107t + kx) y ˆ − z 2 cos(π × 107t + kx)] (V/m) Determine the direction of wave travel and average power density carried by the wave.
33 Consider the imaginary rectangular box shown in Fig. which is as expected since the box is in a lossless medium (air). Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . η0 (b) Pav = where T = 2π/ω. and Umberto Ravaioli. P7.33.Problem 7. Ulaby. (a) Determine the net power ﬂux P(t) entering the box due to a plane wave in air given by ˆ E = x E0 cos(ωt − ky) (V/m) (b) Determine the net timeaverage power entering the box. 0 ω 2π [cos2 ωt − cos2 (ωt − kb)] dt = 0. Fawwaz T.34.33: Imaginary rectangular box of Problems 7. Solution: (a) ˆ E = x E0 cos(ωt − ky). Eric Michielssen. η0 E2 P(t) = S(t) Ay=0 − S(t) Ay=b = 0 ac[cos2 ωt − cos2 (ωt − kb)]. η0 2 E × ˆ S(t) = E× H = y 0 cos2 (ωt − ky). Pav = 2 E0 ac η0 2π/ω 0 1 T T P(t) dt. Figure P7. Net average energy entering the box is zero. E0 H = −ˆ z cos(ωt − ky).33 and 7.
2 km. Eric Michielssen. Ulaby.Problem 7.5 × 10−3 = 6 f × 10−11 .5 × 10−3 δs 400 (Np/m). we can use (7. For α = 2.6 MHz. the thickness of the ice sheet should not exceed three skin depths. α= Since ε /ε 1.2 km = 1200 m δs = 400 m. Since α increases with increasing frequency. Fawwaz T.36 A team of scientists is designing a radar as a probe for measuring the depth of the ice layer over the antarctic land mass.75a) for α: α= ωε 2 2π f εr ε0 √ π fε π f × 10−2 µ √ = 6 f × 10−11 Np/m. what frequency range is useable with the radar? Solution: 3δs = 1. the useable frequency range is f ≤ 41. Hence. 1 1 = = 2. In order to measure a detectable echo due to the reﬂection by the icerock boundary. and Umberto Ravaioli.6 MHz. If εr = 3 and εr = 10−2 for ice and if the maximum anticipated ice thickness in the area under exploration is 1. = µ0 = √ r = √ 8 3 ε c εr 2 εr ε0 3 × 10 f = 41. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .
Eric Michielssen. Ulaby.Chapter 8 Solved Problems Problem 83 Problem 814 Problem 832 Problem 836 Fawwaz T. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . and Umberto Ravaioli.
Eric Michielssen. In medium 2.27 cos(2π × 109t + 20πy)] (V/m). (a) Obtain timedomain expressions for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in each of the two media. Ulaby. η2 = √ = εr2 2 x Ei = −ˆ 2η1 cos(2π × 109t − 20πy) = −ˆ 251. x Γ= η2 − η1 188. η0 377 η1 = √ = = 125. and transmitted waves. and Umberto Ravaioli.34 cos(2π × 109t − 20πy) (V/m). c 3 × 108 up = √ = √ = 1 × 108 (m/s).2. k2 = ε2 k1 = ε1 4 40π × 20π = 9 3 (rad/m).Problem 8.5 Ω. x ˆ H1 = Hi + Hr = z [2 cos(2π × 109t − 20πy) − 0. Fawwaz T. Solution: (a) In medium 1.27 cos(2π × 109t + 20πy) (V/m). k1 = up 1 × 108 ˆ Hi = z 2 cos(2π × 109t − 20πy) (A/m).2 cos(2π × 109t + 20πy) x = −ˆ 50.67 τ = 1 + Γ = 1.3 A plane wave traveling in a medium with εr1 = 9 is normally incident upon a second medium with εr2 = 4.4 cos(2π × 109t + 20πy)] (A/m).5 + 125.67 = = 0.134 cos(2π × 109t − 20πy) + 50.34 × 0. Er = −ˆ 251. nonconducting materials. x 50. εr1 9 2π × 109 ω = = 20π (rad/m). Both media are made of nonmagnetic.2.5 − 125.67 Ω. If the magnetic ﬁeld of the incident plane wave is given by ˆ Hi = z 2 cos(2π × 109t − ky) (A/m). Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . z E1 = Ei + Er = −ˆ [25. reﬂected.27 cos(2π × 109t + 20πy) Hr = −ˆ z η1 = −ˆ 0. (b) Determine the average power densities of the incident.4 cos(2π × 109t + 20πy) (A/m). εr1 3 377 η0 = 188. η2 + η1 188.
Eric Michielssen. Ulaby.05) = y 241.61 cos 2π × 109t − x 3 301.34 − 10.34) = y 10. 2η1 2 × 125.29 (W/m2 ). = −ˆ 301.34 (W/m2 ).05 (W/m2 ). y av t ˆ ˆ Sav = y (251. and Umberto Ravaioli. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .34 τ cos 2π × 109t − x (b) (251.40πy 3 40πy (V/m).67 ˆ Sr = −ˆ Γ2 (251. ˆ Si = y av Fawwaz T.34)2 E0 2 ˆ ˆ =y = y 251.61 40πy ˆ H2 = Ht = z cos 2π × 109t − η2 3 40πy ˆ (A/m).6 cos 2π × 109t − 3 E2 = Et = −ˆ 251. = z 1.
72. 4 4 εr 4 1. P8. η1 For the reﬂection by the soap bubble to be the largest. η0 = 377 Ω. L= λ λ0 0. Fawwaz T. Strong reﬂections will also occur if the thickness is greater than L by integer multiples of nλ /2 = (0.23 n) µm.115 µm.72 Figure P8. This happens when zL is transformed through a length λ /4. That is.31. Eric Michielssen.14(b) where the load ZL is equal to η0 .72 where λ is the wavelength of the soap bubble material. If the ﬁlm is treated as a planar dielectric slab with εr = 1. what ﬁlm thickness would produce strong reﬂection of the yellow light at normal incidence? Solution: The transmission line analogue of the soapbubble wave problem is shown in Fig.14. the impedance of the air medium on the other side of the bubble. Ulaby.14: Diagrams for Problem 8. surrounded on both sides by air.14 Consider a thin ﬁlm of soap in air under illumination by yellow light with λ = 0. and Umberto Ravaioli. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Zin needs to be the most different from η0 .5 Ω.Problem 8. zL = η0 = 1.6 µm in vacuum. Hence. 1.6 µm = √ = √ = 0. The normalized load impedance is 377 η1 = √ = 287.
Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .5)2 Zin = 0 = = 219.115 + 0. and Umberto Ravaioli.Hence.25 + 377 Any other thickness would produce a reﬂection coeffﬁcient with a smaller magnitude.5 Ω ends up presenting an input impedance of Z2 (287. . 2. . The reﬂection coefﬁcient at that interface is Γ= Zin − η0 219. .25 Ω. ZL 377 This Zin is at the input side of the soap bubble. n = 0. Fawwaz T. Zin + η0 219. in general L = (0. Ulaby.25 − 377 = = −0.23 n) µm. transforming a load ZL = 377 Ω through a λ /4 section of Z0 = 287. Eric Michielssen.27.5. 1. According to Section 27. .
31.6 ω 2π f 2π f n 2π × 600 × 1012 × 1. (8.49c) and (8.6)2 − sin2 30◦ Γ⊥ = = −0.t) = (−ˆ cos θt − z cos θt )0. Eric Michielssen. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .21◦ .73. z. ⊥ ˆ Ht = (−ˆ cos θt + z sin θt ) x ⊥ and the corresponding instantaneous expressions are: ˆ Et (x. ε2 n2 1.49d).4π × 106 rad/m. z. n2 1. ⊥ t ˆ H⊥ (x.27 = 0. η2 Fawwaz T. If the electric ﬁeld amplitude of the incident wave is 50 V/m. Using this relation in Eq. τ⊥ = 1 + Γ⊥ = 1 − 0. sin θt = or θt = 18.5 V/m. t E0 − jk2 (x sin θt +z cos θt ) e .t) = y36.60) gives cos θi − cos θi + (n2 /n1 )2 − sin2 θi (n2 /n1 )2 − sin2 θi cos 30◦ − = cos 30◦ + (1.Problem 8.62 (Ω). which corresponds to green light. x with ω = 2π × 1015 rad/s and k2 = 6. (8. From Eqs. (b) The instantaneous expressions for E and H in the glass medium.73 × 50 = 36.4π × 106 rad/m. (ε2 /ε1 ) = (n2 /n1 )2 . and Umberto Ravaioli. η2 = µ2 η0 120π = = = 75π = 235.6.6)2 − sin2 30◦ (1.6 k2 = = = = = 6. Solution: (a) For nonmagnetic materials. ˆ t Et = yE0 e− jk2 (x sin θt +z cos θt ) . Ulaby. (b) In the glass medium. and the index of refraction of the glass is 1. determine the following: (a) The reﬂection and transmission coefﬁcients. The wave frequency is 600 THz (1 THz = 1012 Hz).5 cos(ωt − k2 x sin θt − k2 z cos θt ) (V/m).6 t i E0 = τ⊥ E0 = 0.16 cos(ωt − k2 x sin θt − k2 z cos θt ) (A/m).27.32 A perpendicularly polarized wave in air is obliquely incident upon a planar glass–air interface at an incidence angle of 30◦ . up c/n c 3 × 108 sin θi sin 30◦ = = 0.
i 1/2 i i = a0 = 30 V/m. and the total ﬁeld in the region z ≤ 0. Fawwaz T.57). (d) Determine the percentages of the incident average power reﬂected by the boundary and transmitted into the second medium. (a) Write an expression for the electric ﬁeld phasor of the incident wave. Ulaby.5 = 0. (V/m). RHC wave traveling in +z direction: ˆ E = a0 (ˆ + y e− jπ/2 )e− jk1 z = a0 (ˆ − jy)e− jk1 z x ˆ x Ei (z. Solution: (a) k1 = ω 2π × 50 × 106 π = = rad/m. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . (c) Write expressions for the electric ﬁeld phasors of the reﬂected wave. c 3 From (7.5 η2 + η1 40π + 120π τ = 1 + Γ = 1 − 0.t) = Re E e jωt ˆ = Re a0 (ˆ e j(ωt−k1 z) + y e j(ωt−k1 z−π/2) ) x ˆ ˆ = x a0 cos(ωt − k1 z) + y a0 cos(ωt − k1 z − π/2) ˆ ˆ = x a0 cos(ωt − k1 z) + y a0 sin(ωt − k1 z) Ei  = a2 cos2 (ωt − k1 z) + a2 sin2 (ωt − k1 z) 0 0 Hence. given that the ﬁeld is a positive maximum at z = 0 and t = 0.36 A 50MHz righthand circularly polarized plane wave with an electric ﬁeld modulus of 30 V/m is normally incident in air upon a dielectric medium with εr = 9 and occupying the region deﬁned by z ≥ 0.Problem 8. (Ω). (b) Calculate the reﬂection and transmission coefﬁcients. E = 30(x0 − jy0 )e− jπz/3 (b) η1 = η0 = 120π 120π η0 η2 = √ = √ = 40π εr2 9 η2 − η1 40π − 120π Γ= = = −0. (Ω). c 3 × 108 3 √ ω√ π k2 = εr2 = 9 = π rad/m. and Umberto Ravaioli. the transmitted wave.5. Eric Michielssen.
(c) ˆ E = Γa0 (ˆ − jy)e jk1 z x ˆ = −0. ˆ ˆ = 30(ˆ − jy)e− jπz/3 − 15(ˆ − jy)e jπz/3 x x ˆ = 15(ˆ − jy)[2e− jπz/3 − e jπz/3 ] (V/m). (V/m).5 × 30(ˆ − jy)e jk1 z x ˆ = −15(ˆ − jy)e jπz/3 x ˆ E = τa0 (ˆ − jy)e− jk2 z x ˆ = 15(ˆ − jy)e− jπz x E1 = E + E i r t r (V/m). x (d) % of reﬂected power = 100 × Γ2 = 100 × (0. Eric Michielssen. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .5)2 × = 75%. Ulaby. η2 40π Fawwaz T.5)2 = 25% η1 120π % of transmitted power = 100τ2 = 100 × (0. and Umberto Ravaioli.
Ulaby. and Umberto Ravaioli. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .Chapter 9 Solved Problems Problem 917 Problem 924 Problem 937 Fawwaz T. Eric Michielssen.
it was found that S(θ ) = 15I0 /(πR2 )(4) at θmax . Smax = 2 60I0 .17: Figure P9.56) becomes 2 15I0 S(θ ) = πR2 cos (π cos θ ) − cos (π) sin θ 2 2 15I0 = πR2 cos (π cos θ ) + 1 sin θ 2 . θmax2 = 270◦ .17. Fawwaz T. The normalized radiation pattern is shown in Fig.17 Repeat parts (a)–(c) of Problem 9. (9. πR2 (c) The normalized radiation pattern is given by Eq.15 for a dipole of length l = λ . 2 (b) From the numerical results. (9. Smax Using the expression for S(θ ) from part (a) with the value of Smax found in part (b). F(θ ) = 1 cos (π cos θ ) + 1 4 sin θ 2 . Solving for the directions of maximum radiation numerically yields θmax1 = 90◦ .13). Solution: For l = λ .17: Radiation pattern of dipole of length l = λ .Problem 9. Ulaby. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . P9. as F(θ ) = S(θ ) . Figure P9. and Umberto Ravaioli. Eq. Thus. Eric Michielssen.
If the transit antenna is driven by a 50MHz current with amplitude I0 = 2 A. (Assume both antennas to be lossless.64λ 2 λ 2D λ 2 = × 1. 2 15I0 1. Ed . Ulaby.24 The conﬁguration shown in Fig.24: Problem 9. Aer = Hence.64λ 2 × = 3. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall .24 depicts two vertically oriented halfwave dipole antennas pointed towards each other. with both positioned on 100m–tall towers separated by a distance of 5 km. From Section 93. due to the directly transmitted signal. P9. S= 2η0 2 15I0 . and Umberto Ravaioli. assuming the surface to be ﬂat and to have εr = 9 and conductivity σ = 10−3 (S/m).24.64) and (9. and a reﬂected component. πR2 1.64 = . Solution: (a) Since both antennas are lossless. due to the ground reﬂection. Si = S0 = and from (9. Since the power density S and the electric ﬁeld E are related by E2 .) (b) The power received by the receive antenna after incorporating reﬂection by the ground surface. πR2 4π (b) The electric ﬁeld of the signal intercepted by the receive antenna now consists of a direct component.47). determine: (a) The power received by the receive antenna in the absence of the surface.Figure P9. Problem 9. 4π 4π 4π Prec = Fawwaz T. Eric Michielssen. Er . Prec = Pint = Si Aer where Si is the incident power density and Aer is the effective area of the receive dipole.6 × 10−6 W.
Er = From the problem geometry R =2 (2. Γ = From the geometry. Thus.0 m. and k = 2π/λ . we ﬁrst determine ε σ 10−3 = = = 0.5 × 103 )2 + (100)2 = 5004. cos θi = h 100 = = 0. where R is the path length traveled by the reﬂected signal. Hence.85 × 10−12 × 9 From Table 71.04 (R /2) 2502 θi = 87. 30η0 I0 − jkR e π R Γ. Eric Michielssen. 3 Fawwaz T. and the electric ﬁeld is modiﬁed by the reﬂection coefﬁcient Γ. and Umberto Ravaioli. Ed = 0.04. Since the dipole is vertically oriented. ε ωε0 εr 2π × 50 × 106 × 8.024e− j120 ◦ (V/m). To calculate Γ.it follows that Ed = = = 2η0 Si e− jkR 2η0 × 2 15I0 − jkR e πR2 30η0 I0 − jkR e π R where the phase of the signal is measured with respect to the location of the transmit antenna. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Ulaby. The electric ﬁeld of the reﬂected signal is similar in form except for the fact that R should be replaced with R .66a).46◦ µ η0 η0 η0 =√ =√ = . ε εr 3 9 η2 cos θt − η1 cos θi η2 cos θt + η1 cos θi θt = sin−1 η1 = η0 (air) η0 η2 = η = .71◦ sin θi √ εr = 19. ηc ≈ η = From (8. the electric ﬁeld is parallel polarized.
= 0.94 + η0 × 0. (η0 /3) × 0.018e j0.Hence.6 The total electric ﬁeld is E = Ed + Er (V/m). Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Γ = The reﬂected electric ﬁeld is Er = 30η0 I0 − jkR e π R ◦ (η0 /3) × 0.024e− j120 + 0.77.02e− j73. and Umberto Ravaioli.64λ 2 × 2η0 4π −6 = 2. Eric Michielssen. = ◦ ◦ ◦ (V/m).5 × 10 W. Ulaby.3 The received power is Prec = Si Aer E2 1.94 − η0 × 0.6 = 0. Fawwaz T.018e j0.04 Γ = 0.04 = 0.
and Umberto Ravaioli. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . 1. Develop an expression for the array factor. . γ = 2π λ = e j2γ (e− j2γ + 4e− jγ + 6 + 4e jγ + e j2γ ) · λ cos θ = π cos θ . . . Solution: Using the given formula. Eric Michielssen.113) leads to: N−1 2 jiγ (5 − 1)! =1 0!4! 4! =4 1!3! 4! =6 2!2! 4! =4 3!1! 4! =1 0!4! (note that 0! = 1) Fa (γ) = i=0 ∑ ai e . a0 = a1 = a2 = a3 = a4 = Application of (9. where N is the number of elements. Fawwaz T. (N − 1). 2 Fa (θ ) = [6 + 8 cos(π cos θ ) + 2 cos(2π cos θ )]2 .Problem 9. . γ= 2πd cos θ λ 2 2 = 1 + 4e jγ + 6e j2γ + 4e j3γ + e j4γ = (6 + 8 cos γ + 2 cos 2γ)2 . Ulaby. i!(N − i − 1)! i = 0. With d = λ /2.37 A ﬁveelement equally spaced linear array with d = λ /2 is excited with uniform phase and an amplitude distribution given by the binomial distribution ai = (N − 1)! .
Chapter 10 Solved Problems There are no solved problems for Chapter 10 Fawwaz T. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics c 2010 Prentice Hall . Eric Michielssen. and Umberto Ravaioli. Ulaby.
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