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UNIT – 1:

1. A) Explain the terms:

i. Significant figures
ii. Conformity.
(b) How are random errors analyzed? Explain them with examples.
(c) Explain about true RMS voltmeter. [6+5+5]

2. (a) Explain the functioning of a potentiometer type digital voltmeter.

(b) A 31/2 digit of DVM has an accuracy of ± 0.5 percent of reading ± 1 digit.
i. What is the possible error in volt, when the instrument is reading 5.00 V on the 10 V
range?
ii. What is the possible error in volt, when reading 0.1 V on the 10 V range? [8+8]
3. a) List out some important features like, operating and performance characteristics of
digital voltmeters.
(b) With the help of a neat block diagram explain the principle of operation of a ramp
type digital voltmeter. List out its advantages and disadvantages. [8+8]
4. (a) Define voltmeter sensitivity. What is the loading effect of a DC voltmeter? Explain
with an example.
(b) In the circuit shown in figure 1b, two resistors R1 and R2 are connected to a 100V dc
source. If the voltage across R2 is to be measured by voltmeters having.

i. a sensitivity of 1000 /V and

ii. a sensitivity of 20,000/V, then find which voltmeter will read the accurate value of
voltage across R2. Both the meters are used on the 50V range.
5. (a) Explain the functioning of a potentiometer type digital voltmeter.
(b) A 31/2 digit of DVM has an accuracy of +- 0.5 percent of reading +- 1 digit.
i. What is the possible error in volt, when the instrument is reading 5.00 V on the 10 V
range?
ii. What is the possible error in volt, when reading 0.1 V on the 10 V range? [8+8]
6. (a) Explain with a neat block diagram of a dual slope digital voltmeter.
(b) A dual slope integrating type of A/D converter has an integrating capacitor of 0.1
microfarad and a resistance of 100k.ohms connected. If the reference voltage is 2V, and
the output of an integrator is not to exceed 10V, what is the maximum time reference
voltage? [6+10]
7. (a) Explain the following terms:
i. Accuracy
ii. Error
iii. Linearity
iv. Precision.
(b) Discuss the main difference between accuracy and precision.
(c) Explain the operation of peak responding voltmeter. [8+4+4]
8. (a) How does a basic d'Arsonval movement converted into multi range volt meter.
Explain it using a neat diagram.
(b) A basic d'Arsonval movement with an internal resistance Rm=50W and full scale
current Ifsd = 0.5mA is to be connected to a multi range DC voltmeter with voltage
ranges of 0-10V, 0-50V, 0-250V and 0-500V. Show the arrangement with the help of
neat diagram with values of resistances used. [8+8]
9. (a) Compare and contrast
i. Successive approximation type of DVM
ii. Dual slope type of DVM
(b) Prove that in case of dual slope integrator the clock accuracy is not going to affect
the measurement accuracy. [8+8]
10. (a) Draw the basic circuit of an a.c. voltmeter using recti¯er and d'Arsonval movement
and explain its working.
(b) Convert the given d'Arsonval meter to an a.c. voltmeter whose coil resistance is
250 and full scale deflection current of 1mA. The applied a.c. voltage is 0-250V.
Calculate ohms/volt of the a.c. voltmeter. Show the circuit arrangement. [8+8]
11. (a) What is meant by voltmeter sensitivity? Explain its relevance in circuit
applications. What is meant by loading effect? What circuit arrangement is done to
avoid the same.
(b) It is desired to measure the voltage across the 100K resistor in the circuit given
below. Two voltmeters are available for this measurement. Voltmeter 1 with a
sensitivity of 1000/V and voltmeter 2 with a sensitivity of 20,000/V. Both meters are
used on their 50V range. Calculate
i. the reading of each meter
ii. error in each reading, expressed as a percentage of the true value. [8+8]

12. (a) State the advantages of a DVM over an analog meter.

(b) What are the operating and performance characteristics of a Digital voltmeter and
how are they classified?
(c) Explain the operating Principle of a Ramp type DVM. [4+6+6]
UNIT – 2:

1. a) What is meant by arbitrary waveform? Discuss with a neat block diagram the
working of a arbitrary waveform generator.
(b) Distinguish between a random pattern and video pattern generators. Discuss about
important features of both. [8+8]
2. (a) With respect to construction and circuit configuration, explain how a square wave
generator differs from sine wave generator.
(b) With a neat block diagram discuss about an AF sine wave generator. [8+8]
3. (a) With neat diagrams, discuss about fixed and variable AF oscillators.
(b) Describe the following terms related to signal generators:
i. Random Noise
ii. Arbitrary waveform
iii. sweep generator. [10+6]
4. (a) What are the precautionary measures to be taken in a signal generator application?
(b) Discuss in detail about RF signal generators operation. [8+8]
5. (a) Explain briefly the operation of single Op Amp square wave generator.
(b) Do you prefer a linear relationship or nonlinear relationship with respect to the
charging of a capacitor in generating the triangular wave? If so why? [8+8]
6. (a) With the help of a block diagram explain the principle of operation of a function
generator.
(b) With a neat diagram explain the working of an RF signal generator. [8+8]
7. (a) What are the precautionary measures to be taken in a signal generator application?
(b) Discuss in detail about RF signal generators operation. [8+8]
8. (a) Draw the block diagram of a function generator and explain its operation.
(b) With a neat diagram discuss the operation of a pulse generator. [8+8]
9. (a) What are the precautionary measures to be taken in a signal generator application?
(b) Discuss in detail about RF signal generators operation. [8+8]
UNIT – 3:

1. (a) Explain with the help of block diagram the working of a spectrum analyzer.
(b) Explain the different applications of spectrum analyzer. [8+8]
2. (a) What is the difference between a wave analyzer and harmonic distortion analyzer?
(b) Explain with the help of block diagram the working of a harmonic distortion
analyzer? [8+8]
3. (a) Explain with a neat block diagram, the working principle of a distortion analyzer.
(b) Explain about the following terms:
i. Distortion in a waveform
ii. Distortion in a communication signal. [8+8]
4. (a) Distinguish between spectrum analyzer and harmonic distortion analyzer. [8+8]
(b) Describe a signature analyzer and explain usage in locating faults in digital circuits.
5. (a) Write short notes on
i. Logic probe
ii. Logic clip.
(b) Explain a logic analyzer and its uses in locating faults in computer buses. [8+8]
6. (a) Draw the circuit diagram and explain the working of a super heterodyne type wave
analyzer.
(b) Explain one application of distortion factor meter. [8+8]
7. (a) Draw and explain the block diagram of Multi filter real time Spectrum Analyzer.
(b) Explain the different types of distortions caused by an amplifier. [8+8]
8. (a) Distinguish between a logic analyzer and a spectrum analyzer.
(b) With a neat block diagram, explain the principle of operation of a logic analyzer.
Give an example. [8+8]
9. (a) Describe the various engineering applications of wave analyzers
(b) Explain the different types of distortions caused by amplifiers. [8+8]
10. What is intermodulation distortion? Describe the working of an intermodulation
distortion meter with the help of a block diagram. 
11. (a) Define distortion. What are the types? Explain.
(b) Explain the term "Distortion factor' and hence derive the formula. 
12. (a) Explain the two types of Spectrum Analyzers.
(b) Explain the following terms associated with Spectrum Analyzer.
i. Sensitivity
ii. Dynamic Range
iii. Harmonic Mixing
(c) Compare the selectivity characteristics of the Spectrum Analyzer and Wave
Analyzer. [6+6+4] **
13. (a) Draw the circuit diagram and explain the working of a super heterodyne type wave
analyzer.
(b) Explain one application of distortion factor meter. [8+8]
UNIT - 4:

1. (a) Explain the working of a post deflection acceleration oscilloscope using a scan
expansion mesh.
(b) Briefly summarize the characteristics of commonly used phosphors. [10+6]
2. (a) With a neat circuit diagram, explain the function of associated circuits that are used
for CRT operation.
(b) Explain how the light is emitted on the screen of a CRO. [10+6]
3. Explain the function of each of the following CRO controls.
(a) Focus
(b) Z-Axis Modulation
(c) Astigmatism.
(d) Trigger and Calibrator. [4+4+4+4]
4. (a) Discuss the following display modes of dual-trace CRO
i. A and B chopped
ii. A and B alternate.
(b) Explain the working principles of a current probe. [8+8]
5. (a) Draw the neat diagrams of both vertical and horizontal deflection systems and
explain briefly about their working. [10+6]
(b) Draw the block diagram of a dual beam oscilloscope and explain its working.
6. (a) What are the advantages of dual beam for multiple trace oscilloscopes?
(b) How is the vertical axis of an oscilloscope deflected? How does this differ from
horizontal axis? [8+8]
7. (a) Explain with a block diagram the major parts of CRT.
(b) Explain the difference between the internal & external graticules. [8+8]
8. (a) Draw the block diagram of vertical amplifier and explain its working.
(b) Draw the block diagram of dual-beam CRO and explain its working. [8+8]
9. (a) Explain the gear wheel method for frequency measurement.
(b) Compare storage oscilloscope with ordinary oscilloscope. [8+8]
10. (a) Briefly explain about Electrostatic Deflection of a CRT.
(b) Discuss about Screens of CRT.
(c) An input pulse Vi of 5 ns duration is applied to the basic sweep circuit using R and
C at the instant Vo reaches 4.76V. What is the voltage across the capacitor after 50 ¹s if
the saturated transistor presents a resistance of 0.2K to the circuit? [6+5+5]
11. (a) Discuss about working principle of dual beam CRO with the help of neat block
diagram. What are the advantages and disadvantages of it?
(b) With examples, explain how frequency and amplitude of a waveform are measured
using CRO. [8+8]
UNIT – 5:
1. (a) When is period measurement preferred over frequency measurement? Also give
two conditions for the period measurement.
(b) With a suitable block diagram, explain the operation of a pre scaled frequency
counter. [8+8]
2. (a) Explain briefly how you extend the frequency range of a frequency counter using
prescalar.
(b) Give the importance of LPF in extending the frequency range of a counter. 
3. (a) Describe with the help of suitable circuit diagram how the single and multiple
period measurements are carried out using digital frequency meter.
(b) How high frequencies are measured using frequency counter? Explain any one
method. 
4. (a) A high-impedance probe with 9 M resistance and 4 pF capacitance is connected to
CRO with an i/p resistance of 1 M if the effective capacitance decreased to 3.6 pF
when the probe was connected. What is the capacitance of CRO alone?
(b) Describe the different types of phosphorous materials used in a CRO and list their
applications?
(c) The input attenuator in the vertical amplifier of a general purpose CRO is generally
followed by an emitter follower or cathode follower circuit. Suggest three possible
reasons for using this circuit. [4+6+6]
5. (a) Draw the block diagram of a digital storage oscilloscope and explain its operation.
(b) What are the advantages of an active probe? [10+6]
6. What is the need for attenuators? Briefly explain the compensated and uncompensated
attenuators? 
7. (a) What is an electronic counter? How can it be used for the measurement of the
following:
i. Average time period mode
ii. Totalizing. [10+6]
(b) What is trigger level errors and suggest the means to obtain the maximum accuracy?
8. Write short notes on the following controls:
(a) Delayed Sweep
(b) ALT/ CHOP mode
(c) Astigmatism. [4+8+4]
9. (a) A high impedance probe with 9 M ohm resistance and 4 pf capacitance is
connected to an oscilloscope with an input resistance of 1 M ohm. When the probe was
connected, the effective capacitance is decreased to 3.6 pf. Find
i.) the capacitance of the oscilloscope
ii. the attenuation of the probe.
(b) write the differences between digital storage oscilloscope and conventional storage
oscilloscope. [8+8]
10. (a) Draw the circuit of active probe using FET. Explain its operation and limitations.
(b) What is meant by variable persistence? [10+6]
UNIT – 6:

1.