Income, Poverty, and

Health Insurance Coverage in
the United States: 2009

Issued September 2010

3

P60-238

6

1.1

9

1.4
1.6
0.6

25,572 63,658

By
26,160 64,575
Carmen DeNavas-Walt
Bernadette D. Proctor
41,530
Jessica C.
Smith 26,691

13.2

Current Population Reports

17.1

1.9 *

12.6
0.7 *
Consumer

63,594

Income

59,149 41,259 26,891

1.1

9.2

1.2

0.9

1.0

7.5

1.1

1.0 14.3

7.6

1.3 * 1.1 11.8

59,925 40,898 27,013
1.2

18,979 57,555 40,207 27,612

16.7

1.9 * 1.5

11.9

0.9

0.7 10.0

1.0 10.1

1.2

1.5

1.2 12.7

1.2 11.4

1.3

13.1

1.4

1.2

1.1

9.6

37,335 21,977 58,865 39,843

9.2 0.7

9.0 1.0

9.0

9.2

34,421 19,890 57,783 38,789 27,779
35,316 20,538 58,155 39,792

1.6 * 1.2 13.2

1.3 12.7

1.4

13.8

37,773 22,425 59,369 39,143

0.9

0.8 15.4

0.9

15.2

37,913 22,561 59,506

0.7 15.2
0.9

8.0 1.0

6.7

1.0

9.1

0.9

9.8 1.1

9.8

1.2

9.9

1.1

8.0 1.0

8.1

1.1

8.1

1.2 10.4

1.1 10.2

1.2

10.8

39,750 23,355 58,754

15.6

1.3 15.2

1.4

15.6

39,479 23,221

1.1

8.6

8.6 0.9

8.9

39,923 23,100 57,861
41,195 23,330 56,633

38,789 27,779 71,616

1.2

1.0 18.8

1.7

39,792 27,798 69,858

1.7

1.3 14.1

0.7 14.0

39,843 28,203 70,785

1.9 * 1.4 12.9

1.0 13.1

0.7 * 0.6 12.4

1.2 11.7

1.2

0.9 10.8

0.8 11.0

1.1

1.0 14.3

1.3 13.9

1.4

1.3 * 1.1 11.8

1.2 11.7

1.3

39,143 27,995 71,520
59,506 38,900 27,995 71,968
57,861 38,768 27,691 71,428
56,633 38,531 28,421 73,762

1.9 * 1.5

9.0

0.7

58,754 39,521 29,309 74,161

0.9

0.7 10.0

1.0 10.1

1.2

23,221 58,818 40,906 29,931 73,170

1.5

1.2 12.7

1.2 11.4

1.3

1.2

23,702 60,193 41,249 29,829
24,661 59,441 40,843
41,021 24,474 59,663
40,412 24,312

13.1

9.2

1.1

9.6

1.3 12.7

1.4

13.8

0.8 15.4

0.9

15.2

1.0

6.7

1.0

9.1

1.3

1.2

9.9

1.3

8.1

1.2
1.4

40,213 23,820

1.6

39,498
U.S. Department of Commerce
Economics and Statistics Administration
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU

Helping You Make Informed Decisions

9.0 1.0
13.2

23,708 58,922 40,861

USCENSUSBUREAU

9.2 0.7

Acknowledgments
Carmen DeNavas-Walt, with the assistance of Margaret E.
Richardson and Melissa A. Stringfellow, prepared the income
section of this report under the direction of Edward J. Welniak, Jr.,
Chief of the Income Statistics Branch. Bernadette D. Proctor prepared the poverty section under the direction of Trudi J. Renwick,
Chief of the Poverty Statistics Branch. Jessica C. Smith prepared
the health insurance coverage section under the direction of Brett
O’Hara, Chief of the Health and Disability Statistics Branch.
Charles T. Nelson, Assistant Division Chief for Economic
Characteristics, and Jennifer Cheeseman Day, Assistant Division
Chief for Employment Characteristics, both of the Housing and
Household Economic Statistics Division, provided overall direction.
Adelle D. Berlinger, George M. Mitcham, Tim J. Marshall, and
Gregory D. Weyland, Demographic Surveys Division, processed
the Current Population Survey 2010 Annual Social and Economic
Supplement file. Donna K. Benton, Kirk E. Davis, Thy K. Le, and
Chandararith R. Phe, all of the Survey Processing Branch, programmed and produced the detailed and publication tables.
Danielle N. Castelo, Rebecca A. Hoop, and Matthew R.
Herbstritt, under the supervision of David V. Hornick and
Kimball T. Jonas, all of the Demographic Statistical Methods
Division, conducted sample review. Thomas F. Moore, Chief of the
Health Surveys and Supplements Branch, provided overall direction.
Lisa Clement, Tim J. Marshall, Michelle Wiland, and Lisa
Paska, Demographic Surveys Division, and Roberto Picha and
Agatha Jung,Technologies Management Office, prepared and programmed the computer-assisted interviewing instrument used to
conduct the Annual Social and Economic Supplement.
Additional people within the U.S. Census Bureau also made significant contributions to the preparation of this report. Barton Baker,
Ashley Edwards, Suzanne Macartney, Laryssa Mykyta, Ashley
Provencher, Jessica L. Semega, Bruce H. Webster, Jr., John
Hisnanick, Len Norry, and Judith Waldrop reviewed the contents.
Census Bureau field representatives and telephone interviewers
collected the data. Without their dedication, the preparation of this
report or any report from the Current Population Survey would be
impossible.
Linda Chen, Jamie A. Stark, and Donald J. Meyd, of the
Administrative and Customer Services Division, Francis Grailand
Hall, Chief, provided publications and printing management, graphics design and composition, and editorial review for print and electronic media. General direction and production management were
provided by Claudette E. Bennett, Assistant Division Chief.

Income, Poverty, and Health
Insurance Coverage in the
United States: 2009

Issued September 2010
P60-238

U.S. Department of Commerce
Gary Locke,
Secretary
Vacant,
Deputy Secretary
Economics and Statistics Administration
Rebecca M. Blank,
Under Secretary for Economic Affairs
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Robert M. Groves,
Director

Suggested Citation
DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Bernadette D.
Proctor, and Jessica C. Smith,
U.S. Census Bureau,
Current Population Reports, P60-238,
Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance
Coverage in the United States: 2009,
U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, DC,
2010.

ECONOMICS
AND STATISTICS
ADMINISTRATION

Economics and Statistics
Administration
Rebecca M. Blank,
Under Secretary for Economic Affairs

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Robert M. Groves,
Director
Thomas L. Mesenbourg,
Deputy Director and Chief Operating Officer
Howard Hogan,
Associate Director for Demographic Programs
David S. Johnson,
Chief, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division

Contents
TEXT
Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage
in the United States: 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source of Estimates and Statistical Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplemental Poverty Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
State and Local Estimates of Income, Poverty, and

Health Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamics of Economic Well-Being . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
1
1
2
3
4

Income in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Household Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Age of Householder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Income Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Equivalence-Adjusted Income Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Work Experience and Earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Per Capita Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Poverty in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Impact of the 2007 Economic Downturn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depth of Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ratio of Income to Poverty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Income Deficit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternative/Experimental Poverty Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

National Academy of Sciences (NAS)-Based Measures and
  Estimates of the Effect of Benefits and Taxes . . . . . . . . .

CPS Table Creator II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14
14
14
16
16
16
17
17
17
18
18
19
19
20

Health Insurance Coverage in the United States . . . . . . . .
Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is Health Insurance Coverage? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Type of Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Race and Hispanic Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Economic Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Children’s Health Insurance Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22
22
22
24
25
25
27
27
27
27
28
28

20
21

Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Additional Data and Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 iii

TEXT TABLES
1. Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics:

2008 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Change in Real Median Income and Earnings, Number of Workers, and Percentage of
  Full-Time, Year-Round Workers During Income Years Surrounding Recessions by Sex:
  1969 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3. Income Distribution Measures Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income:

2008 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4. People and Families in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5. Change in Poverty During Income Years Surrounding Recessions: 1969 to 2009 . . . . . . . 16
6. People With Income Below Specified Ratios of Their Poverty Thresholds by

Selected Characteristics: 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
7. Income Deficit or Surplus of Families and Unrelated Individuals by Poverty Status:
  2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8. People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics:

2008 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
9. People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics:
  2007 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
FIGURES
1. Real Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1967 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2. Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio and Median Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round

Workers 15 Years and Older by Sex: 1960 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3. Total and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers With Earnings by Sex: 1967 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . 13
4. Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. Poverty Rates by Age: 1959 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6. Demographic Makeup of the Population at Varying Degrees of Poverty: 2009 . . . . . . . . . 19
7. Number Uninsured and Uninsured Rate: 1987 to 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8. Coverage by Type of Health Insurance: 2008 and 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9. Uninsured Children by Poverty Status, Household Income, Age, Race and Hispanic
  Origin, and Nativity: 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

iv Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

APPENDIXES
Appendix A. Estimates of Income ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������31
How Income Is Measured ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������31
Recessions ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������31
Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series (CPI-U-RS) Using Current Methods
  All Items: 1947 to 2009 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������32
Cost-of-Living Adjustment������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������32
Appendix B. Estimates of Poverty ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55
How Poverty Is Calculated������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55
Poverty Thresholds for 2009 by Size of Family and Number of Related Children
  Under 18 Years��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55
Weighted Average Poverty Thresholds in 2009 by Size of Family������������������������������������������������55
Appendix C. Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage��������������������������������������������������������������69
Quality of Health Insurance Coverage Estimates��������������������������������������������������������������������������69
National surveys and health insurance coverage����������������������������������������������������������������������69
Reporting of coverage through major federal health insurance programs��������������������������������69
APPENDIX TABLES
A-1. Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of

Householder: 1967 to 2009 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33
A-2. Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009 ����������������������������������������40
A-3. Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009 ����������������������45
A-4. Number and Real Median Earnings of Total Workers and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers
  by Sex and Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio: 1960 to 2009������������������������������������������������������50
A-5. Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience, Sex, and
  Selected Characteristics: 2002 to 2009����������������������������������������������������������������������������������51
B-1. Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin:

1959 to 2009������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56
B-2. Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009 ����������������������������62
B-3. Poverty Status of Families, by Type of Family: 1959 to 2009 ��������������������������������������������������68
C-1. Health Insurance Coverage: 1987 to 2009 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������71
C-2. Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2009����������������������������������72
C-3. Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2009 ������������������������������������������������������������������76

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 v

Income, Poverty, and
Health Insurance Coverage in
the United States: 2009
Introduction
This report presents data on income,
poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States based on
information collected in the 2010
and earlier Current Population
Survey Annual Social and Economic
Supplements (CPS ASEC) conducted by
the U.S. Census Bureau.
Summary of findings:
• The median household income in
2009 was not statistically different from the 2008 median in real
terms.1
• The poverty rate increased between
2008 and 2009.
• The uninsured rate and number of
people without health insurance
increased between 2008 and 2009.
These results were not uniform across
groups. For example, between 2008
and 2009, real median household
income declined for non-Hispanic
Whites and Blacks, while the changes
for Asians and Hispanics were not
1
All income values are adjusted to reflect
2009 dollars. “Real” refers to income after adjusting for inflation. The adjustment is based on
percentage changes in prices between 2009 and
earlier years and is computed by dividing the
annual average Consumer Price Index Research
Series (CPI-U-RS) for 2009 by the annual average
for earlier years. The CPI-U-RS values for
1947 to 2009 are available in Appendix A and
on the Internet at <www.census.gov/hhes
/www/income/data/incpovhlth/2009/p60no238
_appacpitable.pdf>. Consumer prices between
2008 and 2009 fell by 0.4 percent.

U.S. Census Bureau

Source of Estimates and Statistical Accuracy
The data in this report are from the 2010 Current Population Survey
Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) and were collected in
the 50 states and the District of Columbia and do not represent residents
of Puerto Rico and U.S. island areas.* It is based on a sample of about
100,000 addresses. The estimates in this report are controlled to independent national population estimates by age, sex, race, and Hispanic
origin for March 2010. The population controls used to prepare estimates
for 1999 to 2009 were based on the results from Census 2000 and are
updated annually using administrative records for such things as births,
deaths, emigration, and immigration.
The CPS is a household survey primarily used to collect employment data.
The sample universe for the basic CPS consists of the resident civilian
noninstitutionalized population of the United States. People in institutions, such as prisons, long-term care hospitals, and nursing homes, are
not eligible to be interviewed in the CPS. Students living in dormitories are
only included in the estimates if information about them is reported in an
interview at their parents’ home. The sample universe for the CPS ASEC is
slightly larger than that of the basic CPS since it includes military personnel who live in a household with at least one other civilian adult, regardless of whether they live off post or on post. All other Armed Forces are
excluded. For further documentation about the CPS ASEC, see
<www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf>.
Most of the data from the CPS ASEC were collected in March (with some
data collected in February and April). The estimates in this report (which
may be shown in text, figures, and tables) are based on responses from
a sample of the population and may differ from actual values because
of sampling variability or other factors. As a result, apparent differences
between the estimates for two or more groups may not be statistically
significant. All comparative statements have undergone statistical testing
and are significant at the 90 percent confidence level unless otherwise
noted. Further information about the source and accuracy of the estimates
is available at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>.
* U.S. island areas include American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern
Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands of the United States.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 1

statistically significant.2 The poverty rate increased for non-Hispanic
Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, while
the change for Asians was not statistically significant. Additionally, for
health insurance, the uninsured rate
and number of uninsured increased
for non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, and
Hispanics, while the changes for
2
Federal surveys now give respondents the
option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are
possible. A group such as Asian may be defined
as those who reported Asian and no other race
(the race-alone or single-race concept) or as
those who reported Asian regardless of whether
they also reported another race (the race-aloneor-in-combination concept). The body of this
report (text, figures, and tables) shows data
using the first approach (race alone). The appendix tables show data using both approaches.
Use of the single-race population does not imply
that it is the preferred method of presenting or
analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety
of approaches.
In this report, the term “non-Hispanic White”
refers to people who are not Hispanic and who
reported White and no other race. The Census
Bureau uses non-Hispanic Whites as the comparison group for other race groups and Hispanics.
Because Hispanics may be any race, data
in this report for Hispanics overlap with data
for race groups. Being Hispanic was reported
by 12.9 percent of White householders who
reported only one race, 2.9 percent of Black
householders who reported only one race, and
2.0 percent of Asian householders who reported
only one race.
The small sample size of the Asian population and the fact that the CPS does not use separate population controls for weighting the Asian
sample to national totals contribute to the large
variances surrounding estimates of this group.
This means that for some estimates for the Asian
population, we are unable to detect statistically
significant changes from the previous year. The
American Community Survey (ACS), based on
a much larger sample size of the population, is
a better source for estimating and identifying
changes for small groups of the population, such
as the Asian population.
The householder is the person (or one of the
people) in whose name the home is owned or
rented and the person to whom the relationship
of other household members is recorded. If a
married couple owns the home jointly, either the
husband or the wife may be listed as the householder. Since only one person in each household
is designated as the householder, the number of
householders is equal to the number of households. This report uses the characteristics of the
householder to describe the household.
Data users should exercise caution when
interpreting aggregate results for the Hispanic
population or for race groups because these
populations consist of many distinct groups that
differ in socioeconomic characteristics, culture,
and recency of immigration. In addition, the CPS
does not use separate population controls for
weighting the Asian sample to national totals.
Data were first collected for Hispanics in 1972
and for Asians and Pacific Islanders in 1987. For
further information, see <www.bls.census.gov
/cps/ads/adsmain.htm>.

Asians were not statistically significant. These results are discussed in
more detail in the three main sections of this report—income, poverty,
and health insurance coverage. Each
section presents estimates by characteristics such as race, Hispanic origin,
nativity, and region. Other topics
covered are earnings of workers,

including full-time, year-round workers; families in poverty; and health
insurance coverage of children.
The income and poverty estimates
shown in this report are based solely
on money income before taxes and do
not include the value of noncash benefits, such as nutritional assistance,

Supplemental Poverty Measure
On March 2, 2010, the Interagency Technical Working Group (which
included representatives from the Bureau of Labor Statistics [BLS], U.S.
Census Bureau, Economics and Statistics Administration, Council of
Economic Advisers, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and
Office of Management and Budget [OMB]) issued a series of suggestions to
the Census Bureau and BLS on how to develop the Supplemental Poverty
Measure. Their suggestions drew on the recommendations of a 1995
National Academy of Sciences report and the extensive research on poverty measurement conducted over the past 15 years.
The new thresholds are not intended to assess eligibility for government
programs and will not replace the official poverty thresholds. Instead, the
new measure will serve as an additional indicator of economic well-being
and will provide a deeper understanding of economic conditions and policy
effects. The official poverty measure, which has been in use since the
1960s, estimates poverty rates by looking at a family’s or an individual’s
cash income. The new measure will be a more complex statistic incorporating additional items, such as tax payments and work expenses, in its family
resource estimates. Thresholds used in the new measure will be derived
from Consumer Expenditure Survey expenditure data on basic necessities
(food, shelter, clothing, and utilities) and will be adjusted for geographic
differences in the cost of housing. Additional details can be found at
<www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/SPM_TWGObservations.pdf>.
The Census Bureau’s statistical experts, with assistance from BLS and in
consultation with other appropriate agencies and outside experts, will be
responsible for the measure’s technical design. Over 75 comments were
received in response to a May 2010 federal register notice regarding the
measure. The Census Bureau has embarked on an ambitious research
agenda, which includes an assessment of alternative definitions of the
poverty unit, an investigation of alternative data sources for geographic
cost-of-living adjustments, and an evaluation of the reliability of the data
from questions added to the Annual Social and Economic Supplement to
the Current Population Survey (CPS ASEC) in 2010. The Census Bureau
plans to publish documentation on these and other technical aspects of
the new measure before the end of this year.
If the President’s budget initiative is approved, the Census Bureau will publish the first set of poverty estimates using the new approach in September
2011. Both the Census Bureau and the Interagency Technical Working
Group consider the Supplemental Poverty Measure a work in progress and
expect that there will be improvements to the statistic over time.

2 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Medicare, Medicaid, public housing, and employer-provided fringe
benefits.
Since the publication of the first official U.S. poverty estimates in 1964,
there has been continuing debate
about the best approach to measuring income and poverty in the United
States.
Recognizing that supplemental estimates of income and poverty can provide useful information to the public
as well as to the federal government,
in 2009, the Office of Management
and Budget’s (OMB) Chief Statistician
formed the Interagency Technical
Working Group on Developing the
Supplemental Poverty Measure. This
group asked the Census Bureau, in
cooperation with the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS), to develop the new
statistic. The measure is designed to
obtain an improved understanding of
the economic well-being of American
families and how federal policies
affect those living in poverty. The text
box “Supplemental Poverty Measure”
provides more information.
The CPS is the longest-running survey
conducted by the Census Bureau.
The CPS ASEC asks detailed questions categorizing income into over
50 sources. The key purpose of the
CPS ASEC is to provide timely and
detailed estimates of income, poverty,
and health insurance coverage and to
measure change in those estimates at
the national level. The CPS ASEC is the
official source of the national poverty
estimates calculated in accordance
with OMB’s Statistical Policy Directive
No. 14 (Appendix B).
The Census Bureau also reports
income, poverty, and health insurance coverage estimates based on
data from the American Community
Survey (ACS). The ACS is part of
the 2010 Census program and has
eliminated the need for a long-form
census questionnaire. The ACS offers

U.S. Census Bureau

broad, comprehensive information on
social, economic, and housing topics
and provides this information at many
levels of geography, particularly for
local communities.
Since the CPS ASEC produces more
complete and thorough estimates
of income and poverty, the Census
Bureau recommends that people use
it as the data source for national estimates. Estimates for income, poverty,
health insurance coverage, and other
economic characteristics at the state
level can be found in forthcoming
briefs based on data from the 2009
ACS. For more information on state

and local estimates, see the text box
“State and Local Estimates of Income,
Poverty, and Health Insurance.”
The CPS ASEC provides reliable estimates of the net change, from one
year to the next, in the overall distribution of economic characteristics of
the population, such as income and
earnings, but it does not show how
those characteristics change for the
same person, family, or household.
Longitudinal measures of income,
poverty, and health insurance coverage that are based on following the
same people over time are available from the Survey of Income and

State and Local Estimates of Income, Poverty, and
Health Insurance
The U.S. Census Bureau presents annual estimates of median household
income, poverty, and health insurance coverage by state and other smaller
geographic units based on data collected in the American Community
Survey (ACS). Single-year estimates are available for geographic units
with populations of 65,000 or more. The ACS also produces estimates of
income and poverty for counties and places with populations of 20,000 or
more by pooling 3 years of data. Before the end of this year, 5-year income
and poverty estimates will be available for all geographic units, including census tracts and block groups. (Since questions on health insurance
coverage were added to the ACS in 2008, 3-year estimates for health
insurance coverage will not be available until next year. Five-year health
insurance coverage estimates for the smallest geographic units will be
available in 2013.)
The Census Bureau’s Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE)
program also produces single-year estimates of median household income
and poverty for states and all counties, as well as population and poverty
estimates for school districts. These estimates are based on models using
data from a variety of sources, including current surveys, administrative records, intercensal population estimates, and personal income data
published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. In general, SAIPE estimates
have lower variances than ACS estimates but are released later because
they incorporate ACS data in the models. Estimates for 2008 are available
at <www.census.gov/did/www/saipe/index.html>. Estimates for 2009 will
be available later this year.
The Census Bureau’s Small Area Health Insurance Estimates (SAHIE) program produces model-based estimates of health insurance coverage rates
for states and counties. The SAHIE program released 2007 estimates of
health insurance coverage by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and income
categories at the state level and by age, sex, and income categories at the
county level in 2010. These estimates are available at <www.census.gov
/did/www/sahie/index.html>.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 3

Program Participation (SIPP). Estimates
derived from SIPP data answer questions such as:
• What percentage of households
move up or down the income distribution over time?
• How many people remain in poverty over time?
• How long do people without
health insurance tend to remain
uninsured?
The text box “Dynamics of Economic
Well-Being” provides more information.

INCOME IN THE UNITED
STATES
Highlights
• The real median household income
in 2009 was $49,777, not statistically different from the 2008
median (Table 1 and Figure 1).
• Real median income declined by
1.8 percent for family households
and increased 1.6 percent for nonfamily households between 2008
and 2009 (Table 1).

Dynamics of Economic Well-Being
The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides monthly
data about labor force participation, income sources and amounts, and
health insurance coverage of individuals, families, and households during
the time span covered by each of its panels. The data yield insights into
the dynamic nature of these experiences and the economic mobility of U.S.
residents.* For example, the data demonstrate that using a longer time
frame to measure poverty (e.g., 4 years) yields, on average, a lower poverty rate than the annual measures presented in this report, while using
a shorter time frame (e.g., 2 months) yields higher poverty rates. Some
specific findings from the 2004 panel include:
• The proportion of households in the bottom income quintile in 2004
that moved up to a higher quintile in 2007 (30.9 percent) was not statistically different from the proportion of households in the top quintile
in 2004 that moved to a lower quintile in 2007 (32.2 percent).
• Households with householders who had lower levels of education were
more likely to remain in or move into a lower income quintile than
households whose householders had higher levels of education.
• Approximately 31.6 percent of the population had at least one spell of
poverty lasting 2 or more months during the 4-year period from 2004
to 2007.
• Chronic poverty was relatively uncommon, with 2.2 percent of the
population living in poverty all 48 months of the period.
More information based on these data is available in a series of reports
titled the Dynamics of Economic Well-Being, as well as in table packages
and working papers.
The U.S. Census Bureau is in the process of reengineering the SIPP. The redesigned survey is expected to reduce respondent burden and attrition and
deliver data on a timely basis, while addressing the same topic areas of the
earlier SIPP panels. For more information, see <www.sipp.census.gov/sipp>.
*The 2004 SIPP panel collected data from February 2004 through January 2008. The data are
currently available for download. See the SIPP Web site for details <www.sipp.census.gov/sipp>.

4 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

• Real median income declined for
Black households and non-Hispanic
White households between 2008
and 2009, while the changes for
Asian and Hispanic-origin households were not statistically different
(Table 1 and Figure 1).
• Native-born households and households maintained by a noncitizen
had declines in real median income
between 2008 and 2009.3 The
changes in the median income of
all foreign-born households and
households maintained by a naturalized citizen were not statistically
significant (Table 1).
• The Midwest and West experienced
declines in real median household
income between 2008 and 2009
(2.1 percent and 1.9 percent,
respectively).4 The changes in
median household incomes in the
Northeast and South were not statistically significant (Table 1).
• The change in income inequality
between 2008 and 2009 was not
statistically significant, as measured by the shares of aggregate
household income by quintiles and
the Gini index (Tables 3 and A-2).5

3
Native-born households are those in which
the householder was born in the United States,
Puerto Rico, or the U.S. island areas of Guam,
the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana
Islands, American Samoa, or the Virgin Islands
of the United States or was born in a foreign
country but had at least one parent who was a
U.S. citizen. All other households are considered
foreign born regardless of the date of entry into
the United States or citizenship status. The CPS
does not interview households in Puerto Rico.
Of all householders, 86.8 percent were native
born; 6.7 percent were foreign born, naturalized
citizens; and 6.5 percent were noncitizens (the
difference in the percentage of householders
who were naturalized citizens and those who
were noncitizens is not statistically significant).
4
The difference in the declines in median
household income between the Midwest and
West was not statistically significant.
5
For a discussion of these two income
measures, see “What Are Shares of Aggregate
Household Income and a Gini index?,” in Bishaw,
Alemayehu and Jessica Semega, Income, Earnings, and Poverty Data From the 2007 American
Community Survey, American Community Survey
Reports, ACS-09, U.S. Census Bureau, August
2008, <www.census.gov/prod/2008pubs
/acs-09.pdf>.

U.S. Census Bureau

Table 1.

Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009
(Income in 2009 dollars. Households and people as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error,
nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
2008
Median income
(dollars)

Characteristic
Number
(thousands)

Percentage change
in real median income

20091
Median income
(dollars)

90 percent
confidence
Number
Estimate interval2 (±) (thousands)

90 percent
confidence
Estimate interval2 (±)

90 percent
confidence
Estimate interval2 (±)

HOUSEHOLDS
     All households ����������������������������������

117,181

50,112

225

117,538

49,777

350

–0.7

0.68

Type of Household
Family households����������������������������������������������
  Married-couple������������������������������������������������
  Female householder, no husband present������
  Male householder, no wife present ����������������
Nonfamily households����������������������������������������
  Female householder ��������������������������������������
  Male householder ������������������������������������������

78,850
59,118
14,480
5,252
38,331
20,637
17,694

62,383
72,733
32,947
48,999
29,964
24,919
35,869

421
538
618
1,088
305
382
434

78,833
58,410
14,843
5,580
38,705
20,442
18,263

61,265
71,830
32,597
48,084
30,444
25,269
36,611

311
410
541
1,156
281
345
456

*–1.8
*–1.2
–1.1
–1.9
*1.6
1.4
*2.1

0.68
0.75
2.00
2.59
1.13
1.68
1.43

White������������������������������������������������������������������
  White, not Hispanic ����������������������������������������
Black ������������������������������������������������������������������
Asian ������������������������������������������������������������������
Hispanic (any race)��������������������������������������������

95,297
82,884
14,595
4,573
13,425

52,113
55,319
34,088
65,388
37,769

249
369
723
2,271
796

95,489
83,158
14,730
4,687
13,298

51,861
54,461
32,584
65,469
38,039

253
459
648
2,084
826

–0.5
*–1.6
*–4.4
0.1
0.7

0.55
0.86
2.24
3.81
2.04

Age of Householder
Under 65 years ��������������������������������������������������
  15 to 24 years ������������������������������������������������
  25 to 34 years ������������������������������������������������
  35 to 44 years ������������������������������������������������
  45 to 54 years ������������������������������������������������
  55 to 64 years ������������������������������������������������
65 years and older����������������������������������������������

92,346
6,357
19,302
22,171
24,633
19,883
24,834

56,575
32,148
51,205
62,715
64,105
57,048
29,631

339
615
534
941
929
872
369

92,268
6,233
19,257
21,519
24,871
20,387
25,270

55,821
30,733
50,199
61,083
64,235
56,973
31,354

321
693
551
536
929
714
372

*–1.3
*–4.4
*–2.0
*–2.6
0.2
–0.1
*5.8

0.66
2.29
1.20
1.41
1.65
1.60
1.47

Nativity of Householder
Native born ��������������������������������������������������������
Foreign born ������������������������������������������������������
  Naturalized citizen������������������������������������������
  Not a citizen����������������������������������������������������

101,585
15,596
7,668
7,928

50,862
43,328
51,328
37,807

244
1,018
946
1,052

102,039
15,499
7,834
7,666

50,503
43,923
51,975
36,089

252
1,234
859
865

*–0.7
1.4
1.3
*–4.5

0.55
3.01
2.02
2.84

Region
Northeast������������������������������������������������������������
Midwest��������������������������������������������������������������
South������������������������������������������������������������������
West ������������������������������������������������������������������

21,309
26,282
43,423
26,166

54,140
49,922
45,417
54,876

1,101
533
444
864

21,479
26,390
43,611
26,058

53,073
48,877
45,615
53,833

924
711
464
895

–2.0
*–2.1
0.4
*–1.9

2.12
1.44
1.14
1.81

Residence
Inside metropolitan statistical areas ������������������
  Inside principal cities��������������������������������������
  Outside principal cities������������������������������������
Outside metropolitan statistical areas 4��������������

97,865
39,065
58,800
19,315

51,656
44,029
57,684
40,630

244
562
577
660

98,379
38,850
59,529
19,159

51,522
44,852
56,582
40,135

255
569
428
642

–0.3
*1.9
*–1.9
–1.2

0.55
1.48
1.00
1.82

59,861
44,156

46,191
35,609

238
174

56,053
43,217

47,127
36,278

242
173

*2.0
*1.9

0.62
0.58

Race3 and Hispanic Origin of Householder

EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME, YEAR-ROUND
  WORKERS
Men with earnings����������������������������������������������
Women with earnings ����������������������������������������

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 5

Table 1.

Income and Earnings Summary Measures by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009—Con.
(Income in 2009 dollars. Households and people as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error,
nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
2008
Median income
(dollars)

Characteristic
Number
(thousands)
PER CAPITA INCOME5
     Total3 ��������������������������������������������������
White ����������������������������������������������������������������
  White, not Hispanic ����������������������������������������
Black ������������������������������������������������������������������
Asian ������������������������������������������������������������������
Hispanic (any race)��������������������������������������������

301,483
240,852
197,159
38,076
13,315
47,485

Percentage change
in real median income

20091
Median income
(dollars)

90 percent
confidence
Number
Estimate interval2 (±) (thousands)
26,862
28,394
31,194
18,336
30,177
15,615

161
185
216
326
916
292

304,280
242,403
197,436
38,624
14,011
48,901

90 percent
confidence
Estimate interval2 (±)
26,530
28,034
30,941
18,135
30,653
15,063

160
183
214
327
1,053
276

90 percent
confidence
Estimate interval2 (±)
*–1.2
*–1.3
–0.8
–1.1
1.6
*–3.5

0.70
0.76
0.81
2.10
3.90
1.87

* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
Medians are calculated using $2,500 income intervals.  Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate
medians to $250,000 or more.  Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.”  Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000 and
a plug of “$100,000” was used.
2
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the
estimate. For more information, see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>
3
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as
Asian may be defined as those who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also
reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not
imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one
race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About
2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, and those
reporting two or more races are not shown separately in this table.
4
The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas.
For more information, see “About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html>.
5
The data shown in this section are per capita incomes and their respective confidence intervals. Per capita income is the mean income computed for every man, woman,
and child in a particular group. It is derived by dividing the total income of a particular group by the total population in that group (excluding patients or inmates in institutional
quarters).
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 and 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

Figure 1.

Real Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1967 to 2009
80,000

Recession

2009 dollars

70,000
$65,469
60,000

Asian

50,000

$54,461
$49,777

White, not Hispanic
All races

40,000

$38,039

Hispanic (any race)

$32,584

30,000
Black
20,000
10,000
0
1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2009

Note: Median household income data are not available prior to 1967. For information on recessions, see Appendix A.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

6 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table 2.

Change in Real Median Income and Earnings, Number of Workers, and Percentage of Full-Time,
Year-Round Workers During Income Years Surrounding Recessions by Sex: 1969 to 2009
(Income and earnings in 2009 dollars. Information for people 15 years and older beginning with 1980 and people 14 years and older for previous years.
Before 1989, earnings are for civilian workers only. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Recessions1

December 2007, trough not yet
  defined������������������������������������������������
March 2001 to November 2001������������
July 1990 to March 1991����������������������
January 1980 to July 1980 and July
  1981 to November 1982 ��������������������
November 1973 to March 1975������������
December 1969 to November 1970�����

PerChange in
centage
number of
change
workers with
in real
earnings
median
(in thousands)
houseIncome
hold
years income
Male Female

Change in
number of
full-time, yearround workers
with earnings
(in thousands)
Male Female

Percentagepoint change in
the percentage
of full-time,
year-round
workers
with earnings
Male Female

Percentage
change in
median
earnings of
all workers
Male Female

Percentage
change in
median
earnings of
full-time, yearround workers
Male Female

2007 to 2009
1999 to 2002
1989 to 1991

*–4.2 *–2,548 *–1,323 *–6,931 *–2,396
* –3.5 * 1,178
358
462 * 1,005
*–4.2
–5
458 *–1,790 *1,096

*–6.1
–0.5
*–2.5

*–2.2
* 1.1
*1.4

*–4.1
* –2.6
*–6.0

*–2.8
* 7.6
1.0

*1.0
0.4
–1.0

–0.1
* 6.3
0.7

1978 to 1983
1973 to 1975
1969 to 1971

*–6.0
*–5.7
*–1.7

*–1.5
*–3.7
*–2.2

*4.2
–0.7
0.8

*–10.1
*–6.4
*–2.2

*6.4
1.6
*6.3

*–5.6
*–4.2
*1.5

1.0
–0.5
*2.6

*2,235
–170
*1,613

*4,710
492
*1,343 *–2,314
*748
–189

*4,252
257
*628

* Statistically significant at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
Recessions are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research, a private research organization.
Note: Income years are based on peak income year prior to or during the start of the recession and the trough income year near or after the end of the recession.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1970 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

• Both men and women, 15 years old
and over, who worked full-time,
year-round experienced increases
in real median earnings between
2008 and 2009. The median earnings of men increased 2.0 percent,
from $46,191 to $47,127; and
the earnings of women increased
by 1.9 percent, from $35,609 to
$36,278.6 In 2009, the female-tomale earnings ratio was 0.77, not
statistically different from the 2008
ratio (Table 1 and Figure 2).
• The median earnings of all working
males 15 years old and over was
$36,331 in 2009, not statistically
different from their 2008 median,
while the earnings of their female
counterparts increased by 1.9
percent, from $25,553 to $26,030
(Table A-4).
• Real per capita income declined by
1.2 percent for the total population, 1.3 percent for Whites, and
3.5 percent for Hispanics between
6
The difference between the percentage
increases in the earnings of men and women was
not statistically significant.

U.S. Census Bureau

2008 and 2009.7 The changes for
non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, and
Asians were not statistically significant (Table 1).8
Household Income
Real median household income was
$49,777 in 2009, not statistically
different from the 2008 median.
Since 2007, the year before the most
recent recession, median household
income has declined 4.2 percent
(from $51,965) and is 5.0 percent
below the median household income
peak ($52,388) that occurred in 1999
(Tables 1, 2, and A-1).9 Though the
trough of the recession that began
in December 2007 has not yet been

7
The difference between the declines for the
overall and White populations was not statistically significant.
8
Unlike medians, per capita and means are
affected by extremely high and low incomes.
9
The difference between the percentage
declines of 2007 to 2009 and 1999 to 2009 in
median household income was not statistically
significant. In addition, the difference between
the 1999 and 2007 medians is not statistically
significant. The median household income peak
of $52,388 in 1999 and the $52,301 median
household income in 2000 are not statistically
different.

defined, the 4.2 percent income
decline is:10
• Not statistically different from the
declines in income for the years surrounding the two recessions lasting
from March 2001 to November 2001
and from July 1990 to March 1991.
• Larger than the 1.7 percent decline
for the income years surrounding
the December 1969 to November
1970 recession.11
• Smaller than the declines for the
income years surrounding the
January 1980 to July 1980 and July
1981 to November 1982 combined
recessions (6.0 percent) and the
November 1973 to March 1975
recession (5.7 percent) (Figure 1
and Tables 1, 2, and A-1).12
10
Recessions are determined by the National
Bureau of Economic Research, a private research
organization. See Appendix A for a list of peak
and trough months.
11
Discussion is limited to recessions occurring
after 1967, the first year that household income
estimates were derived from the CPS ASEC.
12
The difference between the declines in
income for the combined January 1980 to July
1980 and July 1981 to November 1982 recessions and the November 1973 to March 1975
recession was not statistically significant.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 7

Race and Hispanic Origin
Real median income declined for Black
households and non-Hispanic White
households between 2008 and 2009
(Table 1 and Figure 1); the changes for
the Asian and Hispanic-origin households were not statistically significant.
The decline for Black households was
4.4 percent, larger than the 1.6 percent decline for non-Hispanic White
households.
In comparison to the respective
income peaks before the 2001 recession, 2009 household income was 5.0
percent lower for all races combined
(from $52,388 in 1999), 4.2 percent
lower for non-Hispanic Whites (from
$56,843 in 1999), 11.8 percent lower
for Blacks (from $36,952 in 2000),
5.7 percent lower for Asians (from
$69,448 in 2000), and 7.9 percent
lower for Hispanics (from $41,312 in
2000).13
Among the race groups, Asian households had the highest median income
in 2009 ($65,469). The median
income for non-Hispanic-White
households was $54,461; for Black
households it was $32,584; and for
Hispanic households it was $38,039.
Comparing the income of nonHispanic-White households to that
of other households shows that the
2009 ratio of Asian to non-HispanicWhite income was 1.20, the ratio of
Black to non-Hispanic-White income
was 0.60, and the ratio of Hispanic
to non-Hispanic-White income was
0.70. Between 1972 (the first year
that income data for the Hispanic
13
Except for the differences between the
decline for Blacks compared with the declines
for non-Hispanic Whites and Asians and the difference between the declines for non-Hispanic
Whites and Hispanics, the differences between
the remaining declines were not statistically
significant. For all races, the median household
income peak of $52,388 in 1999 was not statistically different from the 2000 median of $52,301.
For non-Hispanic Whites, the $56,843 income
peak in 1999 was not statistically different from
the 2000 median of $56,826. For Blacks, the
$36,952 income peak in 2000 was not statistically different from the 1999 median of $35,928.
For Hispanics, the $41,312 income peak in 2000
was not statistically different from the 2001
median of $40,665.

and non-Hispanic-White populations
were collected in the CPS ASEC) and
2009, the Black-to-non-HispanicWhite income ratio increased from
0.58 to 0.60. Over the same period,
the Hispanic-to-non-Hispanic-White
income ratio declined from 0.74 to
0.70. Income data for the Asian population was first available in 1987. The
Asian-to-non-Hispanic White income
ratios for 1987 and 2009 were not
statistically different, 1.14 and 1.20,
respectively.
Age of Householder
Change in real median household
income by age of the householder
between 2008 and 2009 was not
uniform across the age groups. The
median income of households with
householders under 65 declined (1.3
percent), while the income of households with householders 65 and
older increased (5.8 percent). More
precisely, declines in median income
were experienced by households
with householders aged 15 to 24 (4.4
percent decline), 25 to 34 (2.0 percent
decline), and 35 to 44 (2.6 percent
decline). Changes in the incomes of
households with householders aged
45 to 54 and 55 to 64 were not statistically significant.14
Nativity
Native-born households and households maintained by a noncitizen
had declines in real median income
between 2008 and 2009. The changes
in the median income of foreignborn households and households
maintained by a naturalized citizen
were not statistically significant. The
decline for native-born households
was 0.7 percent, and for households
maintained by a noncitizen, the
decline was 4.5 percent. In 2009,

14
Except for the difference between the
declines in the income of households with householders under 65 compared with the decline for
those aged 15 to 24, the differences among the
declines discussed in this paragraph were not
statistically significant.

8 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

households maintained by naturalized citizens had the highest income,
$51,975; followed by native-born
households, $50,503; and noncitizen
households, $36,089 (Table 1).
Region15
Real median household income in
the Midwest and West experienced
declines of 2.1 percent and 1.9 percent
between 2008 and 2009 (Table 1).16
The changes in the median incomes
in the Northeast and South were
not statistically significant. In 2009,
households in the West ($53,833) and
Northeast ($53,073) had the highest
median household incomes, followed
by the Midwest ($48,877) and the
South ($45,615).17
Residence
Between 2008 and 2009, both households inside and outside of principal cities within metropolitan areas
experienced changes in real median
income, but in opposite directions
(Table 1). Households inside principal cities experienced a 1.9 percent
increase in income, whereas households outside principal cities experienced a 1.9 percent decline. In 2009,
households within metropolitan areas
but outside principal cities had the
highest median income ($56,582),
and households outside metropolitan
areas had the lowest ($40,135).

15
The Northeast region includes Connecticut,
Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New
Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island,
and Vermont. The Midwest region includes
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan,
Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,
Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The South
region includes Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana,
Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma,
South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West
Virginia, and the District of Columbia, a state
equivalent. The West region includes the states
of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon,
Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
16
The difference in the declines in median
household income between the Midwest and
West was not statistically significant.
17
The difference between the median household incomes for the West and Northeast was not
statistically significant.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income Inequality
The Census Bureau has traditionally
used two methods to measure income
inequality: (1) the shares of aggregate
household income received by quintiles and (2) the Gini index. In addition to these measures, the Census
Bureau also produces estimates of the
ratio of income percentiles, the Theil
index, the mean logarithmic deviation
of income (MLD), and the Atkinson
measures.18
The change in income inequality
between 2008 and 2009 was not
statistically significant as measured
by the shares of aggregate household
income by quintiles, the Gini index,
the MLD, or Atkinson measures. The
Theil index was the only inequality
measure to show a statistically significant change—a 1.3 percent increase
(Tables 3 and A-2). In 2009, the share
of aggregate income received by the
bottom quintile was 3.4 percent;
the second quintile, 8.6 percent; the
third, 14.6 percent; the fourth, 23.2
percent; and the highest quintile, 50.3
percent. Households in the lowest
quintile had incomes of $20,453 or
less; those in the second quintile had
incomes ranging from $20,454 to
$38,550; those in the third quintile
had incomes ranging from $38,551 to
$61,801; those in the fourth quintile
had incomes ranging from $61,802 to
$100,000; and those in the highest quintile had incomes of $100,001 or more.
The Gini index was 0.468 in 2009.
Except for the 1.5 percent decline
in the Gini index between 2006 and
2007, there were no other statistically significant annual changes since
1993, the earliest year available for
comparable measures of income
inequality.19 Since 1993, the Gini
18
An article by Paul Allison, “Measures of
Inequality,” American Sociological Review, 43,
December 1977, pp. 865–880, provides an
explanation of inequality measures.
19
Caution should be used in making direct
comparisons with years earlier than 1993
because of substantial methodological changes
in the 1994 CPS ASEC. In that year, the Census
Bureau introduced computer-assisted interviewing and increased income reporting limits.

U.S. Census Bureau

index is up 3.1 percent. (Table A-2
lists historical money income inequality measures.)20
Between 2008 and 2009, the changes
in the real household income at the
50th (median), 10th, and 90th percentiles were not statistically significant
(Table A-2). However, comparing the
change in household income between
1999, the year that household income
peaked before the 2001 recession,
and 2009 suggests income inequality
is increasing. Income at the 50th and
10th percentiles declined—5.0 percent
and 9.0 percent, respectively—while
the change in income at the 90th percentile was not statistically significant.
Between 1999 and 2009, the 90thto-the-10th-percentile income ratio
increased from 10.42 to 11.36.
Equivalence-Adjusted Income
Inequality
Another way to measure income
inequality is using an equivalenceadjusted income estimate, which
takes into consideration the number
of people living in the household and
how these people share resources and
take advantage of economies of scale.
For example, the money-incomebased distribution treats income of
$30,000 for a single-person household and a family household similarly, while the equivalence-adjusted
income of $30,000 for a single-person
household would be more than twice
the equivalence-adjusted income of
$30,000 for a family household with
two adults and two children. The
equivalence adjustment used here is
based on a three-parameter scale that
reflects:
1. On average, children consume less
than adults.
20
For further discussion of how high incomes
reported in the CPS ASEC affect income distribution measures, see, Semega, Jessica and Ed
Welniak, “Evaluating the Impact of Unrestricted
Income Values on Income Distribution Measures
Using the Current Population Survey’s Annual
Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC),” April
2007, <www.census.gov/hhes/www/income
/publications/unrestrict-tables/index.html>.

2. As family size increases, expenses
do not increase at the same rate.
3. The increase in expenses is larger
for a first child of a single-parent
family than the first child of a twoadult family.21
Table 3 shows several income inequality measures, including aggregate
income shares and the Gini index,
using both money income and
equivalence-adjusted income for
2008 and 2009. For both 2008 and
2009, the Gini index is lower based
on the equivalence-adjusted income
estimate than under the traditional
money-income estimate, suggesting
a more equal income distribution.
Comparing the shares of aggregate
household income received by quintile historically shows higher shares
of income in the lower quintiles and
lower shares in the higher quintiles
for equivalence-adjusted income than
for money income. This redistribution would be expected because at
the lower end of the income distribution there is a higher concentration of
single-person households and smaller
family sizes in relation to those at the
upper end of the distribution.
In 2009, the lowest quintile share of
aggregate income for equivalenceadjusted income (3.4 percent) was
not higher than the lowest quintile share of aggregate income for
money income. This is the first time
that shares of aggregate income in
the lowest quintile for equivalenceadjusted income and money income
were not statistically different.

21
The three-parameter scale used here is the
same as the one used in the report The Effect
of Taxes and Transfers on Income and Poverty
in the United States: 2005, Current Population
Reports, P60-232, U.S. Census Bureau, March
2007, <www.census.gov/prod/2007pubs/p60
-232.pdf>. The three-parameter scale was
applied to the incomes of families and unrelated
individuals and assigned to each family member
or unrelated individual living within the household. For details on the derivation of the threeparameter scale, see Short, Kathleen, Experimental Poverty Measures: 1999, Current Population
Reports, P60-216, U.S. Census Bureau, October
2001, <www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs
/p60-216.pdf>.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 9

Table 3.

Income Distribution Measures Using Money Income and Equivalence-Adjusted Income: 2008
and 2009
(For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
2008
Money
income
Measure

Shares of Aggregate
  Income by Percentile
Lowest quintile�������������������
Second quintile �����������������
Middle quintile�������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������
Highest quintile �����������������
  Top 5 percent�����������������
Summary Measures
Gini index of income
  inequality�������������������������
Mean logarithmic deviation
  of income�������������������������
Theil�����������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25���������������������������
  e=0.50���������������������������
  e=0.75���������������������������

2009

Equivalenceadjusted income

Estimate

90
percent
confidence
interval1
(±)

0.04
0.09
0.16
0.25
0.54
0.49

3.6
9.4
15.1
22.9
49.0
21.4

0.466

0.0045

0.541
0.398
0.096
0.188
0.285

Money
income

Equivalenceadjusted income

Estimate

90
percent
confidence
interval1
(±)

0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.36
0.31

3.4
8.6
14.6
23.2
50.3
21.7

0.451

0.0028

0.0104
0.0002

0.614
0.380

0.0018
0.0029
0.0038

0.092
0.183
0.287

Estimate

90
percent
confidence
interval1
(±)

3.4
8.6
14.7
23.3
50.0
21.5

Percentage change

Estimate

90
percent
confidence
interval1
(±)

0.04
0.09
0.16
0.25
0.55
0.49

3.4
9.2
15.0
22.9
49.4
21.7

0.468

0.0046

0.0077
0.0001

0.550
0.403

0.0012
0.0019
0.0026

0.097
0.190
0.288

Money
income

Equivalenceadjusted income

Estimate

90
percent
confidence
interval1
(±)

Estimate

90
percent
confidence
interval1
(±)

0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.36
0.33



–0.7
–0.4
0.6
0.9

1.27
1.24
1.23
1.24
1.25
2.61

*–5.6
*–2.1
–0.7

0.8
1.4

0.96
0.87
0.85
0.84
0.83
1.76

0.458

0.0028

0.4

1.11

*1.6

0.72

0.0105
0.0002

0.665
0.394

0.0081
0.0001

1.7
*1.3

2.22
0.05

*8.3
*3.7

1.52
0.04

0.0018
0.0030
0.0039

0.095
0.190
0.300

0.0012
0.0020
0.0026

1.1
1.0
1.0

2.16
1.75
1.55

*3.3
*3.8
*4.5

1.47
1.22
1.06

– Represents or rounds to zero.
* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
A 90 percent confidence interval (C.I.) is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable
the estimate. For more information, see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>.
Source: U. S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 and 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

(Table A-3 lists historical equivalenceadjusted inequality measures.)
For equivalence-adjusted income,
between 2008 and 2009, there was
an increase in the Gini index and the
redistribution of aggregate income
shares, suggesting an increase
in income inequality. Specifically,
between 2008 and 2009, for the lowest quintile, the aggregate share of
income decreased from 3.6 percent to
3.4 percent; and for the second quintile, the aggregate share of income
declined from 9.4 percent to 9.2 percent. The changes between 2008 and
2009 in the aggregate shares for the
middle, fourth, and highest quintiles
were not statistically significant.
Each income inequality summary measure based on the

equivalence-adjusted income distribution showed a statistically significant
increase between 2008 and 2009
(Table 3). The Gini index increased
from 0.451 in 2008 to 0.458 in
2009—the second annual significant
increase. The MLD, which measures
the gap between the median and average income, increased 8.3 percent
between 2008 and 2009. The Theil
index is similar to the Gini index in
that it is a single statistic that summarizes the dispersion of income across
the entire income distribution. The
Theil index increased from 0.380 to
0.394 between 2008 and 2009. The
Atkinson measure, useful in determining which end of the distribution contributed most to inequality, increased
between 2008 and 2009 for both
high and low values of the epsilon (e)

10 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

parameter.22 Between 2008 and 2009,
the Atkinson measure calculated with
an e=0.25 increased by 3.3 percent;
and with e=0.75, it increased 4.5
percent.23
Table A-3 shows equivalence-adjusted
measures of income distribution
for income years 1967 to 2009.24
Over the 1967-to-2009 period, all
equivalence-adjusted inequality
measures increased more than the
22
Higher values for the epsilon parameter (e)
when calculating the Atkinson measure increases
sensitivity of changes at the lower end of the distribution, while lower values increase sensitivity
of changes at the upper end of the distribution.
23
The difference between the percentage
changes in the Atkinson measure based on
e=0.25 and e=0.75 was not statistically significant.
24
This is the first year a historical series of
equivalence-adjusted income inequality has been
produced back to 1967.

U.S. Census Bureau

Figure 2.

Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio and Median Earnings of Full-Time, Year-Round Workers
15 Years and Older by Sex: 1960 to 2009
90

Earnings in thousands (2009 dollars), ratio in percent

Recession

80

77 percent

70

Female-to-male
earnings ratio

60
50

$47,127
Earnings of men

40

$36,278

30

Earnings of women

20
10
0
1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2009

Note: Data on earnings of full-time, year-round workers are not readily available before 1960. For information on recessions, see Appendix A.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1961 to 2009 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

money income inequality measures.
The equivalence-adjusted Gini index
increased 23.8 percent compared
with 17.9 percent for the money
income Gini index; the equivalenceadjusted MLD increased 88.9 percent
compared with 44.7 percent for the
money income MLD; the equivalenceadjusted Theil index increased 58.9
percent compared with 40.4 percent for the money income Theil
index; and the equivalence-adjusted
Atkinson measure increased at
e=0.25 by 55.7 percent, at e=0.50
by 53.2 percent, and e=0.75 by 54.6
percent compared with 36.6 percent, 32.9 percent, and 30.9 percent,
respectively for the money income
Atkinson measure at each epsilon.25
25
The differences between the percentage
changes in the equivalence-adjusted Atkinson
measure based on each epsilon were not statistically significant. The difference between the percentage changes in the money income Atkinson
measure based on e=0.50 and e=0.75 was not
statistically significant.

U.S. Census Bureau

Work Experience and Earnings
The number of working men and
women aged 15 and older with earnings decreased between 2008 and
2009—men decreased by 2.1 million
to 81.9 million and women decreased
by 1.6 million to 73.0 million (Figure
3 and Table A-4). The number of
full-time, year-round workers also
decreased.26 The number of men
who worked full-time, year-round
decreased by 3.8 million (to 56.1
million), and the number of women
who worked full-time, year round

26
A full-time, year-round worker is a person
who worked 35 or more hours per week (fulltime) and 50 or more weeks during the previous
calendar year (year-round). For school personnel,
summer vacation is counted as weeks worked if
they are scheduled to return to their job in the
fall. For detailed information on work experience, see Table PINC-05, “Work Experience in
2010—People 15 Years Old and Over by Total
Money Earnings in 2010, Age, Race, Hispanic
Origin, and Sex” at <www.census.gov/hhes
/www/income/dinctabs.html>.

decreased by about 939,000 (to 43.2
million) between 2008 and 2009. An
estimated 68.4 percent of working
men with earnings and 59.2 percent
of working women with earnings
worked full-time, year-round in 2009,
a decline of 2.8 percentage points for
men (from 71.2 percent in 2008); for
women, the change was not statistically significant.
The 2009 median earnings of all
working men aged 15 and older,
regardless of work experience, was
$36,331, not statistically different
from the 2008 median in real terms;
while that of their female counterparts
increased by 1.9 percent to $26,030
(Table A-4). Meanwhile, both men and
women who worked full-time, yearround experienced increases in real
median earnings between 2008 and
2009. Median earnings increased 2.0
percent for full-time, year-round working men (from $46,191 to $47,127)

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 11

and 1.9 percent for women who
worked full-time, year-round (from
$35,609 to $36,278).27 In 2009, the
female-to-male earnings ratio of fulltime, year-round workers was 0.77,
not statistically different from the
2008 ratio (Table 1 and Figure 2).
Since 2007, the year before the most
recent recession, the number of working men with earnings decreased
by 2.5 million (from 84.5 million to
81.9 million). The number of working women with earnings decreased
by 1.3 million (from 74.3 million
to 73.0 million) (Figure 3 and Table
A-4). Between 2007 and 2009, the
real median earnings of male workers declined by 4.1 percent (from
$37,898 to $36,331) and for female
workers by 2.8 percent (from $26,770
to $26,030). Though the trough of
the recession that began in December
2007 has not yet been defined, no
other set of income years surrounding the recessions dating from 1969
to the present has experienced such
a large decline in the number of
workers, or in the percentage-point
declines in the percentage of male
and female full-time, year-round workers (Figure 3 and Tables 2 and A-4).
In addition, 2007 to 2009 is the only
period (dating from 1969 to present)
showing a decline in women’s real
median earnings. For men, the 2007
to 2009 decline in real median earnings is:
• Larger than the declines in earnings
for the income years surrounding
the March 2001 to November 2001
recession (2.6 percent decline) and
the December 1969 to November
1970 recession (2.2 percent
decline).28
27
The differences among the percentage
increases in the earnings of full-time, year-round
working men compared with the increases for
total working women and women working fulltime, year-round were not statistically different.
The difference between the 2009 median earnings
of all working men and of full-time, year-round
working women was not statistically significant.
28
The difference between the declines in
earnings for the income years surrounding the
March 2001 and November 2001 recession and
the December 1969 to November 1970 recession
was not statistically significant.

• Smaller than the declines in earnings for the income years surrounding the recession lasting from July
1990 to March 1991 (6.0 percent
decline); the January 1980 to July
1980 and July 1981 to November
1982 combined recessions (10.1
percent decline); and the November
1973 to March 1975 recession (6.4
percent decline).29
Between 2007 and 2009, the real
median earnings of full-time, yearround male workers increased by 1.0
percent (from $46,669 to $47,127);
the change was not statistically
significant for full-time, year-round
female workers, with a median of
$36,278 in 2009. However, between
2007 and 2009, the number of males
working full-time, year-round with
earnings decreased by 6.9 million; the
number of females working full-time,
year-round with earnings decreased
by 2.4 million. Since the CPS ASEC is
not a longitudinal survey, we cannot determine how the loss of these
9.3 million workers (who worked
full-time, year-round in 2007 and did
not work in 2009, or who worked
full-time, year-round in 2007 and
in 2009 worked less than full-time,
year-round) affected median earnings
(Tables 2 and A-4).
Examining the change between 2007
and 2009 in the number of workers
with earnings by characteristics such
as age, educational attainment, occupation, and class of worker shows
that, in many cases, the number of
male workers with earnings declined.
Although the same can be said for
their female counterparts, there were
some cases in which the number of
female workers increased.
Between 2007 and 2009, the number of male workers with earnings
in the age groups 15 to 24 and 25
to 44 declined by 1.3 million and
29
The difference between the declines in
earnings for income years surrounding the July
1990 to March 1991 recession and the
November 1973 to March 1975 recession was
not statistically significant.

12 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

1.4 million, respectively. For female
workers with earnings, declines were
evident in these age groups as well,
766,000 and 1.3 million, respectively;
while the number of female workers 45 to 64 years old increased by
579,000 (Table A-5).30
Declines were evident in the number of male workers with earnings
between 2007 and 2009 within the
educational attainment categories of
some college, no degree (678,000
decline), ninth to twelfth grade, nongraduate (348,000 decline), and those
with less than a ninth grade education (234,000 decline). Declines were
evident for female workers with earnings within the categories high school
graduate (639,000 decline) and some
college, no degree (646,000 decline);
while female workers with an associate’s degree or bachelor’s degree or
more increased (gains of 365,000 and
514,000, respectively).31
The occupation groups with statistically significant declines in the
number of male workers with earnings
between 2007 and 2009 were construction and extraction occupations
(1.0 million decline), transportation
and material-moving occupations
(709,000 decline), production occupations (634,000 decline), and sales and
related occupations (586,000 decline).
Statistically significant declines in the
number of female workers with earnings by occupation group occurred in
management, business, and financial
operations occupations (413,000
decline); office and administrative support occupations (1.3 million decline);
and production occupations (712,000
30
The following differences among the
declines in number of workers were not statistically significant: the decline in the number of
men 15 to 24 compared with the declines for
men 25 to 44 and women 25 to 44, the decline
in the number of men 25 to 44 compared with
the declines for women 15 to 24 and 25 to 44,
the decline in the number of women 15 to 24
compared with that for women 25 to 44.
31
All of the differences among the declines
discussed in this paragraph were not statistically
significant. In addition, the differences between
the increases in the number of women with an
associate’s degree and those with a bachelor’s
degree were not statistically significant.

U.S. Census Bureau

Figure 3.

Total and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers With Earnings by Sex: 1967 to 2009
90

Numbers in millions

Recession

80
70
60
Male workers

50

Male full-time,
40 year-round workers
Female workers

30
20
10

Female full-time
year-round workers

0
1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2009

Note: Data on number of workers not readily available before 1967. People 15 years old and older beginning in 1980 and people 14 years old
and older as of the following year for previous years. Before 1989, data are for civilian workers only. For information on recessions, see
Appendix A.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

decline). Between 2007 and 2009,
women gained jobs in professional
and related occupations (658,000
gain); service occupations (646,000
gain); and farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (87,000 gain).32
32
Except for the following differences, the
differences among the declines in this paragraph
were not statistically significant: The difference
between the decline in the number of females
in production occupations compared with the
declines for males in sales and related occupations and females in office and administrative
support occupations; the difference between
the decline in the number of males in construction and extraction occupations and females in
management, business, and financial operations
occupations; and the difference between the
decline in the number of females in office and
administrative support occupations compared
with the declines in the number of females in
management, business, and financial operations
occupations and males in production occupations and transportation and material-moving
occupations. In addition, the difference between
the increases in the number of females in professional and related occupations and those in service occupations was not statistically significant.

U.S. Census Bureau

By class of worker, between 2007 and
2009, declines in the number of male
workers with earnings occurred in the
private wage and salary (2.3 million
decline) and self-employed (426,000
decline) worker categories (Table A-5).
For female workers with earnings,
a decline of 1.4 million occurred in
the private wage and salary worker
category (Table A-5).
Per Capita Income33

between 2008 and 2009.34 In 2009,
the per capita income for the overall population was $26,530; for
Whites it was $28,034; for nonHispanic Whites, $30,941; for Blacks,
$18,135; for Asians, $30,653; and
for Hispanics, $15,063.35 Per capita
income declined 1.3 percent for
Whites and 3.5 percent for Hispanics
(Table 1).36 The changes for nonHispanic Whites, Blacks, and Asians
were not statistically significant.

Real per capita income declined by
1.2 percent for the total population

33
The per capita income data presented in
this report are not directly comparable with estimates of personal per capita income prepared by
the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S.
Department of Commerce. The lack of correspondence stems from the differences in income
definition and coverage. For further details, see
<www.census.gov/hhes/www/income
/compare1.html>.

34
Unlike medians, per capita and means are
affected by extremely high and low incomes.
35
The difference between the per capita
incomes of the non-Hispanic-White and Asian
populations was not statistically significant.
36
The difference between the declines for
the overall and White populations was not statistically significant.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 13

POVERTY IN THE
UNITED STATES37

24.7 percent to 25.8 percent), and
for Hispanics (from 23.2 percent to
25.3 percent). For Asians, the 2009
poverty rate (12.5 percent) was not
statistically different from the 2008
poverty rate (Table 4).38

Highlights
• The official poverty rate in 2009
was 14.3 percent—up from 13.2
percent in 2008. This was the second statistically significant annual
increase in the poverty rate since
2004 (Table 4 and Figure 4).
• In 2009, 43.6 million people were
in poverty, up from 39.8 million in
2008—the third consecutive annual
increase in the number of people in
poverty (Table 4 and Figure 4).
• Between 2008 and 2009, the
poverty rate increased for nonHispanic Whites (from 8.6 percent
to 9.4 percent), for Blacks (from
OMB determined the official definition
of poverty in Statistical Poverty Directive 14.
Poverty thresholds are updated each year using
the change in the average annual Consumer Price
Index for All Consumers (CPI-U). Since the average annual CPI-U for 2009 was lower than the
average annual CPI-U for 2008, poverty thresholds for 2009 are slightly lower (0.4 percent)
than the corresponding thresholds for 2008.
Appendix B provides a more detailed description
of how the Census Bureau calculates poverty.
37

• The poverty rate in 2009 (14.3 percent) was the highest poverty rate
since 1994 but was 8.1 percentage
points lower than the poverty rate
in 1959, the first year for which
poverty estimates are available
(Figure 4).
• The number of people in poverty in
2009 (43.6 million) is the largest
number in the 51 years for which
poverty estimates have been published (Figure 4).
• Between 2008 and 2009, the
poverty rate increased for children
under the age of 18 (from 19.0
percent to 20.7 percent) and people
aged 18 to 64 (from 11.7 percent
to 12.9 percent), but decreased for

38
The poverty rate for Blacks was not statistically different from that of Hispanics.

people aged 65 and older (from 9.7
percent to 8.9 percent) (Table 4).39
Impact of the 2007 Economic
Downturn
The poverty rate and the number in
poverty increased by 1.9 percentage
points and 6.3 million between 2007
and 2009 (Table 5). The increase in
the overall poverty rate was:
• Larger than the increase in the
poverty rate during the November
1973 to March 1975 recession.40
• Smaller than the increase in the
poverty rates associated with the
January 1980 to July 1980 and July
1981 to November 1982 combined
recessions.
Between 2007 and 2009, the child
poverty rate and the number in
poverty increased by 2.7 percentage
points and 2.1 million.
39
Since unrelated individuals under 15 are
excluded from the poverty universe, there are
460,000 fewer children in the poverty universe
than in the total civilian noninstitutionalized
population.
40
The apparent changes in the poverty rates
across the March 2001 to November 2001 and
December 1969 to November 1970 recessions
were not statistically different from zero.

Figure 4.

Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate: 1959 to 2009
50

Recession

Numbers in millions, rates in percent

45

43.6 million
Number in poverty

40
35
30
25
20

Poverty rate
15

14.3 percent

10
5
0
1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2009

Note: The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years. For information on recessions, see Appendix A.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

14 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table 4.

People and Families in Poverty by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009
(Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For information on
confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
2008

2009

Below poverty
Characteristic
Total Number
PEOPLE
     Total ������������������������������������������������
Family Status
In families ������������������������������������������������������
  Householder������������������������������������������������
  Related children under 18��������������������������
   Related children under 6 ������������������������
In unrelated subfamilies����������������������������������
  Reference person ��������������������������������������
  Children under 18 ��������������������������������������
Unrelated individuals��������������������������������������
  Male������������������������������������������������������������
  Female��������������������������������������������������������
Race3 and Hispanic Origin
White��������������������������������������������������������������
  White, not Hispanic ������������������������������������
Black��������������������������������������������������������������
Asian��������������������������������������������������������������
Hispanic (any race)����������������������������������������
Age
Under 18 years ����������������������������������������������
18 to 64 years������������������������������������������������
65 years and older������������������������������������������
Nativity
Native born ����������������������������������������������������
Foreign born ��������������������������������������������������
  Naturalized citizen��������������������������������������
  Not a citizen������������������������������������������������
Region
Northeast��������������������������������������������������������
Midwest����������������������������������������������������������
South��������������������������������������������������������������
West ��������������������������������������������������������������
Residence
Inside metropolitan statistical areas ��������������
  Inside principal cities����������������������������������
  Outside principal cities��������������������������������
Outside metropolitan statistical areas4 ����������
Work Experience
   Total, 16 years and older ������������������������
All workers������������������������������������������������������
  Worked full-time, year-round ����������������������
  Less than full-time, year-round�������������������
Did not work at least 1 week��������������������������
FAMILIES
     Total ������������������������������������������������
Type of Family
Married-couple�����������������������������������������������
Female householder, no husband present ����
Male householder, no wife present����������������

90
percent
1
C.I. (±)

Change in
poverty2

Below poverty

Percent

90
percent
1
C.I. (±)

Total

Number

90
percent
1
C.I. (±)

Percent

90
percent
1
C.I. (±)

Number

Percent

301,041

39,829

701

13.2

0.2

303,820

43,569

732

14.3

0.2

*3,740

*1.1

248,301
78,874
72,980
24,884
1,207
452
712
51,534
25,240
26,293

28,564
8,147
13,507
5,295
555
207
341
10,710
4,759
5,951

607
192
353
231
89
54
61
228
139
158

11.5
10.3
18.5
21.3
46.0
45.7
47.8
20.8
18.9
22.6

0.2
0.2
0.5
0.9
5.4
8.9
6.2
0.3
0.5
0.5

249,384
78,867
73,410
25,104
1,357
521
747
53,079
26,269
26,811

31,197
8,792
14,774
5,983
693
253
423
11,678
5,255
6,424

633
201
366
244
99
60
68
242
147
166

12.5
11.1
20.1
23.8
51.1
48.7
56.6
22.0
20.0
24.0

0.3
0.3
0.5
0.9
5.1
8.3
6.0
0.3
0.5
0.5

*2,634
*644
*1,267
*688
*138
47
*82
*968
*496
*473

*1.0
*0.8
*1.6
*2.6
5.1
2.9
*8.7
*1.2
*1.1
*1.3

240,548
196,940
37,966
13,310
47,398

26,990
17,024
9,379
1,576
10,987

592
479
337
145
348

11.2
8.6
24.7
11.8
23.2

0.2
0.2
0.8
1.1
0.7

242,047
197,164
38,556
14,005
48,811

29,830
18,530
9,944
1,746
12,350

621
499
345
152
363

12.3
9.4
25.8
12.5
25.3

0.3
0.2
0.8
1.1
0.7

*2,841
*1,506
*565
*169
*1,363

*1.1
*0.8
*1.1
0.6
*2.1

74,068
189,185
37,788

14,068
22,105
3,656

359
536
134

19.0
11.7
9.7

0.5
0.3
0.4

74,579
190,627
38,613

15,451
24,684
3,433

372
563
130

20.7
12.9
8.9

0.5
0.3
0.3

*1,383
*2,579
*–223

*1.7
*1.3
*–0.8

264,314
36,727
15,470
21,257

33,293
6,536
1,577
4,959

650
345
171
301

12.6
17.8
10.2
23.3

0.2
0.9
1.0
1.3

266,223
37,597
16,024
21,573

36,407
7,162
1,736
5,425

678
361
179
315

13.7
19.0
10.8
25.1

0.3
0.9
1.1
1.3

*3,114
*626
160
*466

*1.1
*1.3
0.6
*1.8

54,123
65,589
110,666
70,663

6,295
8,120
15,862
9,552

292
319
458
360

11.6
12.4
14.3
13.5

0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5

54,571
65,980
112,165
71,103

6,650
8,768
17,609
10,542

296
335
479
376

12.2
13.3
15.7
14.8

0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5

*355
*648
*1,747
*990

0.6
*0.9
*1.4
*1.3

253,048
97,217
155,831
47,993

32,570
17,222
15,348
7,259

643
481
456
390

12.9
17.7
9.8
15.1

0.3
0.5
0.3
0.8

256,028
97,725
158,302
47,792

35,655
18,261
17,394
7,914

672
496
484
407

13.9
18.7
11.0
16.6

0.3
0.5
0.3
0.8

*3,085
*1,039
*2,046
*656

*1.1
*1.0
*1.1
*1.4

236,024
158,317
104,023
54,294
77,707

27,216
10,085
2,754
7,331
17,131

587
372
197
319
477

11.5
6.4
2.6
13.5
22.0

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.6

238,095
154,772
99,306
55,466
83,323

29,625
10,680
2,641
8,039
18,944

609
382
193
333
499

12.4
6.9
2.7
14.5
22.7

0.3
0.2
0.2
0.6
0.5

*2,409
*595
–113
*708
*1,814

*0.9
*0.5

*1.0
*0.7

78,874

8,147

192

10.3

0.2

78,867

8,792

201

11.1

0.3

*644

*0.8

59,137
14,482
5,255

3,261
4,163
723

112
128
50

5.5
28.7
13.8

0.2
1.0
1.0

58,428
14,857
5,582

3,409
4,441
942

114
133
57

5.8
29.9
16.9

0.2
1.0
1.1

*147
*278
*219

*0.3
*1.1
*3.1

– Represents or rounds to zero.  
* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more information,
see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>.
2
Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
3
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those
who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination
concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census
Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available
from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other
Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately.
4
The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. For more information, see
“About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html>.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 and 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 15

Table 5.

Change in Poverty During Income Years Surrounding Recessions: 1969 to 2009
(Numbers in thousands. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Recessions1
Income years
December 2007, trough not yet defined ��������������������������������������������������������
March 2001 to November 2001����������������������������������������������������������������������
July 1990 to March 1991��������������������������������������������������������������������������������
January 1980 to July 1980 and July 1981 to November 1982������������������������
November 1973 to March 1975����������������������������������������������������������������������
December 1969 to November 1970���������������������������������������������������������������

Change in
number of
people in
Change in
poverty poverty rate

2007 to 2009
1999 to 2002
19892 to 1991
1978 to 1983
1973 to 1975
1969 to 1971

*6,293
*1,779
*3,293
*10,806
*2,904
*1,412

*1.9
0.2
*1.2
*3.9
*1.2
0.4

Change in
number of
children in
poverty

Change in
child
poverty rate

*2,127
–147
*1,187
*3,980
*1,462
*860

*2.7
–0.4
*1.7
*6.4
*2.7
*1.3

* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
Recessions are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research, a private research organization.
2
For comparability purposes, the 1989 poverty rate used in this calculation (13.1 percent) is based on data that reflect the implementation of the 1990 decennial census
population controls. This poverty rate is different from the poverty rate shown in Table B-1, which is based on 1980 census population controls.
Note: Income years are based on peak income year prior to or during the start of the recession and the trough income year near or after the end of the recession.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1970 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

Race and Hispanic Origin

Age

Both the poverty rate and the number
in poverty increased for non-Hispanic
Whites from 2008 to 2009 (9.4 percent and 18.5 million in 2009—up
from 8.6 percent and 17.0 million
in 2008) (Table 4). The poverty rate
for non-Hispanic Whites was lower
than the poverty rates for other
race groups. Non-Hispanic Whites
accounted for 42.5 percent of the
people in poverty, compared with
64.9 percent of the total population.

Between 2008 and 2009, both the
poverty rate and the number in poverty increased for people aged 18 to
64 (from 11.7 percent and 22.1 million to 12.9 percent and 24.7 million).
Both the poverty rate and the number
in poverty decreased for people aged
65 and older (from 9.7 percent and
3.7 million to 8.9 percent and 3.4 million) (Table 4 and Figure 5).

For Blacks, the poverty rate and the
number in poverty increased to 25.8
percent and 9.9 million in 2009,
higher than 24.7 percent and 9.4
million in 2008. For Asians, the 2009
poverty rate (12.5 percent) was not
statistically different from the 2008
rate, while the number of Asians in
poverty increased from 1.6 million in
2008 to 1.7 million in 2009. Both the
number in poverty and the poverty
rate increased for Hispanics—12.4
million or 25.3 percent were in poverty in 2009, up from 11.0 million or
23.2 percent in 2008.41

Both the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased for children
under the age of 18 (from 19.0 percent and 14.1 million in 2008 to 20.7
percent and 15.5 million in 2009).
The poverty rate for children was
higher than the rates for people aged
18 to 64 and those aged 65 and older
(Table 4). Children comprised 35.5
percent of people in poverty but only
24.5 percent of the total population.
Related children are related to the
householder by birth, marriage, or
adoption and are not themselves
householders or spouses of householders.42 Both the poverty rate and the
number in poverty increased for related
children under the age of 18 (from 18.5
percent and 13.5 million in 2008 to
Official poverty estimates for children
are compiled in two ways—estimates for “all
children” and estimates for “related children.” In
2009, “all children” included 1.2 million more
children than “related children.”
42

41
The poverty rate for Blacks was not statistically different from that of Hispanics.

16 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

20.1 percent and 14.8 million in 2009).
For related children under the age of 18
in families with a female householder,
44.4 percent were in poverty compared
with 11.0 percent of related children in
married-couple families.43
Both the poverty rate and the number in poverty increased for related
children under the age of 6 (from 21.3
percent and 5.3 million in 2008 to
23.8 percent and 6.0 million in 2009).
Of related children under the age of 6
in families with a female householder,
54.3 percent were in poverty—four
times the rate of related children in
married-couple families (13.4 percent).
Nativity
Of all people, 87.6 percent were
native born and 12.4 percent were
foreign born. The poverty rate and the
number in poverty for the native-born
population increased from 12.6 percent and 33.3 million in 2008 to 13.7
percent and 36.4 million in 2009.
Among the foreign-born population,
19.0 percent or 7.2 million people
lived in poverty in 2009—up from
17.8 percent or 6.5 million people in
2008 (Table 4).
43
In the text of this report, families with a
female householder with no husband present will
be referred to as families with a female householder. Families with a male householder with no
wife present will be referred to as families with a
male householder.

U.S. Census Bureau

Figure 5.

Poverty Rates by Age: 1959 to 2009
50

Recession

Percent

45
40
35

65 years and older

30
25

Under 18 years

20

20.7 percent

15

12.9 percent
8.9 percent

10
18 to 64 years

5
0
1959

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2009

Notes: The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years. For information on recessions, see Appendix A.
Data for people aged 18 to 64 and 65 and older are not available from 1960 to 1965.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

Of the foreign-born population, 42.6
percent were naturalized U.S. citizens;
the remaining were not U.S. citizens.
The poverty rate and the number in
poverty in 2009 for naturalized U.S.
citizens were 10.8 percent and 1.7
million, estimates not statistically
different from 2008. The poverty
rate and the number in poverty for
those who were not U.S. citizens rose
to 25.1 percent and 5.4 million in
2009—up from 23.3 percent and 5.0
million in 2008.
Region
The poverty rate increased from 2008
to 2009 in three of the four regions,
while all four regions had increases in
the number of people in poverty. The
Midwest poverty rate increased from
12.4 percent to 13.3 percent, and the
number in poverty increased from
8.1 million to 8.8 million; the South
increased from 14.3 percent to 15.7
percent and from 15.9 million to 17.6
million; and the West increased from
13.5 percent to 14.8 percent and from
9.6 million to 10.5 million. The 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

poverty rate for the Northeast was
12.2 percent (not statistically different
from the 2008 rate), while the number
in poverty increased from 6.3 million
in 2008 to 6.7 million in 2009.
Residence
Inside metropolitan statistical areas,
the poverty rate and the number of
people in poverty were 13.9 percent
and 35.7 million in 2009—up from
12.9 percent and 32.6 million in 2008.
Among those living outside metropolitan areas, the poverty rate and the
number in poverty were 16.6 percent
and 7.9 million in 2009—up from 15.1
percent and 7.3 million in 2008.
Between 2008 and 2009, the poverty rate for people in principal cities
increased from 17.7 percent to 18.7
percent, while the number in poverty
increased from 17.2 million to 18.3
million. Within metropolitan areas,
people in poverty were more likely to
live in principal cities. While 38.2 percent of all people living in metropolitan
areas in 2009 lived in principal cities,

51.2 percent of poor people in metropolitan areas lived in principal cities.
For those inside metropolitan areas but
not in principal cities, the poverty rate
and the number in poverty rose from
9.8 percent and 15.3 million to 11.0
percent and 17.4 million.
Work Experience
Among all workers aged 16 and older,
both the poverty rate and the number
in poverty increased to 6.9 percent
and 10.7 million from 6.4 percent and
10.1 million.
Between 2008 and 2009, the increase
in poverty among workers was driven
almost entirely by those who worked
less than full-time, year-round.44 Both
the percentage and number in poverty
increased among less than full-time,
year-round workers from 13.5 percent
and 7.3 million to 14.5 percent and
8.0 million. For full-time, year-round
44
The increase between the 2008 and 2009
estimates for all workers and for less than fulltime, year-round workers were not statistically
different from each other.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 17

Table 6.

People With Income Below Specified Ratios of Their Poverty Thresholds by Selected
Characteristics: 2009
(Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For information on
confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Income-to-poverty ratio
Under 0.50

Characteristic

     All people���������������������������

Under 1.00

Percent

90
percent
C.I.1 (±)

Under 1.25

Total

Number

90
percent
C.I.1 (±)

Number

90
percent
C.I.1 (±)

Percent

90
percent
C.I.1 (±)

Number

90
percent
C.I.1 (±)

Percent

90
percent
C.I.1 (±)

303,820

19,028

505

6.3

0.2

43,569

732

14.3

0.2

56,840

815

18.7

0.3

74,579
29,313
41,085
40,447
44,387
19,172
16,223
38,613

6,914
3,039
2,845
1,967
1,961
719
587
994

264
124
122
102
102
62
56
72

9.3
10.4
6.9
4.9
4.4
3.8
3.6
2.6

0.4
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.2

15,451
6,071
6,123
4,756
4,421
1,792
1,520
3,433

372
168
175
156
150
97
90
130

20.7
20.7
14.9
11.8
10.0
9.3
9.4
8.9

0.5
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.3

19,588
7,523
7,884
6,197
5,718
2,349
2,074
5,507

406
183
196
176
169
111
104
160

26.3
25.7
19.2
15.3
12.9
12.3
12.8
14.3

0.5
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.4

242,047
197,164
38,556
14,005
48,811

12,620
8,009
4,607
866
5,081

416
334
247
109
255

5.2
4.1
11.9
6.2
10.4

0.2
0.2
0.6
0.8
0.5

29,830
18,530
9,944
1,746
12,350

621
499
345
152
363

12.3
9.4
25.8
12.5
25.3

0.3
0.2
0.8
1.1
0.7

39,509
24,853
12,483
2,232
15,980

702
572
377
170
392

16.3
12.6
32.4
15.9
32.7

0.3
0.3
0.9
1.2
0.8

249,384
78,867
73,410
25,104
1,357
53,079
26,269
26,811

12,559
3,625
6,418
2,751
451
6,019
2,900
3,119

415
118
255
170
80
159
105
109

5.0
4.6
8.7
11.0
33.2
11.3
11.0
11.6

0.2
0.1
0.3
0.7
4.8
0.3
0.4
0.4

31,197
8,792
14,774
5,983
693
11,678
5,255
6,424

633
201
366
244
99
242
147
166

12.5
11.1
20.1
23.8
51.1
22.0
20.0
24.0

0.3
0.2
0.5
0.9
5.1
0.3
0.5
0.5

41,144
11,620
18,857
7,437
771
14,924
6,598
8,326

714
241
401
269
105
286
168
194

16.5
14.7
25.7
29.6
56.8
28.1
25.1
31.1

0.3
0.2
0.5
1.0
5.1
0.4
0.5
0.5

Age
Under 18 years ���������������������������������
18 to 24 years�����������������������������������
25 to 34 years�����������������������������������
35 to 44 years�����������������������������������
45 to 54 years�����������������������������������
55 to 59 years�����������������������������������
60 to 64 years�����������������������������������
65 years and older�����������������������������
Race2 and Hispanic Origin
White�������������������������������������������������
  White, not Hispanic �����������������������
Black�������������������������������������������������
Asian�������������������������������������������������
Hispanic (any race)���������������������������
Family Status
In families �����������������������������������������
  Householder�����������������������������������
  Related children under 18�������������
   Related children under 6 �����������
In unrelated subfamilies���������������������
Unrelated individuals�������������������������
  Male�����������������������������������������������
  Female�������������������������������������������

1
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more
information see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>.
2
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those
who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination
concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census
Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is
available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians
and Other Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately.

Note: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

workers, the percentage and number
in poverty in 2009 were not statistically different from 2008—2.7 percent
and 2.6 million.45
Among those who did not work at
least one week last year, the poverty rate and the number in poverty
increased to 22.7 percent and 18.9
million in 2009 from 22.0 percent and
17.1 million in 2008 (Table 4).
45
A full-time, year-round worker is a person
who worked 35 or more hours per week (fulltime) and 50 or more weeks during the previous
calendar year (year-round). For school personnel,
summer vacation is counted as weeks worked if
they are scheduled to return to their job in the
fall.

Families
The poverty rate and the number of
families in poverty were 11.1 percent
and 8.8 million in 2009 compared
with 10.3 percent and 8.1 million in
2008 (Table 4).
The poverty rate and the number of
families in poverty increased across
all types of families: married-couple
families (5.8 percent and 3.4 million
in 2009 from 5.5 percent and 3.3 million in 2008); families with a female
householder (29.9 percent and 4.4
million in 2009 from 28.7 percent and
4.2 million in 2008); and families with
a male householder (16.9 percent and

18 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

942,000 in 2009 from 13.8 percent
and 723,000 in 2008).
Depth of Poverty
Categorizing a person as “in poverty”
or “not in poverty” is one way to
describe his or her economic situation. The income-to-poverty ratio and
the income deficit or surplus describe
additional aspects of economic
well-being. While the poverty rate
shows the proportion of people with
income below the appropriate poverty threshold, the income-to-poverty
ratio gauges the depth of poverty. It
shows how close a family’s income

U.S. Census Bureau

Figure 6.

Demographic Makeup of the Population at Varying Degrees of Poverty: 2009
(Percent)
Total
population

24.5

12.7

62.7

Children under
18 years old
People 18 to 64
years old

Population with incomes
below 50 percent
of thresholds

36.3

58.4

Population with incomes
below 100 percent
of thresholds

35.5

56.7

Population with incomes
below 125 percent
of thresholds

34.5

55.8

5.2

People 65 years
and older

7.9

9.7

Note: Details may not sum to 100 percent because of rounding.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

is to their poverty threshold. The
income-to-poverty ratio is reported as
a percentage that compares a family’s
or an unrelated person’s income with
the appropriate poverty threshold.
For example, a family with an incometo-poverty ratio of 110 percent has
income that is 10 percent above their
poverty threshold.
The income deficit or surplus shows
how many dollars a family’s or an
unrelated person’s income is below
(or above) their poverty threshold.
For those with an income deficit, the
measure is an estimate of the dollar
amount necessary to raise a family’s
or a person’s income to their poverty
threshold.
Ratio of Income to Poverty
Table 6 presents the number and
percentage of people with specified income-to-poverty ratios—those
below 50 percent of poverty (“Under
0.50”), those below 100 percent of
poverty (“Under 1.00,” also called “in
poverty”), and those below 125 percent of poverty (“Under 1.25”).

U.S. Census Bureau

In 2009, 6.3 percent of all people,
or 19.0 million people, had income
below one-half of their poverty
threshold, up from 5.7 percent and
17.1 million in 2008. This group represented 43.7 percent of the poverty
population in 2009. The percentage
and number of people with income
below 125 percent of their threshold
was 18.7 percent and 56.8 million, up
from 17.9 percent and 53.8 million
in 2008. For children under the age
of 18 in 2009, 9.3 percent and 6.9
million lived in families with income
below 50 percent of their poverty
threshold, up from 8.5 percent and
6.3 million in 2008. The percentage
and number of children living in families with income below 125 percent
of their poverty threshold in 2009
was 26.3 percent and 19.6 million, up
from 25.0 percent and 18.6 million in
2008 (Table 6).
The demographic makeup of the
population differs at varying degrees
of poverty. Children represented 24.5
percent of the overall population,
35.5 percent of the people in poverty,
and 36.3 percent of the people with
income below 50 percent of their

poverty threshold. On the other hand,
the elderly represented 12.7 percent
of the overall population, 7.9 percent
of the people in poverty, and 5.2
percent of those with income below
50 percent of their poverty threshold.
For people with income below 125
percent of their poverty threshold,
34.5 percent were children while 9.7
percent were elderly (Figure 6).46
Income Deficit
The income deficit for families in poverty (the difference in dollars between
a family’s income and its poverty
threshold) averaged $9,042 in 2009,
which was not statistically different
from the 2008 estimate. The average
income deficit was larger for families
with a female householder ($9,218)
than for married-couple families
($8,820) (Table 7).47

46
The percentage of children below 100
percent of poverty was not statistically different from the percentage of children below 50
percent of poverty.
47
The income deficit for families in poverty
was not statistically different from the income
deficit for families with a female householder or
married-couple families.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 19

Table 7.

Income Deficit or Surplus of Families and Unrelated Individuals by Poverty Status: 2009
(Numbers of families and unrelated individuals in thousands, deficits and surpluses and their confidence intervals [C.I.] in dollars. For information on confidentiality protection,
sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Size of deficit or surplus

Average deficit
or surplus
(dollars)

Characteristic

Under
Total $500

$500 $1,000 $2,000 $3,000 $4,000 $5,000 $6,000 $7,000 $8,000
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
or
$999 $1,999 $2,999 $3,999 $4,999 $5,999 $6,999 $7,999 more

Deficit
or surplus
per capita
(dollars)

Estimate

90
percent
C.I.1
(±)

Estimate

90
percent
C.I.1
(±)

Below Poverty Threshold, Deficit
All families�������������������������������������������� 8,792
  Married-couple families�������������������� 3,409
  Families with a female householder,
   no husband present������������������������ 4,441
  Families with a male householder,
   no wife present��������������������������������
942
Unrelated individuals���������������������������� 11,678
  Male�������������������������������������������������� 5,255
  Female���������������������������������������������� 6,424

268
108

306
158

667
309

657
271

509
239

563
190

542
201

526
177

472
164

4,282
1,590

9,042
8,820

118
202

2,548
2,211

54
76

130

123

286

313

201

320

287

273

262

2,247

9,218

160

2,776

81

30
594
266
328

25
524
198
325

72
1,505
661
844

74
968
359
609

68
1,105
454
651

53
632
262
370

53
549
226
322

77
633
348
285

45
426
175
251

445
4,743
2,304
2,439

9,018
6,158
6,443
5,926

352
64
95
86

2,972
6,158
6,443
5,926

192
165
262
219

70,075
55,020

264
94

303
137

581
284

652
363

749
393

696
361

768
414

737
430

794 64,531 69,125
454 52,089 77,406

544 22,201
651 24,419

303
336

10,416

137

134

238

223

282

257

259

232

270

735 11,891

317

4,640
41,401
21,014
20,387

33
527
187
340

32
956
478
478

60
1,256
507
749

65
1,148
415
733

74
1,324
675
649

78
1,175
523
652

95
1,086
442
644

75
1,198
514
684

70 4,059 47,769 1,688 16,779
980 31,751 31,398
411 31,398
369 16,906 35,333
630 35,333
611 14,846 27,343
523 27,343

717
572
895
724

Above Poverty Threshold, Surplus
All families��������������������������������������������
  Married-couple families��������������������
  Families with a female householder,
   no husband present������������������������
  Families with a male householder,
   no wife present��������������������������������
Unrelated individuals����������������������������
  Male��������������������������������������������������
  Female����������������������������������������������

8,383 34,898

1
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For
more information see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>.
Note: Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement.

The average income deficit per capita
for families with a female householder ($2,776) was higher than for
married-couple families ($2,211). The
income deficit per capita is computed
by dividing the average deficit by the
average number of people in that type
of family. Since families with a female
householder were smaller, on average, than married-couple families, the
larger per capita deficit for femalehouseholder families reflects their
smaller average family size as well as
their lower average family income.
For unrelated individuals in poverty, the average income deficit was
$6,158 in 2009. The $5,926 deficit
for women was lower than the $6,443
deficit for men.48
48
The average income deficit for unrelated
individuals was not significantly different from
the income deficit for unrelated men or unrelated
women.

Alternative/Experimental
Poverty Measures
The poverty estimates in this report
are based on money income before
taxes, do not include the value of
noncash benefits, and use the official poverty thresholds. The money
income measure does not completely
capture the economic well-being of
individuals and families; and there are
many questions about the adequacy
of the official poverty thresholds.
Families and individuals also derive
economic well-being from noncash
benefits, such as food and housing subsidies, and their disposable
income is determined by both taxes
paid and tax credits received. The
official poverty thresholds developed
more than 40 years ago do not take
into account rising standards of living
or such things as child care expenses,
other work-related expenses,

20 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

variations in medical costs across
population groups, or geographic differences in the cost of living. Poverty
estimates using the new Supplemental
Poverty Measure, which the Census
Bureau expects to publish for the first
time in September 2011, will address
these concerns. For more details, see
the text box “Supplemental Poverty
Measure” on page 2.
National Academy of Sciences (NAS)Based Measures and Estimates of the
Effect of Benefits and Taxes
The Census Bureau currently computes several alternative measures of
income and poverty which fall into
two categories: 1) poverty measures
based on the 1995 recommendations of the National Academy of
Sciences Panel on Poverty and Family
Assistance called NAS-based measures

U.S. Census Bureau

and 2) other income and poverty
estimates in the Effect of Benefits and
Taxes on Income and Poverty series
(R&D). The NAS-based measures use
both alternative poverty thresholds
and an expanded income definition.
The R&D estimates use the official
thresholds but examine the impact of
adding or subtracting specific components from an enhanced definition of
income.
The Census Bureau will release estimates for these alternative measures
for 2009 at a later date. Estimates for
2008 for the R&D series can be found
at <www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstables/032009/rdcall/toc.htm>
and 2008 estimates for the NAS-based
measures can be found at
<www.census.gov/hhes/www
/povmeas/tables.html>.
The Census Bureau also makes
­available a research file that provides
microdata with variables used to
construct the NAS-based alternative
measures, available at
<www.census.gov/hhes/www
/povmeas/datafiles.html>, and an
expanded version of the CPS ASEC
public-use file that includes estimates
of the value of taxes and noncash

U.S. Census Bureau

benefits, available at <www.bls
.census.gov/cps_ftp.html#cpsmarch>.
Both microdata files are currently
available for 2008. Data for 2009 will
be released before the end of the year.
CPS Table Creator II
CPS Table Creator II is a Web-based
tool designed to help researchers explore alternative income and
­poverty measures. The tool is available from a link on the Census
Bureau’s poverty Web site
<www.census.gov/hhes/www
/cpstc/apm/cpstc_altpov.html>.
Table Creator II allows researchers to
produce poverty and income estimates using their own combinations
of threshold and resource definitions
and to see the incremental impact of
the addition or subtraction of a single
resource element. For example:
• If the cash value of Supplemental
Nutrition Assistance Program
(SNAP) benefits were added to the
money income of families, this
would move the family resources of
2.2 million people above the official
poverty line in 2008.
• Taking into account the value of
the federal Earned Income Tax
Credit would reduce the number of

children classified as poor in 2008
by 2 million.
• In 2008, the number of elderly
people in poverty would be higher
by 13 million people if Social
Security payments were excluded
from money income, more than
quadrupling the number of elderly
people in poverty.
Researchers can also estimate poverty
rates using alternative poverty thresholds. Many other countries use relative
poverty measures with thresholds that
are based on a percentage of median
or mean income.49 Table Creator II
allows researchers to estimate poverty
rates using a relative poverty threshold calculated as any percentage of
mean or median equivalence-adjusted
income. For example, using poverty
thresholds based on 50 percent of
median income rather than the official
poverty thresholds would increase the
overall poverty rate in 2008 from 13.2
percent to 21.9 percent.

49
For example, the Organization for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD) uses
a poverty threshold of 50 percent of median
income. The European Union defines poverty
as an income below 60 percent of the national
median of equalized disposable income after
social transfers.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 21

HEALTH INSURANCE
COVERAGE IN THE UNITED
STATES
Highlights
• The percentage of people without
health insurance increased to 16.7
percent in 2009 from 15.4 percent
in 2008. The number of uninsured
people increased to 50.7 million
in 2009 from 46.3 million in 2008
(Table 8 and Figure 7).50
• The number of people with health
insurance decreased to 253.6 million in 2009 from 255.1 million in
2008. This is the first year that the
number of people with health insurance has decreased since 1987, the
first year that comparable health
insurance data were collected.
The number of people covered by
private health insurance decreased
to 194.5 million in 2009 from
201.0 million in 2008. The number
of people covered by government
health insurance increased to 93.2
million in 2009 from 87.4 million in
2008 (Table C-1).
• Between 2008 and 2009, the
percentage of people covered by
private health insurance decreased
from 66.7 percent to 63.9 percent (Figure 8 and Table C-1). The
percentage of people covered by
employment-based health insurance decreased to 55.8 percent in
2009, from 58.5 percent in 2008.
The percentage of people covered
by employment-based health insurance is the lowest since 1987, the

50
For a brief description of how the Census
Bureau collects and reports on health insurance
data, see the text box “What Is Health Insurance
Coverage?” For a discussion of the quality of
ASEC health insurance coverage estimates, see
Appendix C.

What Is Health Insurance Coverage?
The Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement
(CPS ASEC) asks about health insurance coverage in the previous calendar year. Specifically, the survey asks separate questions about the major
types of health insurance. People who answer “no” to each of the coverage questions are then asked to verify that they were, in fact, not covered
by any type of health insurance. For reporting purposes, the U.S. Census
Bureau broadly classifies health insurance coverage as private coverage or
government coverage. Private health insurance is a plan provided through
an employer or a union or purchased by an individual from a private
company. Government health insurance includes such federal programs
as Medicare, Medicaid, and military health care; the Children’s Health
Insurance Program (CHIP); and individual state health plans.* People were
considered “insured” if they were covered by any type of health insurance
for part or all of the previous calendar year. They were considered “uninsured” if, for the entire year, they were not covered by any type of health
insurance.
Research shows health insurance coverage is underreported in the CPS
ASEC for a variety of reasons. Annual retrospective questions appear
to cause few problems when collecting income data (possibly because
the interview period is close to when people pay their taxes). However,
because health insurance coverage status can change over the course of
a year, answering questions about this long reference period may lead to
response errors. For example, some people may report their insurance
coverage status at the time of their interview rather than their coverage
status during the previous calendar year. Compared with other national
surveys, the CPS ASEC’s estimate of the number of people without health
insurance more closely approximates the number of people who were
uninsured at a specific point in time during the year than the number of
people uninsured for the entire year. There are several ongoing projects
aimed at improving the quality of health coverage data from the CPS ASEC,
including cognitive research and field testing to improve the wording of
the CPS ASEC health coverage questions.
For more information on the quality of CPS ASEC health insurance estimates, see Appendix C, “Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage.” For
a comparison between health insurance coverage rates from the major
federal surveys, see How Many People Lack Health Insurance and for How
Long? (Congressional Budget Office, May 2003) at <www.cbo.gov
/doc.cfm?index=4210> and People With Health Insurance: A Comparison
of Estimates From Two Surveys, SIPP Working Paper 243, June 2004, at
<www.census.gov/sipp/workpapr/sp243.pdf>.
*Types of insurance are not mutually exclusive; people may be covered by more than one
during the year.

22 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table 8.

People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics: 2008 and 2009
(Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality
protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
2008

2009

Uninsured

Characteristic

Change in
­ ninsured1
u

Uninsured

Total

Number

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Percent

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Total

Number

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Percent

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Number

Percent

     Total �����������������������������������������

301,483

46,340

529

15.4

0.2

304,280

50,674

549

16.7

0.2

*4,335

*1.3

Family Status
In families �����������������������������������������������
  Householder�����������������������������������������
  Related children under 18�������������������
   Related children under 6 �����������������
In unrelated subfamilies���������������������������
Unrelated individuals�������������������������������

248,301
78,874
72,980
24,884
1,207
51,975

35,248
10,535
7,025
2,142
300
10,791

472
170
222
124
46
172

14.2
13.4
9.6
8.6
24.9
20.8

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.5
3.3
0.3

249,384
78,867
73,410
25,104
1,357
53,539

38,228
11,586
7,202
2,275
364
12,082

489
178
225
127
51
181

15.3
14.7
9.8
9.1
26.8
22.6

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.5
3.2
0.3

*2,981
*1,050
177
134
*64
*1,290

*1.1
*1.3
0.2
0.5
1.9
*1.8

Race3 and Hispanic Origin
White�������������������������������������������������������
  White, not Hispanic �����������������������������
Black �������������������������������������������������������
Asian�������������������������������������������������������
Hispanic (any race)���������������������������������

240,852
197,159
38,076
13,315
47,485

34,890
21,322
7,284
2,344
14,558

470
377
257
147
323

14.5
10.8
19.1
17.6
30.7

0.2
0.2
0.6
1.1
0.7

242,403
197,436
38,624
14,011
48,901

38,399
23,658
8,102
2,409
15,820

490
395
269
149
332

15.8
12.0
21.0
17.2
32.4

0.2
0.2
0.7
1.0
0.7

*3,509
*2,336
*818
65
*1,263

*1.4
*1.2
*1.8
–0.4
*1.7

Age
Under 65 years ���������������������������������������
  Under 18 years �����������������������������������
  18 to 24 years �������������������������������������
  25 to 34 years �������������������������������������
  35 to 44 years �������������������������������������
  45 to 64 years �������������������������������������
65 years and older�����������������������������������

263,695
74,510
28,688
40,520
41,322
78,655
37,788

45,693
7,348
8,200
10,754
8,035
11,355
646

526
227
239
273
237
280
68

17.3
9.9
28.6
26.5
19.4
14.4
1.7

0.2
0.3
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.2

265,667
75,040
29,313
41,085
40,447
79,782
38,613

49,998
7,513
8,923
11,963
8,759
12,840
676

546
229
249
287
247
297
70

18.8
10.0
30.4
29.1
21.7
16.1
1.8

0.2
0.3
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.2

*4,305
165
*723
*1,209
*723
*1,485
30

*1.5
0.1
*1.9
*2.6
*2.2
*1.7

Nativity
Native born ���������������������������������������������
Foreign born �������������������������������������������
  Naturalized citizen�������������������������������
  Not a citizen�����������������������������������������

264,733
36,750
15,475
21,274

34,036
12,304
2,792
9,511

465
331
161
293

12.9
33.5
18.0
44.7

0.2
0.8
0.9
1.0

266,674
37,606
16,024
21,581

37,694
12,980
3,044
9,936

486
340
168
299

14.1
34.5
19.0
46.0

0.2
0.7
0.9
1.0

*3,658
*677
*252
*425

*1.3
*1.0
1.0
*1.3

Region
Northeast�������������������������������������������������
Midwest���������������������������������������������������
South�������������������������������������������������������
West �������������������������������������������������������

54,191
65,672
110,845
70,775

6,277
7,588
20,154
12,321

205
223
357
284

11.6
11.6
18.2
17.4

0.4
0.3
0.3
0.4

54,654
66,096
112,312
71,218

6,789
8,770
22,105
13,011

212
237
370
290

12.4
13.3
19.7
18.3

0.4
0.4
0.3
0.4

*512
*1,181
*1,951
*690

*0.8
*1.7
*1.5
*0.9

Residence
Inside metropolitan statistical areas �������
  Inside principal cities���������������������������
  Outside principal cities�������������������������
Outside metropolitan statistical areas4 ���

253,399
97,364
156,036
48,083

39,023
17,963
21,060
7,317

493
348
375
277

15.4
18.4
13.5
15.2

0.2
0.3
0.2
0.5

256,383
97,856
158,527
47,897

43,028
19,270
23,758
7,646

514
360
396
283

16.8
19.7
15.0
16.0

0.2
0.3
0.2
0.5

*4,006
*1,307
*2,699
329

*1.4
*1.2
*1.5
*0.7

Household Income
Less than $25,000�����������������������������������
$25,000 to $49,999���������������������������������
$50,000 to $74,999���������������������������������
$75,000 or more �������������������������������������

55,814
69,621
57,525
118,523

13,673
14,908
8,034
9,725

306
319
237
260

24.5
21.4
14.0
8.2

0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2

58,159
71,340
58,381
116,400

15,483
15,278
9,352
10,561

324
322
255
270

26.6
21.4
16.0
9.1

0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2

*1,811
369
*1,318
*836

*2.1

*2.1
*0.9

Work Experience
   Total, 18 to 64 years old�������������������
All workers�����������������������������������������������
Worked full-time, year-round���������������
Less than full-time, year-round �����������
Did not work��������������������������������������������

189,185
148,463
100,626
47,837
40,723

38,345
27,772
14,723
13,049
10,573

505
444
336
318
289

20.3
18.7
14.6
27.3
26.0

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.6

190,627
145,184
95,808
49,376
45,443

42,485
29,263
14,589
14,674
13,222

524
454
335
335
321

22.3
20.2
15.2
29.7
29.1

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.6

*4,140
*1,491
–134
*1,625
*2,649

*2.0
*1.4
*0.6
*2.4
*3.1

– Represents or rounds to zero.
* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more information,
see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>.
3
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those
who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination
concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census
Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available
from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other
Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately.
4
The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. For more information, see
“About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html>.
1
2

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 and 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 23

Figure 7.

Number Uninsured and Uninsured Rate: 1987 to 2009
55

Numbers in millions, rates in percent

Recession
50.7 million

50
45
40
Number uninsured

35
30
25
20

16.7 percent

15
Uninsured rate

10
5
0

1987

1990

1993

19961

19992

2002

2005

2009

1

The data for 1996 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004 and
2005 estimates.
Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls occurred for the 2000 ASEC, which collected data for 1999. These estimates also
reflect the results of follow-up verification questions, which were asked of people who responded “no” to all questions about specific types of
health insurance coverage in order to verify whether they were actually uninsured. This change increased the number and percentage of
people covered by health insurance, bringing the CPS more in line with estimates from other national surveys.

2

Notes: Respondents were not asked detailed health insurance questions before the 1988 CPS.
The data points are placed at the midpoints of the respective years. For information on recessions, see Appendix A.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1988 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

first year that comparable health
insurance data were collected.
The number of people covered by
employment-based health insurance
decreased to 169.7 million in 2009,
from 176.3 million in 2008.
• The percentage of people covered
by government health insurance
programs increased to 30.6 percent
in 2009, from 29.0 percent in 2008
(Figure 8 and Table C-1). This is the
highest percentage of people covered by government health insurance programs since 1987. The
percentage and number of people
covered by Medicaid increased
to 15.7 percent or 47.8 million in
2009, from 14.1 percent or 42.6
million in 2008. The percentage
and number of people covered by
Medicaid is the highest since 1987.
The percentage and number of

people covered by Medicare in 2009
(14.3 percent and 43.4 million)
were not statistically different from
2008.51
• In 2009, 10.0 percent of children
under 18, or 7.5 million, were without health insurance. These estimates were not statistically different
from the 2008 estimates (Table 8).
The uninsured rate for children in
poverty (15.1 percent) was greater
than the rate for all children.52
• Between 2008 and 2009, the
uninsured rate and the number of
uninsured for non-Hispanic Whites
51
The percentage and number of people covered by Medicaid in 2009, 15.7 percent and 47.8
million, were higher than the percentage and
number of people covered by Medicare in 2009,
14.3 percent and 43.4 million.
52
The number of uninsured children in poverty in 2009 was not statistically different from
the number in 2008.

24 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

increased from 10.8 percent and
21.3 million to 12.0 percent and
23.7 million. The uninsured rate
and the number of uninsured for
Blacks increased from 19.1 percent
and 7.3 million to 21.0 percent and
8.1 million (Table 8).
• The percentage and number of
uninsured Hispanics increased to
32.4 percent and 15.8 million in
2009, from 30.7 percent and 14.6
million in 2008 (Table 8).
Type of Coverage
Most people (55.8 percent) were covered by an employment-based health
insurance plan for some or all of
2009. The rate of employment-based
coverage in 2009 was lower than the
rate in 2008. This is the lowest rate
of employment-based coverage since
1987, the first year that comparable
U.S. Census Bureau

Race and Hispanic Origin
Figure 8.

Coverage by Type of Health Insurance: 2008 and 2009
2008
2009

Private insurance

Any private plan

*

Employment-based

*

Direct-purchase

Government insurance

Any government
plan

*

Medicare
Medicaid

Age

*

Military
health care1

*

No insurance

Not covered

*

0

10

20

30

40
Percent

50

60

70

80

* Statistically different at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of
the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs
and the military.
Note: The estimates by type of coverage are not mutually exclusive; people can be covered by more
than one type of health insurance during the year.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2009 and 2010 Annual Social and
Economic Supplements.

health insurance data were collected (Table C-1). The rate of private
coverage decreased to 63.9 percent
in 2009, from 66.7 percent in 2008
(Figure 8). This was the lowest rate
of private coverage since 1987. The
number of people covered by private
insurance also decreased to 194.5
million in 2009, from 201.0 million in
2008.
The percentage of people covered
by government health programs
increased to 30.6 percent in 2009,
from 29.0 percent in 2008. This
was the highest rate of government
coverage since 1987. The number of

U.S. Census Bureau

In 2009, the uninsured rate and the
number of uninsured for non-Hispanic
Whites increased to 12.0 percent and
23.7 million, from 10.8 percent and
21.3 million in 2008 (Table 8). The
uninsured rate and the number of
uninsured for Blacks in 2009 were
higher than in 2008, at 21.0 percent
and 8.1 million. The uninsured rate
and the number of uninsured for
Asians in 2009 were not statistically
different from 2008, at 17.2 percent
and 2.4 million.54 Among Hispanics,
the uninsured rate and the number of
uninsured increased to 32.4 percent
and 15.8 million in 2009 from 30.7
percent and 14.6 million in 2008.

people covered by government health
programs also increased to 93.2
million in 2009, from 87.4 million in
2008. The percentage of people with
Medicaid coverage (15.7 percent)
was higher in 2009 than in 2008.
This was the highest rate of Medicaid
coverage since 1987. The number
of people covered by Medicaid also
increased in 2009 to 47.8 million,
from 42.6 million in 2008. In contrast,
the percentage and number of people
with Medicare coverage in 2009 was
not statistically different from 2008,
at 14.3 percent and 43.4 million.53 In
2009, 11.2 percent of people had no
coverage other than Medicaid.

The uninsured rate for those under
65 increased in 2009 to 18.8 percent
from 17.3 percent in 2008. In 2009,
the percentage of children under
18 without health insurance (10.0
percent) was not statistically different from the percentage reported in
2008. The uninsured rate in 2009 for
those aged 65 and older (1.8 percent)
was also not statistically different
from the rate in 2008. The uninsured
rate increased for other age groups
from 2008 to 2009. For those aged
18 to 24, the rate increased to 30.4
percent from 28.6 percent. For those
aged 25 to 34, the rate increased
to 29.1 percent from 26.5 percent.
For those aged 35 to 44, the rate
increased to 21.7 percent from 19.4
percent. For those aged 45 to 64, the
rate increased to 16.1 percent from
14.4 percent.
Since 2007, the year before the most
recent recession, the uninsured rate
of people under 65 increased to 18.8

53
The percentage and number of people covered by Medicaid in 2009, 15.7 percent and 47.8
million, were higher than the percentage and
number of people covered by Medicare in 2009,
14.3 percent and 43.4 million.
54
Due to the small sample size, the changes
in uninsured rates for Asians are better interpreted when viewed over a longer time period.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 25

Table 9.

People Without Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics: 2007 and 2009
(Numbers in thousands, confidence intervals [C.I.] in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. People as of March of the following year. For
information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
2007

2009

Uninsured

Characteristic

Change in
uninsured1

Uninsured

Total

Number

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Percent

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Total

Number

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Percent

90
percent
C.I.2 (±)

Number

Percent

     Total �����������������������������������������

299,106

45,657

526

15.3

0.2

304,280

50,674

549

16.7

0.2

*5,017

*1.4

Family Status
In families �����������������������������������������������
  Householder�����������������������������������������
  Related children under 18�������������������
   Related children under 6 �����������������
In unrelated subfamilies���������������������������
Unrelated individuals�������������������������������

245,443
77,908
72,792
24,543
1,516
52,147

34,629
10,272
7,802
2,555
363
10,665

468
168
233
135
51
171

14.1
13.2
10.7
10.4
23.9
20.5

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.5
2.9
0.3

249,384
78,867
73,410
25,104
1,357
53,539

38,228
11,586
7,202
2,275
364
12,082

489
178
225
127
51
181

15.3
14.7
9.8
9.1
26.8
22.6

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.5
3.2
0.3

*3,599
*1,314
*–600
*–280
1
*1,417

*1.2
*1.5
*–0.9
*–1.3
2.9
*2.1

Race3 and Hispanic Origin
White�������������������������������������������������������
  White, not Hispanic �����������������������������
Black �������������������������������������������������������
Asian �������������������������������������������������������
Hispanic (any race)���������������������������������

239,399
196,768
37,775
13,268
46,026

34,300
20,548
7,372
2,234
14,770

466
370
258
144
321

14.3
10.4
19.5
16.8
32.1

0.2
0.2
0.7
1.0
0.7

242,403
197,436
38,624
14,011
48,901

38,399
23,658
8,102
2,409
15,820

490
395
269
149
332

15.8
12.0
21.0
17.2
32.4

0.2
0.2
0.7
1.0
0.7

*4,099
*3,110
*731
175
*1,050

*1.5
*1.5
*1.5
0.4
0.3

Age
Under 65 years ���������������������������������������
  Under 18 years �����������������������������������
  18 to 24 years �������������������������������������
  25 to 34 years �������������������������������������
  35 to 44 years �������������������������������������
  45 to 64 years �������������������������������������
65 years and older�����������������������������������

262,316
74,403
28,398
40,146
42,132
77,237
36,790

44,971
8,149
7,991
10,329
7,717
10,784
686

523
238
236
267
232
273
70

17.1
11.0
28.1
25.7
18.3
14.0
1.9

0.2
0.3
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.2

265,667
75,040
29,313
41,085
40,447
79,782
38,613

49,998
7,513
8,923
11,963
8,759
12,840
676

546
229
249
287
247
297
70

18.8
10.0
30.4
29.1
21.7
16.1
1.8

0.2
0.3
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.2

*5,027
*–636
*932
*1,634
*1,042
*2,056
–10

*1.7
*–0.9
*2.3
*3.4
*3.3
*2.1
–0.1

Nativity
Native born ���������������������������������������������
Foreign born �������������������������������������������
  Naturalized citizen�������������������������������
  Not a citizen�����������������������������������������

261,842
37,264
15,050
22,214

33,269
12,388
2,651
9,737

460
333
157
296

12.7
33.2
17.6
43.8

0.2
0.7
0.9
1.0

266,674
37,606
16,024
21,581

37,694
12,980
3,044
9,936

486
340
168
299

14.1
34.5
19.0
46.0

0.2
0.7
0.9
1.0

*4,425
*592
*393
199

*1.4
*1.3
*1.4
*2.2

Region
Northeast�������������������������������������������������
Midwest���������������������������������������������������
South�������������������������������������������������������
West �������������������������������������������������������

54,031
65,480
109,710
69,883

6,143
7,495
20,210
11,809

202
221
358
278

11.4
11.4
18.4
16.9

0.4
0.3
0.3
0.4

54,654
66,096
112,312
71,218

6,789
8,770
22,105
13,011

212
237
370
290

12.4
13.3
19.7
18.3

0.4
0.4
0.3
0.4

*647
*1,275
*1,895
*1,201

*1.1
*1.8
*1.3
*1.4

Residence
Inside metropolitan statistical areas �������
  Inside principal cities���������������������������
  Outside principal cities�������������������������
Outside metropolitan statistical areas4 ���

251,363
96,874
154,489
47,743

38,497
17,935
20,563
7,160

490
348
370
274

15.3
18.5
13.3
15.0

0.2
0.3
0.2
0.5

256,383
97,856
158,527
47,897

43,028
19,270
23,758
7,646

514
360
396
283

16.8
19.7
15.0
16.0

0.2
0.3
0.2
0.5

*4,531
*1,335
*3,196
*486

*1.5
*1.2
*1.7
*1.0

Household Income
Less than $25,000�����������������������������������
$25,000 to $49,999���������������������������������
$50,000 to $74,999���������������������������������
$75,000 or more �������������������������������������

55,267
68,915
58,355
116,568

13,539
14,515
8,488
9,115

304
315
243
252

24.5
21.1
14.5
7.8

0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2

58,159
71,340
58,381
116,400

15,483
15,278
9,352
10,561

324
322
255
270

26.6
21.4
16.0
9.1

0.5
0.4
0.4
0.2

*1,944
*762
*864
*1,446

*2.1
0.4
*1.5
*1.3

Work Experience
   Total, 18 to 64 years old�������������������
All workers�����������������������������������������������
  Worked full-time, year-round ���������������
  Less than full-time, year-round�������������
Did not work��������������������������������������������

187,913
148,603
105,244
43,359
39,310

36,822
26,840
15,692
11,148
9,981

497
438
346
295
282

19.6
18.1
14.9
25.7
25.4

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.6

190,627
145,184
95,808
49,376
45,443

42,485
29,263
14,589
14,674
13,222

524
454
335
335
321

22.3
20.2
15.2
29.7
29.1

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.6

*5,663
*2,422
*–1,104
*3,526
*3,241

*2.7
*2.1
0.3
*4.0
*3.7

* Statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.
1
Details may not sum to totals because of rounding.
2
A 90 percent confidence interval is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the confidence interval in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. For more information,
see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at <www.census.gov/hhes/www/p60_238sa.pdf>.
3
Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. Therefore, two basic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined as those
who reported Asian and no other race (the race-alone or single-race concept) or as those who reported Asian regardless of whether they also reported another race (the race-alone-or-in-combination
concept). This table shows data using the first approach (race alone). The use of the single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census
Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available
from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000. Data for American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other
Pacific Islanders, and those reporting two or more races are not shown separately.
4
The “Outside metropolitan statistical areas” category includes both micropolitan statistical areas and territory outside of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. For more information, see
“About Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas” at <www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html>.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2008 and 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

26 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

percent from 17.1 percent in 2007.55
The uninsured rate of children under
18 decreased to 10.0 percent in 2009
from 11.0 percent in 2007 (Table 9).
The uninsured rate of people aged 65
and older in 2009 was not statistically
different from the rate in 2007, at 1.8
percent. However, other age groups
experienced increases in uninsured
rates. Specifically, the uninsured rate
of those aged 18 to 24 increased
to 30.4 percent in 2009 from 28.1
percent in 2007. For those aged 25
to 34, the uninsured rate increased
to 29.1 percent in 2009 from 25.7
percent in 2007. The uninsured rate
for those aged 35 to 44 was 21.7
percent in 2009, up from 18.3 percent
in 2007. For those aged 45 to 64, the
uninsured rate was 16.1 percent in
2009, up from 14.0 percent in 2007.
Nativity
The uninsured rate and the number of
uninsured for the native-born population increased to 14.1 percent and
37.7 million in 2009 from 12.9 percent and 34.0 million in 2008 (Table
8). The uninsured rate and the number of uninsured for the foreign-born
population increased to 34.5 percent
and 13.0 million in 2009 from 33.5
percent and 12.3 million in 2008.
Among the foreign-born population,
the uninsured rate increased for noncitizens in 2009 to 46.0 percent from
44.7 percent in 2008. The uninsured
rate in 2009 for naturalized citizens
(19.0 percent) was not statistically
different from the rate in 2008. The
number of uninsured noncitizens
increased to 9.9 million in 2009 from
9.5 million in 2008. The number
of uninsured naturalized citizens
increased to 3.0 million in 2009 from
2.8 million in 2008. The proportion of
the foreign-born population without
health insurance in 2009 was nearly
55
The 2008 uninsured rates for those under
65, those aged 18 to 24, and those aged 65 and
older were not statistically different from their
rates in 2007 (17.3 percent, 28.6 percent, and
1.7 percent, respectively).

U.S. Census Bureau

two and one-half times that of the
native-born population in 2009.
Economic Status
The uninsured rate is higher among
people with lower incomes (Table 8).
In 2009, 26.6 percent of people in
households with annual incomes less
than $25,000 had no health insurance coverage. In 2009, the uninsured
rates decreased as household income
increased—21.4 percent of people
in households with incomes ranging from $25,000 to $49,999 were
uninsured; 16.0 percent of people
in households with incomes ranging
from $50,000 to $74,999 were uninsured; and 9.1 percent of people in
households with incomes of $75,000
or more were uninsured.
Among the four household income
groups, the uninsured rate in 2009
was not statistically different from
2008 for households with incomes
ranging from $25,000 to $49,999. In
2009, the uninsured rate for people
in households with incomes less than
$25,000 increased to 26.6 percent
from 24.5 percent in 2008. The
uninsured rate for households with
incomes ranging from $50,000 to
$74,999 increased to 16.0 percent in
2009 from 14.0 percent in 2008. The
uninsured rate for people in households with incomes of $75,000 or
more increased to 9.1 percent in 2009
from 8.2 percent in 2008.
Work Experience
Between 2008 and 2009, the uninsured rate for workers aged 18 to
64 (people who worked at some
time during the year) rose from
18.7 percent to 20.2 percent. The
number of workers who were uninsured increased from 27.8 million
to 29.3 million. In 2009, full-time,
year-round workers were more
likely to be covered by health insurance (84.8 percent) than those who
worked less than full-time, year-round
(70.3 percent) or nonworkers (70.9

percent).56, 57 Among full-time, yearround workers in 2009, the uninsured
rate increased to 15.2 percent from
14.6 percent in 2008. The number
of uninsured among full-time, yearround workers (14.6 million) was
not statistically different from 2008.
Among less-than-full-time-year-round
workers, the uninsured rate and the
number of uninsured increased to
29.7 percent and 14.7 million in 2009
from 27.3 percent and 13.0 million
in 2008. Similarly, the uninsured rate
and the number of uninsured nonworkers increased to 29.1 percent
and 13.2 million in 2009 from 26.0
percent and 10.6 million in 2008.58
In 2009, the uninsured rate of fulltime, year-round workers (15.2
percent) was not statistically different
from 2007, the first year before the
most recent recession (Table 9). The
uninsured rate of less-than-full-timeyear-round workers increased to 29.7
percent in 2009 from 25.7 percent
in 2007 (Table 9). The uninsured rate
of those who did not work increased
to 29.1 percent in 2009 from 25.4
percent in 2007.
Children’s Health Insurance
Coverage
In 2009, the uninsured rate and the
number of children under the age of
18 without health insurance (10.0
percent and 7.5 million) were not
statistically different from 2008 (Table
8). Uninsured rates for children varied
by poverty status, age, race, and
Hispanic origin. Figure 9 shows that
children aged 12 to 17 had a higher
56
A full-time, year-round worker is a person
who worked 35 or more hours per week (fulltime) and 50 or more weeks during the previous
calendar year (year-round). For school personnel,
summer vacation is counted as weeks worked if
they are scheduled to return to their job in the fall.
57
The 2009 insured rate for those who
worked less than full-time, year-round (70.3
percent) was not statistically different from the
2009 insured rate for nonworkers (70.9 percent).
58
The percentage of uninsured part-time
workers (29.7 percent) was not statistically
different from the percentage of uninsured nonworkers (29.1 percent) in 2009.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 27

uninsured rate (11.3 percent) than
those under 6 (9.2 percent).59 In 2009,
children in poverty were more likely
to be uninsured (15.1 percent) than all
children (10.0 percent).
In 2009, the uninsured rates were 7.0
percent for non-Hispanic White children, 11.5 percent for Black children,
10.0 percent for Asian children, and
16.8 percent for Hispanic children.60
These 2009 uninsured rates were not
statistically different from the respective rates in 2008.

Figure 9.

Uninsured Children by Poverty Status, Household Income,
Age, Race and Hispanic Origin, and Nativity: 2009
All children
Children in poverty
Household Income

Less than $25,000
$25,000 to $49,999
$50,000 to $74,999
$75,000 or more
Age

Under 6 years
6 to 11 years

Region
The Northeast had the lowest uninsured rate in 2009, followed by the
Midwest, the West, and the South
(Table 8). Between 2008 and 2009,
the uninsured rates increased in all
four regions—11.6 percent to 12.4
percent in the Northeast; 11.6 percent
to 13.3 percent in the Midwest; 17.4
percent to 18.3 percent in the West;
and 18.2 percent to 19.7 percent
the South. Between 2008 and 2009,
the number of uninsured in all four
regions increased—6.3 million to 6.8
million in the Northeast; 7.6 million
to 8.8 million in the Midwest; 12.3
million to 13.0 million in the West;
and 20.2 million to 22.1 million in the
South.61
Residence
The uninsured rate for people living
inside metropolitan statistical areas
increased to 16.8 percent in 2009
from 15.4 percent in 2008 (Table 8).
The uninsured rate in 2009 for people
living outside metropolitan areas
The uninsured rate for children under the
age of 6 (9.2 percent) was not statistically different from the uninsured rate for children aged 6
to 11 (9.5 percent).
60
In 2009, the uninsured rate for Black
children was not statistically different from the
uninsured rate for Asian children.
61
The 2009 uninsured rate for the West (18.3
percent) was not statistically different from the
2008 uninsured rate for the South (18.2 percent).
The 2008 uninsured rate for the Northeast (11.6
percent) was not statistically different from
the 2008 uninsured rate for the Midwest (11.6
percent).
59

12 to 17 years
Race1 and Hispanic origin

White, not Hispanic
Black
Asian
Hispanic (any race)
Nativity

Native born
Naturalized citizen
Not a citizen
0

5

10

15
20
Percent

25

30

35

1

Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more than one race. This
figure shows data using the race-alone concept. For example, Asian refers to people who
reported Asian and no other race.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2010 Annual Social and
Economic Supplement.

increased to 16.0 percent from 15.2
percent in 2008. In 2009, the uninsured rate was higher among people
living in principal cities (19.7 percent)
than among people living inside metropolitan areas but outside principal
cities (15.0 percent).
COMMENTS
The Census Bureau welcomes the
comments and advice of data and
report users. If you have suggestions
or comments on the income and poverty data, please write to:
Charles T. Nelson
Assistant Division Chief, Economic
Characteristics
Housing and Household Economic
Statistics Division

28 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau
Washington, DC 20233-8500
or send e-mail to
<charles.t.nelson@census.gov>
If you have suggestions or comments
on the health insurance coverage
data, please write to:
Jennifer Cheeseman Day
Assistant Division Chief, Employment
Characteristics
Housing and Household Economic
Statistics Division
U.S. Census Bureau
Washington, DC 20233-8500
or send e-mail to
<jennifer.cheeseman.day
@census.gov>.

U.S. Census Bureau

Additional Data and Contacts
Detailed tables, historical tables, press releases, and briefings are available electronically on the U.S. Census Bureau’s income, poverty, and health
insurance Web sites. The Web sites may be accessed through the Census
Bureau’s home page at <www.census.gov> or directly at
<www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/income.html> for income data,
<www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/poverty.html> for poverty data,
and <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/hlthins.html> for health
insurance data.
The Current Population Survey (CPS) Table Creator <www.census.gov
/hhes/www/cpstc/cps_table_creator.html> gives you the ability to create
customized tables from the CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement
(ASEC). You can generate estimates using your own definitions of income
and poverty with CPS Table Creator II <www.census.gov/hhes/www/cpstc
/apm/cpstc_altpov.html>.
Microdata are available for download by clicking “Data Tools” on the
Census Bureau’s home page and then clicking the “DataFerrett” link.
Technical methods have been applied to CPS microdata to avoid disclosing
the identities of individuals from whom data were collected.
For assistance with income, poverty, or health insurance data or questions
about them, contact the Data Integration Division’s Information Resources
and Dissemination Branch at 301-763-3242 or toll-free at 1-866-758-1060,
or search your topic of interest using the Census Bureau’s “Question and
Answer Center” found at <ask.census.gov>.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 29

APPENDIX A.
ESTIMATES OF INCOME
How Income Is Measured
For each person 15 years and older
in the sample, the Annual Social and
Economic Supplement (ASEC) asks
questions on the amount of money
income received in the preceding calendar year from each of the following
sources:
1. Earnings
2. Unemployment compensation
3. Workers’ compensation
4. Social security
5. Supplemental security income
6. Public assistance
7. Veterans’ payments
8. Survivor benefits
9. Disability benefits

Recessions
Peak month

Year

Trough month

Year

November

1948

October

1949

July

1953

May

1954

August

1957

April

1958

April

1960

February

1961

December

1969

November

1970

November

1973

March

1975

January

1980

July

1980

July

1981

November

1982

July

1990

March

1991

March

2001

November

2001

December

2007

Source:  National Bureau of Economic Research
Cambridge, MA 02138
<www.nber.org>

10. Pension or retirement income
11. Interest
12. Dividends
13. Rents, royalties, and estates and
trusts
14. Educational assistance
15. Alimony
16. Child support
17. Financial assistance from outside
of the household
18. Other income
It should be noted that although the
income statistics refer to receipts
during the preceding calendar year,
the demographic characteristics,
such as age, labor force status, and
household composition, are as of
the survey date. The income of the
household does not include amounts
received by people who were members during all or part of the previous
year if these people no longer resided
in the household at the time of the

U.S. Census Bureau

interview. The Current Population
Survey (CPS) collects income data for
people who are current residents but
did not reside in the household during
the previous year.
Data on income collected in the ASEC
by the U.S. Census Bureau cover
money income received (exclusive
of certain money receipts such as
capital gains) before payments for
personal income taxes, social security,
union dues, Medicare deductions,
etc. Therefore, money income does
not reflect the fact that some families
receive noncash benefits, such as
food stamps, health benefits, subsidized housing, and goods produced
and consumed on the farm. In addition, money income does not reflect
the fact that noncash benefits are also
received by some nonfarm residents,
which often take the form of the use
of business transportation and facilities, full or partial payments by business for retirement programs, medical

and educational expenses, etc. Data
users should consider these elements when comparing income levels.
Moreover, readers should be aware
that for many different reasons there
is a tendency in household surveys
for respondents to underreport their
income. Based on an analysis of independently derived income estimates,
the Census Bureau determined that
respondents report income earned
from wages or salaries more accurately than other sources of income,
and that the reported wage and salary
income is nearly equal to independent
estimates of aggregate income.
Recessions
Recessions are defined by the
National Bureau of Economic
Research. Peak and trough months
of recent recessions are shown in the
text box above. The data points in the
time series charts in this report use
July as a reference.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 31

Cost-of-Living Adjustment

Annual Average Consumer Price Index Research Series
(CPI-U-RS) Using Current Methods All Items: 1947 to 2009
Year
1947�����������������������������
1948�����������������������������
1949�����������������������������
1950�����������������������������
1951�����������������������������
1952�����������������������������
1953�����������������������������
1954�����������������������������
1955�����������������������������
1956�����������������������������
1957�����������������������������
1958�����������������������������
1959�����������������������������
1960�����������������������������
1961�����������������������������
1962�����������������������������
1963�����������������������������
1964�����������������������������
1965�����������������������������
1966�����������������������������
1967�����������������������������
1968�����������������������������
1969�����������������������������
1970�����������������������������
1971�����������������������������
1972�����������������������������
1973�����������������������������
1974�����������������������������
1975�����������������������������
1976�����������������������������
1977�����������������������������
1978�����������������������������

CPI-U-RS1 index
(December 1977
= 100)
37.5
40.5
40.0
40.5
43.7
44.5
44.8
45.2
45.0
45.7
47.2
48.5
48.9
49.7
50.2
50.7
51.4
52.1
52.9
54.4
56.1
58.3
60.9
63.9
66.7
68.7
73.0
80.3
86.9
91.9
97.7
104.4

Year
1979����������������������������
1980����������������������������
1981����������������������������
1982����������������������������
1983����������������������������
1984����������������������������
1985����������������������������
1986����������������������������
1987����������������������������
1988����������������������������
1989����������������������������
1990����������������������������
1991����������������������������
1992����������������������������
1993����������������������������
1994����������������������������
1995����������������������������
1996����������������������������
1997����������������������������
1998����������������������������
1999����������������������������
2000����������������������������
2001����������������������������
2002����������������������������
2003����������������������������
2004����������������������������
2005����������������������������
2006����������������������������
2007����������������������������
2008����������������������������
2009����������������������������

CPI-U-RS1 index
(December 1977
= 100)
114.4
127.1
139.2
147.6
153.9
160.2
165.7
168.7
174.4
180.8
188.6
198.0
205.1
210.3
215.5
220.1
225.4
231.4
236.4
239.7
244.7
252.9
260.0
264.2
270.1
277.4
286.7
296.1
304.5
316.2
315.0

In order to accurately assess changes
in income and earnings over time,
an adjustment for changes in the
cost of living is required. The Census
Bureau uses the research series of
the Consumer Price Index (CPI-U-RS),
provided by the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics for 1977 through 2009,
to adjust for changes in the cost of
living. The indexes used to make the
constant dollar conversions are shown
in the text box “Annual Average
Consumer Price Index Research Series
(CPI-U-RS) Using Current Methods All
Items: 1947 to 2009.”

1
The Census Bureau uses the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index Research Series
(CPI-U-RS) for 1977 through 2009. The Census Bureau derived the CPI-U-RS for years before 1977 by
applying the 1977 CPI-U-RS-to-CPI-U ratio to the 1947-to-1976 CPI-U.

Note: Data users can compute the percentage changes in prices between earlier years’ data and
2009 data by dividing the annual average CPI-U-RS for 2009 by the annual average for the earlier
year(s).
For more information on the CPI-U-RS, see <www.bls.gov/cpi/cpirsdc.htm>.

32 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 33

See footnotes at end of table.

ALL RACES
20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198510 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198411 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197613 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197514 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197414, 15. . . . . . . . . . . .
1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197216 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197117 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1968. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196718 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Race and
Hispanic origin
of householder
and year

117,538
117,181
116,783
116,011
114,384
113,343
112,000
111,278
109,297
108,209
106,434
103,874
102,528
101,018
99,627
98,990
97,107
96,426
95,669
94,312
93,347
92,830
91,124
89,479
88,458
86,789
85,407
83,918
83,527
82,368
80,776
77,330
76,030
74,142
72,867
71,163
69,859
68,251
66,676
64,778
63,401
62,214
60,813

Number
(thousands)
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total
13.0
13.4
12.9
12.6
13.0
13.3
13.2
12.9
12.4
12.1
11.8
12.7
13.2
13.7
13.7
14.6
15.1
15.0
14.5
14.0
13.7
14.5
14.8
15.1
15.3
15.4
15.9
16.2
15.8
15.5
14.8
14.6
15.2
15.3
15.8
14.9
14.9
15.6
16.5
16.3
15.9
16.2
17.8

Under
$15,000
11.9
12.0
11.3
11.2
11.5
11.6
11.6
11.4
11.4
11.1
11.3
11.4
11.8
12.3
12.2
12.6
12.6
12.5
12.3
11.8
11.6
11.6
11.7
11.7
12.4
12.7
13.1
12.7
13.2
12.7
12.3
12.9
13.1
13.0
13.0
12.5
12.2
12.1
12.3
11.8
11.7
12.2
12.1

$15,000
to
$24,999
11.1
11.0
10.5
11.1
10.8
11.0
10.9
10.6
10.5
10.5
10.9
10.7
11.3
11.2
11.4
11.5
11.0
11.1
11.3
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.2
11.5
11.7
11.9
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.1
12.1
11.6
11.9
12.3
12.3
11.9
11.4
11.6
12.1
12.0
11.9
12.6
13.7

$25,000
to
$34,999
14.1
14.1
14.0
14.1
14.2
14.1
14.0
14.5
14.8
14.5
14.0
14.5
14.4
14.7
15.0
14.8
15.8
15.5
15.9
15.7
15.0
15.0
15.3
15.3
16.0
16.3
16.3
16.7
16.2
16.4
15.8
16.2
16.8
16.4
17.3
18.2
16.9
17.5
18.7
19.2
19.1
20.4
20.0

$35,000
to
$49,999
18.1
17.6
18.0
18.2
18.1
18.1
17.7
18.0
17.9
18.4
18.4
18.7
18.8
18.8
19.2
19.0
18.5
19.3
19.3
20.0
20.1
20.1
20.1
20.4
20.1
19.9
20.2
20.5
20.8
21.4
21.9
21.8
21.7
22.4
22.3
22.0
22.7
22.8
22.5
22.7
23.4
22.8
22.1

$50,000
to
$74,999

Percentage distribution

11.5
11.9
12.0
11.6
12.1
12.0
12.2
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.6
12.2
12.3
12.1
11.6
11.7
12.1
12.0
12.2
12.4
12.3
12.3
12.2
11.9
11.7
11.1
10.9
11.2
11.5
12.1
12.2
11.8
11.4
11.0
11.3
11.8
11.1
10.3
10.4
10.5
9.6
8.3

11.9
11.9
12.7
12.5
12.0
11.9
12.3
12.3
12.2
12.3
12.5
12.0
11.4
10.7
10.6
10.3
10.0
9.7
9.9
9.9
10.6
10.1
10.0
9.5
8.8
8.5
7.9
7.7
7.8
7.8
7.9
7.8
7.0
6.8
6.2
6.8
7.4
6.8
5.7
5.6
5.7
4.7
4.4

4.4
4.3
4.7
4.7
4.3
4.4
4.4
4.2
4.3
4.5
4.3
4.0
3.7
3.5
3.1
3.2
3.0
2.7
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.0
2.7
2.6
2.3
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.6
1.6
1.9
1.9
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.1
1.2
1.1
0.9
0.9

3.8
3.7
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.9
3.8
4.0
3.4
3.1
2.8
2.6
2.6
2.3
2.1
1.9
2.1
2.2
1.9
1.9
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.8

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000
to $200,000
to
to
$99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over
49,777
50,112
51,965
51,278
50,899
50,343
50,519
50,563
51,161
52,301
52,388
51,100
49,309
48,315
47,622
46,175
45,665
45,888
46,269
47,637
48,279
47,433
47,071
46,488
44,898
44,074
42,747
43,048
43,163
43,892
45,325
45,452
43,758
43,483
42,773
43,923
45,360
44,462
42,636
43,055
43,391
41,836
40,108

Value
213
136
145
220
170
223
219
166
156
164
245
302
228
244
275
210
213
217
223
243
266
232
222
241
243
201
194
194
226
226
215
184
164
161
174
169
173
170
165
158
160
151
146

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

67,976
68,164
69,940
70,819
69,597
68,662
68,886
68,976
70,521
71,165
70,462
68,145
66,214
64,148
62,802
61,731
60,556
58,177
58,242
59,505
60,996
59,266
58,539
57,434
55,255
54,002
51,990
51,879
51,565
52,202
53,842
53,496
51,909
51,147
49,947
51,365
52,458
51,748
49,035
49,301
49,366
47,331
44,858

Value

243
241
244
273
263
259
252
259
281
280
366
368
370
359
344
332
327
244
240
251
266
265
240
233
219
199
194
192
188
191
204
205
158
158
156
161
160
160
156
158
155
151
146

Standard
error

Mean income
­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.

34 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

See footnotes at end of table.

2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198510 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198411 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197613 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197514 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197414, 15. . . . . . . . . . . .
1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197216 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197117 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WHITE20

20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WHITE ALONE19

Race and
Hispanic origin
of householder
and year

90,682
90,030
88,893
87,212
86,106
85,059
84,511
83,737
82,387
81,795
81,675
80,968
80,163
79,734
78,519
77,284
76,576
75,328
74,376
73,182
72,845
71,872
70,766
68,028
66,934
65,353
64,392
62,984
61,965
60,618
59,463
57,575

95,489
95,297
95,112
94,705
93,588
92,880
91,962
91,645

Number
(thousands)

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

11.0
10.8
10.3
11.0
11.6
11.9
11.9
12.7
13.0
12.9
12.4
12.0
11.8
12.4
12.7
13.2
13.5
13.5
13.8
14.4
13.9
13.6
13.1
13.0
13.6
13.7
14.1
13.4
13.5
14.1
15.0
14.9

11.4
11.8
11.2
10.9
11.3
11.7
11.6
11.4

Under
$15,000

11.1
10.8
11.0
10.9
11.5
11.9
11.8
12.1
12.2
12.1
12.0
11.5
11.2
11.1
11.2
11.2
11.9
12.1
12.6
12.1
12.6
12.1
11.7
12.3
12.3
12.4
12.5
11.9
11.6
11.4
11.7
11.2

11.6
11.7
11.1
10.8
11.1
11.2
11.1
11.0

$15,000
to
$24,999

10.1
10.3
10.8
10.5
11.0
11.0
11.3
11.4
10.8
11.0
11.2
11.1
11.1
11.4
11.1
11.3
11.5
11.8
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.0
11.9
11.4
11.7
12.1
12.1
11.6
11.0
11.2
11.8
11.6

10.8
10.7
10.3
10.9
10.7
10.9
10.8
10.4

$25,000
to
$34,999

14.8
14.4
14.1
14.5
14.4
14.8
15.2
15.0
15.9
15.8
16.0
16.0
15.2
15.2
15.4
15.4
16.2
16.6
16.7
16.9
16.5
16.6
16.0
16.3
16.9
16.6
17.5
18.4
17.0
17.8
19.0
19.5

14.2
14.0
14.0
14.1
14.3
14.0
14.0
14.3

$35,000
to
$49,999

18.2
18.6
18.8
19.2
19.2
19.4
19.7
19.5
19.4
19.9
19.9
20.6
20.8
20.9
21.0
21.1
20.8
20.8
21.1
21.3
21.6
22.3
22.8
22.7
22.6
23.3
23.1
23.0
23.6
23.7
23.4
23.7

18.7
18.1
18.3
18.7
18.4
18.4
18.1
18.4

$50,000
to
$74,999

Percentage distribution

13.1
13.2
13.3
13.2
12.7
12.9
12.7
12.1
12.4
12.8
12.6
12.9
13.0
12.9
13.1
12.8
12.4
12.3
11.7
11.6
11.8
12.1
12.7
12.8
12.5
12.1
11.7
11.8
12.5
11.8
10.9
11.0

12.0
12.5
12.5
12.1
12.7
12.5
12.7
13.1
12.8
13.0
13.2
12.6
12.1
11.3
11.2
11.0
10.6
10.4
10.6
10.5
11.2
10.8
10.7
10.1
9.5
9.1
8.5
8.2
8.4
8.4
8.5
8.2
7.5
7.3
6.6
7.4
7.9
7.3
6.2
6.0

12.6
12.5
13.3
13.3
12.6
12.6
13.0
13.0
4.6
4.8
4.4
4.3
4.0
3.8
3.4
3.4
3.3
2.9
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.2
2.9
2.9
2.5
2.4
2.1
2.0
1.7
1.8
2.0
2.1
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.7
1.6
1.2
1.3

4.7
4.6
5.0
4.9
4.6
4.6
4.6
4.4
4.2
4.1
4.3
3.8
3.5
3.0
2.8
2.8
2.5
2.3
2.0
2.3
2.4
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.6
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.1
1.1
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.1
0.9
0.9

4.1
4.0
4.3
4.3
4.3
3.9
4.1
4.0

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000
to $200,000
to
to
$99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

53,934
54,700
54,485
53,764
51,930
50,586
49,984
48,700
48,178
48,245
48,485
49,686
50,784
50,144
49,594
48,874
47,351
46,497
44,829
45,067
45,605
46,306
47,523
47,250
46,015
45,550
44,731
45,936
47,539
46,645
44,596
44,844

51,861
52,113
53,912
53,907
53,347
52,982
53,216
53,755

Value

253
242
275
269
329
261
261
273
281
234
235
228
247
296
249
237
253
234
203
205
210
238
226
208
193
189
163
173
181
179
170
173

154
151
159
156
233
208
209
218

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

73,313
73,804
73,023
71,236
69,159
66,695
65,305
64,451
63,270
60,804
60,701
61,905
63,536
61,794
61,040
59,826
57,523
56,230
54,148
54,017
53,727
54,308
55,965
55,478
53,937
53,115
51,792
53,268
54,486
53,761
50,811
51,026

70,544
70,921
72,756
73,518
72,473
71,436
71,825
71,735

Value

315
316
413
419
421
395
379
375
365
271
264
277
294
291
264
256
241
218
211
211
204
208
223
223
174
171
170
173
173
174
165
168

272
273
277
306
300
294
288
292

Standard
error

Mean income
­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 35

See footnotes at end of table.

2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198510 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198411 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197613 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197514 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WHITE, NOT
  HISPANIC 20

2009 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2004 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WHITE ALONE,
  NOT HISPANIC 19

1969. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1968. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196718 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WHITE20—Con.

Race and
Hispanic origin
of householder
and year

80,818
80,527
79,819
78,577
77,936
77,240
76,932
77,004
75,697
75,107
75,625
75,035
74,495
74,067
73,120
72,067
71,540
70,586
69,648
69,214
68,996
68,106
67,203
64,836
63,721
62,365
61,533

83,158
82,884
82,765
82,675
82,003
81,628
81,148
81,166

56,248
55,394
54,188

Number
(thousands)

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

10.6
10.4
9.8
10.2
10.7
11.1
10.9
11.9
12.2
12.1
11.8
11.4
11.2
11.8
12.1
12.7
13.0
13.0
13.2
13.9
13.6
13.3
12.9
12.8
13.4
13.4
13.8

10.6
10.9
10.6
10.4
10.8
11.1
11.1
10.9

14.5
14.8
16.2

Under
$15,000

10.6
10.2
10.5
10.4
11.1
11.3
11.3
11.7
11.8
11.7
11.6
11.1
11.0
10.7
10.8
10.8
11.4
11.8
12.4
11.8
12.4
11.9
11.6
12.2
12.1
12.1
12.2

11.0
11.2
10.5
10.2
10.5
10.7
10.5
10.5

10.9
11.4
11.4

$15,000
to
$24,999

9.8
10.0
10.4
10.2
10.6
10.7
10.9
11.2
10.6
10.7
11.1
11.0
10.9
11.2
10.9
11.2
11.4
11.7
12.0
12.1
12.2
11.8
11.7
11.2
11.5
12.0
12.0

10.3
10.2
9.8
10.5
10.2
10.4
10.3
10.0

11.5
12.3
13.4

$25,000
to
$34,999

14.3
14.1
13.7
14.2
14.3
14.7
15.1
14.9
15.7
15.7
16.0
15.9
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
16.2
16.6
16.6
16.9
16.4
16.6
15.9
16.2
16.8
16.5
17.4

14.0
13.6
13.6
13.7
13.9
13.6
13.7
13.9

19.3
20.9
20.6

$35,000
to
$49,999

18.3
18.6
18.9
19.4
19.4
19.7
20.2
19.8
19.8
20.1
20.1
20.8
21.0
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.1
21.0
21.4
21.6
21.9
22.6
23.0
22.9
22.8
23.5
23.3

18.8
18.4
18.3
18.7
18.5
18.5
18.2
18.5

24.5
23.8
23.2

$50,000
to
$74,999

Percentage distribution

13.4
13.6
13.7
13.7
13.2
13.4
13.1
12.5
12.7
13.3
13.0
13.3
13.3
13.2
13.4
13.2
12.8
12.6
12.0
11.8
12.0
12.4
12.9
13.0
12.8
12.4
11.9

12.4
13.0
12.9
12.5
13.2
13.0
13.1
13.5

11.2
10.1
8.8

13.5
13.6
13.8
13.3
12.8
11.9
11.8
11.4
11.1
10.8
11.0
10.9
11.7
11.2
11.1
10.4
9.8
9.4
8.7
8.5
8.7
8.6
8.7
8.4
7.7
7.5
6.8

13.4
13.3
14.2
14.0
13.3
13.3
13.7
13.7

6.1
5.0
4.6

4.9
5.1
4.7
4.5
4.2
4.0
3.6
3.6
3.5
3.1
3.3
3.3
3.5
3.3
3.0
3.0
2.7
2.5
2.2
2.1
1.8
1.8
2.1
2.2
1.8
1.7
1.5

5.1
4.9
5.4
5.3
4.9
5.0
5.0
4.7

1.2
1.0
0.9

4.5
4.4
4.6
4.0
3.7
3.2
3.0
3.0
2.7
2.4
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.0
0.9

4.4
4.4
4.7
4.7
4.7
4.3
4.4
4.3

0.9
0.7
0.8

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000
to $200,000
to
to
$99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

56,100
56,826
56,843
55,771
54,068
52,800
51,957
50,271
49,951
49,864
49,643
50,822
51,876
51,525
50,958
49,985
48,415
47,462
45,981
45,822
46,263
47,126
48,192
48,140
46,928
46,479
45,068

54,461
55,319
56,814
55,769
55,797
55,539
55,719
55,918

45,284
43,560
41,826

Value

233
228
359
321
282
362
271
266
292
309
244
237
254
303
284
258
247
263
(NA)
230
235
108
267
253
264
271
239

279
224
256
200
189
254
269
219

166
162
152

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

75,653
76,050
75,417
73,517
71,375
68,712
67,434
66,093
64,938
62,348
62,003
63,277
64,809
63,056
62,234
61,013
58,643
57,207
55,570
54,811
54,403
55,022
56,612
56,133
54,604
53,797
52,426

73,240
73,821
75,706
76,324
75,375
74,103
74,507
74,058

51,197
49,033
46,498

Value

343
341
447
449
(NA)
(NA)
404
392
387
288
276
286
317
296
289
280
266
256
(NA)
235
226
248
248
241
258
240
254

299
302
305
337
333
322
316
315

171
162
157

Standard
error

Mean income
­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.

36 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

15,212
15,056
14,976
14,709
14,399
14,151
13,969
13,778

14,730
14,595
14,551
14,354
14,002
13,809
13,629
13,465

13,315
13,174
12,838
12,579
12,474
12,109
11,577
11,655
11,281
11,269
11,083
10,671
10,486
10,561
10,192
9,922
9,797
9,480

BLACK ALONE OR
  IN COMBINATION
20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BLACK ALONE21
20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BLACK20
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198510 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198411 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

See footnotes at end of table.

60,164
59,236
58,005

Number
(thousands)

WHITE, NOT
  HISPANIC20—Con.
197414, 15. . . . . . . . . . . .
1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197216 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Race and
Hispanic origin
of householder
and year

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

22.1
21.0
22.0
24.4
24.4
25.8
26.0
27.7
30.0
30.7
30.4
29.1
28.2
30.1
30.5
30.1
29.7
30.7

23.5
23.6
23.6
23.4
23.9
24.3
23.6
23.3

23.4
23.5
23.6
23.2
23.8
24.2
23.5
23.1

13.2
13.4
13.9

Under
$15,000

14.5
14.4
14.5
15.3
14.8
15.8
15.6
16.1
15.6
15.8
15.3
15.1
14.9
15.7
15.4
15.8
16.5
17.5

15.4
15.0
14.1
14.6
15.5
14.6
14.8
14.9

15.4
14.9
14.0
14.5
15.5
14.6
14.8
14.9

11.6
11.4
11.1

$15,000
to
$24,999

12.8
12.9
12.7
12.7
13.6
12.4
13.2
12.2
12.5
12.1
11.5
12.2
13.1
12.4
12.6
12.6
13.3
13.2

13.4
13.7
12.4
13.3
12.3
12.8
13.0
12.4

13.4
13.7
12.3
13.3
12.3
12.7
13.0
12.4

11.4
10.7
11.0

$25,000
to
$34,999

15.5
15.4
14.1
14.4
14.7
14.5
14.4
13.6
15.1
14.1
14.6
14.4
13.9
13.7
15.0
14.4
14.3
14.5

14.6
15.0
14.5
14.3
14.6
15.1
14.5
15.9

14.5
15.1
14.6
14.4
14.5
15.1
14.4
15.9

18.3
16.9
17.6

$35,000
to
$49,999

16.1
17.2
16.3
15.5
16.1
15.4
16.0
15.0
13.4
14.6
15.2
15.4
15.7
14.0
14.0
14.8
14.7
13.2

15.1
14.9
16.3
16.0
15.9
15.7
15.7
14.9

15.2
14.9
16.2
16.0
15.9
15.8
15.7
14.9

23.1
23.7
24.0

$50,000
to
$74,999

Percentage distribution

9.1
8.8
9.0
8.4
8.7
8.4
7.8
7.9
6.9
7.0
7.1
7.3
7.1
7.5
6.7
6.7
6.8
6.5

8.7
8.1
8.6
8.1
8.3
8.2
8.5
8.7

8.7
8.1
8.6
8.2
8.3
8.3
8.5
8.7

12.1
12.8
12.0

7.1
7.2
7.6
6.7
5.7
5.7
5.5
5.5
4.7
4.3
4.6
5.0
5.6
4.9
4.4
4.4
3.7
3.7

6.3
6.6
7.4
7.0
6.6
6.4
7.0
6.8

6.3
6.6
7.4
7.0
6.7
6.5
7.0
6.8

7.6
8.1
7.6

1.7
1.9
2.7
1.8
1.3
1.2
0.9
1.3
1.2
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.0
0.7
0.7
0.6

1.8
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.7
1.8
1.9

1.8
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.7
1.8
1.9

1.5
1.7
1.7

1.1
1.2
1.1
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.1

1.2
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.1
1.2
1.1
1.3

1.2
1.1
1.3
1.4
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.3

1.1
1.3
1.1

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000
to $200,000
to
to
$99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

35,704
36,952
35,928
33,315
33,379
31,966
31,295
30,093
28,552
28,092
28,884
29,712
30,202
28,585
28,307
28,158
28,171
26,488

32,584
34,088
35,086
34,010
33,904
34,174
34,573
34,607

32,750
34,215
35,267
34,183
34,009
34,333
34,624
34,787

46,328
47,958
47,310

Value

420
490
669
522
574
629
534
560
564
574
607
678
615
596
542
553
547
509

394
439
491
256
331
355
450
466

418
437
481
253
324
315
435
458

228
224
225

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

47,550
48,798
49,512
44,864
43,923
44,187
42,484
41,875
39,801
38,121
38,462
39,477
40,076
39,161
38,221
37,778
36,756
35,326

46,046
46,356
48,239
48,007
46,645
46,141
46,802
47,704

46,280
46,502
48,446
48,397
46,945
46,284
47,018
48,089

53,868
55,095
54,384

Value

502
494
711
599
630
863
727
601
661
517
502
533
544
571
526
513
477
435

525
496
538
594
507
500
501
551

516
486
530
594
511
492
498
560

235
233
243

Standard
error

Mean income
­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 37

See footnotes at end of table.

20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4,687
4,573
4,494
4,454
4,273
4,123
4,040
3,917

4,940
4,805
4,715
4,664
4,500
4,346
4,235
4,079

ASIAN ALONE OR
  IN COMBINATION
20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ASIAN ALONE22

9,236
8,916
8,961
8,847
8,586
8,066
7,977
7,776
7,489
7,263
7,040
6,809
6,578
6,180
6,053
5,870
5,728

Number
(thousands)

1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197912 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197613 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197514 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197414, 15. . . . . . . . . . . .
1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197216 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197117 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1970. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1969. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1968. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
196718 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BLACK20—Con.

Race and
Hispanic origin
of householder
and year

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

11.7
12.1
10.3
10.1
11.2
10.2
13.1
10.2

11.7
11.9
10.3
10.0
11.1
10.2
13.1
10.4

32.2
31.7
31.6
30.6
28.9
28.6
27.8
28.6
30.1
28.2
27.5
29.1
29.9
28.9
27.9
29.1
32.5

Under
$15,000

7.9
8.7
8.1
7.1
7.9
8.3
9.3
8.8

8.0
8.7
8.0
7.0
7.8
8.3
9.3
8.7

17.0
17.4
18.0
17.8
17.5
17.1
19.4
18.4
17.3
18.1
17.9
17.9
18.3
17.6
18.9
20.1
19.1

$15,000
to
$24,999

8.2
8.2
7.5
8.5
7.2
8.1
6.0
8.1

8.2
8.3
7.4
8.4
7.2
8.1
6.2
8.1

13.4
13.2
13.2
13.6
13.8
12.9
14.1
13.9
13.6
14.6
15.0
14.5
14.7
15.4
15.7
15.5
16.9

$25,000
to
$34,999

11.1
12.1
11.4
11.4
10.5
11.4
11.5
13.2

11.4
12.1
11.6
11.6
10.7
11.5
11.5
13.3

13.8
14.6
14.2
14.2
14.2
15.6
15.4
15.1
16.0
16.6
15.5
15.6
16.2
16.5
17.4
16.5
14.5

$35,000
to
$49,999

16.9
15.1
17.0
17.1
18.6
19.0
16.8
18.1

16.6
15.2
17.1
17.3
18.4
19.0
16.9
18.3

13.8
14.7
13.8
14.2
15.2
14.7
14.4
15.5
15.2
14.1
15.7
14.7
13.7
14.2
13.6
12.9
11.8

$50,000
to
$74,999

Percentage distribution

11.8
12.6
13.1
13.1
13.0
12.6
13.9
12.7

11.9
12.7
13.1
13.2
13.1
12.8
14.0
12.8

6.2
5.6
5.9
6.2
6.9
7.2
5.7
5.7
5.2
6.2
5.1
5.7
5.0
5.1
4.4
4.0
3.1

16.9
17.1
17.9
17.0
16.9
16.7
16.1
16.0

16.7
17.0
17.7
17.1
17.0
16.6
16.0
16.0

3.2
2.3
3.1
2.9
3.1
3.4
2.8
2.4
2.2
1.9
2.6
2.0
1.7
2.0
1.8
1.7
1.5

7.8
7.5
7.9
8.8
6.9
7.7
7.8
6.7

7.8
7.4
8.0
8.6
6.9
7.6
7.7
6.5

0.4
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.3

7.7
6.6
6.8
6.9
7.8
6.1
5.4
6.1

7.7
6.6
6.8
6.7
7.7
5.8
5.3
5.9

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.2

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000
to $200,000
to
to
$99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

65,469
65,388
68,382
68,338
67,125
65,298
64,958
62,745

65,073
65,318
68,148
67,979
67,074
65,236
64,448
62,338

25,439
25,541
25,591
26,677
27,901
28,395
27,154
27,085
26,853
27,318
27,983
27,227
26,343
27,295
27,372
25,686
24,285

Value

1,267
1,381
1,433
1,781
782
1,388
1,276
1,098

1,435
1,408
1,434
1,720
801
1,315
1,437
943

477
410
430
503
509
600
364
336
395
330
436
408
392
375
403
373
404

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

90,811
85,858
87,950
93,929
88,002
86,888
81,605
83,516

90,110
85,995
87,477
93,115
87,893
86,450
80,951
82,835

33,835
33,606
33,618
34,623
35,801
36,288
34,792
34,605
33,519
33,975
34,749
34,393
32,643
33,329
32,586
31,284
29,181

Value

1,845
1,497
1,552
2,021
1,552
1,681
1,445
1,629

1,770
1,481
1,496
1,949
1,534
1,632
1,392
1,575

418
420
407
426
441
474
310
308
297
302
345
367
335
360
347
330
326

Standard
error

Mean income
­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.

38 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

See footnotes at end of table.

20091. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2008. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20042. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2002. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

HISPANIC
  (ANY RACE)23

2001. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20003. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19994. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1997. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1996. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19955. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19946. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19937. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19928. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1991. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1990. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1989. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1988. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ASIAN AND
  PACIFIC
  ISLANDER20

Race and
Hispanic origin
of householder
and year

13,298
13,425
13,339
12,973
12,519
12,178
11,693
11,339
10,499
10,034
9,579
9,060
8,590
8,225
7,939
7,735
7,362
7,153
6,379
6,220
5,933
5,910

4,071
3,963
3,742
3,308
3,125
2,998
2,777
2,040
2,233
2,262
2,094
1,958
1,988
1,913
(NA)

Number
(thousands)

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

16.5
17.8
15.6
15.5
15.6
16.1
15.6
15.2
14.9
14.5
15.1
18.3
20.1
20.1
22.3
22.2
21.6
21.3
20.2
19.7
19.3
20.8

10.3
9.3
11.0
10.7
11.4
12.3
12.5
11.9
14.6
12.0
11.6
10.6
10.4
10.5
12.1

Under
$15,000

15.2
14.8
14.7
14.5
15.2
15.1
15.5
14.9
15.0
15.1
15.3
15.3
15.3
17.5
17.1
16.3
16.7
16.6
16.6
16.5
14.5
15.5

8.0
7.7
7.2
8.7
8.5
9.1
9.8
10.2
9.4
10.2
8.7
9.5
8.2
11.5
12.3

$15,000
to
$24,999

14.3
14.5
13.8
13.5
14.0
14.5
14.9
14.0
12.9
12.6
14.2
13.7
14.4
14.5
15.1
13.8
13.5
13.5
13.5
12.9
14.4
13.9

8.6
7.4
7.9
9.0
8.5
8.4
7.7
8.3
9.8
8.9
10.5
8.2
9.0
8.2
8.7

$25,000
to
$34,999

15.4
16.4
16.5
17.1
17.2
16.6
16.5
17.1
17.9
17.6
16.8
17.3
15.9
15.5
15.8
15.7
17.9
16.9
16.9
17.6
16.2
16.2

12.8
12.4
13.0
13.1
12.5
12.2
13.9
13.4
13.4
12.9
14.7
12.5
13.1
13.6
11.3

$35,000
to
$49,999

17.6
16.2
18.3
18.1
17.8
17.8
17.1
18.1
17.4
18.9
17.9
16.8
17.4
16.3
14.9
16.5
14.9
16.8
17.2
18.2
17.9
17.7

17.5
16.9
17.1
17.8
19.1
19.1
19.6
19.3
15.2
21.4
18.2
20.9
19.8
20.5
18.9

$50,000
to
$74,999

Percentage distribution

9.1
9.0
10.0
9.3
9.3
9.0
9.5
9.6
10.6
10.4
10.1
8.9
7.9
8.1
8.0
7.6
8.1
8.0
8.1
7.8
9.5
8.6

12.7
14.8
13.7
13.7
13.7
12.8
13.7
13.2
14.5
11.9
13.9
14.0
15.8
12.1
12.9

7.8
7.5
7.5
8.0
7.2
7.4
7.3
7.6
7.6
7.3
7.4
6.6
6.0
5.4
4.9
5.7
5.3
5.1
5.3
5.3
5.9
4.9

16.3
16.4
14.6
16.7
16.2
16.7
13.6
13.9
15.1
14.7
13.9
15.4
14.5
15.3
15.8

2.2
2.4
2.2
2.6
2.2
2.0
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.0
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.4
1.0
1.1
1.6
1.3
1.5
1.6

7.5
8.7
7.7
5.8
6.0
5.6
4.7
5.2
4.6
4.6
5.0
5.4
4.7
5.4
5.0

1.7
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.7
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.1
0.8
0.9
1.0
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.9
0.8

6.3
6.4
7.8
4.5
4.0
3.7
4.4
4.5
3.4
3.4
3.6
3.6
4.5
2.9
2.8

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000
to $200,000
to
to
$99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

38,039
37,769
40,013
40,193
39,517
38,916
38,482
39,468
40,665
41,312
39,579
37,230
35,481
33,904
31,947
33,519
33,453
33,847
34,850
35,525
36,612
35,471

64,981
69,448
65,600
61,288
60,294
58,911
56,759
57,937
56,052
56,621
55,980
61,170
60,298
56,217
58,206

Value

502
484
538
537
392
545
535
575
516
595
575
718
633
657
696
623
672
700
725
729
710
899

1,551
1,185
2,312
1,706
1,676
2,111
1,424
2,195
2,757
1,634
1,806
1,812
1,630
2,310
2,164

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

52,229
51,376
52,581
53,803
51,791
52,095
51,860
53,518
53,772
54,777
51,994
50,305
47,814
46,290
43,604
45,199
44,277
43,171
44,343
44,501
46,752
45,286

88,635
90,672
86,747
79,122
78,470
76,976
77,182
75,225
73,443
70,175
71,075
73,837
74,959
70,284
(NA)

Value

573
532
553
617
521
637
574
715
680
788
923
1,070
965
1,071
978
1,128
931
679
710
733
803
960

2,092
1,882
2,199
2,285
2,432
2,761
3,114
2,681
2,957
1,929
2,095
2,090
2,181
2,099
(NA)

Standard
error

Mean income
­(dollars)

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 39

5,642
5,418
5,213
4,883
4,326
4,085
3,980
3,906
3,684
3,291
3,304
3,081
2,948
2,897
2,722
2,655

Number
(thousands)

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

Total

21.4
21.1
21.6
22.1
23.1
22.6
19.5
19.9
17.8
17.9
18.5
20.9
20.4
17.2
15.9
16.9

Under
$15,000

15.6
16.3
17.6
16.0
16.3
16.8
17.0
17.0
15.5
16.4
16.8
17.6
18.2
18.4
17.1
18.1

$15,000
to
$24,999

13.5
14.0
13.3
13.8
14.6
14.5
14.5
15.2
15.6
15.2
16.0
15.6
15.6
14.7
17.4
16.2

$25,000
to
$34,999

16.6
16.0
16.7
17.0
17.8
17.3
18.0
17.9
18.1
18.7
19.3
17.5
18.8
20.1
18.8
21.6

$35,000
to
$49,999

17.1
17.5
16.8
17.3
16.2
16.6
17.6
17.3
19.0
19.4
18.5
18.3
18.3
19.2
20.6
17.8

$50,000
to
$74,999

Percentage distribution

8.6
8.0
7.7
8.2
6.9
7.5
8.3
7.8
8.1
7.7
6.6
6.8
5.6
6.5
6.7
5.9

5.2
5.7
5.1
4.2
4.1
3.4
4.1
4.0
4.5
3.8
3.5
2.7
2.3
3.0
3.1
2.8

1.1
1.1
0.8
1.0
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.3

1.0
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.5

$75,000 $100,000 $150,000
to $200,000
to
to
$99,999 $149,999 $199,999 and over

34,925
34,267
33,201
33,411
32,556
32,392
34,623
33,832
35,911
35,613
34,328
32,799
32,134
34,936
35,142
35,200

Value

759
893
776
838
825
856
948
917
1,035
863
603
699
710
765
798
688

Standard
error

Median income
(dollars)

44,768
43,269
41,486
41,546
39,644
39,977
41,577
41,324
43,450
42,066
40,512
38,760
38,148
40,471
40,829
40,459

Value

829
711
675
810
761
811
794
823
873
851
625
631
678
659
665
688

Standard
error

Mean income
­(dollars)

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 through 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

1
Median income is calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Medians falling in the
upper open-ended interval are plugged with "$250,000." Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000 and a plug of "$100,000" was used.
2
Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
3
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
4
Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.
5
Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household sample reduction, and revised editing of responses on race.
6
Introduction of 1990 census sample design.
7
Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected questionnaire items. Limits either
increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security limits increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24,999; veterans' benefits
limits increased to $99,999; child support and alimony limits decreased to $49,999.
8
Implementation of 1990 census population controls.
9
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
10
Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299,999. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design.
11
Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design.
12
Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to show 27 possible values from 51 possible sources of income.
13
First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Before this year, all medians were derived using linear interpolation.
14
Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data, which were derived using linear interpolation.
15
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions.
16
Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design.
17
Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls.
18
Implementation of new CPS ASEC processing system.
19
Beginning with the 2003 CPS, respondents were allowed to choose one or more races. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of his single-race population does
not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing the data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska
Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000.
20
For the years 2001 and earlier, the CPS allowed respondents to report only one race group.
21
Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race category.
22
Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race category.
23
Because Hispanics may be any race, data in this report for Hispanics overlap with data for racial groups. Being Hispanic was reported by 13.0 percent of White householders who reported only one race, 3.0 percent of Black
householders who reported only one race, and 1.9 percent of Asian householders who reported only one race. Data users should exercise caution when interpreting aggregate results for the Hispanic population and for race groups
because these populations consist of many distinct groups that differ in socioeconomic characteristics, culture, and recency of immigration. Data were first collected for Hispanics in 1972.

(NA) Not available.

19879. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1986. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198510 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198411 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1983. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1981. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1978. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1977. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197613 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197514 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197414, 15. . . . . . . . . . . .
1973. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
197216 . . . . . . . . . . . . .

HISPANIC
  (ANY RACE)23—Con.

Race and
Hispanic origin
of householder
and year

(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. Households as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Households by Total Money Income, Race, and Hispanic Origin of Householder: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-1.

Table A-2.

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009
(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The
Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Measures of income
dispersion

20091

2008

2007

2006

2005

20042

2003

2002

2001

20003

19994

MEASURE
Household Income at Selected
  Percentiles
10th percentile limit�����������������������������
20th percentile limit�����������������������������
50th (median) �������������������������������������
80th percentile limit�����������������������������
90th percentile limit�����������������������������
95th percentile limit�����������������������������

12,120
20,453
49,777
100,000
137,632
180,001

12,115
20,633
50,112
99,860
137,775
179,317

12,581
20,991
51,965
103,448
140,690
183,103

12,766
21,314
51,278
103,226
141,489
185,119

12,402
21,071
50,899
100,757
138,536
182,386

12,384
20,992
50,343
99,930
137,249
178,453

12,287
20,974
50,519
101,307
137,849
179,740

12,662
21,361
50,563
100,170
136,053
178,844

12,947
21,771
51,161
101,163
137,665
182,335

13,180
22,320
52,301
101,844
139,502
180,879

13,318
22,059
52,388
101,995
138,742
182,795

Household Income Ratios of
  Selected Percentiles
90th/10th���������������������������������������������
95th/20th���������������������������������������������
95th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/20th���������������������������������������������
20th/50th���������������������������������������������

11.36
8.80
3.62
2.01
4.89
0.41

11.37
8.69
3.58
1.99
4.84
0.41

11.18
8.72
3.52
1.99
4.93
0.40

11.08
8.69
3.61
2.01
4.84
0.42

11.17
8.66
3.58
1.98
4.78
0.41

11.08
8.50
3.54
1.98
4.76
0.42

11.22
8.57
3.56
2.01
4.83
0.42

10.75
8.37
3.54
1.98
4.69
0.42

10.63
8.38
3.56
1.98
4.65
0.43

10.58
8.10
3.46
1.95
4.56
0.43

10.42
8.29
3.49
1.95
4.62
0.42

Mean Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������

11,552
29,257
49,534
78,694
170,844

11,612
29,405
49,942
79,457
170,408

11,949
30,457
51,691
81,839
173,763

12,077
30,614
51,301
81,201
178,904

11,707
30,057
50,871
80,014
175,335

11,633
29,765
50,431
79,518
171,965

11,658
29,947
50,834
80,463
171,527

11,911
30,284
51,032
80,271
171,382

12,280
30,855
51,647
80,978
176,848

12,651
31,588
52,603
81,774
177,203

12,763
31,339
52,457
81,644
174,106

3.4
8.6
14.6
23.2
50.3

3.4
8.6
14.7
23.3
50.0

3.4
8.7
14.8
23.4
49.7

3.4
8.6
14.5
22.9
50.5

3.4
8.6
14.6
23.0
50.4

3.4
8.7
14.7
23.2
50.1

3.4
8.7
14.8
23.4
49.8

3.5
8.8
14.8
23.3
49.7

3.5
8.7
14.6
23.0
50.1

3.6
8.9
14.8
23.0
49.8

3.6
8.9
14.9
23.2
49.4

0.468

0.466

0.463

0.470

0.469

0.466

0.464

0.462

0.466

0.462

0.458

0.550
0.403

0.541
0.398

0.532
0.391

0.543
0.417

0.545
0.411

0.543
0.406

0.530
0.397

0.514
0.398

0.515
0.413

0.490
0.404

0.476
0.386

0.097
0.190
0.288

0.096
0.188
0.285

0.095
0.185
0.281

0.099
0.192
0.289

0.098
0.192
0.289

0.097
0.190
0.286

0.095
0.187
0.283

0.095
0.186
0.279

0.098
0.189
0.282

0.096
0.185
0.275

0.092
0.180
0.268

85
107
213
311
638
879

83
107
136
305
580
919

84
115
145
310
610
886

88
117
220
390
601
1,066

84
117
170
353
590
1,228

84
118
223
353
558
1,041

84
117
219
372
591
830

85
122
166
273
536
851

89
120
156
293
522
916

89
127
164
299
605
1,159

90
122
245
318
582
1,018

Household Income Ratios of
  Selected Percentiles
90th/10th���������������������������������������������
95th/20th���������������������������������������������
95th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/20th ��������������������������������������������
20th/50th���������������������������������������������

0.095
0.063
0.022
0.010
0.030
0.003

0.091
0.063
0.023
0.010
0.029
0.003

0.089
0.064
0.021
0.009
0.031
0.003

0.090
0.069
0.025
0.011
0.032
0.003

0.090
0.076
0.028
0.010
0.031
0.003

0.088
0.069
0.025
0.011
0.032
0.003

0.091
0.062
0.021
0.011
0.032
0.003

0.083
0.062
0.022
0.009
0.030
0.003

0.083
0.063
0.023
0.010
0.029
0.003

0.085
0.070
0.026
0.009
0.029
0.003

0.083
0.065
0.024
0.010
0.029
0.003

Mean Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������

42
36
47
76
841

41
36
48
75
824

41
38
49
78
834

44
37
48
79
1,004

43
38
47
76
940

43
37
49
75
930

42
38
49
77
882

43
38
49
75
925

44
39
50
76
1,044

45
40
50
76
1,034

44
40
50
77
910

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.15
0.33

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.33

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.33

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.15
0.34

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.15
0.34

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.34

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.34

0.02
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.34

0.03
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.35

0.03
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.35

0.03
0.06
0.10
0.16
0.35

0.0028

0.0027

0.0027

0.0028

0.0029

0.0029

0.0028

0.0029

0.0030

0.0030

0.0041

0.0064
0.0001

0.0063
0.0001

0.0062
0.0001

0.0063
0.0002

0.0063
0.0001

0.0063
0.0001

0.0054
0.0001

0.0052
0.0001

0.0051
0.0002

0.0049
0.0002

0.0059
0.0001

0.0011
0.0018
0.0024

0.0011
0.0017
0.0023

0.0011
0.0018
0.0024

0.0014
0.0021
0.0027

0.0013
0.0020
0.0026

0.0013
0.0020
0.0026

0.0012
0.0018
0.0024

0.0012
0.0020
0.0025

0.0014
0.0022
0.0027

0.0013
0.0021
0.0026

0.0013
0.0021
0.0027

Shares of Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������
Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality�����������
Mean logarithmic deviation of
  income�����������������������������������������������
Theil�����������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25���������������������������������������������
  e=0.50���������������������������������������������
  e=0.75���������������������������������������������
STANDARD ERROR
Household Income at Selected
  Percentiles
10th percentile limit�����������������������������
20th percentile limit�����������������������������
50th (median) �������������������������������������
80th percentile limit�����������������������������
90th percentile limit�����������������������������
95th percentile limit�����������������������������

Shares of Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������
Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality�����������
Mean logarithmic deviation of
  income�����������������������������������������������
Theil�����������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25���������������������������������������������
  e=0.50���������������������������������������������
  e=0.75���������������������������������������������
  See footnotes at end of table.

40 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table A-2.

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con.
(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The
Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Measures of income
dispersion

1998

1997

1996

19955

19946

19937

19928

1991

1990

1989

1988

MEASURE
Household Income at Selected
  Percentiles
10th percentile limit�����������������������������
20th percentile limit�����������������������������
50th (median) �������������������������������������
80th percentile limit�����������������������������
90th percentile limit�����������������������������
95th percentile limit�����������������������������

12,747
21,179
51,100
98,561
133,123
173,728

12,279
20,520
49,309
95,273
130,133
168,626

12,129
20,103
48,315
92,587
125,306
162,727

12,125
20,124
47,622
91,012
122,561
157,919

11,489
19,215
46,175
89,936
121,482
157,172

11,235
18,954
45,665
88,142
119,482
152,953

11,234
18,873
45,888
86,886
116,159
148,318

11,399
19,338
46,269
87,173
116,544
148,055

11,645
19,886
47,637
87,826
117,886
150,735

12,025
20,203
48,279
89,707
120,178
153,241

11,436
19,830
47,433
88,146
116,731
149,207

Household Income Ratios of
  Selected Percentiles
90th/10th���������������������������������������������
95th/20th���������������������������������������������
95th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/20th���������������������������������������������
20th/50th���������������������������������������������

10.44
8.20
3.40
1.93
4.65
0.41

10.60
8.22
3.42
1.93
4.64
0.42

10.33
8.10
3.37
1.92
4.61
0.42

10.11
7.85
3.32
1.91
4.52
0.42

10.57
8.18
3.40
1.95
4.68
0.42

10.64
8.07
3.35
1.93
4.65
0.42

10.34
7.86
3.23
1.89
4.60
0.41

10.22
7.66
3.20
1.88
4.51
0.42

10.12
7.58
3.16
1.84
4.42
0.42

9.99
7.59
3.17
1.86
4.44
0.42

10.21
7.52
3.15
1.86
4.45
0.42

Mean Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������

12,120
30,604
51,208
79,198
167,591

11,778
29,445
49,538
76,727
163,581

11,700
28,719
48,306
74,764
157,247

11,662
28,505
47,664
73,270
152,904

11,040
27,513
46,348
72,124
151,625

10,757
27,270
45,711
71,038
148,003

10,868
27,233
45,881
70,431
136,470

11,098
27,875
46,302
70,582
135,349

11,400
28,684
47,379
71,433
138,627

11,681
29,063
48,311
73,076
142,851

11,264
28,428
47,548
71,875
137,218

3.6
9.0
15.0
23.2
49.2

3.6
8.9
15.0
23.2
49.4

3.6
9.0
15.1
23.3
49.0

3.7
9.1
15.2
23.3
48.7

3.6
8.9
15.0
23.4
49.1

3.6
9.0
15.1
23.5
48.9

3.8
9.4
15.8
24.2
46.9

3.8
9.6
15.9
24.2
46.5

3.8
9.6
15.9
24.0
46.6

3.8
9.5
15.8
24.0
46.8

3.8
9.6
16.0
24.2
46.3

0.456

0.459

0.455

0.450

0.456

0.454

0.433

0.428

0.428

0.431

0.426

0.488
0.389

0.484
0.396

0.464
0.389

0.452
0.378

0.471
0.387

0.467
0.385

0.416
0.323

0.411
0.313

0.402
0.317

0.406
0.324

0.401
0.314

0.093
0.181
0.271

0.094
0.183
0.272

0.093
0.179
0.266

0.090
0.175
0.261

0.092
0.180
0.268

0.092
0.178
0.266

0.080
0.160
0.242

0.078
0.156
0.237

0.078
0.156
0.236

0.080
0.158
0.239

0.078
0.155
0.236

87
129
302
307
504
1,007

92
121
228
422
538
881

86
123
244
322
580
801

86
113
275
342
531
939

80
111
210
293
537
891

80
113
213
331
418
760

80
113
217
287
383
750

82
118
223
316
418
757

89
122
243
338
452
851

89
126
266
278
725
818

89
124
232
309
474
926

Household Income Ratios of
  Selected Percentiles
90th/10th���������������������������������������������
95th/20th���������������������������������������������
95th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/20th ��������������������������������������������
20th/50th���������������������������������������������

0.082
0.069
0.024
0.010
0.032
0.003

0.091
0.065
0.022
0.011
0.034
0.003

0.087
0.063
0.022
0.011
0.032
0.003

0.084
0.064
0.023
0.010
0.031
0.003

0.087
0.066
0.024
0.010
0.031
0.003

0.085
0.063
0.022
0.011
0.033
0.003

0.081
0.062
0.021
0.010
0.032
0.003

0.082
0.061
0.021
0.011
0.032
0.003

0.087
0.063
0.022
0.010
0.032
0.003

0.095
0.062
0.021
0.009
0.031
0.003

0.089
0.066
0.023
0.010
0.032
0.003

Mean Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������

43
41
50
75
949

43
39
48
72
974

39
38
48
69
947

41
38
46
70
892

40
37
46
72
894

39
38
45
70
895

39
39
45
66
496

40
38
45
66
473

41
40
45
67
522

42
40
47
68
576

42
40
47
66
523

0.03
0.06
0.11
0.17
0.35

0.03
0.06
0.11
0.17
0.35

0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.35

0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.35

0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.36

0.03
0.07
0.11
0.17
0.36

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.35

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.34

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.35

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.35

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.18
0.35

0.0042

0.0043

0.0043

0.0043

0.0042

0.0042

0.0038

0.0038

0.0039

0.0040

0.0041

0.0069
0.0002

0.0067
0.0002

0.0064
0.0002

0.0063
0.0002

0.0061
0.0002

0.0061
0.0002

0.0055
0.0001

0.0056
0.0001

0.0053
0.0001

0.0053
0.0001

0.0055
0.0001

0.0015
0.0023
0.0029

0.0016
0.0025
0.0030

0.0016
0.0024
0.0030

0.0015
0.0024
0.0029

0.0015
0.0023
0.0028

0.0015
0.0024
0.0029

0.0007
0.0013
0.0019

0.0007
0.0012
0.0018

0.0007
0.0013
0.0018

0.0008
0.0014
0.0019

0.0008
0.0014
0.0020

Shares of Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������
Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality�����������
Mean logarithmic deviation of
  income�����������������������������������������������
Theil�����������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25���������������������������������������������
  e=0.50���������������������������������������������
  e=0.75���������������������������������������������
STANDARD ERROR
Household Income at Selected
  Percentiles
10th percentile limit�����������������������������
20th percentile limit�����������������������������
50th (median) �������������������������������������
80th percentile limit�����������������������������
90th percentile limit�����������������������������
95th percentile limit�����������������������������

Shares of Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������
Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality�����������
Mean logarithmic deviation of
  income�����������������������������������������������
Theil�����������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25���������������������������������������������
  e=0.50���������������������������������������������
  e=0.75���������������������������������������������
  See footnotes at end of table.
U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 41

Table A-2.

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con.
(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The
Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Measures of income
dispersion

19879

1986

198510

1984

198311

1982

1981

1980

197912

1978

1977

MEASURE
Household Income at Selected
  Percentiles
10th percentile limit�����������������������������
20th percentile limit�����������������������������
50th (median) �������������������������������������
80th percentile limit�����������������������������
90th percentile limit�����������������������������
95th percentile limit�����������������������������

11,265
19,507
47,071
87,353
115,242
146,172

11,170
19,133
46,488
85,859
112,687
143,974

11,210
18,898
44,898
82,843
108,659
136,881

11,202
18,680
44,074
81,365
107,025
134,691

10,760
18,317
42,747
78,998
103,393
129,971

10,801
17,927
43,048
77,683
102,445
128,232

10,998
18,158
43,163
77,619
101,391
124,914

11,153
18,533
43,892
78,019
101,373
125,556

11,303
19,274
45,325
79,851
103,364
129,029

11,523
19,063
45,452
79,317
102,586
126,890

11,291
18,487
43,758
77,380
98,691
122,518

Household Income Ratios of
  Selected Percentiles
90th/10th���������������������������������������������
95th/20th���������������������������������������������
95th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/20th���������������������������������������������
20th/50th���������������������������������������������

10.23
7.49
3.11
1.86
4.48
0.41

10.09
7.53
3.10
1.85
4.49
0.41

9.69
7.24
3.05
1.85
4.38
0.42

9.55
7.21
3.06
1.85
4.36
0.42

9.61
7.10
3.04
1.85
4.31
0.43

9.49
7.15
2.98
1.80
4.33
0.42

9.22
6.88
2.89
1.80
4.28
0.42

9.09
6.78
2.86
1.78
4.21
0.42

9.15
6.69
2.85
1.76
4.14
0.43

8.90
6.66
2.79
1.75
4.16
0.42

8.74
6.63
2.80
1.77
4.19
0.42

Mean Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������

11,076
28,148
47,060
71,133
135,278

10,781
27,734
46,410
69,914
132,332

10,672
27,046
44,893
67,528
126,139

10,689
26,624
44,120
66,429
122,148

10,342
25,980
42,954
64,457
118,343

10,223
25,868
42,820
63,683
116,800

10,414
25,942
42,975
64,061
114,432

10,682
26,585
43,870
64,631
115,236

11,031
27,436
45,234
66,381
119,130

11,119
27,306
45,087
66,047
117,917

10,753
26,467
43,781
64,148
114,393

3.8
9.6
16.1
24.3
46.2

3.8
9.7
16.2
24.3
46.1

3.9
9.8
16.2
24.4
45.6

4.0
9.9
16.3
24.6
45.2

4.0
9.9
16.4
24.6
45.1

4.0
10.0
16.5
24.5
45.0

4.1
10.1
16.7
24.8
44.3

4.2
10.2
16.8
24.7
44.1

4.1
10.2
16.8
24.6
44.2

4.2
10.2
16.8
24.7
44.1

4.2
10.2
16.9
24.7
44.0

0.426

0.425

0.419

0.415

0.414

0.412

0.406

0.403

0.404

0.402

0.402

0.414
0.311

0.416
0.310

0.403
0.300

0.391
0.290

0.397
0.288

0.401
0.287

0.387
0.277

0.375
0.274

0.369
0.279

0.363
0.275

0.364
0.276

0.077
0.155
0.238

0.077
0.155
0.237

0.075
0.151
0.231

0.073
0.147
0.225

0.072
0.147
0.226

0.072
0.146
0.226

0.070
0.141
0.220

0.069
0.140
0.216

0.070
0.141
0.216

0.069
0.139
0.213

0.069
0.139
0.213

88
125
222
299
417
681

89
126
241
334
514
601

86
124
243
272
463
1,142

84
113
201
289
368
673

86
115
194
261
456
621

86
115
194
289
393
739

129
117
226
231
380
695

127
122
226
272
430
666

126
131
215
230
414
713

126
132
184
294
340
693

121
129
164
227
467
600

Household Income Ratios of
  Selected Percentiles
90th/10th���������������������������������������������
95th/20th���������������������������������������������
95th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/20th ��������������������������������������������
20th/50th���������������������������������������������

0.088
0.060
0.020
0.010
0.033
0.003

0.093
0.059
0.018
0.011
0.034
0.003

0.085
0.077
0.028
0.010
0.032
0.003

0.079
0.056
0.020
0.010
0.030
0.003

0.088
0.056
0.019
0.010
0.031
0.003

0.084
0.062
0.021
0.010
0.032
0.003

0.114
0.059
0.020
0.009
0.030
0.003

0.110
0.057
0.019
0.010
0.031
0.003

0.108
0.059
0.020
0.009
0.031
0.003

0.102
0.059
0.020
0.010
0.033
0.003

0.102
0.056
0.018
0.009
0.032
0.003

Mean Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������

42
40
47
67
513

41
39
47
65
484

42
38
46
65
441

41
37
45
65
387

41
37
43
61
375

43
38
43
60
376

43
36
45
59
353

42
40
45
59
382

44
41
47
61
424

45
42
48
60
422

45
42
45
61
432

0.03
0.07
0.12
0.19
0.35

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.19
0.35

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.19
0.35

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.19
0.35

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.19
0.36

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.20
0.36

0.03
0.08
0.13
0.20
0.35

0.03
0.08
0.14
0.20
0.36

0.04
0.08
0.14
0.20
0.36

0.04
0.09
0.14
0.21
0.37

0.04
0.09
0.14
0.21
0.37

0.0038

0.0038

0.0037

0.0037

0.0037

0.0038

0.0038

0.0036

0.0038

0.0039

0.0039

0.0055
0.0001

0.0057
0.0001

0.0056
0.0001

0.0055
0.0001

0.0056
0.0001

0.0057
0.0001

0.0056
0.0001

0.0051
0.0001

0.0050
0.0001

0.0054
0.0001

0.0054
0.0001

0.0007
0.0013
0.0018

0.0007
0.0012
0.0018

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0006
0.0011
0.0016

0.0006
0.0011
0.0016

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0006
0.0010
0.0016

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0006
0.0011
0.0016

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

Shares of Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������
Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality�����������
Mean logarithmic deviation of
  income�����������������������������������������������
Theil�����������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25���������������������������������������������
  e=0.50���������������������������������������������
  e=0.75���������������������������������������������
STANDARD ERROR
Household Income at Selected
  Percentiles
10th percentile limit�����������������������������
20th percentile limit�����������������������������
50th (median) �������������������������������������
80th percentile limit�����������������������������
90th percentile limit�����������������������������
95th percentile limit�����������������������������

Shares of Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������
Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality�����������
Mean logarithmic deviation of
  income�����������������������������������������������
Theil�����������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25���������������������������������������������
  e=0.50���������������������������������������������
  e=0.75���������������������������������������������
  See footnotes at end of table.

42 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table A-2.

Selected Measures of Household Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con.
(Income in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The
Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Measures of income
dispersion

197613

197514

197414, 15

1973

197216

197117

1970

1969

1968

196718

MEASURE
Household Income at Selected
  Percentiles
10th percentile limit�����������������������������
20th percentile limit�����������������������������
50th (median) �������������������������������������
80th percentile limit�����������������������������
90th percentile limit�����������������������������
95th percentile limit�����������������������������

11,154
18,526
43,483
75,648
97,002
119,967

11,092
18,124
42,773
73,802
94,609
116,463

11,404
19,065
43,923
75,839
97,791
120,037

11,327
18,973
45,360
77,723
100,325
124,921

10,816
18,570
44,462
75,655
97,205
121,759

10,144
17,946
42,636
71,784
92,091
113,995

9,987
18,180
43,055
72,273
92,060
114,243

10,221
18,491
43,391
71,897
91,226
112,759

9,963
17,954
41,836
68,554
86,449
107,251

9,152
16,845
40,108
66,481
84,449
106,684

Household Income Ratios of
  Selected Percentiles
90th/10th���������������������������������������������
95th/20th���������������������������������������������
95th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/20th���������������������������������������������
20th/50th���������������������������������������������

8.70
6.48
2.76
1.74
4.08
0.43

8.53
6.43
2.72
1.73
4.07
0.42

8.58
6.30
2.73
1.73
3.98
0.43

8.86
6.58
2.75
1.71
4.10
0.42

8.99
6.56
2.74
1.70
4.07
0.42

9.08
6.35
2.67
1.68
4.00
0.42

9.22
6.28
2.65
1.68
3.98
0.42

8.93
6.10
2.60
1.66
3.89
0.43

8.68
5.97
2.56
1.64
3.82
0.43

9.23
6.33
2.66
1.66
3.95
0.42

Mean Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������

10,804
26,451
43,500
63,171
111,806

10,545
25,903
42,498
61,753
109,028

10,917
27,134
43,727
63,153
111,890

10,956
27,547
45,183
65,002
116,304

10,468
27,039
44,128
63,353
113,735

9,880
26,111
42,338
60,190
106,651

9,820
26,600
42,833
60,377
106,888

9,993
26,979
43,112
60,388
106,138

9,758
26,162
41,496
57,883
100,584

8,984
24,891
39,737
55,599
100,059

4.3
10.3
17.0
24.7
43.7

4.3
10.4
17.0
24.7
43.6

4.3
10.6
17.0
24.6
43.5

4.2
10.4
17.0
24.5
43.9

4.1
10.4
17.0
24.5
43.9

4.1
10.6
17.3
24.5
43.5

4.1
10.8
17.4
24.5
43.3

4.1
10.9
17.5
24.5
43.0

4.2
11.1
17.6
24.5
42.6

4.0
10.8
17.3
24.2
43.6

0.398

0.397

0.395

0.400

0.401

0.396

0.394

0.391

0.386

0.397

0.361
0.271

0.361
0.270

0.352
0.267

0.355
0.270

0.370
0.279

0.370
0.273

0.370
0.271

0.357
0.268

0.356
0.273

0.380
0.287

0.068
0.137
0.211

0.067
0.136
0.210

0.067
0.134
0.207

0.068
0.136
0.210

0.070
0.140
0.216

0.068
0.138
0.214

0.068
0.138
0.214

0.067
0.135
0.209

0.067
0.135
0.208

0.071
0.143
0.220

120
132
161
262
341
691

115
134
174
313
428
627

122
162
169
214
353
792

121
161
173
249
363
568

119
159
170
295
489
767

116
155
165
349
262
459

121
161
158
187
297
567

123
164
160
199
351
698

121
161
151
223
464
482

117
156
146
263
624
453

Household Income Ratios of
  Selected Percentiles
90th/10th���������������������������������������������
95th/20th���������������������������������������������
95th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/50th���������������������������������������������
80th/20th ��������������������������������������������
20th/50th���������������������������������������������

0.099
0.059
0.020
0.010
0.032
0.004

0.097
0.059
0.019
0.010
0.035
0.004

0.096
0.068
0.022
0.009
0.036
0.004

0.100
0.063
0.018
0.010
0.037
0.004

0.109
0.070
0.021
0.010
0.038
0.004

0.107
0.060
0.016
0.011
0.040
0.004

0.115
0.064
0.017
0.008
0.037
0.004

0.113
0.066
0.020
0.008
0.036
0.004

0.115
0.060
0.016
0.009
0.036
0.004

0.136
0.065
0.016
0.010
0.040
0.004

Mean Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������

45
41
45
58
428

43
40
43
58
431

47
43
43
59
435

47
47
47
60
470

46
46
46
60
495

47
43
43
57
468

49
44
44
59
483

47
47
41
57
491

49
43
43
54
459

45
45
39
51
500

0.04
0.09
0.15
0.21
0.37

0.04
0.09
0.15
0.21
0.38

0.04
0.09
0.15
0.21
0.38

0.04
0.09
0.15
0.22
0.39

0.04
0.09
0.15
0.22
0.39

0.04
0.10
0.16
0.22
0.39

0.04
0.10
0.16
0.23
0.40

0.04
0.10
0.16
0.23
0.40

0.04
0.11
0.17
0.23
0.40

0.04
0.10
0.17
0.23
0.41

0.0041

0.0056

0.0066

0.0040

0.0069

0.0063

0.0078

0.0066

0.0042

0.0044

0.0054
0.0001

0.0059
0.0001

0.0058
0.0001

0.0057
0.0001

0.0060
0.0001

0.0061
0.0001

0.0060
0.0001

0.0058
0.0001

0.0057
0.0001

0.0060
0.0001

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0007
0.0012
0.0018

0.0006
0.0011
0.0017

0.0007
0.0012
0.0017

0.0007
0.0013
0.0018

0.0007
0.0013
0.0019

0.0007
0.0013
0.0019

0.0008
0.0014
0.0020

0.0007
0.0012
0.0018

0.0008
0.0014
0.0020

Shares of Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������
Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality�����������
Mean logarithmic deviation of
  income�����������������������������������������������
Theil�����������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25���������������������������������������������
  e=0.50���������������������������������������������
  e=0.75���������������������������������������������
STANDARD ERROR
Household Income at Selected
  Percentiles
10th percentile limit�����������������������������
20th percentile limit�����������������������������
50th (median) �������������������������������������
80th percentile limit�����������������������������
90th percentile limit�����������������������������
95th percentile limit�����������������������������

Shares of Household Income of
  Quintiles
Lowest quintile�������������������������������������
Second quintile �����������������������������������
Third quintile ���������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�������������������������������������
Highest quintile �����������������������������������
Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality�����������
Mean logarithmic deviation of
  income�����������������������������������������������
Theil�����������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25���������������������������������������������
  e=0.50���������������������������������������������
  e=0.75���������������������������������������������
  See footnotes on next page.
U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 43

1
Medians are calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to
$250,000 or more. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.” Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was
used.
2
Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
3
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
4
Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.
5
Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household sample reduction, and revised editing of responses on race.
6
Introduction of 1990 census sample design.
7
Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts
on selected questionnaire items. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security limits increased to $49,999;
supplemental security income and public assistance limits increased to $24,999; veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99,999; child support and alimony limits decreased to $49,999.
8
Implementation of 1990 census population controls.
9
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
10
Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299,999. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design.
11
Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design.
12
Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to allow the recording of up to 27 possible values from a list of 51 possible sources of income.
13
First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Before this year, all medians were derived using linear interpolation.
14
Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data, which were derived using linear interpolation.
15
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions.
16
Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design.
17
Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls.
18
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

44 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 45
0.02
0.04
0.07
0.10
0.22

STANDARD ERRORS
Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted
  Income of Quintiles
Lowest quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Second quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������
Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������
Fourth quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

  See footnotes at end of table.

Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality��������������������������������������������
Mean logarithmic deviation of income����������������������������������
Theil��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

0.092
0.183
0.287

0.095
0.190
0.300

0.0017
0.0047
0.0001
0.0007
0.0012
0.0016

0.0017
0.0050
0.0001
0.0007
0.0012
0.0016

0.02
0.04
0.07
0.10
0.22

0.451
0.614
0.380

3.6
9.4
15.1
22.9
49.0

2008

0.458
0.665
0.394

3.4
9.2
15.0
22.9
49.4

2009

Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality��������������������������������������������
Mean logarithmic deviation of income����������������������������������
Theil��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

MEASURES
Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted
  Income of Quintiles
Lowest quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Second quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������
Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������
Fourth quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

Measures of income dispersion

0.0008
0.0012
0.0016

0.0017
0.0046
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.10
0.22

0.090
0.178
0.279

0.445
0.589
0.371

3.7
9.6
15.3
22.9
48.5

2007

0.0009
0.0014
0.0018

0.0018
0.0046
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.10
0.22

0.095
0.186
0.288

0.454
0.608
0.397

3.7
9.4
15.0
22.5
49.4

2006

0.0009
0.0013
0.0017

0.0018
0.0047
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.10
0.22

0.094
0.185
0.289

0.452
0.620
0.389

3.7
9.5
15.1
22.7
49.1

2005

0.0009
0.0014
0.0018

0.0018
0.0046
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.10
0.22

0.092
0.183
0.286

0.449
0.612
0.385

3.7
9.5
15.2
22.8
48.8

20041

0.0008
0.0012
0.0016

0.0018
0.0045
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.11
0.22

0.091
0.180
0.281

0.447
0.594
0.376

3.7
9.5
15.2
22.9
48.6

2003

0.0008
0.0013
0.0017

0.0018
0.0043
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.11
0.22

0.091
0.178
0.277

0.445
0.575
0.377

3.8
9.6
15.3
22.8
48.5

2002

0.0010
0.0015
0.0018

0.0019
0.0043
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.10
0.22

0.093
0.182
0.280

0.448
0.577
0.393

3.9
9.6
15.2
22.4
49.0

2001

0.0009
0.0014
0.0017

0.0019
0.0041
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.10
0.22

0.091
0.177
0.272

0.443
0.545
0.382

4.0
9.8
15.2
22.4
48.7

20002

(For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998.
For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009

Table A-3.

0.0009
0.0014
0.0019

0.0018
0.0052
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.11
0.22

0.089
0.175
0.270

0.443
0.542
0.371

3.9
9.7
15.3
22.7
48.5

19993

46 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.11
0.22

STANDARD ERRORS
Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted
  Income of Quintiles
Lowest quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Second quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������
Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������
Fourth quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

  See footnotes at end of table.

Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality��������������������������������������������
Mean logarithmic deviation of income����������������������������������
Theil��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

0.090
0.177
0.273

0.090
0.177
0.274

0.0019
0.0053
0.0001
0.0010
0.0016
0.0021

0.0019
0.0053
0.0001
0.0010
0.0016
0.0020

0.02
0.05
0.08
0.11
0.23

0.443
0.549
0.379

3.8
9.8
15.4
22.6
48.4

1997

0.442
0.556
0.377

3.8
9.8
15.4
22.7
48.2

1998

Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality��������������������������������������������
Mean logarithmic deviation of income����������������������������������
Theil��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

MEASURES
Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted
  Income of Quintiles
Lowest quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Second quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������
Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������
Fourth quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

Measures of income dispersion

0.0010
0.0016
0.0020

0.0019
0.0050
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.08
0.11
0.23

0.089
0.174
0.267

0.440
0.524
0.374

3.9
9.8
15.5
22.8
48.0

1996

0.0010
0.0015
0.0019

0.0019
0.0049
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.08
0.11
0.23

0.086
0.169
0.261

0.435
0.509
0.360

4.0
9.9
15.6
22.9
47.6

19954

0.0010
0.0015
0.0019

0.0019
0.0046
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.08
0.11
0.23

0.088
0.172
0.264

0.438
0.513
0.366

3.9
9.8
15.6
22.9
47.9

19945

0.0009
0.0015
0.0019

0.0019
0.0046
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.08
0.11
0.23

0.088
0.173
0.265

0.438
0.516
0.367

3.8
9.8
15.6
23.1
47.7

19936

0.0005
0.0008
0.0013

0.0018
0.0042
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.08
0.12
0.22

0.075
0.152
0.239

0.415
0.456
0.303

4.0
10.3
16.3
23.7
45.6

19927

0.0004
0.0008
0.0012

0.0018
0.0040
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.08
0.12
0.22

0.073
0.147
0.229

0.408
0.430
0.292

4.2
10.5
16.5
23.7
45.1

1991

0.0005
0.0009
0.0013

0.0018
0.0038
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.11
0.20

0.073
0.147
0.227

0.408
0.418
0.296

4.3
10.6
16.4
23.6
45.2

1990

0.0005
0.0009
0.0013

0.0019
0.0039
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.07
0.11
0.21

0.074
0.148
0.229

0.410
0.423
0.302

4.3
10.5
16.3
23.4
45.5

1989

(For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998.
For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-3.

0.0006
0.0010
0.0014

0.0018
0.0039
0.0001

0.02
0.05
0.08
0.11
0.20

0.071
0.143
0.223

0.404
0.406
0.288

4.3
10.6
16.5
23.8
44.8

1988

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 47
0.03
0.06
0.09
0.13
0.23

STANDARD ERRORS
Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted
  Income of Quintiles
Lowest quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Second quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������
Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������
Fourth quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

  See footnotes at end of table.

Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality��������������������������������������������
Mean logarithmic deviation of income����������������������������������
Theil��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

0.073
0.149
0.237

0.070
0.142
0.221

0.0018
0.0044
0.0001
0.0004
0.0008
0.0013

0.0018
0.0038
0.0001
0.0005
0.0008
0.0012

0.03
0.06
0.09
0.13
0.23

0.407
0.465
0.293

4.0
10.6
16.6
24.0
44.8

1986

0.400
0.404
0.283

4.3
10.7
16.7
23.8
44.4

19878

Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality��������������������������������������������
Mean logarithmic deviation of income����������������������������������
Theil��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.50������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.75������������������������������������������������������������������������������

MEASURES
Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted
  Incomes of Quintiles
Lowest quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Second quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������
Third quintile ������������������������������������������������������������������������
Fourth quintile����������������������������������������������������������������������
Highest quintile ��������������������������������������������������������������������

Measures of income dispersion

0.0004
0.0008
0.0012

0.0018
0.0042
0.0001

0.03
0.06
0.09
0.13
0.23

0.072
0.147
0.233

0.404
0.453
0.286

4.1
10.7
16.6
23.9
44.7

19859

0.0004
0.0007
0.0012

0.0018
0.0042
0.0001

0.03
0.06
0.09
0.13
0.23

0.070
0.144
0.230

0.400
0.451
0.277

4.2
10.8
16.8
24.2
44.1

1984

0.0004
0.0007
0.0012

0.0018
0.0043
0.0001

0.03
0.06
0.09
0.13
0.23

0.070
0.145
0.233

0.401
0.462
0.278

4.1
10.7
16.9
24.2
44.2

198310

0.0004
0.0007
0.0012

0.0018
0.0044
0.0001

0.03
0.06
0.09
0.13
0.23

0.069
0.143
0.231

0.396
0.465
0.273

4.2
10.9
17.0
24.2
43.8

1982

0.0004
0.0007
0.0012

0.0018
0.0042
0.0001

0.03
0.06
0.10
0.13
0.23

0.065
0.134
0.216

0.384
0.429
0.256

4.6
11.2
17.2
24.2
42.9

1981

0.0003
0.0007
0.0011

0.0019
0.0036
0.0001

0.03
0.07
0.10
0.13
0.23

0.061
0.125
0.200

0.374
0.377
0.243

4.9
11.5
17.3
24.1
42.3

1980

0.0004
0.0007
0.0011

0.0021
0.0034
0.0001

0.03
0.07
0.10
0.13
0.23

0.061
0.123
0.195

0.371
0.360
0.242

5.0
11.6
17.3
23.9
42.2

197911

0.0004
0.0007
0.0011

0.0022
0.0036
0.0001

0.03
0.07
0.10
0.13
0.23

0.060
0.121
0.192

0.369
0.352
0.239

5.2
11.7
17.2
23.8
42.1

1978

(For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998.
For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-3.

0.0004
0.0007
0.0011

0.0022
0.0036
0.0001

0.03
0.07
0.10
0.13
0.23

0.060
0.122
0.192

0.369
0.353
0.240

5.2
11.6
17.3
23.9
42.1

1977

48 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

0.03
0.07
0.10
0.14
0.23

STANDARD ERRORS
Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted
  Income of Quintiles
Lowest quintile�����������������������������������������������������������������������
Second quintile ���������������������������������������������������������������������
Third quintile �������������������������������������������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�����������������������������������������������������������������������
Highest quintile ���������������������������������������������������������������������

  See footnotes on next page.

Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality���������������������������������������������
Mean logarithmic deviation of income�����������������������������������
Theil���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25�������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.50�������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.75�������������������������������������������������������������������������������

0.059
0.121
0.191

0.059
0.120
0.190

0.0018
0.0039
0.0001
0.0004
0.0007
0.0011

0.0018
0.0036
0.0001
0.0004
0.0007
0.0011

0.03
0.07
0.10
0.14
0.23

0.367
0.352
0.238

5.3
11.7
17.3
23.8
42.0

197513

0.365
0.352
0.235

5.3
11.7
17.4
23.9
41.8

197612

Summary Measures
Gini index of income inequality���������������������������������������������
Mean logarithmic deviation of income�����������������������������������
Theil���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������
Atkinson:
  e=0.25�������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.50�������������������������������������������������������������������������������
  e=0.75�������������������������������������������������������������������������������

MEASURES
Shares of Equivalence-Adjusted
  Incomes of Quintiles
Lowest quintile�����������������������������������������������������������������������
Second quintile ���������������������������������������������������������������������
Third quintile �������������������������������������������������������������������������
Fourth quintile�����������������������������������������������������������������������
Highest quintile ���������������������������������������������������������������������

Measures of income dispersion

0.0004
0.0007
0.0011

0.0018
0.0037
0.0001

0.04
0.07
0.10
0.14
0.23

0.058
0.117
0.185

0.361
0.337
0.231

5.4
11.9
17.4
23.8
41.6

197413, 14

0.0004
0.0007
0.0011

0.0018
0.0036
0.0001

0.04
0.07
0.10
0.14
0.24

0.059
0.120
0.189

0.367
0.339
0.239

5.3
11.8
17.2
23.6
42.0

1973

0.0004
0.0008
0.0012

0.0018
0.0039
0.0001

0.03
0.07
0.10
0.14
0.24

0.061
0.124
0.196

0.370
0.360
0.245

5.2
11.7
17.2
23.6
42.3

197215

0.0004
0.0008
0.0012

0.0018
0.0039
0.0001

0.04
0.07
0.10
0.14
0.24

0.060
0.122
0.194

0.367
0.362
0.242

5.2
11.8
17.2
23.6
42.1

197116

0.0004
0.0008
0.0012

0.0018
0.0038
0.0001

0.04
0.07
0.10
0.14
0.24

0.060
0.122
0.193

0.365
0.358
0.240

5.3
11.9
17.3
23.6
41.9

1970

0.0005
0.0008
0.0012

0.0018
0.0036
0.0001

0.04
0.07
0.10
0.14
0.24

0.058
0.118
0.187

0.361
0.339
0.236

5.4
12.0
17.4
23.6
41.6

1969

0.0004
0.0007
0.0011

0.0018
0.0035
0.0001

0.04
0.07
0.10
0.14
0.24

0.058
0.117
0.185

0.359
0.338
0.231

5.4
12.1
17.4
23.5
41.5

1968

(For further explanation of income inequality measures, see Current Population Reports, Series P60-204, The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution: 1947–1998.
For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

Selected Measures of Equivalence-Adjusted Income Dispersion: 1967 to 2009—Con.

Table A-3.

0.0005
0.0008
0.0012

0.0018
0.0036
0.0001

0.04
0.07
0.10
0.14
0.25

0.062
0.124
0.196

0.370
0.357
0.249

5.2
11.9
17.1
23.3
42.5

196717

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 49

Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
3
Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.
4
Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household sample reduction, and revised editing of responses on race.
5
Introduction of 1990 census sample design.
6
Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected
questionnaire items. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security limits increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and public
assistance limits increased to $24,999; veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99,999; child support and alimony limits decreased to $49,999.
7
Implementation of 1990 census population controls.
8
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
9
Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299,999. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design.
10
Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design.
11
Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to allow the recording of up to 27 possible values from a list of 51 possible sources of income.
12
First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Before this year, all medians were derived using linear interpolation.
13
Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data, which were derived using linear interpolation.
14
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions.
15
Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design.
16
Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls.
17
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1968 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

2

1

Table A-4.

Number and Real Median Earnings of Total Workers and Full-Time, Year-Round Workers by Sex
and Female-to-Male Earnings Ratio: 1960 to 2009
(People 15 years old and older beginning in 1980 and people 14 years old and older as of the following year for previous years. Before 1989 earnings are for civilian workers
only. Earnings in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Total workers
Male
Year

Number of
workers
(thousands)
With
earnings
Total

Full-time, year-round workers
Female

Median
earnings
(dollars)
Standard
Value error

Number of
workers
(thousands)
With
earnings
Total

Male

Median
earnings
(dollars)
Standard
Value error

Number of
workers
(thousands)
With
earnings
Total

Female
Median
earnings
(dollars)
Standard
Value error

Number of
workers
(thousands)
With
earnings
Total

Median
Femaleearnings
to(dollars)
male
Stanearndard
ings
error
Value
ratio

20091����������������������
2008�����������������������
2007�����������������������
2006�����������������������
2005�����������������������
20042����������������������
2003�����������������������
2002�����������������������
2001�����������������������
20003����������������������

81,979
84,088
84,532
83,980
82,987
81,503
80,554
80,548
80,300
80,572

81,934
84,039
84,482
83,928
82,934
81,448
80,508
80,500
80,209
80,494

36,331
36,429
37,898
38,169
37,740
36,886
37,375
37,732
37,999
38,551

118
107
110
114
309
183
92
98
96
97

73,063
74,600
74,382
73,761
72,544
72,016
71,446
71,500
71,308
71,758

72,972
74,538
74,295
73,683
72,476
71,930
71,372
71,411
71,232
71,657

26,030
25,553
26,770
26,028
25,352
25,273
25,662
25,549
25,262
25,244

93
97
94
163
157
90
94
89
96
96

56,072
59,875
63,000
63,070
61,515
60,103
58,784
58,774
58,728
59,619

56,053
59,861
62,984
63,055
61,500
60,088
58,772
58,761
58,712
59,602

47,127
46,191
46,669
44,959
45,471
46,326
47,428
47,010
46,372
46,399

147
144
155
94
99
102
105
291
313
126

43,253
44,163
45,640
44,682
43,369
42,414
41,922
41,900
41,651
41,744

43,217
44,156
45,613
44,663
43,351
42,380
41,908
41,876
41,639
41,719

36,278
35,609
36,312
34,590
35,003
35,474
35,831
36,010
35,395
34,205

105
106
106
197
89
90
97
95
200
127

0.770
0.771
0.778
0.769
0.770
0.766
0.755
0.766
0.763
0.737

19994����������������������
1998�����������������������
1997�����������������������
1996�����������������������
19955����������������������
19946����������������������
19937����������������������
19928����������������������
1991�����������������������
1990�����������������������

79,360
77,323
76,731
76,165
74,681
74,326
73,287
73,142
72,064
72,380

79,322
77,295
76,694
76,121
74,619
74,264
73,198
73,120
72,040
72,348

38,720
37,788
35,768
35,101
34,963
33,856
32,805
32,808
33,569
34,240

187
306
163
167
221
265
191
172
169
162

71,153
68,950
67,851
66,744
65,657
64,803
63,808
62,535
61,959
61,946

71,053
68,846
67,736
66,661
65,557
64,706
63,660
62,408
61,796
61,732

23,738
23,281
22,274
21,819
21,413
20,499
20,312
20,262
19,788
19,489

209
212
144
148
143
187
199
201
192
127

58,318
56,957
54,933
53,801
52,675
51,597
49,838
48,554
47,987
49,181

58,299
56,951
54,909
53,787
52,667
51,580
49,818
48,551
47,888
49,171

46,846
46,448
44,870
43,757
44,016
44,157
44,446
45,231
45,186
44,033

175
175
428
157
161
177
171
171
339
329

40,890
38,819
37,715
36,457
35,502
34,182
33,552
33,296
32,491
31,758

40,871
38,785
37,683
36,430
35,482
34,155
33,524
33,241
32,436
31,682

33,876
33,986
33,276
32,276
31,440
31,779
31,788
32,017
31,566
31,535

145
155
207
226
191
157
140
153
151
202

0.723
0.732
0.742
0.738
0.714
0.720
0.715
0.708
0.699
0.716

1989�����������������������
1988�����������������������
19879����������������������
1986�����������������������
198510 ��������������������
198411 ��������������������
1983�����������������������
1982�����������������������
1981�����������������������
1980�����������������������

72,093
70,496
69,624
68,783
67,852
66,513
65,216
64,827
65,362
64,861

72,045
70,467
69,545
68,728
67,809
66,454
65,138
64,730
65,233
64,730

35,702
35,911
35,795
35,070
33,798
33,478
32,896
32,808
34,082
34,724

174
197
262
260
257
187
180
186
195
240

61,586
60,873
59,557
57,932
56,592
55,596
53,413
52,299
52,504
51,988

61,338
60,658
59,356
57,686
56,296
55,226
53,108
51,820
51,940
51,448

19,601
19,332
19,182
18,702
17,733
17,058
16,845
16,403
16,343
16,417

130
138
126
155
179
165
123
120
118
134

49,698
48,303
47,048
45,912
44,952
43,836
41,548
40,135
41,811
41,923

49,678
48,285
47,013
45,912
44,943
43,808
41,528
40,105
41,773
41,881

45,648
46,442
46,863
47,159
45,995
45,653
44,786
44,981
45,847
46,127

187
204
195
202
268
234
205
190
161
233

31,428
31,334
29,982
28,493
27,470
26,587
25,288
23,845
23,488
23,025

31,340
31,237
29,912
28,420
27,383
26,466
25,166
23,702
23,329
22,859

31,348
30,674
30,545
30,309
29,702
29,062
28,481
27,774
27,157
27,750

210
220
143
159
156
171
174
188
113
121

0.687
0.660
0.652
0.643
0.646
0.637
0.636
0.617
0.592
0.602

197912 ��������������������
1978�����������������������
1977�����������������������
197613 ��������������������
197514 ��������������������
197414, 15������������������
1973�����������������������
197216 ��������������������
197117 ��������������������
1970�����������������������

63,539
63,101
61,959
60,703
59,509
60,102
59,816
58,194
57,303
56,265

63,422
62,903
61,704
60,450
59,268
59,752
59,438
57,774
56,886
55,821

35,889
36,608
35,585
35,308
35,067
35,556
37,463
36,640
34,891
35,256

240
178
184
161
188
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

50,398
49,214
47,333
45,659
43,725
43,694
42,835
40,723
39,910
39,682

49,839
48,398
46,194
44,565
42,926
42,650
41,583
39,470
38,485
38,273

16,499
15,838
15,070
14,725
14,329
14,244
14,102
14,590
14,102
13,458

140
145
132
137
152
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

42,469
41,078
39,325
38,214
37,316
(NA)
39,643
38,234
36,868
36,193

42,437
41,036
39,263
38,184
37,267
37,916
39,581
38,184
36,819
36,132

46,848
47,461
47,156
46,119
46,246
46,536
48,268
46,778
44,388
44,199

184
163
222
182
181
200
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

22,248
21,131
19,544
18,372
17,738
(NA)
17,547
16,976
16,353
15,805

22,082
20,914
19,238
18,073
17,452
16,945
17,195
16,675
16,002
15,476

27,951
28,211
27,786
27,760
27,201
27,342
27,336
27,066
26,414
26,240

143
157
126
137
138
133
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

0.597
0.594
0.589
0.602
0.588
0.588
0.566
0.579
0.595
0.594

1969�����������������������
1968�����������������������
196718 ��������������������
196619 ��������������������
196520 ��������������������
1964�����������������������
1963�����������������������
196221 ��������������������
196122 ��������������������
1960�����������������������

55,700
55,095
54,412
53,016
(NA)
51,978
51,039
50,639
49,854
50,033

55,273
54,026
53,222
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

35,684
34,807
33,802
34,181
32,179
31,869
33,902
30,531
29,592
28,521

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

39,060
38,279
36,971
35,295
(NA)
33,146
32,188
31,418
30,433
30,585

37,737
35,695
34,391
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

13,262
13,573
13,201
13,689
13,809
12,939
12,459
12,190
11,740
11,592

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

37,055
37,099
36,695
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

37,008
37,068
36,645
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

43,733
41,409
40,327
39,699
38,038
37,504
36,648
35,750
35,108
34,023

(NA) 15,678
(NA) 15,336
(NA) 15,141
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

15,374
15,013
14,846
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

25,743
24,082
23,302
22,849
22,794
22,183
21,603
21,199
20,801
20,643

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

0.589
0.582
0.578
0.576
0.599
0.591
0.589
0.593
0.592
0.607

(NA) Not available.
1
Medians are calculated using $2,500 income intervals.  Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more.
Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are plugged with “$250,000.”  Before 2009, the upper open-ended interval was $100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was used.
2
The 2004 data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
3
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
4
Implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.
5
Full implementation of 1990 census-based sample design and metropolitan definitions, 7,000 household sample reduction, and revised editing of responses on race.
6
Introduction of 1990 census sample design.
7
Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing. In addition, the 1994 ASEC was revised to allow for the coding of different income amounts on selected
questionnaire items. Limits either increased or decreased in the following categories: earnings limits increased to $999,999; social security limits increased to $49,999; supplemental security income and
public assistance limits increased to $24,999; veterans’ benefits limits increased to $99,999; child support and alimony limits decreased to $49,999.
8
Implementation of 1990 census population controls.
9
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
10
Recording of amounts for earnings from longest job increased to $299,999. Full implementation of 1980 census-based sample design.
11
Implementation of Hispanic population weighting controls and introduction of 1980 census-based sample design.
12
Implementation of 1980 census population controls. Questionnaire expanded to allow the recording of up to 27 possible values from a list of 51 possible sources of income.
13
First year medians were derived using both Pareto and linear interpolation. Before this year, all medians were derived using linear interpolation.
14
Some of these estimates were derived using Pareto interpolation and may differ from published data, which were derived using linear interpolation.
15
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system. Questionnaire expanded to ask 11 income questions.
16
Full implementation of 1970 census-based sample design.
17
Introduction of 1970 census sample design and population controls.
18
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
19
Questionnaire expanded to ask eight income questions.
20
Implementation of new procedures to impute missing data only.
21
Full implementation of 1960 census-based sample design and population controls.
22
Introduction of 1960 census-based sample design. Implementation of first hotdeck procedure to impute missing income entries.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1961 through 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

50 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 51
71,657
3,207
5,311
21,810
11,849
5,990
23,490

83,928
80,214
12,271
37,823
30,120
3,714

2006

72,216
3,013
4,872
21,701
12,414
6,294
23,921

84,482
80,546
12,266
37,389
30,891
3,936

2007

72,297
2,989
4,826
21,712
12,445
6,325
23,999

84,039
79,860
11,743
37,195
30,923
4,179

2008

70,995
2,779
4,524
21,761
11,736
6,197
23,997

81,934
77,753
10,939
36,028
30,786
4,181

20092

43,380
22,215
26,314
36,349
43,708
47,758
67,656

37,732
38,049
11,762
41,702
48,984
23,460

Estimate

  See footnotes at end of table.

84,482
63,517
10,366
10,574
25

84,039
63,635
10,168
10,230
6

81,934
61,185
10,586
10,148
15

37,732
36,348
47,745
39,416
(X)

43,487
21,820
25,886
36,633
43,019
47,179
66,619

37,375
37,668
12,145
41,110
49,408
24,104

Estimate

98
116
374
1,281
(X)

37,375
35,885
48,645
42,332
(X)

64,672
60,270
19,815
38,328
30,019
18,876
31,376
39,535
35,395
29,412
41,032

42,758
22,789
25,270
35,910
43,386
46,414
66,160

36,886
37,926
11,931
41,017
47,964
23,379

Estimate

92
106
245
402
(X)

36,886
35,510
48,210
39,149
(X)

65,319
58,163
19,780
40,038
30,125
18,916
30,806
39,901
34,941
30,243
42,469

43,292
22,570
26,580
35,252
43,014
46,566
66,464

37,740
38,553
11,969
39,869
49,452
23,752

Estimate

183
108
417
1,574
(X)

1,133
248
221
369
338
554
259
445
213
328
1,929

37,740
34,966
46,863
40,663
(X)

67,054
57,983
21,028
38,280
29,042
15,965
30,043
39,593
34,332
29,352
41,012

43,444
22,424
25,630
35,185
42,764
45,172
65,434

38,169
38,503
12,136
39,838
49,418
25,511

Estimate

309
105
530
379
(X)

322
754
327
647
319
767
256
327
242
260
858

38,169
34,924
48,065
43,351
(X)

65,119
59,746
21,944
39,143
28,534
17,709
31,902
39,369
33,502
28,429
41,556

309 38,169

287
230
471
134
671
492
230

309
127
167
136
444
635

Standard
error

Standard
error

42,971
21,377
25,939
35,971
41,467
46,758
65,455

37,898
38,163
12,244
41,078
48,594
28,401

Estimate

114
315
438
269
(X)

281
363
201
352
446
571
370
357
197
272
1,281

41,241
20,889
23,741
33,807
40,104
44,906
65,702

36,429
36,729
11,044
39,409
46,792
25,273

Estimate

2008

37,898
35,734
48,389
42,644
(X)

110
346
313
283
(X)

36,429
34,960
46,881
37,648
(X)

67,262 1,036 65,030
58,666
359 59,895
21,612
157 20,267
38,606
497 36,520
30,682
503 27,890
17,042
437 19,346
31,251
174 30,663
38,127
324 37,633
33,544
344 31,957
29,352
576 27,497
43,219
683 45,213

110 36,429

95
240
349
362
290
489
988

110
111
163
331
216
953

Standard
error

2007

114 37,898

94
190
479
444
205
811
203

114
115
140
217
239
1,078

2006

Median earnings
(in 2009 dollars)
2005

183 37,740

261
299
224
129
588
296
979

183
318
160
142
167
528

Standard
error

20041

92 36,886

129
383
265
135
260
295
380

92
92
152
161
181
490

Standard
error

539
267
194
834
360
632
246
1,169
202
334
2,078

2003

98 37,375

122
336
234
141
238
563
395

98
99
210
256
186
792

Standard
error

80,500 80,508 81,448 82,934 83,928
60,977 60,658 60,974 62,321 63,345
9,745 9,928 10,098 10,093 9,968
9,770 9,915 10,368 10,512 10,599
8
8
8
8
16

70,630
3,277
4,944
21,717
11,913
6,088
22,691

82,934
79,386
12,304
37,664
29,417
3,549

2005

Class of Worker of Longest Job
   Total ������������������������������������������������������
Private wage and salary ������������������������������
Government wage and salary����������������������
Self-employed����������������������������������������������
Unpaid family������������������������������������������������

69,320
3,251
4,871
21,551
11,674
5,869
22,105

81,448
77,944
12,128
37,441
28,375
3,504

20041

12,101 11,903 11,639 12,422 12,431 12,621 10,159 12,737 63,243 1,068
12,493 12,763 12,971 12,959 13,670 13,680 13,651 13,890 60,766
259
10,936 11,065 11,278 11,520 11,351 11,801 11,753 11,915 19,973
212
8,972 8,865 8,847 8,832 9,151 8,983 8,847 8,397 40,109
818
5,197 5,286 5,236 5,309 5,289 5,261 5,167 5,222 30,719
380
931
979
989
958
905 1,013
950
962 19,345
547
8,916 8,798 9,461 9,999 10,385 9,816 9,314 8,784 31,839
240
5,068 5,069 5,215 5,239 5,119 5,213 5,370 5,180 38,621
420
7,357 7,171 7,215 6,973 7,074 6,953 6,744 6,319 33,557
517
7,857 7,892 7,927 8,048 7,967 8,450 8,539 7,741 28,971
500
671
718
671
676
586
692
752
789 42,006 1,022

68,227
3,091
4,802
20,680
11,846
5,721
22,088

80,508
77,192
12,281
37,356
27,555
3,316

2003

80,500 80,508 81,448 82,934 83,928 84,482 84,039 81,934 37,732

68,153
3,074
5,159
20,558
12,188
5,405
21,770

80,500
77,315
12,347
37,851
27,118
3,184

2002

2002

Occupation of Longest Job
   Total, 15 years and older ����������������������
Management, business, and financial
  operations ��������������������������������������������������
Professional and related������������������������������
Service ��������������������������������������������������������
Sales and related������������������������������������������
Office and administrative support ���������������� 
Farming, fishing, and forestry ����������������������
Construction and extraction��������������������������
Installation, maintenance, and repair������������
Production����������������������������������������������������
Transportation and material-moving ������������ 
Armed Forces ����������������������������������������������

Educational Attainment
   Total, 25 years and older ����������������������
Less than 9th grade��������������������������������������
9th to 12th, nongraduate������������������������������
High school graduate (including GED) ��������
Some college, no degree������������������������������
Associate’s degree ��������������������������������������
Bachelor’s degree or more ��������������������������

Age
   Total, 15 years and older ����������������������
Under 65 years ��������������������������������������������
  15 to 24 years ������������������������������������������
  25 to 44 years ������������������������������������������
  45 to 64 years ������������������������������������������
65 years and older����������������������������������������

TOTAL WORK EXPERIENCE
Males

Characteristic

Number with earnings
(thousands)

41,089
19,386
22,222
32,272
40,387
44,757
62,394

36,331
36,576
10,414
37,936
46,815
27,937

Estimate

107
141
327
811
(X)

647
439
170
346
575
752
176
691
201
422
1,391

36,331
34,353
47,409
36,081
(X)

61,495
57,496
20,564
36,017
29,009
17,044
27,577
38,445
31,381
27,128
42,355

107 36,331

95
195
397
418
199
624
345

107
107
146
380
234
906

Standard
error

118
335
416
378
(X)

262
719
180
432
754
606
559
801
212
275
1,957

118

99
399
247
126
205
760
425

118
119
158
340
239
1,123

Standard
error

20092

(Earnings in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf. Comparable data for occupation categories not available
prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions)

Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience, Sex, and Selected Characteristics: 2002
to 2009

Table A-5.

52 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

2005

63,303
1,449
2,982
17,423
11,866
7,265
22,318

74,295
70,995
10,991
31,913
28,091
3,300

2007

63,598
1,578
2,972
17,382
11,524
7,569
22,574

74,538
71,105
10,939
31,487
28,678
3,432

2008

62,747
1,493
2,787
16,784
11,220
7,630
22,832

72,972
69,515
10,225
30,620
28,670
3,457

20092

29,663
14,566
17,052
24,148
27,990
31,564
44,482

25,549
25,859
8,688
28,977
31,403
13,451

Estimate

89
97
413
422
(X)

Class of Worker of Longest Job
Total �������������������������������������������������������� 71,411 71,372 71,930 72,476 73,683 74,295 74,538 72,972 25,549
Private wage and salary ������������������������������ 53,941 53,885 54,095 54,783 55,432 55,710 55,976 54,305 24,617
Government wage and salary���������������������� 12,528 12,333 12,581 12,453 12,899 13,292 13,268 13,438 35,547
Self-employed����������������������������������������������
4,928 5,145 5,247 5,227 5,328 5,287 5,288 5,220 19,390
Unpaid family������������������������������������������������
14
10
8
13
24
6
6
8
(X)

  See footnotes at end of table.

29,738
15,135
15,972
24,210
28,011
31,339
44,129

25,662
25,991
8,454
29,288
31,432
13,896

Estimate

29,346
14,251
15,865
23,792
27,982
31,107
44,781

25,273
25,746
8,441
29,099
30,974
13,410

Estimate

25,662
24,639
35,443
18,996
(X)

94
101
211
435
(X)

25,273
24,240
34,997
20,583
(X)

44,622
580 45,201
37,680
177 39,316
13,465
113 13,634
16,274
379 16,322
27,642
224 26,768
9,331
682 10,138
18,722 2,202 21,809
39,032 2,013 35,277
21,653
421 22,187
17,856
439 17,429
36,673 1,204
(X)

29,123
13,769
16,561
23,201
27,671
32,423
44,479

25,352
25,939
8,738
28,880
30,997
13,910

Estimate

90
100
202
1,030
(X)

430
484
116
396
192
1,059
1,861
798
456
520
(X)

25,352
24,084
34,759
18,748
(X)

45,579
39,026
13,907
17,248
26,890
11,332
23,189
36,268
21,290
17,722
34,004

29,082
15,378
16,130
22,988
27,946
30,948
44,422

26,028
26,628
8,776
28,699
32,060
16,015

Estimate

157
96
190
333
(X)

244
207
187
249
213
1,019
1,603
2,034
374
375
1,950

26,028
23,981
35,041
21,804
(X)

48,437
38,447
14,270
17,127
27,255
12,004
20,427
40,083
21,653
17,540
(X)

157 26,028

103
326
286
127
182
502
158

157
159
172
140
326
488

Standard
error

30,554
14,973
15,903
23,128
28,110
31,604
43,830

26,770
27,134
9,269
29,814
32,181
16,256

Estimate

163
146
471
283
(X)

329
204
202
228
135
544
1,435
2,178
215
398
(X)

29,162
13,536
14,651
22,213
26,343
30,748
44,198

25,553
25,931
8,760
28,773
30,701
14,758

Estimate

26,770
25,450
35,980
21,514
(X)

94
176
369
253
(X)

25,553
24,228
35,421
20,007
(X)

46,959
292 45,914
39,569
467 38,889
15,392
206 14,268
17,343
208 16,098
27,242
127 26,170
11,130 1,557 10,211
25,271 1,808 18,832
37,424 1,619 29,385
21,811
282 20,966
18,958
656 17,729
(X)
(X)
(X)

29,867
13,957
15,675
22,468
26,833
30,598
44,490

26,030
26,290
8,950
29,046
31,164
17,379

Estimate

97
161
213
530
(X)

26,030
24,722
35,581
20,166
(X)

45,597
39,890
14,298
16,328
27,307
10,599
20,285
34,103
20,900
17,018
33,277

93
178
215
456
(X)

334
318
193
220
136
867
1,818
1,461
207
319
3,116

93

176
371
219
165
202
213
512

93
94
173
271
135
604

Standard
error

20092

97 26,030

191
420
352
126
175
204
528

97
98
170
274
127
477

Standard
error

327
446
197
198
140
994
2,018
2,174
293
491
(X)

2008

94 25,553

194
439
233
120
176
201
160

94
95
189
266
128
453

Standard
error

2007

163 26,770

96
467
260
112
170
496
157

163
121
194
134
136
430

Standard
error

2006

Median earnings
(in 2009 dollars)
2005

90 25,352

100
388
361
128
308
328
438

90
162
123
131
156
301

Standard
error

20041

94 25,273

104
487
365
149
322
253
409

94
96
122
146
156
332

Standard
error

2003

89 25,662

169
281
362
131
317
260
204

89
91
131
230
157
384

Standard
error

296
172
123
408
138
737
2,236
1,664
418
461
(X)

71,411 71,372 71,930 72,476 73,683 74,295 74,538 72,972 25,549

62,412
1,596
3,219
17,751
11,557
7,071
21,219

73,683
70,646
11,272
31,812
27,563
3,037

2006

2002

9,053 9,033 9,006 9,126 9,654 9,793 9,951 9,380 43,949
16,556 17,071 17,129 17,234 17,796 18,393 18,868 19,051 37,904
14,665 14,510 14,944 15,374 15,500 15,482 16,178 16,128 14,168
9,113 8,792 9,182 9,315 9,295 9,245 9,028 9,039 16,769
16,269 16,252 15,980 15,839 15,737 15,951 15,344 14,603 26,627
307
321
315
281
270
262
275
349 11,873
243
249
319
279
274
270
236
249 21,722
256
246
233
230
208
244
222
202 36,031
3,426 3,261 3,272 3,256 3,304 3,136 2,762 2,424 22,668
1,454 1,545 1,483 1,448 1,583 1,454 1,600 1,447 19,010
68
92
67
92
62
64
74
98
(X)

Occupation of Longest Job
Total, 15 years and older ������������������������
Management, business, and financial
  operations ��������������������������������������������������
Professional and related������������������������������
Service ��������������������������������������������������������
Sales and related������������������������������������������
Office and administrative support ���������������� 
Farming, fishing, and forestry ����������������������
Construction and extraction��������������������������
Installation, maintenance, and repair������������
Production����������������������������������������������������
Transportation and material-moving ������������ 
Armed Forces ����������������������������������������������

61,285
1,593
3,186
17,537
11,738
7,066
20,165

20041

Educational Attainment
Total, 25 years and older ������������������������ 60,002 60,088 60,554
Less than 9th grade��������������������������������������
1,628 1,551 1,623
9th to 12th, nongraduate������������������������������
3,316 3,233 3,200
High school graduate (including GED) �������� 18,457 17,990 17,646
Some college, no degree������������������������������ 11,311 11,441 11,425
Associate’s degree ��������������������������������������
6,529 6,706 6,952
Bachelor’s degree or more �������������������������� 18,760 19,167 19,709

71,372
68,614
11,284
32,015
25,314
2,758

2003

72,476
69,707
11,191
31,640
26,876
2,768

71,411
68,915
11,409
32,685
24,821
2,496

2002

71,930
69,077
11,376
31,782
25,918
2,853

Age
Total, 15 years and older ������������������������
Under 65 years ��������������������������������������������
  15 to 24 years ������������������������������������������
  25 to 44 years ������������������������������������������
  45 to 64 years ������������������������������������������
65 years and older����������������������������������������

TOTAL WORK EXPERIENCE—Con.
Females

Characteristic

Number with earnings
(thousands)

(Earnings in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf. Comparable data for occupation categories not available
prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions)

Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience, Sex, and Selected Characteristics: 2002
to 2009—Con.

Table A-5.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 53

58,772
57,275
4,528
30,186
22,560
1,498

2003

60,088
58,550
4,637
30,644
23,270
1,538

20041

61,500
59,867
4,795
30,894
24,179
1,632

2005

63,055
61,225
4,946
31,315
24,963
1,830

2006

62,984
60,976
4,837
30,657
25,482
2,008

2007

59,861
57,840
4,206
29,001
24,633
2,021

2008

56,053
53,989
3,609
26,651
23,729
2,064

20092

47,010
47,074
25,215
45,667
55,083
44,070

Estimate

58,761 58,772 60,088 61,500 63,055 62,984 59,861 56,053 47,010
43,544 43,406 44,313 45,720 47,089 46,795 44,662 41,007 44,654
7,810 8,068 8,119 8,074 8,087 8,472 8,105 8,297 51,598
7,405 7,294 7,653 7,703 7,868 7,696 7,092 6,742 48,774
2
5
3
3
11
21
2
7
(X)

Class of Worker of Longest Job
Total ��������������������������������������������������������
Private wage and salary ������������������������������
Government wage and salary����������������������
Self-employed����������������������������������������������
Unpaid family������������������������������������������������

  See footnotes at end of table.

10,402 10,253 10,078 10,736 10,826 11,023 11,097 10,633 71,198
9,848 10,023 10,070 10,112 10,952 10,833 10,609 10,574 67,290
6,303 6,490 6,695 7,021 7,041 7,270 6,740 6,660 31,124
6,591 6,493 6,601 6,526 6,833 6,668 6,279 5,792 49,452
3,564 3,529 3,525 3,613 3,666 3,710 3,456 3,479 38,471
500
503
562
494
506
556
508
442 26,786
5,972 5,792 6,407 6,958 7,231 6,517 5,643 4,571 37,570
4,087 4,122 4,341 4,297 4,336 4,291 4,265 3,974 43,234
5,694 5,677 5,798 5,635 5,640 5,605 5,092 4,474 37,480
5,200 5,254 5,426 5,517 5,496 5,852 5,475 4,751 36,696
600
636
585
591
528
660
696
703 43,479

58,761 58,772 60,088 61,500 63,055 62,984 59,861 56,053 47,010

54,102 54,245 55,451 56,717 58,109 58,147 55,655 52,445 49,065
2,154 2,029 2,427 2,425 2,361 2,142 1,982 1,561 24,941
3,677 3,366 3,464 3,651 3,872 3,451 3,118 2,795 30,884
16,002 16,283 17,052 17,258 17,369 17,224 16,195 15,258 39,591
9,603 9,337 9,255 9,532 9,493 9,867 9,515 8,609 48,706
4,399 4,696 4,906 5,020 5,110 5,244 5,020 4,828 51,096
18,267 18,354 18,347 18,820 19,903 20,218 19,825 19,395 73,564

58,761
57,325
4,659
30,708
21,957
1,436

2002

48,911
24,744
30,868
41,299
48,221
49,998
72,394

47,428
47,409
24,824
46,177
55,954
48,117

Estimate

291
196
693
415
(X)

1,240
429
311
453
365
749
273
333
207
249
905

47,428
45,122
53,977
49,468
(X)

70,495
68,653
30,843
48,620
37,862
25,729
37,215
43,583
37,582
36,819
42,365

47,788
24,580
29,842
40,568
47,586
50,412
71,178

46,326
46,379
24,529
45,835
54,029
42,547

Estimate

105
345
308
1,075
(X)

300
1,078
331
280
777
725
213
449
194
245
933

46,326
44,578
53,840
47,323
(X)

70,338
65,548
29,785
47,970
39,623
25,417
36,537
43,028
37,946
36,705
46,343

47,593
24,534
29,873
39,885
46,605
51,837
72,697

45,471
45,474
23,772
44,504
55,208
45,382

Estimate

102
329
435
298
(X)

345
706
261
352
906
503
223
705
723
243
701

45,471
44,230
52,954
49,776
(X)

72,259
67,049
29,342
46,331
38,331
24,457
35,247
43,959
38,735
36,363
45,133

99
119
515
1,240
(X)

557
261
240
286
627
732
188
488
256
833
1,235

Standard
error

48,680
24,157
29,418
39,395
46,632
50,077
71,205

490
243
565
410
343
414
332
301
387
189
711

44,959
94
43,819
111
52,852
503
51,932 1,464
(X)
(X)

69,976
65,904
31,332
48,662
37,759
22,816
37,502
42,988
37,437
34,368
43,295

48,625
24,181
30,328
39,160
46,447
50,733
72,829

46,669
46,662
23,973
44,447
53,198
46,903

Estimate

46,669
43,420
52,953
52,110
(X)

72,422
64,579
30,680
47,809
38,052
24,401
36,751
42,616
37,812
36,669
43,514

48,814
24,163
29,565
38,861
45,647
49,957
71,941

46,191
46,126
25,369
45,014
51,735
49,830

Estimate

155
111
218
248
(X)

908
603
498
387
388
1,102
273
302
246
268
1,390

46,191
44,387
51,736
50,028
(X)

70,655
66,850
30,544
47,162
36,103
23,877
37,462
42,052
36,603
35,891
46,392

Standard
error

49,994
23,945
29,023
39,478
47,097
50,303
71,466

47,127
47,115
25,108
45,687
52,237
47,555

Estimate

144
459
185
201
(X)

321
400
214
628
330
1,345
614
277
256
280
764

47,127
45,753
52,156
47,873
(X)

70,183
66,369
30,953
47,312
37,448
26,589
39,675
43,535
36,772
36,566
47,589

147
170
197
1,009
(X)

726
434
219
730
670
750
567
761
273
338
2,033

147

201
394
542
379
347
238
239

147
149
297
188
133
1,223

Standard
error

20092

144 47,127

338
629
456
397
275
343
235

144
146
203
188
131
1,502

2008

155 46,191

134
563
610
420
605
829
249

155
161
359
486
144
2,023

Standard
error

2007

94 46,669

143
423
610
174
864
415
368

44,959
94
44,956
95
23,627
160
44,229
127
54,127
134
45,037 1,424

Estimate

99 44,959

403
242
260
155
355
403
391

99
100
157
133
155
596

Standard
error

2006

Median earnings
(in 2009 dollars)
2005

102 45,471

101
218
265
168
199
1,071
848

102
104
179
129
396
1,163

Standard
error

20041

105 46,326

105
265
327
196
212
839
218

105
107
175
394
533
597

Standard
error

2003

291 47,428

119
254
247
371
232
802
240

291
292
196
374
296
1,300

Standard
error

2002

Occupation of Longest Job
Total, 15 years and older ������������������������
Management, business, and financial
  operations ��������������������������������������������������
Professional and related������������������������������
Service ��������������������������������������������������������
Sales and related������������������������������������������
Office and administrative support ����������������
Farming, fishing, and forestry ����������������������
Construction and extraction��������������������������
Installation, maintenance, and repair������������
Production����������������������������������������������������
Transportation and material-moving ������������
Armed Forces ����������������������������������������������

Educational Attainment
Total, 25 years and older ������������������������
Less than 9th grade��������������������������������������
9th to 12th, nongraduate������������������������������
High school graduate (including GED) ��������
Some college, no degree������������������������������
Associate’s degree ��������������������������������������
Bachelor’s degree or more ��������������������������

Age
Total, 15 years and older ������������������������
Under 65 years ��������������������������������������������
  15 to 24 years ������������������������������������������
  25 to 44 years ������������������������������������������
  45 to 64 years ������������������������������������������
65 years and older����������������������������������������

FULL-TIME, YEAR-ROUND WORKERS
Males

Characteristic

Number with earnings
(thousands)

(Earnings in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf. Comparable data for occupation categories not available
prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions)

Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience, Sex, and Selected Characteristics: 2002
to 2009—Con.

Table A-5.

54 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

43,351
42,325
3,347
20,700
18,278
1,027

2005

44,663
43,485
3,352
21,166
18,968
1,177

2006

45,613
44,350
3,418
21,413
19,520
1,263

2007

44,156
42,881
3,177
20,434
19,270
1,275

2008

43,217
41,863
2,840
19,776
19,247
1,354

20092

36,973
36,046
22,674
36,281
37,976
32,423

Estimate

41,876 41,908 42,380 43,351 44,663 45,613 44,156 43,217 36,010
31,315 31,275 31,550 32,404 33,421 33,952 32,837 31,716 33,993
8,043 8,028 8,073 8,282 8,500 8,914 8,742 8,979 42,734
2,514 2,603 2,757 2,659 2,729 2,744 2,575 2,519 29,997
4
2

6
13
3
3
3
(X)

Class of Worker of Longest Job
Total ��������������������������������������������������������
Private wage and salary ������������������������������
Government wage and salary����������������������
Self-employed����������������������������������������������
Unpaid family������������������������������������������������

36,812
19,718
22,086
30,408
35,153
37,615
52,616

36,812
35,938
23,374
36,312
37,798
30,446

Estimate

95
223
262
645
(X)

254
259
213
306
136
810
1,631
2,345
217
701
(X)

35,831
34,626
42,099
29,804
(X)

49,056
46,997
23,290
30,480
33,164
19,503
32,586
43,651
26,082
26,540
37,550

95 35,831

99
354
429
144
356
252
677

99
97
321
134
149
1,301

Standard
error

36,347
19,321
21,765
29,575
35,000
38,028
52,164

35,474
35,547
22,962
35,828
37,879
30,255

Estimate

97
213
219
469
(X)

36,340
17,735
22,112
28,884
34,498
37,289
51,582

35,003
35,080
22,754
35,443
38,647
29,366

Estimate

35,474
34,456
41,836
30,462
(X)

90
104
223
414
(X)

35,003
33,937
41,283
30,191
(X)

48,111
354 51,414
47,002
181 46,159
22,854
164 22,780
30,517
291 29,286
32,550
294 32,992
19,064
681 20,532
33,321 7,243 33,739
38,673 2,278 40,496
26,589
456 25,828
25,538
722 23,867
(X)
(X)
(X)

38,197
19,290
21,415
28,444
33,994
37,403
52,735

34,590
34,901
22,185
35,469
38,602
28,984

Estimate

89
103
330
1,280
(X)

34,590
33,423
42,854
32,772
(X)

53,487
45,750
22,555
28,955
32,781
20,611
26,693
43,827
24,570
25,414
(X)

37,330
18,891
21,101
28,179
33,969
37,586
52,136

36,312
36,367
22,836
36,497
38,489
32,604

Estimate

197
100
190
418
(X)

36,312
33,569
42,704
31,200
(X)

52,038
47,423
22,782
29,671
32,492
24,928
41,663
43,317
26,632
28,070
(X)

36,558
18,563
20,328
28,274
32,502
36,620
51,214

35,609
35,642
22,080
35,752
37,938
33,403

Estimate

106
140
188
757
(X)

35,609
33,241
41,846
30,827
(X)

50,879
46,584
22,858
28,668
31,870
22,396
33,533
34,202
25,885
23,933
(X)

Standard
error

37,264
18,480
21,226
29,150
34,087
37,267
51,878

36,278
36,266
22,090
36,364
39,425
36,583

Estimate

106
299
187
381
(X)

234
222
242
587
124
2,264
2,182
2,096
331
943
(X)

36,278
34,908
42,249
31,099
(X)

105
235
193
390
(X)

51,014
247
48,856
392
23,302
265
29,823
574
32,467
190
21,134
730
30,833 2,691
40,004 2,043
25,244
393
25,546
733
(X)
(X)

105

107
451
301
273
483
310
169

105
107
179
145
368
519

Standard
error

20092

106 36,278

109
492
294
282
354
242
144

106
106
175
144
371
1,181

2008

106 35,609

109
477
302
138
429
293
163

106
106
204
146
163
505

Standard
error

231
236
133
602
121
2,417
3,691
2,349
273
796
(X)

2007

197 36,312

120
434
287
145
176
400
469

197
294
223
384
173
805

Standard
error

253
602
133
355
120
1,626
1,719
1,288
502
1,171
(X)

2006

89 34,590

266
275
301
147
181
546
255

89
90
169
122
176
795

Standard
error

355
194
135
285
179
1,244
1,226
2,643
447
424
(X)

2005

90 35,003

91
276
358
132
152
556
259

90
90
232
119
444
596

Standard
error

20041

97 35,474

99
299
381
138
205
281
339

99
98
252
129
205
434

Standard
error

281
196
217
362
240
1,082
2,489
1,941
294
745
2,704

2003

Median earnings
(in 2009 dollars)

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2003 through 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

2

1

Data have been revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
Medians are calculated using $2,500 income intervals. Beginning with 2009 income data, the Census Bureau expanded the upper income intervals used to calculate medians to $250,000 or more. Medians falling in the upper open-ended interval are
plugged with “$250,000.” Before 2009, the upper open-ended interal was $100,000 and a plug of “$100,000” was used.

– Represents or rounds to zero.
(X) Not applicable.
(B) Based rounds to 75,000 or less.

6,896 6,971 7,105 7,142 7,707 7,683 7,787 7,347 49,212
10,106 10,370 10,438 10,800 11,173 11,962 11,944 12,037 47,787
6,575 6,386 6,761 7,066 7,171 7,356 7,247 7,179 23,855
4,396 4,211 4,421 4,684 4,683 4,616 4,336 4,334 30,460
10,440 10,561 10,272 10,283 10,439 10,589 9,922 9,668 32,612
113
96
100
90
105
96
95
140 19,832
115
115
162
144
160
160
109
118 29,998
183
172
175
163
156
187
185
140 38,744
2,277 2,189 2,183 2,165 2,267 2,163 1,715 1,494 25,946
716
755
709
741
752
753
767
698 26,814
58
81
54
73
48
49
49
62
(X)

41,876 41,908 42,380 43,351 44,663 45,613 44,156 43,217 36,010

Occupation of Longest Job
Total, 15 years and older ������������������������
Management, business, and financial
  operations ��������������������������������������������������
Professional and related������������������������������
Service ��������������������������������������������������������
Sales and related������������������������������������������
Office and administrative support ����������������
Farming, fishing, and forestry ����������������������
Construction and extraction��������������������������
Installation, maintenance, and repair������������
Production����������������������������������������������������
Transportation and material-moving ������������
Armed Forces ����������������������������������������������

38,486 38,671 39,106 40,005 41,311 42,196 40,979 40,376 36,973
857
876
916
900
934
823
814
776 19,685
1,840 1,738 1,797 1,736 1,802 1,649 1,568 1,519 23,019
11,673 11,586 11,395 11,412 11,652 11,447 10,851 10,467 30,024
7,353 7,340 7,341 7,451 7,613 7,916 7,456 7,164 35,053
4,281 4,397 4,492 4,751 4,760 4,891 4,955 4,924 37,706
12,482 12,733 13,166 13,755 14,549 15,469 15,335 15,526 51,560

42,380
41,407
3,273
20,481
17,652
973

20041

Educational Attainment
Total, 25 years and older ������������������������
Less than 9th grade��������������������������������������
9th to 12th, nongraduate������������������������������
High school graduate (including GED) ��������
Some college, no degree������������������������������
Associate’s degree ��������������������������������������
Bachelor’s degree or more ��������������������������

41,908
40,960
3,237
20,606
17,116
948

2003

41,876
41,021
3,390
21,023
16,608
855

2002

2002

Age
Total, 15 years and older ������������������������
Under 65 years ��������������������������������������������
  15 to 24 years ������������������������������������������
  25 to 44 years ������������������������������������������
  45 to 64 years ������������������������������������������
65 years and older����������������������������������������

FULL-TIME, YEAR-ROUND
  WORKERS—Con.
Females

Characteristic

Number with earnings
(thousands)

(Earnings in 2009 CPI-U-RS adjusted dollars. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf. Comparable data for occupation categories not available
prior to 2002 due to change in occupation designations and definitions)

Number of Workers With Earnings and Median Earnings by Work Experience, Sex, and Selected Characteristics: 2002
to 2009—Con.

Table A-5.

APPENDIX B.
ESTIMATES OF POVERTY
How Poverty Is Calculated
Following the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive 14, the U.S. Census Bureau uses a set of
dollar value thresholds that vary by family size and composition to determine who is in poverty (see the matrix below).

Poverty Thresholds for 2009 by Size of Family and Number of Related Children Under 18 Years
(Dollars)
Related children under 18 years
Size of family unit
None

One

One person (unrelated individual):
  Under 65 years ����������������������������������
  65 years and older������������������������������

11,161
10,289

Two people:
  Householder under 65 years��������������
  Householder 65 years and older��������

14,366
12,968

14,787
14,731

Three people������������������������������������������
Four people��������������������������������������������
Five people ��������������������������������������������
Six people����������������������������������������������
Seven people������������������������������������������
Eight people��������������������������������������������
Nine people or more ������������������������������

16,781
22,128
26,686
30,693
35,316
39,498
47,514

17,268
22,490
27,074
30,815
35,537
39,847
47,744

Two

Three

Four

Five

Six

Seven

Eight or
more

17,285
21,756
26,245
30,180
34,777
39,130
47,109

21,832
25,603
29,571
34,247
38,501
46,576

25,211
28,666
33,260
37,610
45,701

28,130
32,108
36,478
44,497

30,845
35,300
43,408

35,000
43,138

41,476

Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

If a family’s total money income is less
than the applicable threshold, then
that family and every individual in it
are considered in poverty. The official
poverty thresholds are updated annually for inflation using the Consumer
Price Index (CPI-U). Since the average annual CPI-U for 2009 was lower
than the average annual CPI-U for
2008, poverty thresholds for 2009
are slightly lower than the corresponding thresholds for 2008. The
official poverty definition uses money
income before taxes and tax credits
and excludes capital gains and noncash benefits (such as Supplemental
Nutrition Assistance Program benefits
and housing assistance). The thresholds do not vary geographically.
Example: Suppose Family A consists
of five people: two children, their
mother, their father, and their greataunt. Family A’s poverty threshold in
2009 was $26,245. Each member of
Family A had the following income in
2009:

Mother
Father
Great-aunt
First child
Second child
Total:

$10,000
7,000
10,000
0
0
$27,000

Since their total family income,
$27,000, was higher than their
threshold ($26,245), Family A would
not be considered “in poverty.”
While the thresholds, in some sense,
represent the needs of families, they
should be interpreted as a statistical
yardstick rather than as a complete
description of what people and families need to live. Many government
assistance programs use different
income eligibility cutoffs. While
official poverty rates and the number
of people or families in poverty are
important, other poverty indicators
are considered in the section, “Depth
of Poverty Measures,” and other
approaches to setting thresholds
and defining resources are discussed
in the section, “Alternative Poverty
Measures.”
For a history of the official poverty
measure, see “The Development of

U.S. Census Bureau

the Orshansky Poverty Thresholds
and Their Subsequent History as the
Official U.S. Poverty Measure” by
Gordon M. Fisher, available at
<www.census.gov/hhes/www
/povmeas/papers/orshansky.html>.
Weighted average thresholds: Since
some data users want a summary of
the 48 thresholds to get a general
sense of the “poverty line,” the following table provides the weighted average thresholds for 2009. The averages are based on the relative number
of families of each size and composition and are not used in computing
poverty estimates.

Weighted Average Poverty
Thresholds in 2009 by Size
of Family
(Dollars)
One person
Two people
Three people
Four people
Five people
Six people
Seven people
Eight people
Nine people or more

10,956
13,991
17,098
21,954
25,991
29,405
33,372
37,252
44,366

Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 55

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and
year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

ALL RACES
2009�����������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������
2005�����������������������������������

303,820
301,041
298,699
296,450
293,135

43,569
39,829
37,276
36,460
36,950

14.3
13.2
12.5
12.3
12.6

249,384
248,301
245,443
245,199
242,389

31,197
28,564
26,509
25,915
26,068

12.5
11.5
10.8
10.6
10.8

45,315
44,027
43,961
43,223
42,244

14,746
13,812
13,478
13,199
13,153

32.5
31.4
30.7
30.5
31.1

53,079
51,534
51,740
49,884
49,526

11,678
10,710
10,189
9,977
10,425

22.0
20.8
19.7
20.0
21.1

20041����������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������
20002����������������������������������

290,617
287,699
285,317
281,475
278,944

37,040
35,861
34,570
32,907
31,581

12.7
12.5
12.1
11.7
11.3

240,754
238,903
236,921
233,911
231,909

26,544
25,684
24,534
23,215
22,347

11.0
10.8
10.4
9.9
9.6

42,053
41,311
40,529
39,261
38,375

12,832
12,413
11,657
11,223
10,926

30.5
30.0
28.8
28.6
28.5

48,609
47,594
47,156
46,392
45,624

9,926
9,713
9,618
9,226
8,653

20.4
20.4
20.4
19.9
19.0

19993����������������������������������
1998�����������������������������������
1997�����������������������������������
1996�����������������������������������
1995�����������������������������������

276,208
271,059
268,480
266,218
263,733

32,791
34,476
35,574
36,529
36,425

11.9
12.7
13.3
13.7
13.8

230,789
227,229
225,369
223,955
222,792

23,830
25,370
26,217
27,376
27,501

10.3
11.2
11.6
12.2
12.3

38,580
39,000
38,412
38,584
38,908

11,764
12,907
13,494
13,796
14,205

30.5
33.1
35.1
35.8
36.5

43,977
42,539
41,672
40,727
39,484

8,400
8,478
8,687
8,452
8,247

19.1
19.9
20.8
20.8
20.9

1994�����������������������������������
1993�����������������������������������
1992 4����������������������������������
19915����������������������������������
1990�����������������������������������

261,616
259,278
256,549
251,192
248,644

38,059
39,265
38,014
35,708
33,585

14.5
15.1
14.8
14.2
13.5

221,430
219,489
217,936
212,723
210,967

28,985
29,927
28,961
27,143
25,232

13.1
13.6
13.3
12.8
12.0

37,253
37,861
36,446
34,795
33,795

14,380
14,636
14,205
13,824
12,578

38.6
38.7
39.0
39.7
37.2

38,538
38,038
36,842
36,845
36,056

8,287
8,388
8,075
7,773
7,446

21.5
22.1
21.9
21.1
20.7

1989�����������������������������������
19886����������������������������������
19876����������������������������������
1986�����������������������������������
1985�����������������������������������

245,992
243,530
240,982
238,554
236,594

31,528
31,745
32,221
32,370
33,064

12.8
13.0
13.4
13.6
14.0

209,515
208,056
206,877
205,459
203,963

24,066
24,048
24,725
24,754
25,729

11.5
11.6
12.0
12.0
12.6

32,525
32,164
31,893
31,152
30,878

11,668
11,972
12,148
11,944
11,600

35.9
37.2
38.1
38.3
37.6

35,185
34,340
32,992
31,679
31,351

6,760
7,070
6,857
6,846
6,725

19.2
20.6
20.8
21.6
21.5

1984�����������������������������������
1983�����������������������������������
1982�����������������������������������
1981�����������������������������������
1980�����������������������������������

233,816
231,700
229,412
227,157
225,027

33,700
35,303
34,398
31,822
29,272

14.4
15.2
15.0
14.0
13.0

202,288
201,338
200,385
198,541
196,963

26,458
27,933
27,349
24,850
22,601

13.1
13.9
13.6
12.5
11.5

30,844
30,049
28,834
28,587
27,565

11,831
12,072
11,701
11,051
10,120

38.4
40.2
40.6
38.7
36.7

30,268
29,158
27,908
27,714
27,133

6,609
6,740
6,458
6,490
6,227

21.8
23.1
23.1
23.4
22.9

1979�����������������������������������
1978�����������������������������������
1977�����������������������������������
1976�����������������������������������
1975�����������������������������������

222,903
215,656
213,867
212,303
210,864

26,072
24,497
24,720
24,975
25,877

11.7
11.4
11.6
11.8
12.3

195,860
191,071
190,757
190,844
190,630

19,964
19,062
19,505
19,632
20,789

10.2
10.0
10.2
10.3
10.9

26,927
26,032
25,404
24,204
23,580

9,400
9,269
9,205
9,029
8,846

34.9
35.6
36.2
37.3
37.5

26,170
24,585
23,110
21,459
20,234

5,743
5,435
5,216
5,344
5,088

21.9
22.1
22.6
24.9
25.1

1974�����������������������������������
1973�����������������������������������
1972�����������������������������������
1971�����������������������������������
1970�����������������������������������

209,362
207,621
206,004
204,554
202,183

23,370
22,973
24,460
25,559
25,420

11.2
11.1
11.9
12.5
12.6

190,436
189,361
189,193
188,242
186,692

18,817
18,299
19,577
20,405
20,330

9.9
9.7
10.3
10.8
10.9

23,165
21,823
21,264
20,153
19,673

8,462
8,178
8,114
7,797
7,503

36.5
37.5
38.2
38.7
38.1

18,926
18,260
16,811
16,311
15,491

4,553
4,674
4,883
5,154
5,090

24.1
25.6
29.0
31.6
32.9

1969�����������������������������������
1968�����������������������������������
1967�����������������������������������
1966�����������������������������������
1965�����������������������������������

199,517
197,628
195,672
193,388
191,413

24,147
25,389
27,769
28,510
33,185

12.1
12.8
14.2
14.7
17.3

184,891
183,825
182,558
181,117
179,281

19,175
20,695
22,771
23,809
28,358

10.4
11.3
12.5
13.1
15.8

17,995
18,048
17,788
17,240
16,371

6,879
6,990
6,898
6,861
7,524

38.2
38.7
38.8
39.8
46.0

14,626
13,803
13,114
12,271
12,132

4,972
4,694
4,998
4,701
4,827

34.0
34.0
38.1
38.3
39.8

1964�����������������������������������
1963�����������������������������������
1962�����������������������������������
1961�����������������������������������
1960�����������������������������������
1959�����������������������������������

189,710
187,258
184,276
181,277
179,503
176,557

36,055
36,436
38,625
39,628
39,851
39,490

19.0
19.5
21.0
21.9
22.2
22.4

177,653
176,076
173,263
170,131
168,615
165,858

30,912
31,498
33,623
34,509
34,925
34,562

17.4
17.9
19.4
20.3
20.7
20.8

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

7,297
7,646
7,781
7,252
7,247
7,014

44.4
47.7
50.3
48.1
48.9
49.4

12,057
11,182
11,013
11,146
10,888
10,699

5,143
4,938
5,002
5,119
4,926
4,928

42.7
44.2
45.4
45.9
45.2
46.1

  See footnotes at end of table.

56 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)

All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and
year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

WHITE ALONE7
2009������������������������������������
2008������������������������������������
2007������������������������������������
2006������������������������������������

242,047
240,548
239,133
237,619

29,830
26,990
25,120
24,416

12.3
11.2
10.5
10.3

197,938
197,763
195,944
196,061

20,701
18,558
17,141
16,644

10.5
9.4
8.7
8.5

28,163
27,010
27,159
27,057

8,283
7,340
7,188
7,160

29.4
27.2
26.5
26.5

43,010
41,810
41,931
40,461

8,580
7,982
7,505
7,334

19.9
19.1
17.9
18.1

2005������������������������������������
2004 1�����������������������������������
2003������������������������������������
2002������������������������������������

235,430
233,741
231,866
230,376

24,872
25,327
24,272
23,466

10.6
10.8
10.5
10.2

194,277
193,024
192,074
190,823

16,782
17,445
16,740
16,043

8.6
9.0
8.7
8.4

25,943
26,139
25,536
24,903

7,021
6,892
6,530
5,992

27.1
26.4
25.6
24.1

40,164
39,712
38,913
38,575

7,718
7,416
7,225
7,105

19.2
18.7
18.6
18.4

WHITE8
2001������������������������������������
20002�����������������������������������
19993�����������������������������������
1998������������������������������������
1997������������������������������������

229,675
227,846
225,361
222,837
221,200

22,739
21,645
22,169
23,454
24,396

9.9
9.5
9.8
10.5
11.0

190,413
188,966
187,833
186,184
185,147

15,369
14,692
15,353
16,549
17,258

8.1
7.8
8.2
8.9
9.3

24,619
24,166
23,913
24,211
23,773

5,972
5,609
5,947
6,674
7,296

24.3
23.2
24.9
27.6
30.7

38,294
37,699
36,441
35,563
34,858

6,996
6,454
6,411
6,386
6,593

18.3
17.1
17.6
18.0
18.9

1996������������������������������������
1995������������������������������������
1994������������������������������������
1993������������������������������������
1992 4�����������������������������������

219,656
218,028
216,460
214,899
213,060

24,650
24,423
25,379
26,226
25,259

11.2
11.2
11.7
12.2
11.9

184,119
183,450
182,546
181,330
180,409

17,621
17,593
18,474
18,968
18,294

9.6
9.6
10.1
10.5
10.1

23,744
23,732
22,713
23,224
22,453

7,073
7,047
7,228
7,199
6,907

29.8
29.7
31.8
31.0
30.8

34,247
33,399
32,569
32,112
31,170

6,463
6,336
6,292
6,443
6,147

18.9
19.0
19.3
20.1
19.7

19915�����������������������������������
1990������������������������������������
1989������������������������������������
19886�����������������������������������
19876�����������������������������������

210,133
208,611
206,853
205,235
203,605

23,747
22,326
20,785
20,715
21,195

11.3
10.7
10.0
10.1
10.4

177,619
176,504
175,857
175,111
174,488

17,268
15,916
15,179
15,001
15,593

9.7
9.0
8.6
8.6
8.9

21,608
20,845
20,362
20,396
20,244

6,806
6,210
5,723
5,950
5,989

31.5
29.8
28.1
29.2
29.6

31,207
30,833
29,993
29,315
28,290

5,872
5,739
5,063
5,314
5,174

18.8
18.6
16.9
18.1
18.3

1986������������������������������������
1985������������������������������������
1984������������������������������������
1983������������������������������������
1982������������������������������������

202,282
200,918
198,941
197,496
195,919

22,183
22,860
22,955
23,984
23,517

11.0
11.4
11.5
12.1
12.0

174,024
172,863
171,839
171,407
170,748

16,393
17,125
17,299
18,377
18,015

9.4
9.9
10.1
10.7
10.6

20,163
20,105
19,727
19,256
18,374

6,171
5,990
5,866
6,017
5,686

30.6
29.8
29.7
31.2
30.9

27,143
27,067
26,094
25,206
24,300

5,198
5,299
5,181
5,189
5,041

19.2
19.6
19.9
20.6
20.7

1981������������������������������������
1980������������������������������������
1979������������������������������������
1978������������������������������������
1977������������������������������������

194,504
192,912
191,742
186,450
185,254

21,553
19,699
17,214
16,259
16,416

11.1
10.2
9.0
8.7
8.9

169,868
168,756
168,461
165,193
165,385

16,127
14,587
12,495
12,050
12,364

9.5
8.6
7.4
7.3
7.5

18,795
17,642
17,349
16,877
16,721

5,600
4,940
4,375
4,371
4,474

29.8
28.0
25.2
25.9
26.8

23,913
23,370
22,587
21,257
19,869

5,061
4,760
4,452
4,209
4,051

21.2
20.4
19.7
19.8
20.4

1976������������������������������������
1975������������������������������������
1974������������������������������������
1973������������������������������������
1972������������������������������������

184,165
183,164
182,376
181,185
180,125

16,713
17,770
15,736
15,142
16,203

9.1
9.7
8.6
8.4
9.0

165,571
165,661
166,081
165,424
165,630

12,500
13,799
12,181
11,412
12,268

7.5
8.3
7.3
6.9
7.4

15,941
15,577
15,433
14,303
13,739

4,463
4,577
4,278
4,003
3,770

28.0
29.4
27.7
28.0
27.4

18,594
17,503
16,295
15,761
14,495

4,213
3,972
3,555
3,730
3,935

22.7
22.7
21.8
23.7
27.1

1971������������������������������������
1970������������������������������������
1969������������������������������������
1968������������������������������������
1967������������������������������������

179,398
177,376
175,349
173,732
172,038

17,780
17,484
16,659
17,395
18,983

9.9
9.9
9.5
10.0
11.0

165,184
163,875
162,779
161,777
160,720

13,566
13,323
12,623
13,546
14,851

8.2
8.1
7.8
8.4
9.2

13,502
13,226
12,285
12,190
12,131

4,099
3,761
3,577
3,551
3,453

30.4
28.4
29.1
29.1
28.5

14,214
13,500
12,570
11,955
11,318

4,214
4,161
4,036
3,849
4,132

29.6
30.8
32.1
32.2
36.5

1966������������������������������������
1965������������������������������������
1964������������������������������������
1963������������������������������������

170,247
168,732
167,313
165,309

19,290
22,496
24,957
25,238

11.3
13.3
14.9
15.3

159,561
158,255
156,898
155,584

15,430
18,508
20,716
21,149

9.7
11.7
13.2
13.6

12,261
11,573
(NA)
(NA)

3,646
4,092
3,911
4,051

29.7
35.4
33.4
35.6

10,686
10,477
10,415
9,725

3,860
3,988
4,241
4,089

36.1
38.1
40.7
42.0

1962������������������������������������
1961������������������������������������
1960������������������������������������
1959������������������������������������

162,842
160,306
158,863
156,956

26,672
27,890
28,309
28,484

16.4
17.4
17.8
18.1

153,348
150,717
149,458
147,802

22,613
23,747
24,262
24,443

14.7
15.8
16.2
16.5

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

4,089
4,062
4,296
4,232

37.9
37.6
39.0
40.2

9,494
9,589
9,405
9,154

4,059
4,143
4,047
4,041

42.7
43.2
43.0
44.1

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 57

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and
year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

WHITE ALONE,
  NOT HISPANIC7
2009������������������������������������
2008������������������������������������
2007������������������������������������
2006������������������������������������

197,164
196,940
196,583
196,049

18,530
17,024
16,032
16,013

9.4
8.6
8.2
8.2

158,646
159,344
158,703
159,572

11,211
10,138
9,553
9,676

7.1
6.4
6.0
6.1

19,033
18,799
19,179
19,349

4,532
4,046
4,099
4,353

23.8
21.5
21.4
22.5

37,757
36,848
36,909
35,642

6,946
6,539
6,155
6,021

18.4
17.7
16.7
16.9

2005������������������������������������
2004 1�����������������������������������
2003������������������������������������
2002������������������������������������

195,553
195,098
194,595
194,144

16,227
16,908
15,902
15,567

8.3
8.7
8.2
8.0

159,204
159,221
159,215
158,764

9,604
10,323
9,658
9,389

6.0
6.5
6.1
5.9

18,899
19,009
18,792
18,664

4,278
4,116
3,959
3,733

22.6
21.7
21.1
20.0

35,626
35,141
34,683
34,614

6,393
6,237
6,015
5,947

17.9
17.7
17.3
17.2

WHITE, NOT
  HISPANIC8
2001������������������������������������
20002�����������������������������������
19993�����������������������������������
1998������������������������������������
1997������������������������������������

194,538
193,691
192,565
192,754
191,859

15,271
14,366
14,735
15,799
16,491

7.8
7.4
7.7
8.2
8.6

159,178
158,838
158,550
159,301
158,796

9,122
8,664
9,013
10,061
10,401

5.7
5.5
5.7
6.3
6.5

18,365
18,196
17,892
18,547
18,474

3,661
3,412
3,545
4,074
4,604

19.9
18.8
19.8
22.0
24.9

34,603
33,943
33,189
32,573
32,049

5,882
5,356
5,412
5,352
5,632

17.0
15.8
16.3
16.4
17.6

1996������������������������������������
1995������������������������������������
1994������������������������������������
1993������������������������������������
1992 4�����������������������������������

191,459
190,951
192,543
190,843
189,001

16,462
16,267
18,110
18,882
18,202

8.6
8.5
9.4
9.9
9.6

159,044
159,402
161,254
160,062
159,102

10,553
10,599
12,118
12,756
12,277

6.6
6.6
7.5
8.0
7.7

18,597
18,340
18,186
18,508
18,016

4,339
4,183
4,743
4,724
4,640

23.3
22.8
26.1
25.5
25.8

31,410
30,586
30,157
29,681
28,775

5,455
5,303
5,500
5,570
5,350

17.4
17.3
18.2
18.8
18.6

19915�����������������������������������
1990������������������������������������
1989������������������������������������
19886�����������������������������������
19876�����������������������������������

189,116
188,129
186,979
185,961
184,936

17,741
16,622
15,599
15,565
16,029

9.4
8.8
8.3
8.4
8.7

158,850
158,394
158,127
157,687
157,785

11,998
11,086
10,723
10,467
11,051

7.6
7.0
6.8
6.6
7.0

17,609
17,160
16,827
16,828
16,787

4,710
4,284
3,922
3,988
4,075

26.7
25.0
23.3
23.7
24.3

29,215
28,688
28,055
27,552
26,439

5,261
5,002
4,466
4,746
4,613

18.0
17.4
15.9
17.2
17.4

1986������������������������������������
1985������������������������������������
1984������������������������������������
1983������������������������������������
1982������������������������������������

184,119
183,455
182,469
181,393
181,903

17,244
17,839
18,300
19,538
19,362

9.4
9.7
10.0
10.8
10.6

157,665
157,106
156,930
156,719
157,818

12,078
12,706
13,234
14,437
14,271

7.7
8.1
8.4
9.2
9.0

16,739
16,749
16,742
16,369
15,830

4,350
4,136
4,193
4,448
4,161

26.0
24.7
25.0
27.2
26.3

25,525
25,544
24,671
23,894
23,329

4,668
4,789
4,659
4,746
4,701

18.3
18.7
18.9
19.9
20.2

1981������������������������������������
1980������������������������������������
1979������������������������������������
1978������������������������������������
1977������������������������������������

180,909
179,798
178,814
174,731
173,563

17,987
16,365
14,419
13,755
13,802

9.9
9.1
8.1
7.9
8.0

157,330
156,633
156,567
154,321
154,449

12,903
11,568
10,009
9,798
9,977

8.2
7.4
6.4
6.3
6.5

16,323
15,358
15,410
15,132
14,888

4,222
3,699
3,371
3,390
3,429

25.9
24.1
21.9
22.4
23.0

22,950
22,455
21,638
20,410
19,114

4,769
4,474
4,179
3,957
3,825

20.8
19.9
19.3
19.4
20.0

1976������������������������������������
1975������������������������������������
1974������������������������������������
1973������������������������������������

173,235
172,417
171,463
170,488

14,025
14,883
13,217
12,864

8.1
8.6
7.7
7.5

155,324
155,539
155,764
155,330

10,066
11,137
9,854
9,262

6.5
7.2
6.3
6.0

14,261
13,809
13,763
12,731

3,516
3,570
3,379
3,185

24.7
25.9
24.6
25.0

17,912
16,879
15,699
15,158

3,959
3,746
3,364
3,602

22.1
22.2
21.4
23.8

BLACK ALONE
  OR IN COMBINATION
2009������������������������������������
2008������������������������������������
2007������������������������������������
2006������������������������������������

40,876
40,097
39,564
39,013

10,575
9,882
9,668
9,447

25.9
24.6
24.4
24.2

33,330
32,818
32,427
32,130

8,184
7,768
7,668
7,411

24.6
23.7
23.6
23.1

14,463
14,332
14,396
13,848

5,755
5,782
5,702
5,422

39.8
40.3
39.6
39.2

7,368
7,123
7,036
6,715

2,285
2,042
1,968
1,935

31.0
28.7
28.0
28.8

2005������������������������������������
2004 1�����������������������������������
2003������������������������������������
2002������������������������������������

38,551
38,037
37,503
37,207

9,517
9,411
9,108
8,884

24.7
24.7
24.3
23.9

31,663
31,468
31,059
31,008

7,459
7,495
7,162
6,985

23.6
23.8
23.1
22.5

14,080
13,830
13,664
13,551

5,524
5,484
5,312
5,145

39.2
39.7
38.9
38.0

6,754
6,418
6,194
6,034

2,003
1,840
1,814
1,851

29.7
28.7
29.3
30.7

  See footnotes at end of table.

58 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and
year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

BLACK ALONE9
2009������������������������������������
2008������������������������������������
2007������������������������������������
2006������������������������������������

38,556
37,966
37,665
37,306

9,944
9,379
9,237
9,048

25.8
24.7
24.5
24.3

31,306
30,986
30,778
30,621

7,642
7,339
7,312
7,072

24.4
23.7
23.8
23.1

13,680
13,648
13,741
13,244

5,427
5,533
5,459
5,180

39.7
40.5
39.7
39.1

7,102
6,835
6,807
6,545

2,209
1,970
1,898
1,897

31.1
28.8
27.9
29.0

2005������������������������������������
2004 1�����������������������������������
2003������������������������������������
2002������������������������������������

36,802
36,426
35,989
35,678

9,168
9,014
8,781
8,602

24.9
24.7
24.4
24.1

30,154
30,065
29,727
29,671

7,164
7,153
6,870
6,761

23.8
23.8
23.1
22.8

13,481
13,244
13,118
13,030

5,303
5,247
5,115
4,980

39.3
39.6
39.0
38.2

6,521
6,217
6,034
5,858

1,949
1,792
1,781
1,800

29.9
28.8
29.5
30.7

BLACK8
2001������������������������������������
20002�����������������������������������
19993�����������������������������������
1998������������������������������������
1997������������������������������������

35,871
35,425
35,756
34,877
34,458

8,136
7,982
8,441
9,091
9,116

22.7
22.5
23.6
26.1
26.5

29,869
29,378
29,819
29,333
28,962

6,389
6,221
6,758
7,259
7,386

21.4
21.2
22.7
24.7
25.5

12,550
12,383
12,823
13,156
13,218

4,694
4,774
5,232
5,629
5,654

37.4
38.6
40.8
42.8
42.8

5,873
5,885
5,668
5,390
5,316

1,692
1,702
1,562
1,752
1,645

28.8
28.9
27.5
32.5
31.0

1996������������������������������������
1995������������������������������������
1994������������������������������������
1993������������������������������������
1992 4�����������������������������������

34,110
33,740
33,353
32,910
32,411

9,694
9,872
10,196
10,877
10,827

28.4
29.3
30.6
33.1
33.4

28,933
28,777
28,499
28,106
27,790

7,993
8,189
8,447
9,242
9,134

27.6
28.5
29.6
32.9
32.9

13,193
13,604
12,926
13,132
12,591

6,123
6,553
6,489
6,955
6,799

46.4
48.2
50.2
53.0
54.0

4,989
4,756
4,649
4,608
4,410

1,606
1,551
1,617
1,541
1,569

32.2
32.6
34.8
33.4
35.6

19915�����������������������������������
1990������������������������������������
1989������������������������������������
19886�����������������������������������
19876�����������������������������������

31,313
30,806
30,332
29,849
29,362

10,242
9,837
9,302
9,356
9,520

32.7
31.9
30.7
31.3
32.4

26,565
26,296
25,931
25,484
25,128

8,504
8,160
7,704
7,650
7,848

32.0
31.0
29.7
30.0
31.2

11,960
11,866
11,190
10,794
10,701

6,557
6,005
5,530
5,601
5,789

54.8
50.6
49.4
51.9
54.1

4,505
4,244
4,180
4,095
3,977

1,590
1,491
1,471
1,509
1,471

35.3
35.1
35.2
36.8
37.0

1986������������������������������������
1985������������������������������������
1984������������������������������������
1983������������������������������������
1982������������������������������������

28,871
28,485
28,087
27,678
27,216

8,983
8,926
9,490
9,882
9,697

31.1
31.3
33.8
35.7
35.6

24,910
24,620
24,387
24,138
23,948

7,410
7,504
8,104
8,376
8,355

29.7
30.5
33.2
34.7
34.9

10,175
10,041
10,384
10,059
9,699

5,473
5,342
5,666
5,736
5,698

53.8
53.2
54.6
57.0
58.8

3,714
3,641
3,501
3,287
3,051

1,431
1,264
1,255
1,338
1,229

38.5
34.7
35.8
40.7
40.3

1981������������������������������������
1980������������������������������������
1979������������������������������������
1978������������������������������������
1977������������������������������������

26,834
26,408
25,944
24,956
24,710

9,173
8,579
8,050
7,625
7,726

34.2
32.5
31.0
30.6
31.3

23,423
23,084
22,666
22,027
21,850

7,780
7,190
6,800
6,493
6,667

33.2
31.1
30.0
29.5
30.5

9,214
9,338
9,065
8,689
8,315

5,222
4,984
4,816
4,712
4,595

56.7
53.4
53.1
54.2
55.3

3,277
3,208
3,127
2,929
2,860

1,296
1,314
1,168
1,132
1,059

39.6
41.0
37.3
38.6
37.0

1976������������������������������������
1975������������������������������������
1974������������������������������������
1973������������������������������������
1972������������������������������������

24,399
24,089
23,699
23,512
23,144

7,595
7,545
7,182
7,388
7,710

31.1
31.3
30.3
31.4
33.3

21,840
21,687
21,341
21,328
21,116

6,576
6,533
6,255
6,560
6,841

30.1
30.1
29.3
30.8
32.4

7,926
7,679
7,483
7,188
7,125

4,415
4,168
4,116
4,064
4,139

55.7
54.3
55.0
56.5
58.1

2,559
2,402
2,359
2,183
2,028

1,019
1,011
927
828
870

39.8
42.1
39.3
37.9
42.9

1971������������������������������������
1970������������������������������������
1969������������������������������������
1968������������������������������������
1967������������������������������������
1966������������������������������������
1959������������������������������������

22,784
22,515
22,011
21,944
21,590
21,206
18,013

7,396
7,548
7,095
7,616
8,486
8,867
9,927

32.5
33.5
32.2
34.7
39.3
41.8
55.1

20,900
20,724
20,192
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

6,530
6,683
6,245
6,839
7,677
8,090
9,112

31.2
32.2
30.9
33.7
38.4
40.9
54.9

6,398
6,225
5,537
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

3,587
3,656
3,225
3,312
3,362
3,160
2,416

56.1
58.7
58.2
58.9
61.6
65.3
70.6

1,884
1,791
1,819
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
1,430

866
865
850
777
809
777
815

46.0
48.3
46.7
46.3
49.3
54.4
57.0

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 59

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and
year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

2009������������������������������������
2008������������������������������������
2007������������������������������������
2006������������������������������������

15,272
14,543
14,430
14,331

1,901
1,686
1,467
1,447

12.4
11.6
10.2
10.1

13,403
12,817
12,527
12,463

1,361
1,270
1,012
984

10.2
9.9
8.1
7.9

1,539
1,471
1,421
1,210

290
228
250
220

18.9
15.5
17.6
18.1

1,826
1,707
1,837
1,801

527
410
426
449

28.8
24.0
23.2
24.9

2005������������������������������������
20041�����������������������������������
2003������������������������������������
2002������������������������������������

13,731
13,291
12,891
12,487

1,501
1,295
1,527
1,243

10.9
9.7
11.8
10.0

11,931
11,661
11,266
10,742

1,039
876
1,116
816

8.7
7.5
9.9
7.6

1,223
1,190
1,184
1,146

220
170
294
175

18.0
14.3
24.8
15.3

1,771
1,599
1,590
1,708

457
417
402
417

25.8
26.1
25.3
24.4

ASIAN ALONE10
2009������������������������������������
2008������������������������������������
2007������������������������������������
2006������������������������������������

14,005
13,310
13,257
13,177

1,746
1,576
1,349
1,353

12.5
11.8
10.2
10.3

12,296
11,719
11,471
11,428

1,244
1,192
930
912

10.1
10.2
8.1
8.0

1,353
1,308
1,256
1,057

250
209
217
187

18.5
16.0
17.3
17.7

1,673
1,574
1,720
1,683

491
378
391
428

29.3
24.0
22.7
25.4

2005������������������������������������
2004 1�����������������������������������
2003������������������������������������
2002������������������������������������

12,580
12,231
11,856
11,541

1,402
1,201
1,401
1,161

11.1
9.8
11.8
10.1

10,911
10,734
10,333
9,899

970
812
1,017
763

8.9
7.6
9.8
7.7

1,059
1,024
1,028
1,019

189
135
242
155

17.8
13.2
23.6
15.2

1,645
1,472
1,494
1,613

427
388
375
390

26.0
26.3
25.1
24.2

ASIAN AND PACIFIC
  ISLANDER8
2001������������������������������������
20002�����������������������������������
19993�����������������������������������
1998������������������������������������
1997������������������������������������

12,465
12,672
11,955
10,873
10,482

1,275
1,258
1,285
1,360
1,468

10.2
9.9
10.7
12.5
14.0

10,745
11,044
10,507
9,576
9,312

873
895
1,010
1,087
1,116

8.1
8.1
9.6
11.4
12.0

1,333
1,231
1,201
1,123
932

198
289
275
373
313

14.8
23.4
22.9
33.2
33.6

1,682
1,588
1,415
1,266
1,134

393
350
270
257
327

23.4
22.0
19.1
20.3
28.9

1996������������������������������������
1995������������������������������������
1994������������������������������������
1993������������������������������������
1992 4�����������������������������������

10,054
9,644
6,654
7,434
7,779

1,454
1,411
974
1,134
985

14.5
14.6
14.6
15.3
12.7

8,900
8,582
5,915
6,609
6,922

1,172
1,112
776
898
787

13.2
13.0
13.1
13.6
11.4

1,018
919
582
725
729

300
266
137
126
183

29.5
28.9
23.6
17.4
25.0

1,120
1,013
696
791
828

255
260
179
228
193

22.8
25.6
25.7
28.8
23.3

19915�����������������������������������
1990������������������������������������
1989������������������������������������
19886�����������������������������������
19876�����������������������������������

7,192
7,014
6,673
6,447
6,322

996
858
939
1,117
1,021

13.8
12.2
14.1
17.3
16.1

6,367
6,300
5,917
5,767
5,785

773
712
779
942
875

12.1
11.3
13.2
16.3
15.1

721
638
614
650
584

177
132
212
263
187

24.6
20.7
34.6
40.5
32.0

785
668
712
651
516

209
124
144
160
138

26.6
18.5
20.2
24.5
26.8

ASIAN ALONE
  OR IN COMBINATION

  See footnotes at end of table.

60 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-1.

Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
All people

People in families

Below poverty

Race, Hispanic origin, and
year

Unrelated individuals

Families with female
householder, no
husband present

All families
Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

HISPANIC (ANY RACE)
2009������������������������������������
2008������������������������������������
2007������������������������������������
2006������������������������������������
2005������������������������������������

48,811
47,398
45,933
44,784
43,020

12,350
10,987
9,890
9,243
9,368

25.3
23.2
21.5
20.6
21.8

42,717
41,732
40,125
39,177
37,759

10,345
9,303
8,248
7,650
7,767

24.2
22.3
20.6
19.5
20.6

10,283
9,265
8,917
8,652
7,868

4,176
3,751
3,527
3,189
3,069

40.6
40.5
39.6
36.9
39.0

5,718
5,417
5,508
5,317
4,971

1,801
1,577
1,490
1,468
1,451

31.5
29.1
27.1
27.6
29.2

20041�����������������������������������
2003������������������������������������
2002������������������������������������
2001������������������������������������
20002�����������������������������������

41,690
40,300
39,216
37,312
35,955

9,122
9,051
8,555
7,997
7,747

21.9
22.5
21.8
21.4
21.5

36,438
35,469
34,598
33,110
31,700

7,705
7,637
7,184
6,674
6,430

21.1
21.5
20.8
20.2
20.3

7,825
7,452
7,013
6,830
6,469

3,072
2,861
2,554
2,585
2,444

39.3
38.4
36.4
37.8
37.8

4,971
4,620
4,364
3,981
3,978

1,293
1,325
1,255
1,211
1,163

26.0
28.7
28.8
30.4
29.2

19993�����������������������������������
1998������������������������������������
1997������������������������������������
1996������������������������������������
1995������������������������������������

34,632
31,515
30,637
29,614
28,344

7,876
8,070
8,308
8,697
8,574

22.7
25.6
27.1
29.4
30.3

30,872
28,055
27,467
26,340
25,165

6,702
6,814
7,198
7,515
7,341

21.7
24.3
26.2
28.5
29.2

6,527
6,074
5,718
5,641
5,785

2,642
2,837
2,911
3,020
3,053

40.5
46.7
50.9
53.5
52.8

3,481
3,218
2,976
2,985
2,947

1,068
1,097
1,017
1,066
1,092

30.7
34.1
34.2
35.7
37.0

1994������������������������������������
1993������������������������������������
1992 4�����������������������������������
19915�����������������������������������
1990������������������������������������

27,442
26,559
25,646
22,070
21,405

8,416
8,126
7,592
6,339
6,006

30.7
30.6
29.6
28.7
28.1

24,390
23,439
22,695
19,658
18,912

7,357
6,876
6,455
5,541
5,091

30.2
29.3
28.4
28.2
26.9

5,328
5,333
4,806
4,326
3,993

2,920
2,837
2,474
2,282
2,115

54.8
53.2
51.5
52.7
53.0

2,798
2,717
2,577
2,146
2,254

926
972
881
667
774

33.1
35.8
34.2
31.1
34.3

1989������������������������������������
19886�����������������������������������
19876�����������������������������������
1986������������������������������������
1985������������������������������������

20,746
20,064
19,395
18,758
18,075

5,430
5,357
5,422
5,117
5,236

26.2
26.7
28.0
27.3
29.0

18,488
18,102
17,342
16,880
16,276

4,659
4,700
4,761
4,469
4,605

25.2
26.0
27.5
26.5
28.3

3,763
3,734
3,678
3,631
3,561

1,902
2,052
2,045
1,921
1,983

50.6
55.0
55.6
52.9
55.7

2,045
1,864
1,933
1,685
1,602

634
597
598
553
532

31.0
32.0
31.0
32.8
33.2

1984������������������������������������
1983������������������������������������
1982������������������������������������
1981������������������������������������
1980������������������������������������

16,916
16,544
14,385
14,021
13,600

4,806
4,633
4,301
3,713
3,491

28.4
28.0
29.9
26.5
25.7

15,293
15,075
13,242
12,922
12,547

4,192
4,113
3,865
3,349
3,143

27.4
27.3
29.2
25.9
25.1

3,139
3,032
2,664
2,622
2,421

1,764
1,670
1,601
1,465
1,319

56.2
55.1
60.1
55.9
54.5

1,481
1,364
1,018
1,005
970

545
457
358
313
312

36.8
33.5
35.1
31.1
32.2

1979������������������������������������
1978������������������������������������
1977������������������������������������
1976������������������������������������

13,371
12,079
12,046
11,269

2,921
2,607
2,700
2,783

21.8
21.6
22.4
24.7

12,291
11,193
11,249
10,552

2,599
2,343
2,463
2,516

21.1
20.9
21.9
23.8

2,058
1,817
1,901
1,766

1,053
1,024
1,077
1,000

51.2
56.4
56.7
56.6

991
886
797
716

286
264
237
266

28.8
29.8
29.8
37.2

1975������������������������������������
1974������������������������������������
1973������������������������������������
1972������������������������������������

11,117
11,201
10,795
10,588

2,991
2,575
2,366
2,414

26.9
23.0
21.9
22.8

10,472
10,584
10,269
10,099

2,755
2,374
2,209
2,252

26.3
22.4
21.5
22.3

1,842
1,723
1,534
1,370

1,053
915
881
733

57.2
53.1
57.4
53.5

645
617
526
488

236
201
157
162

36.6
32.6
29.9
33.2

(NA) Not available.
For 2004, figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28,000 household sample expansion.
3
For 1999, figures are based on Census 2000 population controls.
4
For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.
5
For 1991, figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file.
6
For 1988 and 1987, figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report Money Income
and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988, P-60, No. 166.
7
The 2003 CPS allowed respondents to choose more than one race. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of this singlerace population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more
than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6
percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000.
8
For 2001 and earlier years, the CPS allowed respondents to report only one race group. The reference race groups for 2001 and earlier poverty data are White, non-Hispanic White,
Black, and Asian and Pacific Islander.
9
Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race.
10
Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race.
1
2

Note: Prior to 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies were included in people in families. Beginning in 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies are included in all people but are excluded
from people in families.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 61

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

ALL RACES
2009���������������������������
2008���������������������������
2007���������������������������
2006���������������������������
2005���������������������������

74,579
74,068
73,996
73,727
73,285

15,451
14,068
13,324
12,827
12,896

20.7
19.0
18.0
17.4
17.6

73,410
72,980
72,792
72,609
72,095

14,774
13,507
12,802
12,299
12,335

20.1
18.5
17.6
16.9
17.1

190,627
189,185
187,913
186,688
184,345

24,684
22,105
20,396
20,239
20,450

12.9
11.7
10.9
10.8
11.1

38,613
37,788
36,790
36,035
35,505

3,433
3,656
3,556
3,394
3,603

8.9
9.7
9.7
9.4
10.1

20041��������������������������
2003���������������������������
2002���������������������������
2001���������������������������
20002��������������������������

73,241
72,999
72,696
72,021
71,741

13,041
12,866
12,133
11,733
11,587

17.8
17.6
16.7
16.3
16.2

72,133
71,907
71,619
70,950
70,538

12,473
12,340
11,646
11,175
11,005

17.3
17.2
16.3
15.8
15.6

182,166
180,041
178,388
175,685
173,638

20,545
19,443
18,861
17,760
16,671

11.3
10.8
10.6
10.1
9.6

35,209
34,659
34,234
33,769
33,566

3,453
3,552
3,576
3,414
3,323

9.8
10.2
10.4
10.1
9.9

19993��������������������������
1998���������������������������
1997���������������������������
1996���������������������������
1995���������������������������

71,685
71,338
71,069
70,650
70,566

12,280
13,467
14,113
14,463
14,665

17.1
18.9
19.9
20.5
20.8

70,424
70,253
69,844
69,411
69,425

11,678
12,845
13,422
13,764
13,999

16.6
18.3
19.2
19.8
20.2

171,146
167,327
165,329
163,691
161,508

17,289
17,623
18,085
18,638
18,442

10.1
10.5
10.9
11.4
11.4

33,377
32,394
32,082
31,877
31,658

3,222
3,386
3,376
3,428
3,318

9.7
10.5
10.5
10.8
10.5

1994���������������������������
1993���������������������������
19924��������������������������
19915��������������������������
1990���������������������������

70,020
69,292
68,440
65,918
65,049

15,289
15,727
15,294
14,341
13,431

21.8
22.7
22.3
21.8
20.6

68,819
68,040
67,256
64,800
63,908

14,610
14,961
14,521
13,658
12,715

21.2
22.0
21.6
21.1
19.9

160,329
159,208
157,680
154,684
153,502

19,107
19,781
18,793
17,586
16,496

11.9
12.4
11.9
11.4
10.7

31,267
30,779
30,430
30,590
30,093

3,663
3,755
3,928
3,781
3,658

11.7
12.2
12.9
12.4
12.2

1989���������������������������
19886��������������������������
19876��������������������������
1986���������������������������
1985���������������������������

64,144
63,747
63,294
62,948
62,876

12,590
12,455
12,843
12,876
13,010

19.6
19.5
20.3
20.5
20.7

63,225
62,906
62,423
62,009
62,019

12,001
11,935
12,275
12,257
12,483

19.0
19.0
19.7
19.8
20.1

152,282
150,761
149,201
147,631
146,396

15,575
15,809
15,815
16,017
16,598

10.2
10.5
10.6
10.8
11.3

29,566
29,022
28,487
27,975
27,322

3,363
3,481
3,563
3,477
3,456

11.4
12.0
12.5
12.4
12.6

1984���������������������������
1983���������������������������
1982���������������������������
1981���������������������������
1980���������������������������

62,447
62,334
62,345
62,449
62,914

13,420
13,911
13,647
12,505
11,543

21.5
22.3
21.9
20.0
18.3

61,681
61,578
61,565
61,756
62,168

12,929
13,427
13,139
12,068
11,114

21.0
21.8
21.3
19.5
17.9

144,551
143,052
141,328
139,477
137,428

16,952
17,767
17,000
15,464
13,858

11.7
12.4
12.0
11.1
10.1

26,818
26,313
25,738
25,231
24,686

3,330
3,625
3,751
3,853
3,871

12.4
13.8
14.6
15.3
15.7

1979���������������������������
1978���������������������������
1977���������������������������
1976���������������������������
1975���������������������������

63,375
62,311
63,137
64,028
65,079

10,377
9,931
10,288
10,273
11,104

16.4
15.9
16.2
16.0
17.1

62,646
61,987
62,823
63,729
64,750

9,993
9,722
10,028
10,081
10,882

16.0
15.7
16.0
15.8
16.8

135,333
130,169
128,262
126,175
124,122

12,014
11,332
11,316
11,389
11,456

8.9
8.7
8.8
9.0
9.2

24,194
23,175
22,468
22,100
21,662

3,682
3,233
3,177
3,313
3,317

15.2
14.0
14.1
15.0
15.3

1974���������������������������
1973���������������������������
1972���������������������������
1971���������������������������
1970���������������������������

66,134
66,959
67,930
68,816
69,159

10,156
9,642
10,284
10,551
10,440

15.4
14.4
15.1
15.3
15.1

65,802
66,626
67,592
68,474
68,815

9,967
9,453
10,082
10,344
10,235

15.1
14.2
14.9
15.1
14.9

122,101
120,060
117,957
115,911
113,554

10,132
9,977
10,438
10,735
10,187

8.3
8.3
8.8
9.3
9.0

21,127
20,602
20,117
19,827
19,470

3,085
3,354
3,738
4,273
4,793

14.6
16.3
18.6
21.6
24.6

1969���������������������������
1968���������������������������
1967���������������������������
1966���������������������������
1965���������������������������

69,090
70,385
70,408
70,218
69,986

9,691
10,954
11,656
12,389
14,676

14.0
15.6
16.6
17.6
21.0

68,746
70,035
70,058
69,869
69,638

9,501
10,739
11,427
12,146
14,388

13.8
15.3
16.3
17.4
20.7

111,528
108,684
107,024
105,241
(NA)

9,669
9,803
10,725
11,007
(NA)

8.7
9.0
10.0
10.5
(NA)

18,899
18,559
18,240
17,929
(NA)

4,787
4,632
5,388
5,114
(NA)

25.3
25.0
29.5
28.5
(NA)

1964���������������������������
1963���������������������������
1962���������������������������
1961���������������������������
1960���������������������������
1959���������������������������

69,711
69,181
67,722
66,121
65,601
64,315

16,051
16,005
16,963
16,909
17,634
17,552

23.0
23.1
25.0
25.6
26.9
27.3

69,364
68,837
67,385
65,792
65,275
63,995

15,736
15,691
16,630
16,577
17,288
17,208

22.7
22.8
24.7
25.2
26.5
26.9

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
96,685

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
16,457

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
17.0

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
15,557

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
5,481

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
35.2

  See footnotes at end of table.

62 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

WHITE ALONE7
2009���������������������������
2008���������������������������
2007���������������������������
2006���������������������������

56,266
56,153
56,419
56,205

9,938
8,863
8,395
7,908

17.7
15.8
14.9
14.1

55,397
55,339
55,483
55,330

9,440
8,441
8,002
7,522

17.0
15.3
14.4
13.6

152,367
151,681
150,875
150,143

17,391
15,356
14,135
14,035

11.4
10.1
9.4
9.3

33,414
32,714
31,839
31,270

2,501
2,771
2,590
2,473

7.5
8.5
8.1
7.9

2005���������������������������
20041��������������������������
2003���������������������������
2002���������������������������

56,075
56,053
55,779
55,703

8,085
8,308
7,985
7,549

14.4
14.8
14.3
13.6

55,152
55,212
54,989
54,900

7,652
7,876
7,624
7,203

13.9
14.3
13.9
13.1

148,450
146,974
145,783
144,694

14,086
14,486
13,622
13,178

9.5
9.9
9.3
9.1

30,905
30,714
30,303
29,980

2,700
2,534
2,666
2,739

8.7
8.3
8.8
9.1

WHITE8
2001���������������������������
20002��������������������������
19993��������������������������
1998���������������������������
1997���������������������������

56,089
55,980
55,833
56,016
55,863

7,527
7,307
7,639
8,443
8,990

13.4
13.1
13.7
15.1
16.1

55,238
55,021
54,873
55,126
54,870

7,086
6,834
7,194
7,935
8,441

12.8
12.4
13.1
14.4
15.4

143,796
142,164
139,974
138,061
136,784

12,555
11,754
12,085
12,456
12,838

8.7
8.3
8.6
9.0
9.4

29,790
29,703
29,553
28,759
28,553

2,656
2,584
2,446
2,555
2,569

8.9
8.7
8.3
8.9
9.0

1996���������������������������
1995���������������������������
1994���������������������������
1993���������������������������
19924��������������������������

55,606
55,444
55,186
54,639
54,110

9,044
8,981
9,346
9,752
9,399

16.3
16.2
16.9
17.8
17.4

54,599
54,532
54,221
53,614
53,110

8,488
8,474
8,826
9,123
8,752

15.5
15.5
16.3
17.0
16.5

135,586
134,149
133,289
132,680
131,694

12,940
12,869
13,187
13,535
12,871

9.5
9.6
9.9
10.2
9.8

28,464
28,436
27,985
27,580
27,256

2,667
2,572
2,846
2,939
2,989

9.4
9.0
10.2
10.7
11.0

19915��������������������������
1990���������������������������
1989���������������������������
19886��������������������������
19876��������������������������

52,523
51,929
51,400
51,203
51,012

8,848
8,232
7,599
7,435
7,788

16.8
15.9
14.8
14.5
15.3

51,627
51,028
50,704
50,590
50,360

8,316
7,696
7,164
7,095
7,398

16.1
15.1
14.1
14.0
14.7

130,312
129,784
128,974
128,031
126,991

12,097
11,387
10,647
10,687
10,703

9.3
8.8
8.3
8.3
8.4

27,297
26,898
26,479
26,001
25,602

2,802
2,707
2,539
2,593
2,704

10.3
10.1
9.6
10.0
10.6

1986���������������������������
1985���������������������������
1984���������������������������
1983���������������������������
1982���������������������������

51,111
51,031
50,814
50,726
50,920

8,209
8,253
8,472
8,862
8,678

16.1
16.2
16.7
17.5
17.0

50,356
50,358
50,192
50,183
50,305

7,714
7,838
8,086
8,534
8,282

15.3
15.6
16.1
17.0
16.5

125,998
125,258
123,922
123,014
121,766

11,285
11,909
11,904
12,347
11,971

9.0
9.5
9.6
10.0
9.8

25,173
24,629
24,206
23,754
23,234

2,689
2,698
2,579
2,776
2,870

10.7
11.0
10.7
11.7
12.4

1981���������������������������
1980���������������������������
1979���������������������������
1978���������������������������
1977���������������������������

51,140
51,653
52,262
51,669
52,563

7,785
7,181
6,193
5,831
6,097

15.2
13.9
11.8
11.3
11.6

50,553
51,002
51,687
51,409
52,299

7,429
6,817
5,909
5,674
5,943

14.7
13.4
11.4
11.0
11.4

120,574
118,935
117,583
113,832
112,374

10,790
9,478
8,110
7,897
7,893

8.9
8.0
6.9
6.9
7.0

22,791
22,325
21,898
20,950
20,316

2,978
3,042
2,911
2,530
2,426

13.1
13.6
13.3
12.1
11.9

1976���������������������������
1975���������������������������
1974���������������������������
1973���������������������������
1972���������������������������

53,428
54,405
55,590
(NA)
(NA)

6,189
6,927
6,223
(NA)
(NA)

11.6
12.7
11.2
(NA)
(NA)

53,167
54,126
55,320
56,211
57,181

6,034
6,748
6,079
5,462
5,784

11.3
12.5
11.0
9.7
10.1

110,717
109,105
107,579
(NA)
(NA)

7,890
8,210
7,053
(NA)
(NA)

7.1
7.5
6.6
(NA)
(NA)

20,020
19,654
19,206
(NA)
(NA)

2,633
2,634
2,460
2,698
3,072

13.2
13.4
12.8
14.4
16.8

1971���������������������������
1970���������������������������
1969���������������������������
1968���������������������������
1967���������������������������

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

58,119
58,472
58,578
(NA)
(NA)

6,341
6,138
5,667
6,373
6,729

10.9
10.5
9.7
10.7
11.3

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
17,062
16,791

3,605
4,011
4,052
3,939
4,646

19.9
22.6
23.3
23.1
27.7

1966���������������������������
1965���������������������������
1960���������������������������
1959���������������������������

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

7,204
8,595
11,229
11,386

12.1
14.4
20.0
20.6

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

16,514
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

4,357
(NA)
(NA)
4,744

26.4
(NA)
(NA)
33.1

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 63

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

WHITE ALONE,
  NOT HISPANIC7
2009���������������������������
2008���������������������������
2007���������������������������
2006���������������������������

40,917
41,309
41,979
42,212

4,850
4,364
4,255
4,208

11.9
10.6
10.1
10.0

40,319
40,707
41,304
41,563

4,518
4,059
3,996
3,930

11.2
10.0
9.7
9.5

125,511
125,482
125,161
124,847

11,658
10,380
9,598
9,761

9.3
8.3
7.7
7.8

30,736
30,149
29,442
28,990

2,022
2,280
2,179
2,044

6.6
7.6
7.4
7.0

2005���������������������������
20041��������������������������
2003���������������������������
2002���������������������������

42,523
42,978
43,150
43,614

4,254
4,519
4,233
4,090

10.0
10.5
9.8
9.4

41,867
42,363
42,547
43,017

3,973
4,190
3,957
3,848

9.5
9.9
9.3
8.9

124,326
123,481
123,110
122,511

9,708
10,236
9,391
9,157

7.8
8.3
7.6
7.5

28,704
28,639
28,335
28,018

2,264
2,153
2,277
2,321

7.9
7.5
8.0
8.3

WHITE, NOT
  HISPANIC8
2001���������������������������
20002��������������������������
19993��������������������������
1998���������������������������
1997���������������������������

44,095
44,244
44,272
45,355
45,491

4,194
4,018
4,155
4,822
5,204

9.5
9.1
9.4
10.6
11.4

43,459
43,554
43,570
44,670
44,665

3,887
3,715
3,832
4,458
4,759

8.9
8.5
8.8
10.0
10.7

122,470
121,499
120,341
120,282
119,373

8,811
8,130
8,462
8,760
9,088

7.2
6.7
7.0
7.3
7.6

27,973
27,948
27,952
27,118
26,995

2,266
2,218
2,118
2,217
2,200

8.1
7.9
7.6
8.2
8.1

1996���������������������������
1995���������������������������
1994���������������������������
1993���������������������������
19924��������������������������

45,605
45,689
46,668
46,096
45,590

5,072
5,115
5,823
6,255
6,017

11.1
11.2
12.5
13.6
13.2

44,844
44,973
45,874
45,322
44,833

4,656
4,745
5,404
5,819
5,558

10.4
10.6
11.8
12.8
12.4

118,822
118,228
119,192
118,475
117,386

9,074
8,908
9,732
9,964
9,461

7.6
7.5
8.2
8.4
8.1

27,033
27,034
26,684
26,272
26,025

2,316
2,243
2,556
2,663
2,724

8.6
8.3
9.6
10.1
10.5

19915��������������������������
1990���������������������������
1989���������������������������
19886��������������������������
19876��������������������������

45,236
44,797
44,492
44,438
44,461

5,918
5,532
5,110
4,888
5,230

13.1
12.3
11.5
11.0
11.8

44,506
44,045
43,938
43,910
43,907

5,497
5,106
4,779
4,594
4,902

12.4
11.6
10.9
10.5
11.2

117,672
117,477
116,983
116,479
115,721

9,244
8,619
8,154
8,293
8,327

7.9
7.3
7.0
7.1
7.2

26,208
25,854
25,504
25,044
24,754

2,580
2,471
2,335
2,384
2,472

9.8
9.6
9.2
9.5
10.0

1986���������������������������
1985���������������������������
1984���������������������������
1983���������������������������
1982���������������������������

44,664
44,752
44,886
44,830
45,531

5,789
5,745
6,156
6,649
6,566

13.0
12.8
13.7
14.8
14.4

44,041
44,199
44,349
44,374
45,001

5,388
5,421
5,828
6,381
6,229

12.2
12.3
13.1
14.4
13.8

115,157
114,969
114,180
113,570
113,717

8,963
9,608
9,734
10,279
10,082

7.8
8.4
8.5
9.1
8.9

24,298
23,734
23,402
22,992
22,655

2,492
2,486
2,410
2,610
2,714

10.3
10.5
10.3
11.4
12.0

1981���������������������������
1980���������������������������
1979���������������������������
1978���������������������������

45,950
46,578
46,967
46,819

5,946
5,510
4,730
4,506

12.9
11.8
10.1
9.6

45,440
45,989
46,448
46,606

5,639
5,174
4,476
4,383

12.4
11.3
9.6
9.4

112,722
111,460
110,509
107,481

9,207
7,990
6,930
6,837

8.2
7.2
6.3
6.4

22,237
21,760
21,339
20,431

2,834
2,865
2,759
2,412

12.7
13.2
12.9
11.8

1977���������������������������
1976���������������������������
1975���������������������������
1974���������������������������

47,689
48,824
49,670
50,759

4,714
4,799
5,342
4,820

9.9
9.8
10.8
9.5

47,459
48,601
49,421
50,520

4,582
4,664
5,185
4,697

9.7
9.6
10.5
9.3

106,063
104,846
103,496
101,894

6,772
6,720
7,039
6,051

6.4
6.4
6.8
5.9

19,812
19,565
19,251
18,810

2,316
2,506
2,503
2,346

11.7
12.8
13.0
12.5

BLACK ALONE OR
  IN COMBINATION
2009���������������������������
2008���������������������������
2007���������������������������
2006���������������������������

12,655
12,388
12,380
12,375

4,480
4,202
4,178
4,086

35.4
33.9
33.7
33.0

12,445
12,201
12,227
12,206

4,349
4,104
4,106
3,977

34.9
33.6
33.6
32.6

24,815
24,404
23,968
23,510

5,441
5,017
4,742
4,652

21.9
20.6
19.8
19.8

3,405
3,305
3,215
3,128

655
663
748
710

19.2
20.0
23.3
22.7

2005���������������������������
2004 1��������������������������
2003���������������������������
2002���������������������������

12,159
12,190
12,215
12,114

4,074
4,059
4,108
3,817

33.5
33.3
33.6
31.5

11,975
12,012
11,989
11,931

3,972
3,962
3,977
3,733

33.2
33.0
33.2
31.3

23,338
22,842
22,355
22,170

4,735
4,638
4,313
4,376

20.3
20.3
19.3
19.7

3,053
3,005
2,933
2,922

708
714
688
691

23.2
23.8
23.5
23.6

  See footnotes at end of table.

64 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

BLACK ALONE9
2009���������������������������
2008���������������������������
2007���������������������������
2006���������������������������

11,282
11,172
11,302
11,315

4,033
3,878
3,904
3,777

35.7
34.7
34.5
33.4

11,102
10,998
11,174
11,168

3,919
3,781
3,838
3,690

35.3
34.4
34.3
33.0

23,953
23,565
23,213
22,907

5,264
4,855
4,602
4,570

22.0
20.6
19.8
19.9

3,320
3,229
3,150
3,085

647
646
731
701

19.5
20.0
23.2
22.7

2005���������������������������
20041��������������������������
2003���������������������������
2002���������������������������

11,136
11,244
11,367
11,275

3,841
3,788
3,877
3,645

34.5
33.7
34.1
32.3

10,962
11,080
11,162
11,111

3,743
3,702
3,750
3,570

34.2
33.4
33.6
32.1

22,659
22,226
21,746
21,547

4,627
4,521
4,224
4,277

20.4
20.3
19.4
19.9

3,007
2,956
2,876
2,856

701
705
680
680

23.3
23.8
23.7
23.8

BLACK8
2001���������������������������
20002��������������������������
19993��������������������������
1998���������������������������
1997���������������������������

11,556
11,480
11,488
11,317
11,367

3,492
3,581
3,813
4,151
4,225

30.2
31.2
33.2
36.7
37.2

11,419
11,296
11,260
11,176
11,193

3,423
3,495
3,698
4,073
4,116

30.0
30.9
32.8
36.4
36.8

21,462
21,160
21,518
20,837
20,400

4,018
3,794
4,000
4,222
4,191

18.7
17.9
18.6
20.3
20.5

2,853
2,785
2,750
2,723
2,691

626
607
628
718
700

21.9
21.8
22.8
26.4
26.0

1996���������������������������
1995���������������������������
1994���������������������������
1993���������������������������
19924��������������������������

11,338
11,369
11,211
11,127
10,956

4,519
4,761
4,906
5,125
5,106

39.9
41.9
43.8
46.1
46.6

11,155
11,198
11,044
10,969
10,823

4,411
4,644
4,787
5,030
5,015

39.5
41.5
43.3
45.9
46.3

20,155
19,892
19,585
19,272
18,952

4,515
4,483
4,590
5,049
4,884

22.4
22.5
23.4
26.2
25.8

2,616
2,478
2,557
2,510
2,504

661
629
700
702
838

25.3
25.4
27.4
28.0
33.5

19915��������������������������
1990���������������������������
1989���������������������������
19886��������������������������
19876��������������������������

10,350
10,162
10,012
9,865
9,730

4,755
4,550
4,375
4,296
4,385

45.9
44.8
43.7
43.5
45.1

10,178
9,980
9,847
9,681
9,546

4,637
4,412
4,257
4,148
4,234

45.6
44.2
43.2
42.8
44.4

18,355
18,097
17,833
17,548
17,245

4,607
4,427
4,164
4,275
4,361

25.1
24.5
23.3
24.4
25.3

2,606
2,547
2,487
2,436
2,387

880
860
763
785
774

33.8
33.8
30.7
32.2
32.4

1986���������������������������
1985���������������������������
1984���������������������������
1983���������������������������
1982���������������������������

9,629
9,545
9,480
9,417
9,400

4,148
4,157
4,413
4,398
4,472

43.1
43.6
46.6
46.7
47.6

9,467
9,405
9,356
9,245
9,269

4,037
4,057
4,320
4,273
4,388

42.7
43.1
46.2
46.2
47.3

16,911
16,667
16,369
16,065
15,692

4,113
4,052
4,368
4,694
4,415

24.3
24.3
26.7
29.2
28.1

2,331
2,273
2,238
2,197
2,124

722
717
710
791
811

31.0
31.5
31.7
36.0
38.2

1981���������������������������
1980���������������������������
1979���������������������������
1978���������������������������
1977���������������������������

9,374
9,368
9,307
9,229
9,296

4,237
3,961
3,833
3,830
3,888

45.2
42.3
41.2
41.5
41.8

9,291
9,287
9,172
9,168
9,253

4,170
3,906
3,745
3,781
3,850

44.9
42.1
40.8
41.2
41.6

15,358
14,987
14,596
13,774
13,483

4,117
3,835
3,478
3,133
3,137

26.8
25.6
23.8
22.7
23.3

2,102
2,054
2,040
1,954
1,930

820
783
740
662
701

39.0
38.1
36.2
33.9
36.3

1976���������������������������
1975���������������������������
1974���������������������������
1973���������������������������
1972���������������������������

9,322
9,421
9,439
(NA)
(NA)

3,787
3,925
3,755
(NA)
(NA)

40.6
41.7
39.8
(NA)
(NA)

9,291
9,374
9,384
9,405
9,426

3,758
3,884
3,713
3,822
4,025

40.4
41.4
39.6
40.6
42.7

13,224
12,872
12,539
(NA)
(NA)

3,163
2,968
2,836
(NA)
(NA)

23.9
23.1
22.6
(NA)
(NA)

1,852
1,795
1,721
1,672
1,603

644
652
591
620
640

34.8
36.3
34.3
37.1
39.9

1971���������������������������
1970���������������������������
1969���������������������������
1968���������������������������
1967���������������������������
1966���������������������������
1965���������������������������

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

9,414
9,448
9,290
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

3,836
3,922
3,677
4,188
4,558
4,774
5,022

40.4
41.5
39.6
43.1
47.4
50.6
65.6

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

1,584
1,422
1,373
1,374
1,341
1,311
(NA)

623
683
689
655
715
722
711

39.3
48.0
50.2
47.7
53.3
55.1
62.5

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 65

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

ASIAN ALONE OR
  IN COMBINATION
2009���������������������������
2008���������������������������
2007���������������������������
2006���������������������������

3,996
3,717
3,606
3,573

531
494
431
408

13.3
13.3
11.9
11.4

3,946
3,678
3,558
3,530

507
476
402
398

12.9
12.9
11.3
11.3

9,898
9,507
9,531
9,553

1,154
1,031
892
897

11.7
10.8
9.4
9.4

1,378
1,319
1,293
1,205

216
162
144
142

15.7
12.3
11.2
11.8

2005���������������������������
20041��������������������������
2003���������������������������
2002���������������������������

3,472
3,406
3,316
3,199

359
329
420
353

10.3
9.7
12.7
11.0

3,435
3,367
3,279
3,159

352
311
406
338

10.2
9.2
12.4
10.7

9,115
8,780
8,510
8,292

999
819
956
804

11.0
9.3
11.2
9.7

1,144
1,104
1,065
995

144
147
152
86

12.6
13.3
14.2
8.7

ASIAN ALONE10
2009���������������������������
2008���������������������������
2007���������������������������
2006���������������������������

3,311
3,052
2,980
2,956

463
446
374
360

14.0
14.6
12.5
12.2

3,271
3,016
2,932
2,915

444
430
345
351

13.6
14.2
11.8
12.0

9,344
8,961
9,012
9,039

1,069
974
832
851

11.4
10.9
9.2
9.4

1,350
1,296
1,265
1,182

213
157
143
142

15.8
12.1
11.3
12.0

2005���������������������������
20041��������������������������
2003���������������������������
2002���������������������������

2,871
2,854
2,759
2,683

317
281
344
315

11.1
9.9
12.5
11.7

2,842
2,823
2,726
2,648

312
265
331
302

11.0
9.4
12.1
11.4

8,591
8,294
8,044
7,881

941
774
907
764

11.0
9.3
11.3
9.7

1,118
1,083
1,052
977

143
146
151
82

12.8
13.5
14.3
8.4

ASIAN AND PACIFIC
  ISLANDER8
2001���������������������������
20002��������������������������
19993��������������������������
1998���������������������������
1997���������������������������

3,215
3,294
3,212
3,137
3,096

369
420
381
564
628

11.5
12.7
11.9
18.0
20.3

3,169
3,256
3,178
3,099
3,061

353
407
367
542
608

11.1
12.5
11.5
17.5
19.9

8,352
8,500
7,879
6,951
6,680

814
756
807
698
753

9.7
8.9
10.2
10.0
11.3

899
878
864
785
705

92
82
96
97
87

10.2
9.3
11.1
12.4
12.3

1996���������������������������
1995���������������������������
1994���������������������������
1993���������������������������
19924��������������������������

2,924
2,900
1,739
2,061
2,218

571
564
318
375
363

19.5
19.5
18.3
18.2
16.4

2,899
2,858
1,719
2,029
2,199

553
532
308
358
352

19.1
18.6
17.9
17.6
16.0

6,484
6,123
4,401
4,871
5,067

821
757
589
680
568

12.7
12.4
13.4
14.0
11.2

647
622
513
503
494

63
89
67
79
53

9.7
14.3
13.0
15.6
10.8

19915��������������������������
1990���������������������������
1989���������������������������
19886��������������������������
19876��������������������������

2,056
2,126
1,983
1,970
1,937

360
374
392
474
455

17.5
17.6
19.8
24.1
23.5

2,036
2,098
1,945
1,949
1,908

348
356
368
458
432

17.1
17.0
18.9
23.5
22.7

4,582
4,375
4,225
4,035
4,010

565
422
512
583
510

12.3
9.6
12.1
14.4
12.7

555
514
465
442
375

70
62
34
60
56

12.7
12.1
7.4
13.5
15.0

  See footnotes at end of table.

66 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table B-2.

Poverty Status of People by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Under 18 years
All people

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

18 to 64 years

Related children in families

Below poverty

65 years and older

Below poverty

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

HISPANIC
  (ANY RACE)
2009���������������������������
2008���������������������������
2007���������������������������
2006���������������������������
2005���������������������������

16,965
16,370
15,647
15,147
14,654

5,610
5,010
4,482
4,072
4,143

33.1
30.6
28.6
26.9
28.3

16,655
16,138
15,375
14,907
14,361

5,419
4,888
4,348
3,959
3,977

32.5
30.3
28.3
26.6
27.7

29,031
28,311
27,731
27,209
26,051

6,224
5,452
4,970
4,698
4,765

21.4
19.3
17.9
17.3
18.3

2,815
2,717
2,555
2,428
2,315

516
525
438
472
460

18.3
19.3
17.1
19.4
19.9

20041��������������������������
2003���������������������������
2002���������������������������
2001���������������������������
20002��������������������������

14,173
13,730
13,210
12,763
12,399

4,098
4,077
3,782
3,570
3,522

28.9
29.7
28.6
28.0
28.4

13,929
13,519
12,971
12,539
12,115

3,985
3,982
3,653
3,433
3,342

28.6
29.5
28.2
27.4
27.6

25,324
24,490
23,952
22,653
21,734

4,620
4,568
4,334
4,014
3,844

18.2
18.7
18.1
17.7
17.7

2,194
2,080
2,053
1,896
1,822

403
406
439
413
381

18.4
19.5
21.4
21.8
20.9

19993��������������������������
1998���������������������������
1997���������������������������
1996���������������������������
1995���������������������������

12,188
11,152
10,802
10,511
10,213

3,693
3,837
3,972
4,237
4,080

30.3
34.4
36.8
40.3
40.0

11,912
10,921
10,625
10,255
10,011

3,561
3,670
3,865
4,090
3,938

29.9
33.6
36.4
39.9
39.3

20,782
18,668
18,217
17,587
16,673

3,843
3,877
3,951
4,089
4,153

18.5
20.8
21.7
23.3
24.9

1,661
1,696
1,617
1,516
1,458

340
356
384
370
342

20.5
21.0
23.8
24.4
23.5

1994���������������������������
1993���������������������������
19924��������������������������
19915��������������������������
1990���������������������������

9,822
9,462
9,081
7,648
7,457

4,075
3,873
3,637
3,094
2,865

41.5
40.9
40.0
40.4
38.4

9,621
9,188
8,829
7,473
7,300

3,956
3,666
3,440
2,977
2,750

41.1
39.9
39.0
39.8
37.7

16,192
15,708
15,268
13,279
12,857

4,018
3,956
3,668
3,008
2,896

24.8
25.2
24.0
22.7
22.5

1,428
1,390
1,298
1,143
1,091

323
297
287
237
245

22.6
21.4
22.1
20.8
22.5

1989���������������������������
19886��������������������������
19876��������������������������
1986���������������������������
1985���������������������������

7,186
7,003
6,792
6,646
6,475

2,603
2,631
2,670
2,507
2,606

36.2
37.6
39.3
37.7
40.3

7,040
6,908
6,692
6,511
6,346

2,496
2,576
2,606
2,413
2,512

35.5
37.3
38.9
37.1
39.6

12,536
12,056
11,718
11,206
10,685

2,616
2,501
2,509
2,406
2,411

20.9
20.7
21.4
21.5
22.6

1,024
1,005
885
906
915

211
225
243
204
219

20.6
22.4
27.5
22.5
23.9

1984���������������������������
1983���������������������������
1982���������������������������
1981���������������������������
1980���������������������������

6,068
6,066
5,527
5,369
5,276

2,376
2,312
2,181
1,925
1,749

39.2
38.1
39.5
35.9
33.2

5,982
5,977
5,436
5,291
5,211

2,317
2,251
2,117
1,874
1,718

38.7
37.7
38.9
35.4
33.0

10,029
9,697
8,262
8,084
7,740

2,254
2,148
1,963
1,642
1,563

22.5
22.5
23.8
20.3
20.2

819
782
596
568
582

176
173
159
146
179

21.5
22.1
26.6
25.7
30.8

1979���������������������������
1978���������������������������
1977���������������������������
1976���������������������������
1975���������������������������
1974���������������������������
1973���������������������������

5,483
5,012
5,028
4,771
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

1,535
1,384
1,422
1,443
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

28.0
27.6
28.3
30.2
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

5,426
4,972
5,000
4,736
4,896
4,939
4,910

1,505
1,354
1,402
1,424
1,619
1,414
1,364

27.7
27.2
28.0
30.1
33.1
28.6
27.8

7,314
6,527
6,500
6,034
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

1,232
1,098
1,164
1,212
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

16.8
16.8
17.9
20.1
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

574
539
518
464
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

154
125
113
128
137
117
95

26.8
23.2
21.9
27.7
32.6
28.9
24.9

(NA) Not available.
For 2004, figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28,000 household sample expansion.
3
For 1999, figures are based on Census 2000 population controls.
4
For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.
5
For 1991, figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file.
6
For 1988 and 1987, figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report Money Income
and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988, P-60, No. 166.
7
The 2003 CPS allowed respondents to choose more than one race. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of this
single-race population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported
more than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About
2.6 percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000.
8
For 2001 and earlier years, the CPS allowed respondents to report only one race group. The reference race groups for 2001 and earlier poverty data are White, non-Hispanic White,
Black, and Asian and Pacific Islander.
9
Black alone refers to people who reported Black and did not report any other race.
10
Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race.
1
2

Note: Before 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies were included in people in families. Beginning in 1979, people in unrelated subfamilies are included in all people but are excluded
from people in families.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 67

Table B-3.

Poverty Status of Families, by Type of Family: 1959 to 2009
(Numbers in thousands. Families as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
All families
Race, Hispanic
origin, and year

ALL RACES
2009������������������������
2008������������������������
2007������������������������
2006������������������������
2005������������������������
20041�����������������������
2003������������������������
2002������������������������
2001������������������������
20002�����������������������
19993�����������������������
1998������������������������
1997������������������������
1996������������������������
1995������������������������
1994������������������������
1993������������������������
19924�����������������������
19915�����������������������
1990������������������������
1989������������������������
19886�����������������������
19876�����������������������
1986������������������������
1985������������������������
1984������������������������
1983������������������������
1982������������������������
1981������������������������
1980������������������������
1979������������������������
1978������������������������
1977������������������������
1976������������������������
1975������������������������
1974������������������������
1973������������������������
1972������������������������
1971������������������������
1970������������������������
1969������������������������
1968������������������������
1967������������������������
1966������������������������
1965������������������������
1964������������������������
1963������������������������
1962������������������������
1961������������������������
1960������������������������
1959������������������������

Married-couple families

Below poverty

Male householder,
no wife present

Below poverty

Female householder,
no husband present

Below poverty

Below poverty

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

Total

Number

Percent

78,867
78,874
77,908
78,454
77,418
76,866
76,232
75,616
74,340
73,778
73,206
71,551
70,884
70,241
69,597
69,313
68,506
68,216
67,175
66,322
66,090
65,837
65,204
64,491
63,558
62,706
62,015
61,393
61,019
60,309
59,550
57,804
57,215
56,710
56,245
55,698
55,053
54,373
53,296
52,227
51,586
50,511
49,835
48,921
48,278
47,836
47,436
46,998
46,341
45,435
45,054

8,792
8,147
7,623
7,668
7,657
7,835
7,607
7,229
6,813
6,400
6,792
7,186
7,324
7,708
7,532
8,053
8,393
8,144
7,712
7,098
6,784
6,874
7,005
7,023
7,223
7,277
7,647
7,512
6,851
6,217
5,461
5,280
5,311
5,311
5,450
4,922
4,828
5,075
5,303
5,260
5,008
5,047
5,667
5,784
6,721
7,160
7,554
8,077
8,391
8,243
8,320

11.1
10.3
9.8
9.8
9.9
10.2
10.0
9.6
9.2
8.7
9.3
10.0
10.3
11.0
10.8
11.6
12.3
11.9
11.5
10.7
10.3
10.4
10.7
10.9
11.4
11.6
12.3
12.2
11.2
10.3
9.2
9.1
9.3
9.4
9.7
8.8
8.8
9.3
10.0
10.1
9.7
10.0
11.4
11.8
13.9
15.0
15.9
17.2
18.1
18.1
18.5

58,428
59,137
58,395
58,964
58,189
57,983
57,725
57,327
56,755
56,598
56,290
54,778
54,321
53,604
53,570
53,865
53,181
53,090
52,457
52,147
52,317
52,100
51,675
51,537
50,933
50,350
50,081
49,908
49,630
49,294
49,112
47,692
47,385
47,497
47,318
47,069
46,812
46,314
45,752
44,739
44,436
43,842
43,292
42,553
42,107
41,648
41,311
40,923
40,405
39,624
39,335

3,409
3,261
2,849
2,910
2,944
3,216
3,115
3,052
2,760
2,637
2,748
2,879
2,821
3,010
2,982
3,272
3,481
3,385
3,158
2,981
2,931
2,897
3,011
3,123
3,438
3,488
3,815
3,789
3,394
3,032
2,640
2,474
2,524
2,606
2,904
2,474
2,482
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

5.8
5.5
4.9
4.9
5.1
5.5
5.4
5.3
4.9
4.7
4.9
5.3
5.2
5.6
5.6
6.1
6.5
6.4
6.0
5.7
5.6
5.6
5.8
6.1
6.7
6.9
7.6
7.6
6.8
6.2
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.5
6.1
5.3
5.3
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

5,582
5,255
5,103
5,067
5,134
4,901
4,717
4,663
4,440
4,277
4,099
3,977
3,911
3,847
3,513
3,228
2,914
3,065
3,025
2,907
2,884
2,847
2,833
2,510
2,414
2,228
2,038
2,016
1,986
1,933
1,733
1,654
1,594
1,500
1,445
1,399
1,438
1,452
1,353
1,487
1,559
1,228
1,210
1,197
1,179
1,182
1,243
1,334
1,293
1,202
1,226

942
723
696
671
669
657
636
564
583
485
485
476
507
531
493
549
488
484
392
349
348
336
340
287
311
292
268
290
205
213
176
152
177
162
116
125
154
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

16.9
13.8
13.6
13.2
13.0
13.4
13.5
12.1
13.1
11.3
11.8
12.0
13.0
13.8
14.0
17.0
16.8
15.8
13.0
12.0
12.1
11.8
12.0
11.4
12.9
13.1
13.2
14.4
10.3
11.0
10.2
9.2
11.1
10.8
8.0
8.9
10.7
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

14,857
14,482
14,411
14,424
14,095
13,981
13,791
13,626
13,146
12,903
12,818
12,796
12,652
12,790
12,514
12,220
12,411
12,061
11,693
11,268
10,890
10,890
10,696
10,445
10,211
10,129
9,896
9,469
9,403
9,082
8,705
8,458
8,236
7,713
7,482
7,230
6,804
6,607
6,191
6,001
5,591
5,441
5,333
5,171
4,992
5,006
4,882
4,741
4,643
4,609
4,493

4,441
4,163
4,078
4,087
4,044
3,962
3,856
3,613
3,470
3,278
3,559
3,831
3,995
4,167
4,057
4,232
4,424
4,275
4,161
3,768
3,504
3,642
3,654
3,613
3,474
3,498
3,564
3,434
3,252
2,972
2,645
2,654
2,610
2,543
2,430
2,324
2,193
2,158
2,100
1,952
1,827
1,755
1,774
1,721
1,916
1,822
1,972
2,034
1,954
1,955
1,916

29.9
28.7
28.3
28.3
28.7
28.3
28.0
26.5
26.4
25.4
27.8
29.9
31.6
32.6
32.4
34.6
35.6
35.4
35.6
33.4
32.2
33.4
34.2
34.6
34.0
34.5
36.0
36.3
34.6
32.7
30.4
31.4
31.7
33.0
32.5
32.1
32.2
32.7
33.9
32.5
32.7
32.3
33.3
33.1
38.4
36.4
40.4
42.9
42.1
42.4
42.6

(NA) Not available.
For 2004, figures are revised to reflect a correction to the weights in the 2005 ASEC.
Consistent with 2001 data through implementation of Census 2000-based population controls and a 28,000 household sample expansion.
3
For 1999, figures are based on Census 2000 population controls.
4
For 1992, figures are based on 1990 census population controls.
5
For 1991, figures are revised to correct for nine omitted weights from the original March 1992 CPS file.
6
For 1988 and 1987, figures are based on new processing procedures and are also revised to reflect corrections to the files after publication of the 1988 advance report
Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1988, P-60, No. 166.
1
2

Note: Before 1979, unrelated subfamilies were included in all families. Beginning in 1979, unrelated subfamilies are excluded from all families.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1960 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

68 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

APPENDIX C.
ESTIMATES OF health insurance coverage
Quality of Health Insurance
Coverage Estimates
National surveys and health insurance coverage. Health insurance coverage is likely to be underreported on
the Current Population Survey (CPS).
While underreporting affects most,
if not all, surveys, underreporting of
health insurance coverage appears
to be a larger problem in the Annual
Social and Economic Supplement
(ASEC) than in other national surveys that ask about insurance. Some
reasons for the disparity may include
the fact that income, not health insurance, is the main focus of the ASEC
questionnaire. In addition, the ASEC
collects health insurance information
in February through April but asks
about the previous year’s coverage.
Asking annual retrospective questions appears to cause few problems
when collecting income data (possibly
because the interview period is close
to when people pay their taxes), but
it may be less than ideal when asking
about health insurance coverage.
Compared with other national surveys, the CPS estimate of the number
of people without health insurance
more closely approximates the number of people who are uninsured at a
specific point in time during the year
than the number of people uninsured
for the entire year. For a comparison
of health insurance coverage rates
from the major federal surveys, see
How Many People Lack Insurance and
for How Long? (Congressional Budget
Office, May 2003).

Reporting of coverage through
major federal health insurance
programs. The CPS ASEC data underreport Medicare and Medicaid coverage compared with enrollment and
participation data from the Centers
for Medicare and Medicaid Services
1
(CMS) . Because the CPS is largely
a labor force survey, interviewers
receive less training on health insurance concepts than labor concepts.
Additionally, many people may not be
aware that a health insurance program covers them or their children if
they have not used covered services
recently. CMS data, on the other hand,
represent the actual number of people
who have enrolled or participated in
these programs.
The State Health Access Data
Assistance Center (SHADAC) of the
University of Minnesota has worked
with the U.S. Census Bureau, CMS,
and the Office of the Assistant
Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
(ASPE) on a research project to evaluate why CPS ASEC estimates of the
number of people with Medicaid are
lower than counts of the number of
people enrolled in the program from
CMS. Reports from all four phases of
the research project are available from
the Census Bureau’s Web site at
<www.census.gov/did/www/snacc/>.
During Phase 2, files from the
Medicaid Statistical Information
System (MSIS) were linked with the
CPS ASEC files and the individual
records were compared. The report
from Phase 2 showed a gap between
CPS ASEC estimates and MSIS files of

1 CMS is the federal agency primarily responsible for administering the Medicare and Medicaid programs at the national level.

U.S. Census Bureau

2.8 million Medicaid enrollees. A key
finding indicating survey response
error in the CPS ASEC was that 16.9
percent of people with an MSIS record
indicating Medicaid coverage reported
in the CPS ASEC that they were
2
uninsured. The report found that
Medicaid subscribers with longer and
more recent enrollment were more
likely to report coverage. Respondents
for children enrolled in Medicaid
were more apt to report coverage for
those children than for enrolled adults
within the household. Families with
lower incomes tended to report coverage more frequently. Individuals who
received Medicaid services during
the reporting cycle tended to report
coverage more often than individuals who had not received services.
Reporting differences were also apparent among states.
Phase 3 of the research project is
further broken down into three steps
that attempt to account for discrepancies found in Phase 2 between the
MSIS records and the CPS ASEC files.
These steps focus on determining
the number of enrollees who were
out-of-scope for the 2001 March CPS
interview (people living in institutions and other group quarters are not
eligible for CPS ASEC interview; MSIS
counts all people, regardless of their
living situation). Phase 3 narrowed the
gap between CPS ASEC estimates and
MSIS files by 1.0 million, to 1.8 million
Medicaid enrollees.
Phase 4 consisted of repeating the
Phase 2 process using the National
2 For consistency purposes across the MSIS
and the CPS, SHADAC removed all MSIS enrollees
who received only partial coverage, those who
had died before the CPS reporting cycle, and
all duplicate person records. Also, all Children’s
Health Insurance Program (CHIP) enrollees were
removed from the MSIS count.

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 69

Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data
instead of CPS data. The purpose of
this was two-fold: to provide explanations for the differences found
between NHIS data and MSIS files
and to examine how differing survey
designs and methodologies affect the
survey data and estimates. The report
found that the NHIS Medicaid undercount was 27.3 percent in 2001 and
21.7 percent in 2002, but noted that
the NHIS added questions in 2004 and
these results may not apply to more
recent data. The report found higher
false-negative reporting for enrollees
who were older, had higher incomes
and also had private insurance. Falsenegative reporting was lower for very
low-income enrollees, those on other
benefits programs, and those who
had recently used Medicaid services.
The report found that the dynamics of
false-negative reporting was similar in
NHIS and CPS.
In November of 2008, SHADAC
released a new imputation adjustment for public use CPS ASEC microdata through their website to help
researchers interested in partially

3

adjusting the CPS ASEC data. This is
an experimental imputation, and was
produced for interested parties to use
in their research. The Census Bureau
has not evaluated the methodology,
and users should be aware that this is
not an official data product.
There are several ongoing projects
aimed at improving the quality of
health coverage data from the CPS
ASEC. This research includes: 1)
cognitive research and field testing
to improve the wording of the CPS
ASEC health coverage questions;
2) editing and imputation research,
including additional research on the
use of models that attempt to account
for Medicaid underreporting; and 3)
expanding the number of studies that
match administrative Medicaid data to
current survey data to include other
surveys, such as the National Health
Interview Survey (NHIS) and the
American Community Survey (ACS).
This research will make it possible

to compare and contrast CPS ASEC
underreporting rates with other surveys. This, in turn, will allow Census
Bureau analysts to better understand
the nature and impact of CPS ASEC
health coverage underreporting.
After consulting with health insurance
experts, the Census Bureau modified
the definition of the population without health insurance in the supplement to the March 1998 CPS, which
collected data about coverage in
1997. Previously, people with no coverage other than access to the Indian
Health Service were counted as part
of the insured population. Subsequently,
the Census Bureau has counted these
people as uninsured. In 2009, a modification to uninsured foster children
was made. Health insurance experts
informed the Census Bureau that
all foster children were eligible for
Medicaid. The effect of these changes
on the overall estimates of health
insurance coverage was negligible.

3 See <www.shadac.org/publications
/medicaid-under-reporting-in-cps-and-one
-approach-partial-correction> for more
information.

70 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table C-1

Health Insurance Coverage: 1987 to 2009
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Year

Government health insurance

Total
people

Total

Total

Employment
based

Number
2009���������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������
2001���������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ��������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������
1998���������������������������������������������������������
5
1997 ������������������������������������������������������
6
1996 ������������������������������������������������������
1995 ��������������������������������������������������������
7
1994 ������������������������������������������������������
8
1993 ������������������������������������������������������
9
1992 ��������������������������������������������������������
1991���������������������������������������������������������
1990���������������������������������������������������������
1989���������������������������������������������������������
1988���������������������������������������������������������
10
1987 ������������������������������������������������������

304,280
301,483
299,106
296,824
293,834
291,166
288,280
285,933
282,082
279,517
276,804
274,087
271,743
269,094
266,792
264,314
262,105
259,753
256,830
251,447
248,886
246,191
243,685
241,187

253,606
255,143
253,449
249,829
249,020
247,669
244,876
243,914
242,322
241,091
238,037
233,073
228,800
226,735
225,699
223,733
222,387
220,040
218,189
216,003
214,167
212,807
211,005
210,161

194,545
200,992
201,991
201,690
201,167
200,924
199,871
200,891
201,695
202,794
200,721
196,536
192,507
189,955
188,224
185,881
184,318
182,351
181,466
181,375
182,135
183,610
182,019
182,160

169,689
176,332
177,446
177,152
176,924
176,247
175,844
177,095
178,261
179,436
176,838
171,692
170,105
166,419
164,096
161,453
159,634
148,318
148,796
150,077
150,215
151,644
150,940
149,739

27,219
26,777
26,673
27,066
27,055
27,551
26,783
26,846
26,309
26,799
27,731
27,298
26,165
27,431
28,419
30,188
31,349
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

93,167
87,411
83,031
80,270
80,213
79,486
76,755
73,624
71,295
69,037
67,683
66,176
66,087
66,685
69,000
69,776
70,163
68,554
66,244
63,882
60,965
57,382
56,850
56,282

Percent
2009���������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������
2001���������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ��������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������
1998���������������������������������������������������������
5
1997 ��������������������������������������������������������
6
1996 ��������������������������������������������������������
1995���������������������������������������������������������
7
1994 ��������������������������������������������������������
8
1993 ��������������������������������������������������������
9
1992 ��������������������������������������������������������
1991���������������������������������������������������������
1990���������������������������������������������������������
1989���������������������������������������������������������
1988���������������������������������������������������������
10
1987 ������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

83.3
84.6
84.7
84.2
84.7
85.1
84.9
85.3
85.9
86.3
86.0
85.0
84.2
84.3
84.6
84.6
84.8
84.7
85.0
85.9
86.1
86.4
86.6
87.1

63.9
66.7
67.5
67.9
68.5
69.0
69.3
70.3
71.5
72.6
72.5
71.7
70.8
70.6
70.6
70.3
70.3
70.2
70.7
72.1
73.2
74.6
74.7
75.5

55.8
58.5
59.3
59.7
60.2
60.5
61.0
61.9
63.2
64.2
63.9
62.6
62.6
61.8
61.5
61.1
60.9
57.1
57.9
59.7
60.4
61.6
61.9
62.1

8.9
8.9
8.9
9.1
9.2
9.5
9.3
9.4
9.3
9.6
10.0
9.9
9.6
10.2
10.7
11.4
12.0
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

30.6
29.0
27.8
27.0
27.3
27.3
26.6
25.7
25.3
24.7
24.5
24.1
24.3
24.8
25.9
26.4
26.8
26.4
25.8
25.4
24.5
23.3
23.3
23.3

Medicare

Military
health
1
care

Not
covered

47,758
42,641
39,554
38,281
38,104
37,955
35,647
33,246
31,601
29,533
28,506
27,890
27,854
28,956
31,451
31,877
31,645
31,749
29,416
26,880
24,261
21,185
20,728
20,211

43,440
43,029
41,375
40,343
40,177
39,703
39,456
38,448
38,043
37,740
36,923
36,066
35,887
35,590
35,227
34,655
33,901
33,097
33,230
32,907
32,260
31,495
30,925
30,458

12,412
11,560
10,955
10,547
11,166
10,789
9,979
10,063
9,552
9,099
8,648
8,530
8,747
8,527
8,712
9,375
11,165
9,560
9,510
9,820
9,922
9,870
10,105
10,542

50,674
46,340
45,657
46,995
44,815
43,498
43,404
42,019
39,760
38,426
38,767
41,014
42,943
42,359
41,093
40,582
39,718
39,713
38,641
35,445
34,719
33,385
32,680
31,026

15.7
14.1
13.2
12.9
13.0
13.0
12.4
11.6
11.2
10.6
10.3
10.2
10.3
10.8
11.8
12.1
12.1
12.2
11.5
10.7
9.7
8.6
8.5
8.4

14.3
14.3
13.8
13.6
13.7
13.6
13.7
13.4
13.5
13.5
13.3
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.1
12.9
12.7
12.9
13.1
13.0
12.8
12.7
12.6

4.1
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.1
3.1
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.5
4.3
3.7
3.7
3.9
4.0
4.0
4.1
4.4

16.7
15.4
15.3
15.8
15.3
14.9
15.1
14.7
14.1
13.7
14.0
15.0
15.8
15.7
15.4
15.4
15.2
15.3
15.0
14.1
13.9
13.6
13.4
12.9

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

(NA) Not available. Respondents were not asked detailed health insurance questions about direct-purchase coverage before the 1995 Current Population Survey (CPS) Annual Economic and
Economic (ASEC) Supplement.
1

Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Health and Medical Program of the
Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military.
2
The 2004 and 2005 data were revised in March 2007. See <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/data/usernote/index.html>.
3
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
4
Estimates reflect the results of follow-up verification questions and implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.
5
Beginning with the 1998 CPS ASEC, people with no coverage other than access to Indian Health Service are no longer considered covered by health insurance; instead, they are considered to be
uninsured. The effect of this change on the overall estimates of health insurance coverage is negligible; however, the decrease in the number of people covered by Medicaid may be partially due to this
change.
6
The data for 1996 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004 and 2005 estimates. To see the original series, see Table C-1 in Income,
Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005 at <www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p60-231.pdf>.
7
Health insurance questions were redesigned. Increases in estimates of employment-based and military health care coverage may be partially due to questionnaire changes. Overall coverage
estimates were not affected.
8
Data collection method changed from paper and pencil to computer-assisted interviewing.
9
Implementation of 1990 census population controls.
10
Implementation of a new CPS ASEC processing system.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 1988 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 71

Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2009
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

Employment
Direct
based purchase

Government health insurance
Military
health
1
care

Not
covered

43,440
43,029
41,375
40,343
40,177
39,703
39,456
38,448
38,043
37,740
36,923

12,412
11,560
10,955
10,547
11,166
10,789
9,979
10,063
9,552
9,099
8,648

50,674
46,340
45,657
46,995
44,815
43,498
43,404
42,019
39,760
38,426
38,767

15.7
14.1
13.2
12.9
13.0
13.0
12.4
11.6
11.2
10.6
10.3

14.3
14.3
13.8
13.6
13.7
13.6
13.7
13.4
13.5
13.5
13.3

4.1
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.1

16.7
15.4
15.3
15.8
15.3
14.9
15.1
14.7
14.1
13.7
14.0

71,502
67,449
64,390
62,613
62,138
61,572
59,495
57,072

32,814
29,224
27,172
26,507
25,968
25,888
23,959
22,171

36,807
36,469
35,117
34,416
34,326
34,061
33,765
33,135

9,984
9,290
8,852
8,621
9,020
8,623
8,105
8,065

38,399
34,890
34,300
35,486
33,946
33,022
32,717
31,417

9.8
9.8
9.8
9.9
9.9
10.2
10.1
10.3

29.5
28.0
26.9
26.3
26.3
26.3
25.6
24.7

13.5
12.1
11.4
11.1
11.0
11.1
10.3
9.6

15.2
15.1
14.7
14.5
14.6
14.5
14.5
14.4

4.1
3.9
3.7
3.6
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.5

15.8
14.5
14.3
14.9
14.4
14.1
14.1
13.6

149,788
150,708
149,024

23,333
23,722
24,458

56,200
54,287
53,175

21,535
19,889
18,977

33,006
32,695
32,144

7,788
7,158
6,902

29,998
28,928
28,657

65.1
66.0
66.0

10.1
10.4
10.8

24.4
23.8
23.6

9.4
8.7
8.4

14.3
14.3
14.2

3.4
3.1
3.1

13.0
12.7
12.7

Total
people

Total

Total

ALL RACES
Number
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

304,280
301,483
299,106
296,824
293,834
291,166
288,280
285,933
282,082
279,517
276,804

253,606
255,143
253,449
249,829
249,020
247,669
244,876
243,914
242,322
241,091
238,037

194,545
200,992
201,991
201,690
201,167
200,924
199,871
200,891
201,695
202,794
200,721

169,689
176,332
177,446
177,152
176,924
176,247
175,844
177,095
178,261
179,436
176,838

27,219
26,777
26,673
27,066
27,055
27,551
26,783
26,846
26,309
26,799
27,731

93,167
87,411
83,031
80,270
80,213
79,486
76,755
73,624
71,295
69,037
67,683

47,758
42,641
39,554
38,281
38,104
37,955
35,647
33,246
31,601
29,533
28,506

Percent
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

83.3
84.6
84.7
84.2
84.7
85.1
84.9
85.3
85.9
86.3
86.0

63.9
66.7
67.5
67.9
68.5
69.0
69.3
70.3
71.5
72.6
72.5

55.8
58.5
59.3
59.7
60.2
60.5
61.0
61.9
63.2
64.2
63.9

8.9
8.9
8.9
9.1
9.2
9.5
9.3
9.4
9.3
9.6
10.0

30.6
29.0
27.8
27.0
27.3
27.3
26.6
25.7
25.3
24.7
24.5

WHITE ALONE
Number
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

242,403
240,852
239,399
237,892
235,903
234,116
232,254
230,809

204,004
205,962
205,099
202,405
201,957
201,095
199,537
199,392

161,513
166,916
167,905
167,640
167,430
167,475
167,503
168,745

139,809
145,183
146,398
146,285
146,365
145,890
146,300
147,706

23,742
23,537
23,433
23,530
23,452
23,997
23,483
23,686

Percent
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

84.2
85.5
85.7
85.1
85.6
85.9
85.9
86.4

66.6
69.3
70.1
70.5
71.0
71.5
72.1
73.1

57.7
60.3
61.2
61.5
62.0
62.3
63.0
64.0

WHITE
Number
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

230,071
228,208
225,794

200,073
199,280
197,137

170,710
171,543
170,289

Percent
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0

87.0
87.3
87.3

74.2
75.2
75.4

Total Medicaid Medicare

4

5

  See footnotes at end of table.

72 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

Government health insurance

Employment
Direct
based purchase

Military
health
1
care

Not
covered

33,729
33,444
32,436
31,860
31,717
31,624
31,458
30,718

9,119
8,498
8,131
7,869
8,276
8,005
7,563
7,465

23,658
21,322
20,548
21,162
20,909
20,554
20,468
19,674

10.7
9.5
9.0
9.0
8.9
8.9
8.3
7.7

17.1
17.0
16.5
16.2
16.2
16.2
16.1
15.8

4.6
4.3
4.1
4.0
4.2
4.1
3.9
3.8

12.0
10.8
10.4
10.8
10.7
10.5
10.5
10.1

47,661
46,297
45,540

15,035
13,788
13,157

30,811
30,642
30,256

7,144
6,564
6,326

18,333
17,652
17,813

11.3
11.6
12.0

24.5
23.9
23.6

7.7
7.1
6.8

15.8
15.8
15.7

3.7
3.4
3.3

9.4
9.1
9.2

18,259
19,422
19,498
19,257
19,146
19,144
18,885
19,038

1,825
1,743
1,771
1,835
2,009
1,909
1,773
1,638

16,166
15,063
13,985
13,121
13,864
13,623
13,195
12,624

11,384
10,385
9,606
9,086
9,730
9,562
9,292
8,744

4,731
4,671
4,398
4,127
4,184
3,996
4,080
3,851

1,704
1,663
1,445
1,289
1,438
1,492
1,283
1,342

8,414
7,602
7,624
7,921
7,239
7,103
7,108
7,257

44.6
48.3
49.1
49.3
49.4
50.1
50.2
51.0

4.5
4.3
4.5
4.7
5.2
5.0
4.7
4.4

39.5
37.5
35.2
33.6
35.8
35.7
35.0
33.8

27.8
25.8
24.2
23.2
25.1
25.0
24.7
23.4

11.6
11.6
11.1
10.6
10.8
10.5
10.8
10.3

4.2
4.1
3.6
3.3
3.7
3.9
3.4
3.6

20.5
18.9
19.2
20.3
18.7
18.6
18.9
19.4

Total
people

Total

Total

WHITE ALONE, NOT HISPANIC
Number
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

197,436
197,159
196,768
196,252
195,893
195,347
194,877
194,421

173,778
175,837
176,220
175,091
174,984
174,793
174,409
174,747

143,651
147,855
149,122
149,592
149,613
149,882
150,563
151,812

123,440
127,687
129,138
129,618
130,075
129,766
130,614
132,101

22,262
21,844
21,717
22,068
21,724
22,346
22,090
22,291

56,944
54,271
52,512
51,445
51,189
51,002
49,743
47,736

21,063
18,724
17,786
17,731
17,396
17,462
16,247
14,984

Percent
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

88.0
89.2
89.6
89.2
89.3
89.5
89.5
89.9

72.8
75.0
75.8
76.2
76.4
76.7
77.3
78.1

62.5
64.8
65.6
66.0
66.4
66.4
67.0
67.9

11.3
11.1
11.0
11.2
11.1
11.4
11.3
11.5

28.8
27.5
26.7
26.2
26.1
26.1
25.5
24.6

WHITE, NOT HISPANIC
Number
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

194,822
193,931
192,858

176,488
176,279
175,045

154,218
155,152
154,407

134,586
135,472
134,436

22,009
22,476
23,110

Percent
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0

90.6
90.9
90.8

79.2
80.0
80.1

69.1
69.9
69.7

BLACK ALONE OR IN COMBINATION
Number
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

40,957
40,216
39,683
39,083
38,729
38,179
37,651
37,350

32,543
32,614
32,059
31,162
31,491
31,077
30,543
30,093

19,901
21,042
21,226
20,966
20,935
20,800
20,376
20,440

Percent
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

79.5
81.1
80.8
79.7
81.3
81.4
81.1
80.6

48.6
52.3
53.5
53.6
54.1
54.5
54.1
54.7

Total Medicaid Medicare

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 73

Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

Government health insurance

Employment
Direct
based purchase

Military
health
1
care

Not
covered

4,598
4,539
4,303
4,059
4,108
3,921
3,989
3,776

1,564
1,544
1,358
1,216
1,357
1,415
1,225
1,268

8,102
7,284
7,372
7,652
7,006
6,864
6,887
7,062

27.1
25.4
23.8
22.8
24.8
24.8
24.4
23.1

11.9
11.9
11.4
10.9
11.1
10.7
11.0
10.5

4.1
4.1
3.6
3.3
3.7
3.9
3.4
3.5

21.0
19.1
19.5
20.5
19.0
18.8
19.1
19.7

11,616
11,579
11,361

7,994
7,735
7,652

3,783
3,871
3,615

1,192
1,372
1,216

6,664
6,532
6,975

4.8
5.4
5.9

32.2
32.5
31.7

22.2
21.7
21.3

10.5
10.9
10.1

3.3
3.9
3.4

18.5
18.3
19.4

9,050
8,946
8,951
9,033
8,788
8,428
7,891
7,652

1,390
1,216
1,216
1,387
1,272
1,342
1,181
1,208

3,530
2,969
2,888
2,859
2,558
2,599
2,478
2,341

2,167
1,704
1,659
1,616
1,341
1,389
1,385
1,322

1,353
1,290
1,238
1,227
1,133
1,110
1,096
1,008

477
374
379
404
461
440
355
347

2,503
2,484
2,321
2,160
2,286
2,031
2,329
2,172

59.2
61.5
62.0
63.0
63.9
63.3
61.1
61.2

9.1
8.4
8.4
9.7
9.2
10.1
9.2
9.7

23.1
20.4
20.0
19.9
18.6
19.5
19.2
18.7

14.2
11.7
11.5
11.3
9.7
10.4
10.7
10.6

8.9
8.9
8.6
8.6
8.2
8.3
8.5
8.1

3.1
2.6
2.6
2.8
3.3
3.3
2.7
2.8

16.4
17.1
16.1
15.1
16.6
15.3
18.0
17.4

Total
people

Total

Total

BLACK ALONE
Number
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

38,624
38,076
37,775
37,369
36,965
36,548
36,121
35,806

30,522
30,792
30,403
29,717
29,959
29,684
29,234
28,744

18,813
19,894
20,169
20,034
19,950
19,899
19,552
19,544

17,275
18,371
18,525
18,401
18,263
18,352
18,135
18,193

1,744
1,638
1,691
1,766
1,918
1,803
1,701
1,589

15,020
14,177
13,234
12,454
13,168
12,995
12,585
12,058

10,459
9,686
8,986
8,531
9,154
9,048
8,797
8,289

Percent
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

79.0
80.9
80.5
79.5
81.0
81.2
80.9
80.3

48.7
52.2
53.4
53.6
54.0
54.4
54.1
54.6

44.7
48.2
49.0
49.2
49.4
50.2
50.2
50.8

4.5
4.3
4.5
4.7
5.2
4.9
4.7
4.4

38.9
37.2
35.0
33.3
35.6
35.6
34.8
33.7

BLACK
Number
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

36,023
35,597
35,893

29,359
29,065
28,918

20,569
20,652
20,638

19,177
19,075
19,039

1,713
1,910
2,118

Percent
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0

81.5
81.7
80.6

57.1
58.0
57.5

53.2
53.6
53.0

ASIAN ALONE OR IN COMBINATION
Number
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

15,281
14,548
14,444
14,348
13,758
13,307
12,905
12,504

12,778
12,065
12,122
12,188
11,472
11,276
10,577
10,332

10,302
9,998
9,995
10,222
9,886
9,611
8,908
8,728

Percent
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

83.6
82.9
83.9
84.9
83.4
84.7
82.0
82.6

67.4
68.7
69.2
71.2
71.9
72.2
69.0
69.8

Total Medicaid Medicare

6

5

  See footnotes at end of table.

74 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table C-2.

Health Insurance Coverage by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1999 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Race, Hispanic origin,
and year

Government health insurance

Employment
Direct
based purchase

Military
health
1
care

Not
covered

1,304
1,258
1,195
1,187
1,103
1,081
1,067
988

370
292
296
335
353
366
295
270

2,409
2,344
2,234
2,045
2,161
1,900
2,171
2,060

13.9
11.6
11.5
11.2
9.6
10.5
10.4
10.4

9.3
9.5
9.0
9.0
8.8
8.8
9.0
8.5

2.6
2.2
2.2
2.5
2.8
3.0
2.5
2.3

17.2
17.6
16.8
15.5
17.2
15.5
18.3
17.8

2,312
2,249
2,204

1,257
1,288
1,179

949
886
897

414
443
450

2,208
2,220
2,196

8.8
7.9
8.2

18.5
17.7
18.4

10.1
10.1
9.9

7.6
7.0
7.5

3.3
3.5
3.8

17.7
17.5
18.4

17,830
19,094
18,551
17,934
17,597
17,499
16,970
16,921
16,096
16,031
15,419

1,618
1,797
1,804
1,587
1,856
1,788
1,559
1,481
1,401
1,354
1,414

16,006
14,448
13,031
12,207
11,958
11,530
10,716
10,280
9,227
8,566
8,168

12,959
11,559
10,348
9,646
9,357
9,205
8,505
7,946
7,074
6,552
6,253

3,274
3,218
2,887
2,757
2,771
2,614
2,462
2,535
2,295
2,141
1,979

989
898
801
813
869
697
639
724
704
682
626

15,820
14,558
14,770
15,296
13,954
13,313
13,070
12,569
12,292
11,753
11,328

36.5
40.2
40.3
40.0
40.8
41.8
42.0
43.0
43.0
44.4
44.3

3.3
3.8
3.9
3.5
4.3
4.3
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.8
4.1

32.7
30.4
28.3
27.2
27.7
27.6
26.5
26.1
24.6
23.7
23.5

26.5
24.3
22.5
21.5
21.7
22.0
21.0
20.2
18.9
18.2
18.0

6.7
6.8
6.3
6.1
6.4
6.2
6.1
6.4
6.1
5.9
5.7

2.0
1.9
1.7
1.8
2.0
1.7
1.6
1.8
1.9
1.9
1.8

32.4
30.7
32.1
34.1
32.3
31.8
32.3
31.9
32.8
32.6
32.6

Total
people

Total

Total

14,011
13,315
13,268
13,194
12,599
12,241
11,869
11,558

11,602
10,971
11,034
11,149
10,438
10,341
9,698
9,499

9,352
9,081
9,067
9,339
9,006
8,805
8,210
8,024

8,180
8,094
8,107
8,201
7,968
7,711
7,263
7,004

1,315
1,138
1,127
1,323
1,206
1,250
1,111
1,151

3,187
2,708
2,649
2,636
2,301
2,398
2,244
2,132

1,951
1,540
1,528
1,480
1,211
1,280
1,229
1,202

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

82.8
82.4
83.2
84.5
82.8
84.5
81.7
82.2

66.7
68.2
68.3
70.8
71.5
71.9
69.2
69.4

58.4
60.8
61.1
62.2
63.2
63.0
61.2
60.6

9.4
8.5
8.5
10.0
9.6
10.2
9.4
10.0

22.7
20.3
20.0
20.0
18.3
19.6
18.9
18.4

12,500
12,693
11,964

10,291
10,473
9,769

8,716
8,993
8,299

7,748
8,178
7,426

1,099
1,005
982

100.0
100.0
100.0

82.3
82.5
81.6

69.7
70.9
69.4

62.0
64.4
62.1

48,901
47,485
46,026
44,854
43,168
41,840
40,425
39,384
37,438
36,093
34,773

33,081
32,928
31,256
29,558
29,214
28,527
27,355
26,815
25,146
24,340
23,445

19,453
20,779
20,194
19,434
19,252
19,090
18,372
18,324
17,460
17,264
16,786

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

67.6
69.3
67.9
65.9
67.7
68.2
67.7
68.1
67.2
67.4
67.4

39.8
43.8
43.9
43.3
44.6
45.6
45.4
46.5
46.6
47.8
48.3

Total Medicaid Medicare

7

ASIAN ALONE
Number
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������
Percent
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������
5

ASIAN AND PACIFIC ISLANDER
Number
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������
Percent
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������
HISPANIC (ANY RACE)
Number
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������
Percent
2009���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2008���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2007���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2006���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
2003���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2002���������������������������������������������������������������������������
2001���������������������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������
1999���������������������������������������������������������������������������
1

Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Health and Medical
Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military.
2
The 2004 and 2005 data were revised in March 2007. See <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthinsdata/usernote/index.html>.
3
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
4
The 2003 CPS asked respondents to choose one or more races. White alone refers to people who reported White and did not report any other race category. The use of this singlerace population does not imply that it is the preferred method of presenting or analyzing data. The Census Bureau uses a variety of approaches. Information on people who reported more
than one race, such as White and American Indian and Alaska Native or Asian and Black or African American, is available from Census 2000 through American FactFinder. About 2.6
percent of people reported more than one race in Census 2000.
5
The 2001 CPS and earlier years asked respondents to report only one race. The reference groups for these years are White, White not Hispanic, Black, and Asian and Pacific
Islander.
6
Black alone refers to people who reported Black or African American and did not report any other race.
7
Asian alone refers to people who reported Asian and did not report any other race.
Note: All years reflect the implementation of the verification question. The data for 1999 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to
the 2004 and 2005 estimates. To see the original series, see Table C-1 in Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005 at <www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs
/p60-231.pdf>.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2000 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 75

Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2009
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Age

Government health insurance

Total
people

Total

Total

Employment
based

ALL AGES
Number
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ��������������������������������������������������������������

304,280
301,483
299,106
296,824
293,834
291,166
288,280
285,933
282,082
279,517
276,804

253,606
255,143
253,449
249,829
249,020
247,669
244,876
243,914
242,322
241,091
238,037

194,545
200,992
201,991
201,690
201,167
200,924
199,871
200,891
201,695
202,794
200,721

169,689
176,332
177,446
177,152
176,924
176,247
175,844
177,095
178,261
179,436
176,838

27,219
26,777
26,673
27,066
27,055
27,551
26,783
26,846
26,309
26,799
27,731

93,167
87,411
83,031
80,270
80,213
79,486
76,755
73,624
71,295
69,037
67,683

Percent
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ��������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

83.3
84.6
84.7
84.2
84.7
85.1
84.9
85.3
85.9
86.3
86.0

63.9
66.7
67.5
67.9
68.5
69.0
69.3
70.3
71.5
72.6
72.5

55.8
58.5
59.3
59.7
60.2
60.5
61.0
61.9
63.2
64.2
63.9

8.9
8.9
8.9
9.1
9.2
9.5
9.3
9.4
9.3
9.6
10.0

UNDER 18 YEARS
Number
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ��������������������������������������������������������������

75,040
74,510
74,403
74,101
73,985
73,791
73,580
73,312
72,628
72,314
72,281

67,527
67,161
66,254
65,440
65,935
66,070
65,466
65,082
64,401
63,929
63,248

45,288
47,282
47,750
47,906
48,686
49,017
48,784
49,807
49,978
50,755
50,588

41,892
43,874
44,252
44,257
45,039
45,274
45,297
46,510
46,762
47,679
47,102

Percent
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

90.0
90.1
89.0
88.3
89.1
89.5
89.0
88.8
88.7
88.4
87.5

60.4
63.5
64.2
64.6
65.8
66.4
66.3
67.9
68.8
70.2
70.0

55.8
58.9
59.5
59.7
60.9
61.4
61.6
63.4
64.4
65.9
65.2

Medicare

Military
health
1
care

Not
covered

47,758
42,641
39,554
38,281
38,104
37,955
35,647
33,246
31,601
29,533
28,506

43,440
43,029
41,375
40,343
40,177
39,703
39,456
38,448
38,043
37,740
36,923

12,412
11,560
10,955
10,547
11,166
10,789
9,979
10,063
9,552
9,099
8,648

50,674
46,340
45,657
46,995
44,815
43,498
43,404
42,019
39,760
38,426
38,767

30.6
29.0
27.8
27.0
27.3
27.3
26.6
25.7
25.3
24.7
24.5

15.7
14.1
13.2
12.9
13.0
13.0
12.4
11.6
11.2
10.6
10.3

14.3
14.3
13.8
13.6
13.7
13.6
13.7
13.4
13.5
13.5
13.3

4.1
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.1

16.7
15.4
15.3
15.8
15.3
14.9
15.1
14.7
14.1
13.7
14.0

3,819
3,812
3,930
3,890
4,035
4,271
3,918
3,876
3,647
3,604
4,087

27,605
24,767
23,041
22,109
21,934
22,023
21,389
19,662
18,822
17,658
16,793

25,331
22,555
20,899
20,067
19,723
19,917
19,392
17,526
16,502
15,090
14,697

543
623
518
411
538
503
483
524
423
518
364

2,365
2,241
2,101
2,058
2,264
2,090
2,021
2,148
2,381
2,563
2,076

7,513
7,348
8,149
8,661
8,050
7,721
8,114
8,229
8,227
8,385
9,033

5.1
5.1
5.3
5.3
5.5
5.8
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.0
5.7

36.8
33.2
31.0
29.8
29.6
29.8
29.1
26.8
25.9
24.4
23.2

33.8
30.3
28.1
27.1
26.7
27.0
26.4
23.9
22.7
20.9
20.3

0.7
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.5

3.2
3.0
2.8
2.8
3.1
2.8
2.7
2.9
3.3
3.5
2.9

10.0
9.9
11.0
11.7
10.9
10.5
11.0
11.2
11.3
11.6
12.5

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

  See footnotes at end of table.

76 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Age

Government health insurance

Total
people

Total

Total

Employment
based

18 TO 24 YEARS
Number
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

29,313
28,688
28,398
28,405
27,965
28,008
27,824
27,438
27,312
26,815
26,326

20,389
20,488
20,407
20,081
19,765
19,762
19,703
19,575
19,910
19,612
19,245

16,308
16,947
17,074
17,030
16,733
16,765
16,834
16,834
17,292
17,295
16,817

12,802
13,450
13,747
13,768
13,526
13,354
13,720
13,691
14,039
14,351
13,836

1,705
1,700
1,635
1,736
1,580
1,604
1,637
1,582
1,653
1,554
1,591

5,366
4,741
4,428
4,006
4,199
4,106
3,929
3,738
3,642
3,361
3,485

Percent
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

69.6
71.4
71.9
70.7
70.7
70.6
70.8
71.3
72.9
73.1
73.1

55.6
59.1
60.1
60.0
59.8
59.9
60.5
61.4
63.3
64.5
63.9

43.7
46.9
48.4
48.5
48.4
47.7
49.3
49.9
51.4
53.5
52.6

5.8
5.9
5.8
6.1
5.6
5.7
5.9
5.8
6.1
5.8
6.0

25 TO 34 YEARS
Number
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

41,085
40,520
40,146
39,868
39,480
39,310
39,201
39,243
38,670
38,865
39,031

29,122
29,766
29,817
29,154
29,320
29,544
29,055
29,685
29,826
30,547
30,532

24,708
25,879
26,430
25,814
25,751
26,176
25,812
26,715
27,124
27,951
27,962

22,612
24,130
24,505
24,009
23,927
24,381
24,136
25,022
25,521
26,388
26,369

Percent
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

70.9
73.5
74.3
73.1
74.3
75.2
74.1
75.6
77.1
78.6
78.2

60.1
63.9
65.8
64.7
65.2
66.6
65.8
68.1
70.1
71.9
71.6

55.0
59.6
61.0
60.2
60.6
62.0
61.6
63.8
66.0
67.9
67.6

Medicare

Military
health
1
care

Not
covered

4,437
3,798
3,563
3,252
3,289
3,291
3,016
2,909
2,831
2,508
2,684

199
254
180
154
186
208
176
183
180
207
152

900
868
823
721
872
807
902
779
742
805
787

8,923
8,200
7,991
8,323
8,201
8,247
8,121
7,863
7,402
7,203
7,081

18.3
16.5
15.6
14.1
15.0
14.7
14.1
13.6
13.3
12.5
13.2

15.1
13.2
12.5
11.4
11.8
11.8
10.8
10.6
10.4
9.4
10.2

0.7
0.9
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.6

3.1
3.0
2.9
2.5
3.1
2.9
3.2
2.8
2.7
3.0
3.0

30.4
28.6
28.1
29.3
29.3
29.4
29.2
28.7
27.1
26.9
26.9

2,428
2,189
2,347
2,160
2,259
2,329
2,085
2,105
2,087
2,056
2,148

5,662
5,086
4,539
4,460
4,751
4,678
4,210
3,944
3,653
3,551
3,578

4,236
3,748
3,237
3,374
3,449
3,482
3,073
2,801
2,587
2,480
2,458

547
546
501
472
541
479
538
455
489
403
332

1,209
1,104
1,047
890
1,058
1,015
898
922
817
922
974

11,963
10,754
10,329
10,713
10,161
9,766
10,146
9,558
8,844
8,318
8,499

5.9
5.4
5.8
5.4
5.7
5.9
5.3
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.5

13.8
12.6
11.3
11.2
12.0
11.9
10.7
10.1
9.4
9.1
9.2

10.3
9.3
8.1
8.5
8.7
8.9
7.8
7.1
6.7
6.4
6.3

1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.4
1.2
1.4
1.2
1.3
1.0
0.8

2.9
2.7
2.6
2.2
2.7
2.6
2.3
2.3
2.1
2.4
2.5

29.1
26.5
25.7
26.9
25.7
24.8
25.9
24.4
22.9
21.4
21.8

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

  See footnotes at end of table.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 77

Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Age

Government health insurance

Total
people

Total

Total

Employment
based

35 TO 44 YEARS
Number
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

40,447
41,322
42,132
42,762
43,121
43,351
43,573
44,074
44,284
44,566
44,474

31,689
33,287
34,415
34,744
35,220
35,446
35,796
36,464
37,272
37,820
37,894

27,962
29,780
31,067
31,531
31,903
32,061
32,654
33,424
34,449
35,186
35,074

26,125
27,899
29,009
29,463
29,747
29,944
30,497
31,362
32,522
33,135
32,776

2,385
2,444
2,687
2,788
2,808
2,833
2,806
2,826
2,655
2,747
3,170

5,043
4,685
4,546
4,409
4,628
4,747
4,420
4,240
4,003
3,920
4,028

Percent
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

78.3
80.6
81.7
81.2
81.7
81.8
82.2
82.7
84.2
84.9
85.2

69.1
72.1
73.7
73.7
74.0
74.0
74.9
75.8
77.8
79.0
78.9

64.6
67.5
68.9
68.9
69.0
69.1
70.0
71.2
73.4
74.4
73.7

5.9
5.9
6.4
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.4
6.4
6.0
6.2
7.1

45 TO 54 YEARS
Number
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

44,387
44,366
43,935
43,461
42,797
41,961
41,068
40,234
39,545
38,720
37,334

36,481
37,312
37,161
36,819
36,570
36,074
35,443
34,913
34,595
34,227
32,927

32,147
33,234
33,350
33,250
33,114
32,776
32,368
32,011
31,909
31,659
30,548

29,867
30,861
30,805
30,868
30,651
30,370
30,053
29,884
29,718
29,578
28,448

Percent
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

82.2
84.1
84.6
84.7
85.5
86.0
86.3
86.8
87.5
88.4
88.2

72.4
74.9
75.9
76.5
77.4
78.1
78.8
79.6
80.7
81.8
81.8

67.3
69.6
70.1
71.0
71.6
72.4
73.2
74.3
75.2
76.4
76.2

Medicare

Military
health
1
care

Not
covered

3,562
3,155
3,027
2,977
3,087
3,192
2,860
2,728
2,532
2,390
2,390

934
970
924
806
885
901
940
881
860
780
825

1,029
1,097
1,016
1,015
1,099
1,153
1,111
1,121
1,066
1,206
1,257

8,759
8,035
7,717
8,018
7,901
7,904
7,777
7,610
7,012
6,746
6,580

12.5
11.3
10.8
10.3
10.7
11.0
10.1
9.6
9.0
8.8
9.1

8.8
7.6
7.2
7.0
7.2
7.4
6.6
6.2
5.7
5.4
5.4

2.3
2.3
2.2
1.9
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.9

2.5
2.7
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.7
2.8

21.7
19.4
18.3
18.8
18.3
18.2
17.8
17.3
15.8
15.1
14.8

3,134
3,182
3,292
3,297
3,396
3,324
3,255
3,124
3,135
3,103
3,226

5,956
5,797
5,363
5,182
4,956
4,898
4,569
4,345
3,990
3,964
3,682

3,552
3,313
3,103
2,885
2,837
2,656
2,359
2,227
2,071
1,996
1,769

1,796
1,967
1,795
1,739
1,591
1,550
1,569
1,382
1,331
1,384
1,162

1,443
1,371
1,285
1,337
1,355
1,426
1,369
1,351
1,170
1,169
1,244

7,906
7,054
6,774
6,642
6,227
5,886
5,625
5,321
4,950
4,492
4,407

7.1
7.2
7.5
7.6
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.8
7.9
8.0
8.6

13.4
13.1
12.2
11.9
11.6
11.7
11.1
10.8
10.1
10.2
9.9

8.0
7.5
7.1
6.6
6.6
6.3
5.7
5.5
5.2
5.2
4.7

4.0
4.4
4.1
4.0
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.4
3.4
3.6
3.1

3.3
3.1
2.9
3.1
3.2
3.4
3.3
3.4
3.0
3.0
3.3

17.8
15.9
15.4
15.3
14.5
14.0
13.7
13.2
12.5
11.6
11.8

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

  See footnotes at end of table.

78 Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009

U.S. Census Bureau

Table C-3.

Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 1999 to 2009—Con.
(Numbers in thousands. People as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cpsmar10.pdf)
Covered by private and/or government health insurance
Private health insurance

Age

Government health insurance

Total
people

Total

Total

Employment
based

55 TO 64 YEARS
Number
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

35,395
34,289
33,302
32,191
30,981
29,536
28,375
27,399
25,874
24,672
23,981

30,462
29,989
29,291
28,096
27,154
26,016
25,039
24,219
22,820
21,641
21,082

25,718
25,584
25,114
24,255
23,543
22,640
21,963
21,170
19,959
18,977
18,678

23,245
22,906
22,569
21,701
21,092
20,254
19,692
18,844
17,862
16,792
16,518

3,290
3,346
3,237
3,276
3,194
3,180
3,051
3,123
2,832
2,990
3,008

7,280
6,901
6,651
6,122
5,886
5,478
4,893
4,882
4,567
4,185
4,033

Percent
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

86.1
87.5
88.0
87.3
87.6
88.1
88.2
88.4
88.2
87.7
87.9

72.7
74.6
75.4
75.3
76.0
76.7
77.4
77.3
77.1
76.9
77.9

65.7
66.8
67.8
67.4
68.1
68.6
69.4
68.8
69.0
68.1
68.9

9.3
9.8
9.7
10.2
10.3
10.8
10.8
11.4
10.9
12.1
12.5

65 YEARS AND OLDER
Number
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

38,613
37,788
36,790
36,035
35,505
35,209
34,659
34,234
33,769
33,566
33,377

37,937
37,142
36,103
35,494
35,056
34,755
34,373
33,976
33,498
33,314
33,109

22,414
22,287
21,206
21,904
21,437
21,488
21,457
20,929
20,984
20,971
21,054

13,146
13,212
12,558
13,086
12,942
12,670
12,448
11,782
11,837
11,512
11,789

Percent
2009�����������������������������������������������������������������
2008�����������������������������������������������������������������
2007�����������������������������������������������������������������
2006�����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2005 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2
2004 ����������������������������������������������������������������
2003�����������������������������������������������������������������
2002�����������������������������������������������������������������
2001�����������������������������������������������������������������
3
2000 ����������������������������������������������������������������
4
1999 ����������������������������������������������������������������

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

98.2
98.3
98.1
98.5
98.7
98.7
99.2
99.2
99.2
99.3
99.2

58.0
59.0
57.6
60.8
60.4
61.0
61.9
61.1
62.1
62.5
63.1

34.0
35.0
34.1
36.3
36.5
36.0
35.9
34.4
35.1
34.3
35.3

Medicare

Military
health
1
care

Not
covered

2,991
2,644
2,462
2,362
2,325
2,085
1,757
1,773
1,807
1,731
1,551

3,318
3,365
3,179
2,956
2,708
2,644
2,494
2,392
2,301
2,159
2,084

2,254
2,059
2,079
1,845
1,908
1,795
1,471
1,482
1,220
1,024
1,053

4,933
4,301
4,011
4,095
3,826
3,519
3,335
3,180
3,054
3,031
2,899

20.6
20.1
20.0
19.0
19.0
18.5
17.2
17.8
17.7
17.0
16.8

8.5
7.7
7.4
7.3
7.5
7.1
6.2
6.5
7.0
7.0
6.5

9.4
9.8
9.5
9.2
8.7
9.0
8.8
8.7
8.9
8.8
8.7

6.4
6.0
6.2
5.7
6.2
6.1
5.2
5.4
4.7
4.2
4.4

13.9
12.5
12.0
12.7
12.4
11.9
11.8
11.6
11.8
12.3
12.1

10,457
10,103
9,546
9,918
9,783
10,010
10,032
10,210
10,299
10,746
10,501

36,255
35,434
34,464
33,982
33,859
33,555
33,345
32,813
32,618
32,398
32,083

3,649
3,428
3,263
3,364
3,394
3,332
3,190
3,283
3,270
3,339
2,956

36,102
35,304
34,278
33,806
33,727
33,419
33,257
32,631
32,458
32,289
32,004

3,213
2,821
2,604
2,682
2,611
2,504
2,206
2,259
2,156
1,410
1,257

676
646
686
541
449
454
286
258
272
251
268

27.1
26.7
25.9
27.5
27.6
28.4
28.9
29.8
30.5
32.0
31.5

93.9
93.8
93.7
94.3
95.4
95.3
96.2
95.8
96.6
96.5
96.1

9.4
9.1
8.9
9.3
9.6
9.5
9.2
9.6
9.7
9.9
8.9

93.5
93.4
93.2
93.8
95.0
94.9
96.0
95.3
96.1
96.2
95.9

8.3
7.5
7.1
7.4
7.4
7.1
6.4
6.6
6.4
4.2
3.8

1.8
1.7
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.3
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.8

Direct
purchase

Total

Medicaid

1

Military health care includes Tricare and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as care provided by the Health and Medical Program of the
Department of Veterans Affairs and care provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military.
2
The 2004 and 2005 data were revised in March 2007. See <www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/data/usernote/index.html>.
3
Implementation of a 28,000 household sample expansion.
4
Estimates reflect the results of follow-up verification questions and implementation of Census 2000-based population controls.
Note: All years reflect the implementation of the verification question. The data for 1999 through 2003 were revised using an approximation method for consistency with the revision to the 2004 and
2005 estimates. To see the original series, see Table C-1 in Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005 at <www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs
/p60-231.pdf>.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2000 to 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.

U.S. Census Bureau

Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2009 79

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