24-.)+Arya Bhattacherjee
My mother used to hum tunes to make me fall asleep. I still remember some of those tunes. Haunting melodies. Later on I discovered, many of those were actually compositions by some of the pioneers of Indian Classical music. Our home in Calcutta has an atmosphere of music. I still remember the 74 rpm LP records, wistful renderings from the giants of Indian Classical music, which were kept well out of my reach. Nevertheless, we listened to them, and tried to emulate them with the help of a music teacher who used to come on Sundays. In Bengal, my home state, culture invariably seeps into our dayto-day life. It happens naturally, as, by convention, every Bengali child gets into learning some form or other of dominant cultural expressions. Music, theatre, dance, poetry, storytelling, painting, sculpture – name it and you have it. I was no exception. My childhood spent in Calcutta has stayed with me. Always. It is still my guiding spirit. Today I am a software businessman, settled abroad. In the course of my travels across the world, I have come across a variety of cultural experiences. These experiences have re-affirmed my confidence in Indian Classical Music as the greatest possible rejuvenator of life. The compassionate faith healer of torn, bruised emotions acquired out of everyday trials and tribulations. Indian Classical music catches you unaware, forces you to look beyond everyday life, reminds you of your roots, your human self. Indian Classical Music teaches the art of living. At times, when lonely, the need to share my most intimate memories emerged . I felt that, maybe, my experiences were not isolated. There must be others who thought similarly. People who depend on the many moods of Indian Classical music to guide them through the serpentine by-lanes of livelihood.

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PREAMBLE
Pdt. Kumar Prasad Mukherji
My profession as a software businessman made me settle down in America. I have seen my children grow up without any inkling of what they do not have. They need to know their culture if they are to understand their roots. I felt that something definitely needs to be done for them, and countless others like them. No, I can’t give them what I have had. Yes, I can share with them my passion, my emotions; I can at least try to give them what they deserve. The first attempt was to introduce them with Indian Classical music with available options. Before long I realized that this is somewhat impossible. They may have the inclination, but they do not have the time to enjoy hour-long renditions. Life has become much faster. I realized that Indian Classical Music could be re-presented in a way that could be easily accepted and enjoyed by the maturing face of globalisation. “Khayal” was the evident choice – the most popular and flexible form of Classical music rendition in India. They had to be presented in a concise form without interfering with their mood and content. It was a difficult task, but, if achieved, would open up a new gateway for a generation that wants to be acquainted with it, but do not have the time. I am not a musician, but a music lover. Yet, I took the liberty of personally selecting the bandishes for this presentation from the rich repertoire of Indian classical music. I also gathered enough courage to approach the two most accomplished vocalists of our times, and explained the idea to them. It was fortunate that they agreed to be part of the experiment. The results are with you.

The Birth of Khayal…
The most popular mode of rendition in Indian Classical Music
The most widely accepted variety of H i n d u s t h a n i Classical Music today is called ‘Khayal’. Over the past fifty years, Khayal has steadily gained popularity in comparison with ‘Dhrupad’, a form with simple grandeur and lack of embellishments. Khayal, with its flexibility and ability to incorporate musical ornamentations, has effectively regaled the new listeners of Indian Classical Music, the middle and upper middle class.

Myths and Reality…
Where did Khayal come from?
Popular myth attributes the birth of khayal to A m i r Khusrau, Khusrau the statesman poet of the court of Alauddin Khilji in the 13th century. This has been disproved by a number of musicologists headed by Thakur Jaidev Singh, Singh an outstanding scholar of Philosophy and the theory of music. According to him, the birth of khayal took place many centuries ago. “I maintain”, he writes, “that the so called ‘khayal’ style of musical composition is nothing but only a natural development of ‘Sadharan geeti’, which used the exquisite features of all the styles... There is definite proof that such styles of musical compositions have been in existence in Indian music at least from the 7th or 8th century A.D.

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‘ Sadharani geeti ’ (songs sung by ordinary people) and ‘ Qawali’(songs of devotion addressing the almighty. there is no doubt.Music for the uncommon common man… The Sadharani style The sadharani style of composition with generous and plentiful use of gamaks became our ‘khyal’ composition. old. King of Jaunpur (15th century) though each of them lent a hand in its development”. murki. The Debate continues… Amir Khushru. because Yet.. meend. lots of questions remain… Lets not get into endless debates. There was no system of notation till the middle of the 19th century.. in its present form.khatka. much of which is speculation. andolan . The modern musicologist is inclined to take this view that khayal. The ragas. Khyal expolited all the famous features (ornamentations) without bothering about their names . Our belief is that Khayal was born out of a marriage between. prospered in the hands of the muslim ‘sufis’.” “Khayal” includes manifestation of many forms… Marriage between Sadharani Geeti and Qawali A few things emerge from my own research. Ratanjhankar Ratanjhankar) Commemorative they have not stood the test of the time. also a scholar of Sanskrit and Persian. kamp. (Commemorative volume of Dr S. as well as that of several historians and musicologists. owes its existence to the later day Moghuls as well as the Nawabs of Oudh. rather than the dry pages of musical history. once again meant for the common man). Neither Amir Khusrau invented it nor did Sultan Sharqi. show an attempt to blend Persian tunes with Hindusthani ones. It was neither imported from Arabia nor from Persia... that he had tried to liberate the traditional Hindusthani music shackled by the ‘ shastrakars ’ and grammarians and showed a new path which in the hands of the muslim ‘sufis’ developed into a form of considerable aesthetic appeal. 4 5 . which he created. in the court of Alauddin Khilji. is no more than 300 yrs.. . These could not have been of a high order. He was the son of a Turkish father. Roughly speaking khayal. ‘Qawali’ is a form of religious song in chorus.. . he could not think of obsignating this music of creative imagination better than the word ‘khyal’. However. ‘Qaul’ and ‘Qawali’ prospered because of their poetic quality. He goes on to write in his Bengali book ‘Moghul Bharater Moghul Chinta’ Sangeet Chinta (The Musical Thoughts of Moghul India) – “ Amir Khusrau was not a great admirer of Hindsthani music. and his mother belonged to Hindusthan and his desire to import Persian music was to demigrate the music of Hindusthan. may have just named it… Among other musicologists who support this theory is Rajyeshwar Mitra.everything was beautifully woven into its structure… When Amir Khusrau in the 13th century heard the ornate style or ‘ rupak alapti’ full of so many embellishments. just enjoy the music… But no one knows about the earlier forms of khayal . as it is sung today. impressed by it. .N. The present day musicologist is more interested in music as a performing art.

Durga. like the different genres i. Re.is a matter of speculation. which is reported to have been sung before ‘Akbar the Great (1556-1605) and which is so high browed. 2002 Jait Kalyan. Bihar ‘bihari’. the base is the same… Just a few changes in the scale. Sindh ‘sindhu’. it was never above incorporating the folk. are common to those in North and Western India. out of which we have Bhupali. This Pentatonic scale. This is found in China as well.Birth of the ‘ragas’ The foundations of Indian Classical Music… The Ragas in Hindusthani music. Gujrat ‘gurjari todi’. to the tempered scale of major and minor notes as in Europe. i. here and there… In Karnatic music of South India. the core… The basis of our Ragas… In my opinion. though the last named raga consists of six notes. just as ‘hori dhamar’ belonged to Mathura. Jaunpur ‘ jaunpuri todi’.e. Multan ‘ multani ’. Whether we got it from them.e. Great’ Akbar that nobody now-a-days listens to it. Mukherji “The Music. khayal and thumri ) are born out of Indian Folk Music To quote Prof. again we have got Shudh Kalyan and 6 7 . the regional. Ragas described before Samrat Akbar’s reign and before the advent of muslim rule. all of them use the pentatonic scale of Sa-Re-Ga-Pa-Dha with different movements. D. Surat ‘surat’. some musicologists believe is the oldest. Indian Culture 2nd edition 1942. They are mentioned because many people in India think that our ragas and raginis (female species) emanated from Gods and Rishis (sages of the past)” (Modern Modern Culture. “Murchhana”. By changing the key we get Malkauns. Karnatic Music. Dha. though they carry the same name. which deal with four major notes. do not remotely resemble the present ones. The features of the ragas stopped changing since we adopted the tempered scale. the basis of our ragas is ‘ murchhana ’ or modulation. republished by Rupa and Co under the title Indian Culture . possibly with the advent of Christian Missionaries.a sociological study 2002). Such features are nothing special to Indian music. Bengal gave ‘bangal bhairav ’. only Ga. or exported it along with Buddhism . while North and Western India have switched over at some period in the past. though under different names. historical fact about our classical music is that. Musicians over the centuries have created new ragas and are still going on creating. Dhrupad. In the South. even non Indian types. just as Turkey gave ‘ turask todi’. Dhani. Megh and even Marwa. Out of this. Spontaneous musical expressions derived from nature… The folk base of the Raga System… There is a folk tune prevalent in the Himalayan mountains. most ragas owe their existence to either skipping one or two notes in their scale or by changing one major note to minor. Major ragas in Karnatic music. Sa. the change of key. the hills ‘ pahari ’. they still have the old Kafi scale (starting from middle C minor third and minor seventh). (dhrupad. It was in a sense the Agra-Gwalior style. Pahari and Deshkar.P.

Agra. where Lord Krishna was born and spent his childhood and various incidents attributed to him form the themes of most khayals and dhamars) from Azam Shah. Khayal Gharanas of today… Born out of the Gwalior Style of Rendition Gulam Rasool’s disciple. where quite a few musicians had migrated during Aurangzeb’s reign. son-in-law Shakkar Khan together with his brother Makkhan Khan known as the ‘ qawal Khan. Kirana. listening to their wedding songs. A lot of Sadarang’s dhrupads were converted into khayals by his followers. Between them they made their Gwalior Gayaki popular enough to attract pupils from different parts of the country. master the rhythmic patterns of the percussion instruments. Shah one of the princes. while Shakkar Khan’s son Bade Muhammad Khan became the court musician of the comparatively smaller native state of Rewa. when music was banned in his court and also in Delhi. prevalent in Mathura and Vrindavan. his capital. Lucknow School of Khayal Gayaki Many musicians migrated to Lucknow as Music was banned in Delhi and Agra A parallel stream of khayal gayaki was developed in the courts of Nawab Shuja-ud-daula (1756-75) and his son Asaf-udDaula of Lucknow. Sadarang and Adarang… The composers of the most popular bandishes of today… Rangelee was a great patron of music and had two famous musicians Niyamat Khan and Firoz Khan who composed bandishes. Jaipur. Makkhan Khan’s son Naththan Peerbaksh became the guru (teacher) of the Maharaja of Gwalior. He spent a number of years in Punjab among the camel riders. But no one knows the Gayaki (style of singing) of these brothers. The most famous Ustad to whom this style is attributed was Ghulam Rasool Rasool. and imbibed their regional style of singing. the main song. and Adarang These are sung by all Gharanas to this day.g. known to the world for its white tigers. khayal from a noted qawal singer named Tattar dance from professional ‘ natuas’. Daulat Rao Scindhia. They learnt Sanskrit and Brijbhasha (a dialect. ‘Shori Miyan alias Shori Miyan’ Ghulam Nabi became famous all over Hindusthan with Tappa. responsible for losing his peacock throne to Nadir Shah. in order to Tattar. bachchas’ were responsible for exporting this gayaki (style of rendering khayal) to Gwalior. which abounds in complicated zigzag fast taans (voice meanderings) is now known as ‘ tappa’. and thus different ‘Gharanas’ or Schools of Khayal were born out of Gwalior. 8 9 . His son Ghulam Nabi was equally famous. under the pen names of Sadarang Adarang. the death of the bigot emperor Aurangzeb and the accession to the throne of Muhammad Shah Rangeele in 1721. e. The sophisticated version of this style.Khayal in its present form and the birth of the ‘Gharanas’ Intimately related to our socio-political history Several successors to the throne came and went during the dark days of the ‘Moghul Empire’ between 1707. Patiala etc.

the Rajguru of Gwalior. he brought about a tremendous change in the Gayaki by adding vistar (a very slow step-by-step unfolding of the raga). While his style retained the essential features of Gwalior. Bhimsen Joshi. This. The world of Hindusthani Music of today has accepted it. The first has produced a number of outstanding disciples. to the “Shishya” or the Disciple… Each of these gharanas bears distinctive features and has produced great Ustads. A shift from the original… A practice that keeps a tradition alive… To Abdul Karim goes the credit of changing the face of Karim. The tendency today. Tape recorders. Greatly influenced by Rahmat Khan. Agra gharana was known for its greatest ustad Faiyaz Khan. Thus the gharana system perpetuated until recently. Khan son of Haddu Khan. and taught Dhrupad as well as Khayal . Khan Kirana for Abdul Karim Khan Abdul Waheed and Khan. In this respect. the foremost being S a w a i Gandharva. Kirana Gharana and Pdt. Roshanara Begum each an outstanding torchbearer of this gharana. till the abolition of native states. He used to sing on a very high pitch. he was the main figure behind the Romantic Movement. are son Suresh Mane. whose styles have been imitated by their disciples. Television. This Gharana has two streams . 10 11 . whose disciples Pdt. is to evolve a synthetic gayaki. which was unknown in khayal and was the sole prerogative of the Dhrupad Singer. Babu Mane daughter Hirabai Barodekar and niece Begum. Amir Khan Patiala for Bade Gulam Ali Khan etc. along with the advent of the Radio. Also compositions known as bandishes. which may or may not have been properly digested. have become public property. easier communication facilities and music festivals has endangered it. a term generally used as a protest against the rigorous hidebound classical style in art. often E or F.one of Abdul Karim Khan and the other of Abdul Waheed Khan. Other equally wellknown disciples of Abdul Karim Khan. consisting of different styles. Firoz Dastur. the original Gwalior Gayaki. Bhimsen Joshi The origin and the growth… This particular school of singing traces its origin to Ustd. whose patronage was an invaluable asset for the propagation of classical music. sculpture and architecture. Gangubai Hangal are famous.Living Traditions From the “Guru” or the master. Bande Ali Khan who was a noted Been (veena) player. Khan. zealously being guarded hitherto by different gharanas.

this was a turning point in his quest. Bhimsen Joshi hails from Gadag in Dharwad district. pukars. His tans. ’ Piya bin nahin awat chain’. His phenomenal professional career. By now. spanning almost six decades. have slowed down with age. a polish and a bloom. His voice production. Bhimsen strikes a note of depar ture by excelling in both. 12 13 .Biography PANDIT BHIMSEN JOSHI He preceded the electronic age and his twenty two 78 RPM records. was a noted musician of his time. Later. but Bhimsen acquired a taste for music by listening to his mother’s bhajans. Khan. only to be restored to his parents by good Samaritans known to the family. Kirana Style Early childhood… The quest begins… Joshi. which are masculine. which has not been equalled in the last thirty years. Bhimsen Joshi has also reduced the vistar of his predecessors to sizeable proportions. however. was one of learning and scholarship and the educationist father naturally wanted his son to follow in his footsteps. convincingly shows that he has done something much more than fulfilling the hopes and expectations raised by him in the early forties.e. The environment at home. that in the course of his fantastic climb to greater and still greater heights. which became the envy of all vocalists. Pdt. he is not averse to influence of his great contemporar ies or Ustads of different Gharanas. his style influenced Khan. Above all. There were occasions when the child would quietly slip away from home to join and follow passing bhajan mandalis. has occupied the top place among the Hindusthani vocalists for the last 30 years. rhythmic variations. last of the giants. In Bhimsen’s own words. his approach to raga music has undergone many significant changes. after the death of Ustd. they would be hard to beat. Pdt. who has represented Kirana brilliantly. Amir Khan He has a deep and powerful voice. Karnataka. himsen Joshi has few equals in his field-be it in terms of popularity or deft renditions of difficult passages. It is also equally undeniable. Abdul Waheed Khan and Amir Khan the last of the outstanding Ustads of this Gharana. who had a high pitched piping voice. B h i m s e n ’ s grandfather. but his total presentation has remained as neat as ever.e. which is the hallmark of the ‘Kirana Gharana’. the other being Faiyaz Khan of Agra . B Pdt. he may well have given concerts that have exceeded the five-figure mark if we go by the ‘modest’ guess-workof a few Bhimsen Bhimsen-watchers. unlike Abdul Karim Khan. whose Kannada-English dictionary is acclaimed as a standard text even today. Bade Gulam Ali Khan and Ustd. Known as one of the two musicians of the century. Bhimsen Joshi Carrying on the tradition… The octagenarian debonair Pandit Bhimsen Joshi the Joshi. Bhimsen’s obsession with music posed problems for his parents in many ways. tunefulness. He has given the style of Kirana Gharana. which have led to the dynamic growth of this Style. He is the son of a noted educationist. While Kirana gharanites give preference to sur over taal i. but for sheer ‘ sur’ i. Gururaj Joshi. the uniqueness of his gayaki and the soulful quality of his music combine to build up a mesmerising atmosphere. Bhimacharya . being of very short duration do not bear testimony to this. his passion for music became so intense that he decided to run away from home after he heard Abdul Karim Khan’s commercial disc-the thumri in raga Jhinjhoti. vigorous and very fast.

the impressionable youngster developed. For the master encouraged his disciple to accompany him on his concert tours and hear the recitals of several contemporary masters of the time from all over the country. Finding a Gharana At last…the homeward journey… Bhimsen’s homeward journey began following the loving advice of Vinayakrao Patwardhan the great scholar-muPatwardhan. Bhimsen continued his riyaz for one year. he could not find a master who could teach him khayal-singing. sician and exponent of the ‘Gwalior gayaki’ who had come to Jaladhar to participate in the annual festival.Biography Indelible influences… Elsewhere. It helped him widen his musical understanding and aesthetic appreciation. Bhimsen Joshi. This exposure helped Bhimsen in two ways. Bhimsen heeded the veteran’s suggestion that he should go back home and try to be a student of Sawai Gandharva the Gandharva. gradually evolved a new approach that was designed to strike a balance between what may be termed traditional values and new mass-culture tastes. It is significant that for one who went almost crazy after hearing the recorded music of Abdul Karim Khan he Khan. he pleads that he con- 14 15 . Evolving a style of his own… Tradition and modernity combined… A traditionalist by temperament and training. Ironically. It took him nearly three months to reach his destination. from where he moved to Rampur and Lucknow. Even while doing so. he managed to reach Gwalior without a ticket. it would appear. which has long been known as a leading center of Hindustani music. he learnt Ram. where he could benefit from the guidance of stalwarts like Hafiz Ali Khan. After unsuccessful visits to Bijapur. even at Jalandhar. he would regale his co-passengers and even the ticket-checking staff. His sojourns at these musical citadels helped him enrich his knowledge of khayal and thumri. He then moved to Kharagpur. to Jalandhar. breaking his journey at intermediate stations and passing time on platforms in an attempt to give the slip to the ever-watchful railway-men. PANDIT BHIMSEN JOSHI should have found his guru in the chief disciple of the Ustad. What has Bhimsen himself got to say about his approach? He never tires of asserting that he has tried to evolve a style that is in tune with the changing times and tastes of his audiences. lasting five years.their moods. Getting to know other frontiers… perfection The genius continues his quest for perfection On his return home from Kundgol. His travels finally ended in late 1942 when he rushed home in the wake of the developments after the Japanese invasion of Burma during the Second World War War. the intricacies of dhrupad-singing from Mangat Ram a local blind musician. But for one driven by a compulsive urge to find a master to teach him music. the sarod maestrro. staying at Kundgol. he left Gadag for Bombay. a village not far from his hometown. Bhimsen’s sojourn did not satisfy him. Side by side. was arduous but rewarding: it struck the keynote of Bhimsen’s future career. everywhere…in search of a true guru… Leaving home in search of a guru. a keen insight into the psychology of the audience . The shagirdi under Sawai Gandharva. Bhimsen wandered from place to place. mainly because of its mammoth music festival. At times. Kolkata. though unconsciously. Throughout his journey. Pune and Bombay. Overcome by wanderlust once again. both veterans of the Gwalior gayaki. Delhi and finally. Though dispirited. most outstanding disciple of Abdul Karim Khan who was Khan. he moved clandestinely from compartment to compartment. whims and preferences. with songs he had memorized from gramophone records. Even in Gwalior. and Krishanrao Shankar Pandit and Rajahayya Poochhwale.

in his view. more than a decade ago. He believes that a tradition which traces its origin to the Vedic times and has evolved in the perspective of the country’s social. all will be well with them’. seemingly slippery ‘flourish’ in the Kirana fashion will often be found deftly grafted on to the laya-oriented taankari of the Gwalior gayaki. much less die out. Positive man with a positive outlook… Traditions will continue.a yoga enthusiast. But what is crucial to its depiction is the right fusion of swara. can never become decadent. he does not subscribe to any fanatical adherence to the guru-shishya-parampara. classical music is here to stay… How does he view the contemporary musical scene? He frankly says. PANDIT BHIMSEN JOSHI He is also the first-ever Indian musician to have publicized his concert programmes through a poster campaign in cities like New York. Then again. only a maestro of Bhimsen’s genius can achieve such a unique fusion. which would eventually degenerate into an exercise in soulless virtuosity. comprising accompanists and members of his family. Astounding Popularity… Ageless. performing before a mixed audience of two thousand listeners. Generally speaking. he will startle his listeners with a lightning array of intricate. a sarangi-like. Incorporating the influences Taking the best from all the worlds… That is how most perceptive connoisseurs of Bhimsen’s music discern the impress of Kesarbai Kerkar and Amir Khan . What is more. odd-shaped patter ns characteristc of the Atrauli-Jaipur gayaki. Bhimsen is aware of the present uncertain conditions and concedes that it is an equally risky proposition to take to music as a full-time profession. design and content. For even in the note-by-note unfolding of his raga in the typical Kirana fashion. He is also a self-trained automobile engineer. ‘Possibly. limitless…no boundaries The sustained popularity of his commercially recorded music and. cultural and political history. a football enthusiast and a connoisseur of art. his recorded classical repertoire has maintained an all-time high response. Like his guru. amid the straight taan of the Patiala style. may undergo changes in form.Biography tinues to derive inspiration mainly from Abdul Karim Khan and Sawai Gandharva. Indore and Patiala. his overall alapchari is marked by the kind of pace that generates and accentuates a reposeful mood as he steadily proceeds to build up the raga’s form and design.by common consent .’ Khayal-singing. For instance. making history of sorts. a singing stage-actor. Indeed. The man and his music… The quest continues… Bhimsen has been a man of many parts . laya and gayaki.has gone abroad with an entourage of his own. more especially. It is in his drut-singing that Panditji reveals an uncanny amalgam of gayakis as diverse as those of Gwalior. it is getting ready to take off into realms of melody and rhythm as yet unknown. a swimmer. no other Hindustani vocalist .he asserts. ‘If they establish their individuality and also uphold the ideology of parampara. timeless. It should be basically entertaining . the frequency with which new releases keep coming into the market provide unimpeachable proof of the tremendous vogue he continues to enjoy outside the concert hall as well. AtrauliJaipur. that he is not pessimistic at the prospect when he sees the likes of Rashid Khan and Ulhas Kashalkar on the horizon.dominantly in the depiction of the vilambit khayal. 16 17 . He is the only Hindustani vocalist to have won the coveted Platinum Disc from His Master’s Voice. Those who are determined to forge ahead should have the courage and strength to brave the odds and relentlessly strive to reach the goal. feeling that such an approach is apt to degenerate into a blind imitation of the master’s style.

Amir Khan He has a deep Khan. The octogenarian debonair Pandit Bhimsen Joshi the Joshi. which have led to the dynamic growth of this Gharana. While Kirana gharanites give preference to sur over taal and rhythmic variations. which became the envy to all vocalists. in all its anguish and ecstasy. and powerful voice. last of the giants. Pdt. has occupied the top place among the Hindusthani Vocalists for the last 30 years. after the death of Ustd. a polish and a bloom. Bhimsen Joshi has also reduced the vistar of his predecessors to sizeable proportions. He has given the style of Kirana Gharana. Bhimsen strikes a note of departure by excelling in both. who had a high pitched piping voice. Bade Gulam Ali Khan and Ustd. it has the power to command and obtain a spontaneous surrender from its audience. unlike Abdul Karim Khan. who has represented Kirana brilliantly.It is the complete identification of the man with his music that has made him what he is today. that is what makes his music intense. His voice production. And. vigorous and very fast. and sought to reflect it so eloquently through his music. the uniqueness of his gayaki and the soulful quality of his music combine to build up a mesmerising atmosphere. Above all. pukars. which has not been equalled in the last thirty years. His taans which were masculine. but his total presentation has remained as neat as ever. Kirana Gharana Biography of 18 19 . have slowed down with age. Be it the lay listener or the cognoscenti. Pdt. he is not averse to the influences of his great contemporaries or Ustads of different gharanas. Here is a man who has loved and lived his life in all its romance and intensity.

C . Signs of our Komal Swars are : Re Ga Dha Ni and only for Tivra Madhyam.is a number of beats coming in a rotation. 6. Taal (Tala) . Pancham=Pa... Sa.. ” D. We have Five(5) Flat Notes or Komal Swar. Dha.. Ga. 8. The return of a passage with the uniformity of taal. Tu ma Ka he ko. G S. 3. Ga. Dha.. • • • • Higher Octave (Taan Saptak) is denoted by the Dot sign above • • • • the Swar. Ni are the immediate half a note lower than the Natural Notes. 10. Ma. Wordings. We have three(3) Signs in any Tala. North Indian Classical Music (Hindustani Classical Music) have seven (7) Natural Notes (Shuddha Swar). Like— Re. In Notations. eg. X Som 9 Na 20 21 . eg. 4. 4. Madhyam=Ma.. Shuddha Madhyam.“ eg.. • SN Ka • S OO NN he PP ko 9.. 16 etc. M M P P.. G M. 3. Dha = D. “Teentaal” . The Off-Beat of the Tala is shown by the “O” Sign. D P.. GM Tu PN OO MP OO • NS . Ma . the notes are denoted in short forms as : Sa = S. back to the beginning phrase (mukhda) is denoted by “ ­ ”. Ma = M. Dhaivat=Dha & Nishad=Ni.Taal of (16 beats) 1 Dha 2 Dhin 3 Dhin 4 Dha 2 2nd Beat 10 Teen 11 Teen 12 T a 3 3rd Beat 13 Ta 14 Dhin 15 Dhin 16 Dha 5 Dha 6 Dhin 7 Dhin 8 Dha O Off-Beat or Phank 5. B. and only the Tivra Madhyam is just half a note higher than the Natural Note i.. ma . A singles segment has no such sign.. Ni & Tivra Madhyam/Sharp Note (Ma)... Pa = P. It may be of 8... M G. Ni. Ga.e.. Komal Swars like— Re. Like— Saraj=Sa. A.. GG GMP GMP GM GM D D P To show the recurrence of a word of Composition (Bandish) the Sign “oo” is used only for the English Notation. it is M. Gandhar=Ga. numbers.. R. G M.. Rishav=Re. Sign (•) Under the Swar. If there is more than one segment in a note (Matra). The other beats of the Tala are shown by the sign of 2. beats. eg. 5. i.e. it is bounded by the sign “ ” below the cluster. The ‘Som’ or the first beat or the starting point of any tala is shown by the Sign “X”. Ga = G. eg. 7. 12. The Sign of (Meend) or the glide is shown by .. 2. Re. Dha.Notation Index 1. Ni = N Re = R. which is repeated throughout the song.. Pa... We can identify our lower octave (Mandra Saptak) notes with the Dot.

The second important note. 2.Medium to very high speed . For Ragas — the following terms to be noted : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Arohi : The ascending notes during the recital of raga. iii) Madhyalaya .47) (20.30) (11.The behaviouristic movements of a raga in vowels at a fast tempo. Abarohi : The descending notes. Vadi . 4. Taan .The most important note of a particular raga. Marwa Poorvi Bhairavee (15. Durbari Kanada Todi Vrindavani Sarang (10.30) a) b) a) a) a) b) a) a) a) 1.18) In order of performance .The slow exposition of a raga in a composition without any taal or rhythmic beat . 5.Notation Index Renditions PANDIT BHIMSEN JOSHI Raga & Duration 11.The speed or the tempo of the song in four divisible categories as below i) Alaap . Yaman Kalyan (10.Medium slow speed. 8. Kedar (21.The eight categories to which all the Hindusthani ragas belong. Samavadi .14) (15. 7.58) 6. 22 23 .elaboratively. Laya .Very slow speed or tempo. iv) Drut .progresively.The essential combination notes of a raga whic brings out its anatomical picture.36) a) Bandish Shyam Bajayee Aaj Muralia Sohey Larayee Sawan Ki Bundaniya Jhanak Jhanakwa Bar Saraswati Se Mangta Tum Rab Tum Saheba Jaoon Mai Topey Balihaari Bangari Mori Hariye Mai Ko Boley Na Wo Humsey Piya 3. Main Phrase . ii) Vilambit or Dhima . Thhat .13) (10.

Shyaam (Lord Krishna). because it has all the major or shuddha notes except ‘Tivra Ma’ in the ascendant scale. Yogi jangala jati jati aur ’ gunimuni saba nara nari miley moholiyo hai Manaranga karata. was a Persian tune imported by Amir Khusrau. plays the flute with his divine lips resting on a branch of a tree in a forest. according to some. Most musicians during their training are expected to cut their teeth on this raga.statesman of Alauddin Khilji’s court in the 13th. which has always resisted the influence of Muslim culture all along the centuries. the poet . 0 ­ G G R ­ Shya am 3 N R oo S yey S oo ba jaa N • D • N • R mu P na G ra GR guo R li R ni G a S so G oo S oo P P M oo GR oo G a M pa P no P oo aa ND oo ND ja P wey oo ­ ­ ao dhao ra ­ ­ G ja G na • • P yo P gu G oo P gi ND nio G ho P P P oo S oo DN • P ga S sa RS haio •• • P la R ba N oo • oo jan N S • M ti R ra N • M oo SR nao DP •• M ja S o P ga • P ti N ri R ka P oo ND oo G ra P au M mi R ta P ra G ley R oo ­ ­ G mo ­ ­ mu ni R GM li yoo oo Raga N Ma na rano 24 . Raga X 2 Yaman Kalyan Taal : Teentaal (Madhyalaya & Drut) Shyaam bajaayey aaj’ muralia wey apno adharana guni so. Iman Kalyan or Yaman Kalyan is a major early evening raga favoured by all vocalists and instrumentalists.Yaman Kalyan Raga (Blessings of the truth) ‘Iman’. this same raga is called Kalyani in Karnataka. . saints & wise men and other passers by. Yaman is the conversion of the word ‘Iman’. The enchanting melody bewitches all men.says the poet Manaranga. However. Century.

D. ND NR GR NG GR DN DN RG RN SN MG RR GR SN • •• • • GR SN RG RG DR SN RS. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. Main Phrase : M P D M P. Time of Recital : G Samavadi : to 10 p. 5. ND NR GR GM PM GR GM •• • GR GM SN • PM GR SN RS. GR SG RS NS • NR RG GR • MG RM PM GR GR GM MG RG • • •• GR GM GM ND MG RG MP MG • • • • GM PM SN •• • R G M P. • • Thhat : Kalyan C. • • PP ND PN DP • •• • DN ND • • • PM NR DP • GR • •• S N D P M R G R. • 7 p. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3.m. SN DN RG MP DN RG GR • •• •• •• NR RS SN • • •• •• ND SN SN • • RN SN MR GR • • ND DP PM MG GR GN ND GM MG RG GR SN • GR DP DN •• RS. N R S.m. • ND RN •• • DD NN •• PP •• PS RS •• •• • NN •• RN RS •• • NG ND • RR •• GG GR RR SS DN DN SN SR SN RN DR NR • • • • • •• •• •• •• •• NN RR SR PR • •• •• •• RR •• SS Examples of a Few Taans : A. 26 27 . M D N S. N R S. N N R S. PM • GR GM ND SN • MG RR RG RR GM GR SN DP MR GR B. • GR GM PP MM MG RG GG RG GR MP RR • •• DD MP PM GM GR DP SN • ND RS.Yaman Raga Kalyan 1. SN RS GG GR RR NN 4. M R G M G R. G M G R.

the last named raga has been sung here by Pdt. The Kedar also have different species.She ponders with her mates and wonders when the groom is going to arrive with his entourage along with the singers for the celebration. where ‘Tivra Ma’ is rarely touched. Maluha Kedar. i. X 0 2 0 3 4 ­ MMG PPP ­ sohey laraa SSSS yeeo • ••• SSSS NNDP oooo maooo •• •• DPMPM oooo PMMM MM MG yioooo oobana PPPP raooo PNSR jaooo • DND P PDPMG ooone aoooo PMS RS ­ banaritu ­ ­ ­ SS N R PP SS Kaun • • kaun •• • ••• • ••• • SSSS SSSS NSRGM •• • • RRSS •• •• RSNND dhaooo •• DNDP oooma DPMM DNDN PPDP rioo DPDPM ­ oooo ­ gaooowe koooo ooata odhumaoo oooo daoone baneo Note : Ektaal is a taal of 12 beats. The original Kedar (known as Shuddha Kedar) did not have two ‘Madhyams’. it is shown in 6 segments X 2 matras (beats) in each segment. Jaladhar Kedar. Chandni Kedar a n d Shuddha Kedar . This raga is also known as Kedara in many texts.. sung in late evening.e. It is a traditional raga mentioned in quite a few Sanskrit texts of years. the omnibus Kedar has acquired two ‘Nishads’ and two ‘Madhyams’.a sweet major raga. It is basically a middle octavious raga. It is in the last hundred years.Kedar Raga (Incarnation of Lord Shiva) Raga Kedar Taal : Ektaal (Vilambit) Sohey larayee mayi banara janey aa banari tu Kaun kaun gaweko ata dhum’ dham’ daney (data) baneri The anxious bride awaits her groom for her wedding ceremony. Kedar . including ‘Ragtarangini’. Tivra and Shuddha Ma.e. In this notation. Bhimsen Joshi in Drut. i. Raga 28 29 . as the use of chromatic notes except in meend is taboo in Hindusthani music.

and the peacocks are screeching with delight. X M Sa P ba M oo P ra 0 G oo P sa P wa P ta 2 P na P gha P ki P na 0 MP boo DN ghoo M oo SR oo •• 3 M on SN rao • 4 RS dao DP oo R ni MM oo S a RS oo P Bi S da M ma • • P ja S oo R u • • S li S sa R r • • • S oo S na S ka • • • S cha S na S rey • • • S ma D wa S oo • • S ka P a DN shoo • S ta P ti SR oo •• • S da PD lao SN oo • • S ma P ra DP ro • S ka M ja MM oo • S ta M ta RS oo • 30 31 . Thunder and lightning are scaring the devils away.Raga Kedar Taal : Ektaal (Drut) 12 beats Sawana ki bundania barasata ghana ghora Bijali chamakata damakata das’ nanawa ati larajata maur karey shor The torrents of rain drops are pelting down in the monsoon.

Kedar Raga Raga : Kedar 1. M P D P M. MG PM MP MM DP RS ND NR • SN SS. SN RS NS MM RS • • MM RN • • SM MM PM PP MM MG MM RS. M G P N D S. • MP DP MP MD DP MM MR RR SS PM PM ND DP • • • • • •• •• ND NN DP ND RS. ND SN RS SR •• • RS SN • SR ND DD RS DP DN RN • ND •• DN ND •• •• SN • SM • MG PM RS DD •• S M P. N D M P D P M S R S. Time of Recital : M Samavadi : to 10 p. S N D P. NN NN NN DP MM • • MM MM DP RS • • • • • • RS SN ND • •• DD PM MM •• MG PM SS •• ND SS •• RS RN SM MM RS DN ND ND PM PP NN SN • • SN • Examples of a Few Taans : A. DM PM NN DP ND SN MP DP SN • MM MM RS 7 p. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. S N R S. MM MM MM RS ND NN DP DP 4.m. Main Phrase : M P D N. MM MM RS NN NN DP RN SN DP ND DN ND SN RS ND NN SN • •• •• • • • MM ND • • MM RS PM DP • • •• NN DP MP MM ND SN RS • RS. • RN • SN • DN ND PM DP ND SN • SM RS • ND ND PM DM PN DP B. 5. S D. 32 33 .m. •• • •• • • • Thhat : Kalyan Thhat : Kalyan C.

Durbari Raga Kanada (The Royal Sensation) Raga Durbari Kanada Taal : Teentaal (Drut) Jhanaka jhanak’wa morey bichhuwa ghara ailo mitawa kaisey kaba aoon torey morey mitawa Chhum chhanananana bichhuwa boley jaag’ rahi saba ghar’key logawa “My anklet bells are jingling. The atmosphere of this raga is intimately associated with the grandeur and sensations of the Royal Court and Palace. In drut teentaal sung by Pdt. It is a raga. 2 0 ­ R R S 3 R SN • ka S wa R oo ­ Jhana ka jha na MG MG moo oo RS D N • • tao wao NP MG oo rey G rey • M oo • R bi ­ ­ R ta SN D N N • • • • chhu wao oo gha M • R N • ra G a S a G oon S oo M S i P S lo P oo S NS • oo mio MM GM moo oo P P P • se N • ka S ba ­ ­ oo GM oo oo R mi kai RS wao to rey N D NS • • • oo oo ­ M MP P D D na R oo • SN N ­ chhum chha S • na na M ra • nao na S sa • S • S • S oo MP oo • RR boo GM loo •• SN oo GM • S ley • S oo • SM jaa •• G oo ­ ­ • G ga • R hi • S • bi chhu wa ba Raga N N PM ghao rao NP key RS N D NS • • • gao wao oo oo 34 35 . the legendary singer of Emperor Akbar’s court. gives the listener some idea of this majestic raga in a capsule form.is one of the most important and dominating ragas in Hindusthani Music. X Durbari Kanada . How do I come stealthily to you . Bhimsen Joshi some of the vigour put in by him. when all the members of the house are awake?” the lover tells to her sweetheart. whose grandeur is fully revealed in alaap or the slow exposition. Durbari Kanara.my beloved. Sung at the dead of night is attributed to Miyan Tansen.

D D NS RS RN • • • • DN NS ND • • • SR SD • • • D N PP • • • •• D D NS • • • RR RG G G MM MM MR RR SN • • • •• • • D N NP MP D N MR RR SN SD • • N D NR SS. • RR G G MM MP MP D D NS SN D N RS. Main Phrase : D N P. P N S R S D N P M P D N S. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. S D N P S. • • • D. S N D N P M P G • • • • • • • • • Thhat : Kafi B.m.Durbari Raga Kanada 1. 5. MP MP PD PD RN SR N N SR • •• •• • D N D N NS RN SD RN RS • • • • • • NS NP SD • • SR NM NS • •• SR PD •• RR DN •• G G MM NS • • • • • •• RS GG • • • • Examples of a Few Taans : A.n. • • • RN • NP NM PG MR M R S. MP GM RS N D NR • • • NS • RN • • SD • NS SD • • RN • SD • N N NS • • • R M P D N S. PG MR SN RS • •• • RN SD • • • NS RR • •• RR • • G G GM MM •• PP NS • DD DN D N N N RS RN SD SD NS RN SD • • • • NS G G MM MR SN • RS • • •• RS •• 12 m. Time of Recital : R Samavadi : to 3 a. G G M R. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. P • 36 37 . NP NM PG D N RS. C. SD NP MP G G MM RS N • SS. 4.

X 2 0 S Ba R ra G Sa G ra 3 R swa ­ ­ M ta S ti S oo R se S S S on M ni M ni S ga D ra GR ja S ta M ta G na R SR G D vid S sa ­ ­ MG Rao M oo R ba D dya M ja D oo G ga D dhi D ke N ta D oo D ka D oo man oo P ra ­ ­ P ta DM guo oo hoon oo G ni R pu R ti S ji S dhi S je G oo D ja G ga D ha DM M thha oo D ri G oo • M ta R ke • ND auo S oo • • D r S oo • • Raga S ta ND dao • S oo D ya • S la D oo • S sa MG nio • S ha R da • R sa R ya • S ha G oo • S y RS nio • D bha ­ ­ 38 39 . Deshi Todi. There are several kinds of Todi e.a popular morning raga sung in this series by Pdt. Hussaini Todi. Bhimsen Joshi. Bless me with the knowledge of moods. Khat Todi. Chhaya Todi. in the sense there is no mention of it in ancient scriptures. In Karnataki Music the northern Bhairavi is equivalent to this main stream raga Todi. Along with all the learned persons of the world. Bilaskhani Todi and Mian ki Todi etc.g. It is a comparatively recent raga. Bahaduri Todi. an even more well known morning raga. I worship you . Some musicologists think. which however is an afternoon raga. Todi .the consort of Lord Hari. Ashavari Todi. Barari Todi. Gurjari Todi. Jaunpuri Todi. It has very close similarity with raga Multani.Todi Raga (The Morning Glory) Raga Todi Taal : Teentaal (Madhyalaya & Drut) Bar’ Saraswati se mang’ta hoon vidyadhita karata nirata nitidhi sab’ jagat’ ke gunijana pujije Raga thhat’ aur tala sahasa hay. bhaja hari ke dayani dayani Oh! Saraswati (the goddess of learning). Please grant me the boon and give me learning and wisdom. that it is derived from Bhairavi. Lachari Todi. Govardhani Todi. beats and melody of music.

B. D.m. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. 4. R G R S. D 6 a.Todi Raga Raga : Todi 1. MG R G MG R G RS ND •• SN • ND • • • • PM MD DN •• • • NS • SR R G MD ND ND ND DN • •• • • • • • • ND • PM DM DS • DP MG R G MD GR RG ND SN RS R G R G G R SN MR G R SS. M R G R S. R G R G R S DN DN DP SN DS ND SN MD ND SN SD • • • • • R G R G RS • • DN DS DR DG GR PM PM S SR •• R G G R SN • • • NN • • ND D D ND DP • ND SN SR •• R G G R SN • • DS • ND ND Samavadi : to 10 a. D M P. MG MD MD MD ND SN R R GG •• • • SN • • • SR • • GR RG •• GM MG ND • • RR SN • • • Examples of a Few Taans : A. S N R G.m. MDP. D D M N G. P M D M G M R G. C. • Thhat : Todi Thhat : Todi • • • • • • •• • • • • • S • R N G D M P. DN SR G R G G R G R S R G R G R G R G MG • • SN ND ND DM DM MG MG SR GM DP MD DP RG PR MR G R G R RS G R R G MR G R SS. S. • G PR G R R G MG R G RS. • R S. Time of Recital : Main Phrase : Also 5. S N D. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. R G MG RS DN • • SN • DP •• • MD SR • • •• ND RGMG. N S. M D. ND PM DM 40 41 . MD ND PM DM DP MR G R SS.

Your praise is sung by the Gods. Vrindavani Sarang has more or less the same notes as those of raga megh without the gandhar. the creator of nature and universe. N • 2 N • 0 S o M ka M t P o S ba P ra M mey P la PNSR • • 3 R ma P o M o M ra N • S ra R hi R • M • P • Tu N • ma S ma S ta PNS laoo tuooo NM taao P pu R bha sa MR oo N ra PNMP bhaooo he R o P o MR oo ba S ra P na RS or tu N • gha M ja ghaa N tha M Tuma NS gao M • P hi RM oo PNS raoo • •• N Ka R wa N na • P ri S ta P ra • P m NR guo R su • NS tuma S ni M ra • • S hi N gan NMP taao • N Ra M dha MR oo S hi P or RN oo • • S m P va NS • • Raga su or 42 43 .is usually sung in mid-day. T h e r e a r e o t h e r v a r i e t i e s o f Sarang b e s i d e s Vrindavani . By nature. Your benevolence make the rivers flow and make the lands fertile. etc. saints and all human beings. X Vrindavani Sarang . this raga is more mobile. Lankadahan Sarang. nimble and more swift moving than raga Megh Malhar and is named after Vrindavan.Vrindavani Raga Sarang (The Melody of Vrindavan) Lord Krishna’s childhood Town Raga Vrindavani Sarang Taal : J haptaal (Dhima . Gaud Sarang.which are Shuddh Sarang. the scene of Lord Krishna’s earlier deeds as a child.10 beats) Tum’ rab’ tum’ saheba tum’hi karataar’ ghata ghaat mey purana jala thala bhara bhar Tum’hi Karim tum’hi Rahim gawata guni gandharva sura nara surataar “You are the Lord. Samant Sarang. Miya-ki Sarang. Bada Hansa Sarang. Madhumat Sarang. You are the enabler and benefactor.

Raga Vrindavani Sarang Taal : Teentaal (Drut) Jaoon may to pe balihaari rey (mana) tumhi mero mana hara lino.please save me.my Lord. Garibki ichchha purana kara dey tuma to garib’ nawaaz “I dedicate and surrender myself to you . the protector of the poor . “You. and fulfil my wants” - X 2 0 ­ ­ R Ja P P 3 PN PM RS bao • NS • lio • oon mai too peo R haa SR lio •• R o SN oo • R o PN oo R ri PM oo S re RM noo S o RS oo S o NR • S o S oo N • S hi R me M P N na S ha S ra tum ­ ­ ro ma oo ­ ­ S pu SR •• • M ga N ma P rib N to P ki P ga N ic S • P ch S o • N chha S ba • N o S na • S o SN • • S ra PN oo • S na PM oo • N ka RM oo R ra RS oo • S dey NR • • S o S az • P tu ­ ­ ri wao oo oo 44 45 . You have captivated my heart and mind”.

5. C. Main Phrase : M P N P M R. P S • Thhat : Kafi D.Vrindavani Raga Sarang 1. SR NS RN SS • R N N P P M N R. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. Time of Recital : R Samavadi : to 4 p. R M R M R S N N S. PN SR MM RS •• • •• • • NS • RM PP NP PM MR RM RR SN • SR • MP N N PM •• PN SN SR NR NS • NR SS NP MP •• NS RS. 1 p. S. • • Examples of a Few Taans : A. MR •• N N PM SR •• N N NP RM PN MR SN PM RN • 46 47 . 4. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3.m. • • S N S. RM RM MM RS • NS RM PN MN PM RS NR B. MM MR RR SN MM RS NS RS MR RR SR NS • •• •• • •• SN NS • RS NS • MR PM PP •• NP • SN PP •• RS MM RS. RM RM MS SR •• RR SS NN •• •• PN MM NS • •• PN •• NM •• PP SS RS •• •• NS NS SP NN • • • • SR •• RN RS • MR RR MR MM RN • • • • • SN N N PP PM MM RR NS NP NP MR NS • • RM PN MN PM RS. NS NS RS NS • • • •• NP NS • • RM SS.m.

All my playmates are watching. (The Tune of the Dusk) Marwa . do not trouble me. You have twisted my bracelet. It is a remarkable feature of Indian music that two ragas Puriya & Marwa use the same notes but sounds different because of different emphasis and different combination of notes. you the naughty fellow. Marwa is also a Sandhi-prakash raga. Please let go off my hand.Marwa Raga Raga Marwa Taal : Teentaal (Drut) Bangari mori muraka gayi chhaandona baiyan tori karile chori langarwa hasata khelata kini mosey barajori Sangakey saheliya lughayo gaiya woto door’ door’ ekase lata. stay away from me. The use of D with R is emphasised more in Marwa. It suggests the feeling of apathy towards worldly interests. X 2 ­ ­ ­ ­ D M 0 D ri M mo G ri RS muo 3 N • R ka G ga M yi Ban ga ra ND D D do S wa MG rao D na S oo RS joo M bai N • ha NR • G yan R sa S ri M to G ta ­ ­ M ri G khe ­ ­ G ka M la G ri D ta G le R ki • R cho R oo • R oo R ni • S ri N mo S oo D oo S lan D se chhaa n N • ga R ra MG MD bao oo oo M San S R i • M ga ND G ke R • G sa R • DM heo R ra • M li R ND yao R S lu R ra • S gha R e • S oo R ka • S yo R se • S oo R oo • S ya MG oo • S oo RS oo • M wo NS • Raga ga too doo oo S oo ­ ­ ­ ­ doo oo RG MD lao oo tao 48 49 . what is known in our language as ‘Vairagya’.a heart touching raga sung at dusk. whereas N with G is stressed in Puria. It should be noted that the shruti (microtone) of Komal re or minor second is slightly higher than the Komal re used in Raga Todi. Both are sung at the same time in the early evening.

N D S. DN RN DR ND •• • • • DN ND SN R R ND RR ND SN RS. RN ND SS. Samavadi : till dusk R N S • • Thhat : Marwa D. • RN ND SN DR RN ND • • • •• 4. M D. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. DD MD DM DD ND ND •• MD SS. • • Examples of a Few Taans : A. DM GR ND SN •• • RG MD DM GR GR ND B. R R R R R R NN ND DD •• • • • DR R R ND ND MD MD MN MG GR DN ND •• ND ND MD DM GR GR ND SN DR RN DS. N D S. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. SN R R RG MG GR ND DM GR ND DN •• • • • • • • • M D M G R G R S.Marwa Raga 1. Main Phrase : D D M G R . Time of Recital : D 5 p. DN RN DN DR • • RN ND • • • MD ND DM MD MD MD NM MG GR DN ND • DN MD •• ND R N G D. •• • •• • • ND SN •• • R R R G MD RN DD DM MD MD MG R R C.m. • • • • 50 51 . 5.

Give poor Vinda (the poet) your blessings. D sa N • 2 0 ­ ­ G Ha M du G kir R ri G dha GM opa GM 3 P P P ko S au R Go • P oo S ra R oo • yeo mai oo M pu M oo G oo D yo R ta D oo D oo N • P ba R dha N M su G na ND dao G kha G La N di M di P G oo P G no P oo P oo ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ M A a R • na RN • chha mi DP noo P oo vin dao Vin M ga D kir D ka R a • G ma S pa P ra N ta • G oo S oo P na D ki • M pa S ka P oo P no • M oo S ra P oo P • D ra S na P oo M • D na S oo P oo G ka) • S ja ­ • S ga R du P ba • • S ni N kha P ba • S s D ha P oo • S ta N ra P ta • N oo N na D na R ra ­ ­ P mi • S na R su P la • • ­ ­ N kha P ye Raga ­ P sa oo (mai 52 . Poorvi. Please have mercy on me and cover my sorrow with happiness”. it is also recited with shuddha dha also. X Purav means East : the East cries when the Sun sets in the west. In certain Gharanas. This melancholy is melodised in raga Poorvi. Give me wealth. Like Bihag the phrase Pa Ma Ga Ma Ga and the delicate komal Re brings out the character of the raga beautifully. and relieve me from the distress of this world.Poorvi Raga (The Cry of the East) Raga Poorvi Taal : Teentaal (Madhyalaya) Hariye mai ko saba sukha dino dudha puta aur’ anadhana Lachhami kirpayo Govinda Vinda dino Agama parana jaga nistarana kirpa karaneko dukha harana sukha karana saba batana milaye ata kino “Oh! Lord Hari. is yet again another ‘Sandhi prakash’ raga sung at dusk like Puriya Dhaneshree with an additional madhyam. children and fulfil all my needs for sustenance. give me the true joy of life. like Bishnupur Gharana in Bengal.

NR GM GM PM DP • DM PM PG MR GR RM MG RS NS. •• • • ND D D RM MG MM GG •• • PP • • •• PM MM GR ND NN SN PP • RN • GM GR GR NR • MP PG • ND PM MP GM RM GR NR 4. MR ND DP DM C. • B. Time of Recital : G 3 p. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2.m. GM GM MP MP GM GM RM GG MM DP ND SN RN ND DP • • GG NN GR MG MM RM SS. 54 55 .Poorvi Raga 1.m. N N R G M P D N S. N R G Examples of a Few Taans : A. GM PM DP D D DP MP MP NR • GM ND RN DP SN • • ND ND PP MM PM MP MG GG GG RR MR R R MG GN MN NR • • MG PM PG MR NR MG GR RS. S N D P M G M G R S. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. 5. • • • Thhat : Poorvi D. ND SN RS NR GM PM DP • • GR GR NR RN • •• • • • ND ND PG MG PM DM R R MG PM PG MG RS. Samavadi : to 7 p. Main Phrase : P M G M G R S.

Bhairavee Raga (The Chant of Dawn) Raga Bhairavee Taal : Teentaal (Madhyalaya) Boley na wo ham’sey piya sanga aurana sanga rain’ jata hama sanga nita karata chaturayee piya.decieving me. X 2 0 ­ ­ ­ ­ SG Boo 3 MP N D PM G R oo oo ley na S oo S wo GM S oo P S oo MG nao D ra S • SS N • GS pi RS tao S • ND • • D • N • N • SG G M san S • M ga N ta oo hama sey M oo P yee G ja P o G oo ya P ha • san P oo P ga P ga ­ ­ • oo aura na P ni ­ ­ • D ta N ka raio oo P cha N tu ma san D pi • ra MG GMPD SN oo oooo oo • • DG yao • GM DN S S gi P S S S oo N ran ­ ­ S ta D ga ­ ­ N u P ni N na M ta S san MP naa • S ga N oo • hama sanga laa S ka • oo pree P ma S oo D na S ma S ra PM • S wo M • N oo M wo G su S ru • • S • ND kha chai na S oo • Raga D S • S ma mao cha ma jhu 56 57 . while this is a major raga. Ghazal. The young girl in love. Hama sanga laagi preet’ una sanga karawo sukha chaina Manaranga nita naam’ machawo ruma jhuma. As a speciality. It is also called ‘sada suhagan’ raga i. though a fundamental one which can be sung in Dhrupad and Khayal also leads itself spectacularly to Thumri. Bhairavee . laments . instead. This raga.” Manaranga narrates the poetry singing and rejoicing. Bhajan etc. for its long lingering mood of sweet melody. This raga uses all the minor notes of the scale beginning from middle C. Dadra.“My beloved does not speak with me any more.e. he goes around looking for happiness and joy with some other woman. Folk. Chaiti. spends time with someone else .” “Even though he is my lover. categories.an omnipotent early morning raga associated with the peace and tranqulity of the sacred moment of sunrise. it can be sung at any time keeping its soft and sombre touch. many an artiste sing Bhairavee as the last item of a concert.

SD ND PD N D MP GP MP MG MP B. 5. MG MP D N D N SN SR • • •• NS • SG G R R N SN R N SD • • •• • • • • SN • DP PD NS N D DM PG MG RS MG MP PM DP SN DP • NS • R G G R GM MP GM RS. • • • • •• •• • Thhat : Bhairavee C. 58 59 . D. Samavadi : to S S R G M P D N S. D N S. PD NS G R SN • •• • DP • • • • PD NS • G R SN PM PM N N SN • • • • DP PD D N NS • SR RN • PP • • G R MG RS R N SD SN SR GM PD • • N D PD • • •• GM G R G R SR NN DD ND DD N D R R RS MP SN DP DM PG MG RS.Bhairavee Raga 1. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. Time of Recital : M 4 a. S N D P M G R S. Main Phrase : D P G M G R S. R G MP D N SR 12 noon — and last item •• G R SN • • • NN D D DP SN • PP SS •• MM • • SN • • • ND •• DP RS •• PM NS • • PD PD D D D N D N D N N N 4.m. • • SN PS PN N D PM DP • GM G R NS. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. • • SN • R G G R SR DD DN SN GR • • • D N N D PD DP • • MP PM GM MP MG MM MP PP • N N SN Examples of a Few Taans : A. SR GM PD N D PD PN N D MP MP MG MR D N SN NS.

Delhi University. Latafat Hussain Khan Very few musicians have had the opportunity of being exposed to these two most important and authentic schools of singing. Gwalior and Rampur wherefrom radiate the principal vocal styles of North Indian Music. also received the Rabindranath Tagore Award Award. Atrauli. On behalf of Sangeet Research Academy. he has given lecture demonstrations in S a n g e e t R e s e a r c h A c a d e m y y. 60 61 . Kumar is equally at ease with both the styles.Biography PANDIT KUMAR PRASAD MUKHERJI K umar Prasad Mukherji is the son of Late Prof. This attempt has received ‘Rabindranath Tagore Award’ from the Government. Mukherji. Calcutta. The Ford Foundation financed this project. Ustd. Calcutta University. Ata Hussain Khan and Khan. He is currently under contract with Penguin India to write a book on Hindusthani Music and Musicians. The Music Academy and Thyagaraja Bidwat Samaj (Chennai). As a deft vocalist. Institute of Advanced Studies (Simla) and Gana Kala Parishad (Bangalore) where he was conferred the title of Pandit He has Pandit. He has also been one of the most brilliant music critics of the country and wrote for about 15 years for two leading English dailies of Calcutta. He has authored three best sellers in Bengali. This enabled him to have a direct access to many Ustads including great Faiyaz Khan of Agra School and Mustaq Hussain Khan of Gwalior School. As a musicologist. His last book in Bengali ‘ Dishi Gaan Biliti Khela’ published by Ananda Publisher is a Jugalbandi (twin play) of cricket and music. The first attempts to blend anecdotal history and analysis of the major Khayal gharanas with the history of creativity in Hindusthani music. His childhood and formative period was spent largely around strongholds like Agra. the Gwalior and the Agra. He also had training from Ustd. Sociologist and Musicologist and a literary figure of Bengal. Administrative Staff College. entitled “Kudrat Rangi Birangi ” “Majlis” and “Mehfil ”. he has done a complete analysis of five major Khayal gharanas with illustrations from old archives as well as his contemporary artistes. Viswa Bharati (Shantiniketan). Dhurjati Prasad Mukherji the internationally known Economist.

Raga : Durbari Kanada Jhanaka Jhanak’wa morey bichhuwa ghara ailo mitawa kaisey kaba aoon torey morey mitawa Chhum chhanananana bichhuwa boley jaag’ rahi saba ghar’key logawa “My anklet bells are jingling. Thunder and lightning are scaring the devils away. Samar’s initial training started at a very tender age under the guidance of his father Shri Sudhangsu Bhusan Saha and brother Shri Tarak S a h a . Born in Kolkata. who shaped up Samar into a performer of great promise. She ponders with her mates and wonders when the groom is going to arrive with his entourage along with the singers for the celebration. Yogi jangala jati jati aur’ gunimuni saba nara nari miley moholiyo hai Manaranga kahata. and the peacocks are screeching with delight. Music also becomes lively and enjoyable categorically with the help of the rhythm. saints & wise men and other passers by.I Sohey larayi mai banara janey aa banari tu Kaun kaun gaweko ata dhum’ dham’ daney (data) banari The anxious bride awaits her groom for her wedding ceremony. Such a percussionist is Samar Saha. It was he. a tabla player of repute.my beloved. His formal training star ted under the tutelage of Shri Sachchidananda Goswami and then flowered under the able guidance of Shri Krishna Kumar Ganguly (Natubabu) of Benaras Gharana . Raga : Kedar Bandish . 62 63 . Numerous musical performances by renowned artistes start throbbing with life with the magical touch of his fingers on the tabla in style that belongs to the ‘Benaras Gharana’. A matured musician. The enchanting melody bewitches all men.Biography Lyrics PANDIT SAMAR SAHA ‘Rhythm’ represents life. How do I come stealthily to you . plays the flute with his divine lips resting on a branch of a tree in a forest. Samar Saha is a full time faculty member of ITC Sangeet Research Academy since its ver y inception in 1978. Bandish . Biography of Raga : Yaman Kalyan Shyaam bajaayey aaj’ muralia wey apno adharana guni so.II Sawana ki bundania barasata ghana ghora Bijali chamakata damakata daas’ nanawa ati larajata maur karey shor The torrents of rain drops are pelting down in the monsoon. The slow and fast tempo in soft or bold tones bring tremendous variety to an otherwise monotonous musical event. needs a matured percussionist. says the poet Manaranga. therefore. when all the members of the house are awake?” the lover tells to her sweetheart. ambiance and virtuosity. without whom his recital does not bloom. Shyaam (Lord Krishna).

children and fulfil all my needs for sustenance. instead. the protector of the poor . Garibki ichchha purana kara dey tuma to garib’ nawaaz “I dedicate and surrender myself to you . the creator of nature and universe. Raga : Vrindavani Sarang Bandish . You are the enabler and benefactor. Raga : Poorvi Hariye mai ko saba sukha dino dudha puta aur’ anadhana Lachhami kirpayo Govinda Vinda dino Agama parana jaga nistarana kirpa karaneko dukha harana sukha karana saba batana milaye ata kino “Oh! Lord Hari. Please grant me the boon and give me learning and wisdom. Your benevolence make the rivers flow and make the lands fertile. You have captivated my heart and mind”. Bless me with the knowledge of moods. bhaja Hari ke dayani dayani Oh! Saraswati (the goddess of learning). saints and all human beings. spends time with someone else . “You. The young girl in love.please save me. stay away from me. Bandish . All my playmates are watching. 64 65 . I worship you .I Tum’ rab’ tum’ saheba tum’hi karataar ’ ghata ghaat mey purana jala thala bhara bhar Tum’hi Karim tum’hi Rahim gawata guni gandharva sura nara surataar “You are the Lord. Give me wealth. Your praise is sung by the Gods.my Lord. You have twisted my bracelet.II Jaoon may to pe balihaari rey (mana) tumhi mero mana hara lino. beats and melody of music.Lyrics Raga : Todi Bar ’ Saraswati se mang’ta hoon vidyadhita karata nirata nitidhi sab’ jagat’ ke gunijana pujije Raga thhat’ aur tala sahasa hay. Give poor Vinda (the poet) your blessings.the consort of Lord Hari. do not trouble me. he goes around looking for happiness and joy with some other woman. Raga : Bhairavee Boley na wo ham’sey piya sanga aurana sanga rain’ jata hama sanga nita karata chaturayee piya Hama sanga laagi preet’ una sanga karawo sukha chaina Manaranga nita naam’ machawo ruma jhuma. and relieve me from the distress of this world. you the naughty fellow.” Manaranga narrates the poetry singing and rejoicing. and fulfil my wants” - Raga : Marwa Bangari mori muraka gayi chhaandona baiyan tori karile chori langarwa hasata khelata kini mosey barajori Sangakey saheliya lubhayo gaiya oto door ’ door’ ekase lata. Along with all the learned persons of the world.decieving me. Please let go off my hand.” “Even though he is my lover. give me the true joy of life. Please have mercy on me and cover my sorrow with happiness”. laments .“My beloved does not speak with me any more.

Kolkata Jhantu Jana: Studio Inframe. Kolkata Studio & Post Production Umesh Upadhayay: New Delhi Communication Network Limited Acknowledgements Kuntal Bhadar Debajyoti Bhattacharjee Adip Tandon Gokul Bhai Mr. Kolkata Video Photography. Post production Bappa Roy Malay Pradhan Anil Pandey Graphic Design Utkarsha Malakar Audio Daman Sood: Wester n Outdoor. Canada 66 . Rashid Khan Santosh Nag Meghnath Mukherjee Bud Bremner: Coastal Mastering.Conceived and Produced by Arya Bhattacherjee Hosted by Gautami Bhattacherjee Arya Bhattacherjee Excutive Producer Subhanjan Sarkar Arindam Mukherjee Creative Co-ordination Sanjoy Ganguli Soumya Bose Accompaniments Samar Saha: Tabla Sudhir Nayak: Harmonium Srinivas Joshi: Tanpura & Voice Additional Tracks Roshan Ali: Sarengi Babu Shome: Synthesizer Music Recording & Arrangement Soumya Bose Daman Sood Music notes. Lyrics and Editorial Compilation Pdt. Kumar Prasad Mukherjee Sanjoy Ganguli Kumar Roy Anirban Bhattacharya Costumes Niraj Chokhani: Bloomingdales. Mumbai Bablu Prasad: Om Studio. & Mrs.

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