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My mother used to hum tunes to make me fall asleep. I still remember some of those tunes. Haunting melodies. Later on I discovered, many of those were actually compositions by some of the pioneers of Indian Classical music. Our home in Calcutta has an atmosphere of music. I still remember the 74 rpm LP records, wistful renderings from the giants of Indian Classical music, which were kept well out of my reach. Nevertheless, we listened to them, and tried to emulate them with the help of a music teacher who used to come on Sundays. In Bengal, my home state, culture invariably seeps into our dayto-day life. It happens naturally, as, by convention, every Bengali child gets into learning some form or other of dominant cultural expressions. Music, theatre, dance, poetry, storytelling, painting, sculpture – name it and you have it. I was no exception. My childhood spent in Calcutta has stayed with me. Always. It is still my guiding spirit. Today I am a software businessman, settled abroad. In the course of my travels across the world, I have come across a variety of cultural experiences. These experiences have re-affirmed my confidence in Indian Classical Music as the greatest possible rejuvenator of life. The compassionate faith healer of torn, bruised emotions acquired out of everyday trials and tribulations. Indian Classical music catches you unaware, forces you to look beyond everyday life, reminds you of your roots, your human self. Indian Classical Music teaches the art of living. At times, when lonely, the need to share my most intimate memories emerged . I felt that, maybe, my experiences were not isolated. There must be others who thought similarly. People who depend on the many moods of Indian Classical music to guide them through the serpentine by-lanes of livelihood.
Pdt. Kumar Prasad Mukherji
My profession as a software businessman made me settle down in America. I have seen my children grow up without any inkling of what they do not have. They need to know their culture if they are to understand their roots. I felt that something definitely needs to be done for them, and countless others like them. No, I can’t give them what I have had. Yes, I can share with them my passion, my emotions; I can at least try to give them what they deserve. The first attempt was to introduce them with Indian Classical music with available options. Before long I realized that this is somewhat impossible. They may have the inclination, but they do not have the time to enjoy hour-long renditions. Life has become much faster. I realized that Indian Classical Music could be re-presented in a way that could be easily accepted and enjoyed by the maturing face of globalisation. “Khayal” was the evident choice – the most popular and flexible form of Classical music rendition in India. They had to be presented in a concise form without interfering with their mood and content. It was a difficult task, but, if achieved, would open up a new gateway for a generation that wants to be acquainted with it, but do not have the time. I am not a musician, but a music lover. Yet, I took the liberty of personally selecting the bandishes for this presentation from the rich repertoire of Indian classical music. I also gathered enough courage to approach the two most accomplished vocalists of our times, and explained the idea to them. It was fortunate that they agreed to be part of the experiment. The results are with you.
The Birth of Khayal
The most popular mode of rendition in Indian Classical Music
The most widely accepted variety of H i n d u s t h a n i Classical Music today is called ‘Khayal’. Over the past fifty years, Khayal has steadily gained popularity in comparison with ‘Dhrupad’, a form with simple grandeur and lack of embellishments. Khayal, with its flexibility and ability to incorporate musical ornamentations, has effectively regaled the new listeners of Indian Classical Music, the middle and upper middle class.
Myths and Reality
Where did Khayal come from?
Popular myth attributes the birth of khayal to A m i r Khusrau, Khusrau the statesman poet of the court of Alauddin Khilji in the 13th century. This has been disproved by a number of musicologists headed by Thakur Jaidev Singh, Singh an outstanding scholar of Philosophy and the theory of music. According to him, the birth of khayal took place many centuries ago. “I maintain”, he writes, “that the so called ‘khayal’ style of musical composition is nothing but only a natural development of ‘Sadharan geeti’, which used the exquisite features of all the styles... There is definite proof that such styles of musical compositions have been in existence in Indian music at least from the 7th or 8th century A.D.
The modern musicologist is inclined to take this view that khayal.khatka. There was no system of notation till the middle of the 19th century. The present day musicologist is more interested in music as a performing art. lots of questions remain Lets not get into endless debates. It was neither imported from Arabia nor from Persia. The ragas.Music for the uncommon common man The Sadharani style The sadharani style of composition with generous and plentiful use of gamaks became our ‘khyal’ composition.. old. Our belief is that Khayal was born out of a marriage between. just enjoy the music… But no one knows about the earlier forms of khayal . as well as that of several historians and musicologists. because Yet. 4 5 . andolan .. He was the son of a Turkish father. he could not think of obsignating this music of creative imagination better than the word ‘khyal’. ‘Qaul’ and ‘Qawali’ prospered because of their poetic quality. (Commemorative volume of Dr S. . Khyal expolited all the famous features (ornamentations) without bothering about their names .. meend. prospered in the hands of the muslim ‘sufis’.. is no more than 300 yrs. once again meant for the common man). ‘ Sadharani geeti ’ (songs sung by ordinary people) and ‘ Qawali’(songs of devotion addressing the almighty...N. there is no doubt. which he created. The Debate continues Amir Khushru. kamp. ‘Qawali’ is a form of religious song in chorus. in its present form. in the court of Alauddin Khilji. However. impressed by it. . that he had tried to liberate the traditional Hindusthani music shackled by the ‘ shastrakars ’ and grammarians and showed a new path which in the hands of the muslim ‘sufis’ developed into a form of considerable aesthetic appeal. also a scholar of Sanskrit and Persian. much of which is speculation.everything was beautifully woven into its structure… When Amir Khusrau in the 13th century heard the ornate style or ‘ rupak alapti’ full of so many embellishments. Neither Amir Khusrau invented it nor did Sultan Sharqi. owes its existence to the later day Moghuls as well as the Nawabs of Oudh. murki. Roughly speaking khayal. These could not have been of a high order. show an attempt to blend Persian tunes with Hindusthani ones.” Khayal includes manifestation of many forms Marriage between Sadharani Geeti and Qawali A few things emerge from my own research. . Ratanjhankar Ratanjhankar) Commemorative they have not stood the test of the time. He goes on to write in his Bengali book ‘Moghul Bharater Moghul Chinta’ Sangeet Chinta (The Musical Thoughts of Moghul India) – “ Amir Khusrau was not a great admirer of Hindsthani music. and his mother belonged to Hindusthan and his desire to import Persian music was to demigrate the music of Hindusthan. as it is sung today. rather than the dry pages of musical history. King of Jaunpur (15th century) though each of them lent a hand in its development”. may have just named it… Among other musicologists who support this theory is Rajyeshwar Mitra.
while North and Western India have switched over at some period in the past. they still have the old Kafi scale (starting from middle C minor third and minor seventh). Surat ‘surat’. khayal and thumri ) are born out of Indian Folk Music To quote Prof. though they carry the same name. Musicians over the centuries have created new ragas and are still going on creating. the regional. the hills ‘ pahari ’. This Pentatonic scale. again we have got Shudh Kalyan and 6 7 . Pahari and Deshkar. The features of the ragas stopped changing since we adopted the tempered scale. to the tempered scale of major and minor notes as in Europe. i. most ragas owe their existence to either skipping one or two notes in their scale or by changing one major note to minor. or exported it along with Buddhism .Birth of the ragas The foundations of Indian Classical Music… The Ragas in Hindusthani music. It was in a sense the Agra-Gwalior style. Sa.a sociological study 2002). Bihar ‘bihari’. Jaunpur ‘ jaunpuri todi’. like the different genres i. Gujrat ‘gurjari todi’. even non Indian types. though the last named raga consists of six notes. Great’ Akbar that nobody now-a-days listens to it. Multan ‘ multani ’. are common to those in North and Western India. all of them use the pentatonic scale of Sa-Re-Ga-Pa-Dha with different movements. Indian Culture 2nd edition 1942. Out of this. just as ‘hori dhamar’ belonged to Mathura. Mukherji “The Music. D. By changing the key we get Malkauns. which is reported to have been sung before ‘Akbar the Great (1556-1605) and which is so high browed.P. possibly with the advent of Christian Missionaries. Whether we got it from them. Major ragas in Karnatic music. Megh and even Marwa. historical fact about our classical music is that. Sindh ‘sindhu’. here and there… In Karnatic music of South India. just as Turkey gave ‘ turask todi’. Such features are nothing special to Indian music. the base is the same Just a few changes in the scale. 2002 Jait Kalyan. Dhrupad. This is found in China as well. it was never above incorporating the folk. Dhani.is a matter of speculation. out of which we have Bhupali. They are mentioned because many people in India think that our ragas and raginis (female species) emanated from Gods and Rishis (sages of the past)” (Modern Modern Culture. Karnatic Music. which deal with four major notes.e. Ragas described before Samrat Akbar’s reign and before the advent of muslim rule. do not remotely resemble the present ones. the core The basis of our Ragas… In my opinion. the basis of our ragas is ‘ murchhana ’ or modulation. Dha. (dhrupad. republished by Rupa and Co under the title Indian Culture . Murchhana. Durga. Spontaneous musical expressions derived from nature The folk base of the Raga System… There is a folk tune prevalent in the Himalayan mountains. though under different names. Re. In the South. Bengal gave ‘bangal bhairav ’. the change of key. some musicologists believe is the oldest.e. only Ga.
while Shakkar Khan’s son Bade Muhammad Khan became the court musician of the comparatively smaller native state of Rewa. Daulat Rao Scindhia. He spent a number of years in Punjab among the camel riders. Between them they made their Gwalior Gayaki popular enough to attract pupils from different parts of the country. The sophisticated version of this style. Patiala etc. Sadarang and Adarang The composers of the most popular bandishes of today… Rangelee was a great patron of music and had two famous musicians Niyamat Khan and Firoz Khan who composed bandishes.Khayal in its present form and the birth of the Gharanas Intimately related to our socio-political history Several successors to the throne came and went during the dark days of the ‘Moghul Empire’ between 1707. responsible for losing his peacock throne to Nadir Shah.g. prevalent in Mathura and Vrindavan. Lucknow School of Khayal Gayaki Many musicians migrated to Lucknow as Music was banned in Delhi and Agra A parallel stream of khayal gayaki was developed in the courts of Nawab Shuja-ud-daula (1756-75) and his son Asaf-udDaula of Lucknow. and Adarang These are sung by all Gharanas to this day. where quite a few musicians had migrated during Aurangzeb’s reign. Khayal Gharanas of today Born out of the Gwalior Style of Rendition Gulam Rasool’s disciple. son-in-law Shakkar Khan together with his brother Makkhan Khan known as the ‘ qawal Khan. in order to Tattar. under the pen names of Sadarang Adarang. ‘Shori Miyan alias Shori Miyan’ Ghulam Nabi became famous all over Hindusthan with Tappa. where Lord Krishna was born and spent his childhood and various incidents attributed to him form the themes of most khayals and dhamars) from Azam Shah. But no one knows the Gayaki (style of singing) of these brothers. Jaipur. listening to their wedding songs. 8 9 . A lot of Sadarang’s dhrupads were converted into khayals by his followers. master the rhythmic patterns of the percussion instruments. Agra. the main song. His son Ghulam Nabi was equally famous. which abounds in complicated zigzag fast taans (voice meanderings) is now known as ‘ tappa’. and thus different ‘Gharanas’ or Schools of Khayal were born out of Gwalior. the death of the bigot emperor Aurangzeb and the accession to the throne of Muhammad Shah Rangeele in 1721. khayal from a noted qawal singer named Tattar dance from professional ‘ natuas’. e. They learnt Sanskrit and Brijbhasha (a dialect. and imbibed their regional style of singing. bachchas’ were responsible for exporting this gayaki (style of rendering khayal) to Gwalior. The most famous Ustad to whom this style is attributed was Ghulam Rasool Rasool. his capital. Makkhan Khan’s son Naththan Peerbaksh became the guru (teacher) of the Maharaja of Gwalior. Shah one of the princes. when music was banned in his court and also in Delhi. known to the world for its white tigers. Kirana.
Babu Mane daughter Hirabai Barodekar and niece Begum. Roshanara Begum each an outstanding torchbearer of this gharana. Khan son of Haddu Khan. Bhimsen Joshi The origin and the growth… This particular school of singing traces its origin to Ustd. The world of Hindusthani Music of today has accepted it. often E or F. Other equally wellknown disciples of Abdul Karim Khan. In this respect. whose styles have been imitated by their disciples.Living Traditions From the “Guru” or the master. zealously being guarded hitherto by different gharanas. Khan Kirana for Abdul Karim Khan Abdul Waheed and Khan. consisting of different styles. 10 11 . Tape recorders. Television. Bande Ali Khan who was a noted Been (veena) player. a term generally used as a protest against the rigorous hidebound classical style in art. are son Suresh Mane. till the abolition of native states. the original Gwalior Gayaki. is to evolve a synthetic gayaki. Kirana Gharana and Pdt. to the “Shishya” or the Disciple… Each of these gharanas bears distinctive features and has produced great Ustads. whose disciples Pdt. along with the advent of the Radio. Bhimsen Joshi. This. which was unknown in khayal and was the sole prerogative of the Dhrupad Singer. Thus the gharana system perpetuated until recently. which may or may not have been properly digested. The first has produced a number of outstanding disciples. Also compositions known as bandishes. Amir Khan Patiala for Bade Gulam Ali Khan etc. the foremost being S a w a i Gandharva. Khan. The tendency today. whose patronage was an invaluable asset for the propagation of classical music. A shift from the original A practice that keeps a tradition alive… To Abdul Karim goes the credit of changing the face of Karim. have become public property.one of Abdul Karim Khan and the other of Abdul Waheed Khan. and taught Dhrupad as well as Khayal . he brought about a tremendous change in the Gayaki by adding vistar (a very slow step-by-step unfolding of the raga). Agra gharana was known for its greatest ustad Faiyaz Khan. sculpture and architecture. This Gharana has two streams . he was the main figure behind the Romantic Movement. Firoz Dastur. While his style retained the essential features of Gwalior. Greatly influenced by Rahmat Khan. He used to sing on a very high pitch. the Rajguru of Gwalior. easier communication facilities and music festivals has endangered it. Gangubai Hangal are famous.
Bhimacharya . only to be restored to his parents by good Samaritans known to the family. While Kirana gharanites give preference to sur over taal i. the other being Faiyaz Khan of Agra . his style influenced Khan. His tans. has occupied the top place among the Hindusthani vocalists for the last 30 years. Bade Gulam Ali Khan and Ustd. Bhimsen Joshi Carrying on the tradition… The octagenarian debonair Pandit Bhimsen Joshi the Joshi. who had a high pitched piping voice. last of the giants. this was a turning point in his quest. Bhimsen Joshi hails from Gadag in Dharwad district.e. His voice production. Karnataka. but his total presentation has remained as neat as ever. Kirana Style Early childhood The quest begins… Joshi. convincingly shows that he has done something much more than fulfilling the hopes and expectations raised by him in the early forties. his passion for music became so intense that he decided to run away from home after he heard Abdul Karim Khan’s commercial disc-the thumri in raga Jhinjhoti. By now. who has represented Kirana brilliantly. vigorous and very fast. which became the envy of all vocalists. 12 13 . however.e. In Bhimsen’s own words. unlike Abdul Karim Khan. His phenomenal professional career. Amir Khan He has a deep and powerful voice. tunefulness. The environment at home. which is the hallmark of the ‘Kirana Gharana’. Pdt. pukars. spanning almost six decades. a polish and a bloom. Known as one of the two musicians of the century. have slowed down with age. they would be hard to beat. Bhimsen’s obsession with music posed problems for his parents in many ways. Khan. rhythmic variations. being of very short duration do not bear testimony to this. the uniqueness of his gayaki and the soulful quality of his music combine to build up a mesmerising atmosphere. ’ Piya bin nahin awat chain’. was a noted musician of his time. Above all. It is also equally undeniable. B Pdt. Pdt. He is the son of a noted educationist. B h i m s e n ’ s grandfather. Gururaj Joshi. his approach to raga music has undergone many significant changes. after the death of Ustd. which has not been equalled in the last thirty years. He has given the style of Kirana Gharana. Abdul Waheed Khan and Amir Khan the last of the outstanding Ustads of this Gharana. which are masculine. whose Kannada-English dictionary is acclaimed as a standard text even today. himsen Joshi has few equals in his field-be it in terms of popularity or deft renditions of difficult passages.Biography PANDIT BHIMSEN JOSHI He preceded the electronic age and his twenty two 78 RPM records. he is not averse to influence of his great contemporar ies or Ustads of different Gharanas. Bhimsen strikes a note of depar ture by excelling in both. he may well have given concerts that have exceeded the five-figure mark if we go by the ‘modest’ guess-workof a few Bhimsen Bhimsen-watchers. but for sheer ‘ sur’ i. Bhimsen Joshi has also reduced the vistar of his predecessors to sizeable proportions. that in the course of his fantastic climb to greater and still greater heights. There were occasions when the child would quietly slip away from home to join and follow passing bhajan mandalis. was one of learning and scholarship and the educationist father naturally wanted his son to follow in his footsteps. which have led to the dynamic growth of this Style. Later. but Bhimsen acquired a taste for music by listening to his mother’s bhajans.
sician and exponent of the ‘Gwalior gayaki’ who had come to Jaladhar to participate in the annual festival. with songs he had memorized from gramophone records. Delhi and finally. But for one driven by a compulsive urge to find a master to teach him music. whims and preferences. lasting five years. Bhimsen continued his riyaz for one year. At times. he could not find a master who could teach him khayal-singing. The shagirdi under Sawai Gandharva. where he could benefit from the guidance of stalwarts like Hafiz Ali Khan. everywhere…in search of a true guru… Leaving home in search of a guru. For the master encouraged his disciple to accompany him on his concert tours and hear the recitals of several contemporary masters of the time from all over the country. the sarod maestrro. Kolkata. Overcome by wanderlust once again. Side by side. PANDIT BHIMSEN JOSHI should have found his guru in the chief disciple of the Ustad. His sojourns at these musical citadels helped him enrich his knowledge of khayal and thumri. Bhimsen heeded the veteran’s suggestion that he should go back home and try to be a student of Sawai Gandharva the Gandharva. What has Bhimsen himself got to say about his approach? He never tires of asserting that he has tried to evolve a style that is in tune with the changing times and tastes of his audiences. mainly because of its mammoth music festival. he moved clandestinely from compartment to compartment. Pune and Bombay. though unconsciously. It took him nearly three months to reach his destination. he left Gadag for Bombay. Bhimsen’s sojourn did not satisfy him. His travels finally ended in late 1942 when he rushed home in the wake of the developments after the Japanese invasion of Burma during the Second World War War. from where he moved to Rampur and Lucknow. both veterans of the Gwalior gayaki. most outstanding disciple of Abdul Karim Khan who was Khan. Ironically. the impressionable youngster developed. staying at Kundgol. Getting to know other frontiers perfection The genius continues his quest for perfection On his return home from Kundgol. He then moved to Kharagpur. the intricacies of dhrupad-singing from Mangat Ram a local blind musician. it would appear. Though dispirited. and Krishanrao Shankar Pandit and Rajahayya Poochhwale. he pleads that he con- 14 15 . a village not far from his hometown. he would regale his co-passengers and even the ticket-checking staff.Biography Indelible influences Elsewhere. a keen insight into the psychology of the audience . It is significant that for one who went almost crazy after hearing the recorded music of Abdul Karim Khan he Khan. which has long been known as a leading center of Hindustani music. Bhimsen Joshi. This exposure helped Bhimsen in two ways. gradually evolved a new approach that was designed to strike a balance between what may be termed traditional values and new mass-culture tastes. After unsuccessful visits to Bijapur. was arduous but rewarding: it struck the keynote of Bhimsen’s future career. he managed to reach Gwalior without a ticket. Evolving a style of his own Tradition and modernity combined… A traditionalist by temperament and training. Finding a Gharana At last…the homeward journey… Bhimsen’s homeward journey began following the loving advice of Vinayakrao Patwardhan the great scholar-muPatwardhan. Even in Gwalior. even at Jalandhar. It helped him widen his musical understanding and aesthetic appreciation. Even while doing so. Bhimsen wandered from place to place.their moods. to Jalandhar. he learnt Ram. breaking his journey at intermediate stations and passing time on platforms in an attempt to give the slip to the ever-watchful railway-men. Throughout his journey.
which would eventually degenerate into an exercise in soulless virtuosity.’ Khayal-singing. Indeed. more than a decade ago. all will be well with them’. He is also a self-trained automobile engineer. Bhimsen is aware of the present uncertain conditions and concedes that it is an equally risky proposition to take to music as a full-time profession. that he is not pessimistic at the prospect when he sees the likes of Rashid Khan and Ulhas Kashalkar on the horizon. more especially. feeling that such an approach is apt to degenerate into a blind imitation of the master’s style. timeless. a singing stage-actor. But what is crucial to its depiction is the right fusion of swara. For instance. comprising accompanists and members of his family. ‘Possibly. amid the straight taan of the Patiala style. 16 17 . his overall alapchari is marked by the kind of pace that generates and accentuates a reposeful mood as he steadily proceeds to build up the raga’s form and design. AtrauliJaipur. Like his guru. may undergo changes in form. seemingly slippery ‘flourish’ in the Kirana fashion will often be found deftly grafted on to the laya-oriented taankari of the Gwalior gayaki. a sarangi-like. PANDIT BHIMSEN JOSHI He is also the first-ever Indian musician to have publicized his concert programmes through a poster campaign in cities like New York. It is in his drut-singing that Panditji reveals an uncanny amalgam of gayakis as diverse as those of Gwalior. much less die out. Astounding Popularity Ageless.has gone abroad with an entourage of his own. only a maestro of Bhimsen’s genius can achieve such a unique fusion. design and content. Positive man with a positive outlook Traditions will continue. Incorporating the influences Taking the best from all the worlds… That is how most perceptive connoisseurs of Bhimsen’s music discern the impress of Kesarbai Kerkar and Amir Khan .Biography tinues to derive inspiration mainly from Abdul Karim Khan and Sawai Gandharva.by common consent . limitless…no boundaries The sustained popularity of his commercially recorded music and. odd-shaped patter ns characteristc of the Atrauli-Jaipur gayaki. He believes that a tradition which traces its origin to the Vedic times and has evolved in the perspective of the country’s social. classical music is here to stay… How does he view the contemporary musical scene? He frankly says. the frequency with which new releases keep coming into the market provide unimpeachable proof of the tremendous vogue he continues to enjoy outside the concert hall as well. it is getting ready to take off into realms of melody and rhythm as yet unknown. Indore and Patiala. a swimmer. no other Hindustani vocalist . What is more. he does not subscribe to any fanatical adherence to the guru-shishya-parampara. The man and his music The quest continues… Bhimsen has been a man of many parts . laya and gayaki. he will startle his listeners with a lightning array of intricate.a yoga enthusiast. Those who are determined to forge ahead should have the courage and strength to brave the odds and relentlessly strive to reach the goal. in his view. He is the only Hindustani vocalist to have won the coveted Platinum Disc from His Master’s Voice. his recorded classical repertoire has maintained an all-time high response.dominantly in the depiction of the vilambit khayal.he asserts. making history of sorts. For even in the note-by-note unfolding of his raga in the typical Kirana fashion. can never become decadent. ‘If they establish their individuality and also uphold the ideology of parampara. cultural and political history. performing before a mixed audience of two thousand listeners. It should be basically entertaining . Generally speaking. a football enthusiast and a connoisseur of art. Then again.
but his total presentation has remained as neat as ever. Be it the lay listener or the cognoscenti. His voice production. Bade Gulam Ali Khan and Ustd. Pdt. His taans which were masculine. who has represented Kirana brilliantly. who had a high pitched piping voice. pukars. that is what makes his music intense. it has the power to command and obtain a spontaneous surrender from its audience. in all its anguish and ecstasy. a polish and a bloom. and powerful voice. vigorous and very fast. He has given the style of Kirana Gharana. which has not been equalled in the last thirty years. Kirana Gharana Biography of 18 19 . he is not averse to the influences of his great contemporaries or Ustads of different gharanas. While Kirana gharanites give preference to sur over taal and rhythmic variations. which have led to the dynamic growth of this Gharana. Here is a man who has loved and lived his life in all its romance and intensity. last of the giants. which became the envy to all vocalists.It is the complete identification of the man with his music that has made him what he is today. Amir Khan He has a deep Khan. Pdt. unlike Abdul Karim Khan. And. Bhimsen Joshi has also reduced the vistar of his predecessors to sizeable proportions. has occupied the top place among the Hindusthani Vocalists for the last 30 years. have slowed down with age. and sought to reflect it so eloquently through his music. Bhimsen strikes a note of departure by excelling in both. Above all. The octogenarian debonair Pandit Bhimsen Joshi the Joshi. the uniqueness of his gayaki and the soulful quality of his music combine to build up a mesmerising atmosphere. after the death of Ustd.
2. Ga. Ni = N Re = R... Signs of our Komal Swars are : Re Ga Dha Ni and only for Tivra Madhyam.is a number of beats coming in a rotation. Dha.. Sign (•) Under the Swar. The ‘Som’ or the first beat or the starting point of any tala is shown by the Sign “X”.Notation Index 1. The Off-Beat of the Tala is shown by the “O” Sign.“ eg. X Som 9 Na 20 21 . Pa. 4. A singles segment has no such sign. Ni & Tivra Madhyam/Sharp Note (Ma). 3..... numbers.. Rishav=Re. Ga... Tu ma Ka he ko. M G. 3. Ma . 4.. 5. beats. back to the beginning phrase (mukhda) is denoted by “ ”. GG GMP GMP GM GM D D P To show the recurrence of a word of Composition (Bandish) the Sign “oo” is used only for the English Notation. Ni are the immediate half a note lower than the Natural Notes. Dha. 7. it is bounded by the sign “ ” below the cluster. eg. The other beats of the Tala are shown by the sign of 2. B. A. i. • • • • Higher Octave (Taan Saptak) is denoted by the Dot sign above • • • • the Swar. Like— Re. Komal Swars like— Re.. Ga.. It may be of 8. it is M. ” D. Ma. D P.Taal of (16 beats) 1 Dha 2 Dhin 3 Dhin 4 Dha 2 2nd Beat 10 Teen 11 Teen 12 T a 3 3rd Beat 13 Ta 14 Dhin 15 Dhin 16 Dha 5 Dha 6 Dhin 7 Dhin 8 Dha O Off-Beat or Phank 5. eg. Re. The return of a passage with the uniformity of taal.. C . Wordings... In Notations. “Teentaal” . We have three(3) Signs in any Tala. Ga = G. Dhaivat=Dha & Nishad=Ni. ma . eg. 6. Dha. eg.e. and only the Tivra Madhyam is just half a note higher than the Natural Note i. Ni. Taal (Tala) .. 16 etc. Like— Saraj=Sa. If there is more than one segment in a note (Matra).. Pa = P. G M... Madhyam=Ma. We can identify our lower octave (Mandra Saptak) notes with the Dot. GM Tu PN OO MP OO • NS . R. Pancham=Pa.. 8. Ma = M... Dha = D.e. G S. 12. Shuddha Madhyam. We have Five(5) Flat Notes or Komal Swar. G M.. M M P P. Gandhar=Ga. North Indian Classical Music (Hindustani Classical Music) have seven (7) Natural Notes (Shuddha Swar). • SN Ka • S OO NN he PP ko 9. which is repeated throughout the song. 10. Sa. the notes are denoted in short forms as : Sa = S. The Sign of (Meend) or the glide is shown by .
Kedar (21. iii) Madhyalaya . ii) Vilambit or Dhima .The slow exposition of a raga in a composition without any taal or rhythmic beat . Thhat .elaboratively.30) (11.progresively. 8. Abarohi : The descending notes.Notation Index Renditions PANDIT BHIMSEN JOSHI Raga & Duration 11.The essential combination notes of a raga whic brings out its anatomical picture.The most important note of a particular raga.14) (15.47) (20.13) (10. Laya .30) a) b) a) a) a) b) a) a) a) 1. Marwa Poorvi Bhairavee (15.Medium to very high speed . iv) Drut . Samavadi .The eight categories to which all the Hindusthani ragas belong.The speed or the tempo of the song in four divisible categories as below i) Alaap . 5. Vadi . Yaman Kalyan (10. Durbari Kanada Todi Vrindavani Sarang (10. 4.The behaviouristic movements of a raga in vowels at a fast tempo. Taan .36) a) Bandish Shyam Bajayee Aaj Muralia Sohey Larayee Sawan Ki Bundaniya Jhanak Jhanakwa Bar Saraswati Se Mangta Tum Rab Tum Saheba Jaoon Mai Topey Balihaari Bangari Mori Hariye Mai Ko Boley Na Wo Humsey Piya 3.58) 6. 22 23 .The second important note.Very slow speed or tempo. 2. Main Phrase . For Ragas — the following terms to be noted : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Arohi : The ascending notes during the recital of raga.Medium slow speed.18) In order of performance . 7.
the poet . However. Century. The enchanting melody bewitches all men.Yaman Kalyan Raga (Blessings of the truth) ‘Iman’. Yaman is the conversion of the word ‘Iman’.says the poet Manaranga. was a Persian tune imported by Amir Khusrau. Iman Kalyan or Yaman Kalyan is a major early evening raga favoured by all vocalists and instrumentalists. according to some. because it has all the major or shuddha notes except ‘Tivra Ma’ in the ascendant scale. this same raga is called Kalyani in Karnataka. saints & wise men and other passers by. which has always resisted the influence of Muslim culture all along the centuries. plays the flute with his divine lips resting on a branch of a tree in a forest. Yogi jangala jati jati aur ’ gunimuni saba nara nari miley moholiyo hai Manaranga karata. Raga X 2 Yaman Kalyan Taal : Teentaal (Madhyalaya & Drut) Shyaam bajaayey aaj’ muralia wey apno adharana guni so. 0 G G R Shya am 3 N R oo S yey S oo ba jaa N • D • N • R mu P na G ra GR guo R li R ni G a S so G oo S oo P P M oo GR oo G a M pa P no P oo aa ND oo ND ja P wey oo ao dhao ra G ja G na • • P yo P gu G oo P gi ND nio G ho P P P oo S oo DN • P ga S sa RS haio •• • P la R ba N oo • oo jan N S • M ti R ra N • M oo SR nao DP •• M ja S o P ga • P ti N ri R ka P oo ND oo G ra P au M mi R ta P ra G ley R oo G mo mu ni R GM li yoo oo Raga N Ma na rano 24 .statesman of Alauddin Khilji’s court in the 13th. . Shyaam (Lord Krishna). Most musicians during their training are expected to cut their teeth on this raga.
SN RS GG GR RR NN 4. N R S. M D N S. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. N R S. • • Thhat : Kalyan C.m. ND NR GR GM PM GR GM •• • GR GM SN • PM GR SN RS. • • PP ND PN DP • •• • DN ND • • • PM NR DP • GR • •• S N D P M R G R. 5. SN DN RG MP DN RG GR • •• •• •• NR RS SN • • •• •• ND SN SN • • RN SN MR GR • • ND DP PM MG GR GN ND GM MG RG GR SN • GR DP DN •• RS. • ND RN •• • DD NN •• PP •• PS RS •• •• • NN •• RN RS •• • NG ND • RR •• GG GR RR SS DN DN SN SR SN RN DR NR • • • • • •• •• •• •• •• NN RR SR PR • •• •• •• RR •• SS Examples of a Few Taans : A. • GR GM PP MM MG RG GG RG GR MP RR • •• DD MP PM GM GR DP SN • ND RS. ND NR GR NG GR DN DN RG RN SN MG RR GR SN • •• • • GR SN RG RG DR SN RS.Yaman Raga Kalyan 1. D. Main Phrase : M P D M P. Time of Recital : G Samavadi : to 10 p. N N R S.m. 26 27 . M R G M G R. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. PM • GR GM ND SN • MG RR RG RR GM GR SN DP MR GR B. G M G R. GR SG RS NS • NR RG GR • MG RM PM GR GR GM MG RG • • •• GR GM GM ND MG RG MP MG • • • • GM PM SN •• • R G M P. • 7 p.
where ‘Tivra Ma’ is rarely touched.the last named raga has been sung here by Pdt. i. Bhimsen Joshi in Drut.a sweet major raga. It is a traditional raga mentioned in quite a few Sanskrit texts of years. as the use of chromatic notes except in meend is taboo in Hindusthani music.She ponders with her mates and wonders when the groom is going to arrive with his entourage along with the singers for the celebration. In this notation. Jaladhar Kedar. Maluha Kedar. including ‘Ragtarangini’. it is shown in 6 segments X 2 matras (beats) in each segment. Tivra and Shuddha Ma.e. Chandni Kedar a n d Shuddha Kedar .e. The original Kedar (known as Shuddha Kedar) did not have two ‘Madhyams’. This raga is also known as Kedara in many texts. The Kedar also have different species. Raga 28 29 . i. X 0 2 0 3 4 MMG PPP sohey laraa SSSS yeeo • ••• SSSS NNDP oooo maooo •• •• DPMPM oooo PMMM MM MG yioooo oobana PPPP raooo PNSR jaooo • DND P PDPMG ooone aoooo PMS RS banaritu SS N R PP SS Kaun • • kaun •• • ••• • ••• • SSSS SSSS NSRGM •• • • RRSS •• •• RSNND dhaooo •• DNDP oooma DPMM DNDN PPDP rioo DPDPM oooo gaooowe koooo ooata odhumaoo oooo daoone baneo Note : Ektaal is a taal of 12 beats. It is in the last hundred years. sung in late evening.. the omnibus Kedar has acquired two ‘Nishads’ and two ‘Madhyams’. It is basically a middle octavious raga.Kedar Raga (Incarnation of Lord Shiva) Raga Kedar Taal : Ektaal (Vilambit) Sohey larayee mayi banara janey aa banari tu Kaun kaun gaweko ata dhum’ dham’ daney (data) baneri The anxious bride awaits her groom for her wedding ceremony. Kedar .
Thunder and lightning are scaring the devils away. X M Sa P ba M oo P ra 0 G oo P sa P wa P ta 2 P na P gha P ki P na 0 MP boo DN ghoo M oo SR oo •• 3 M on SN rao • 4 RS dao DP oo R ni MM oo S a RS oo P Bi S da M ma • • P ja S oo R u • • S li S sa R r • • • S oo S na S ka • • • S cha S na S rey • • • S ma D wa S oo • • S ka P a DN shoo • S ta P ti SR oo •• • S da PD lao SN oo • • S ma P ra DP ro • S ka M ja MM oo • S ta M ta RS oo • 30 31 . and the peacocks are screeching with delight.Raga Kedar Taal : Ektaal (Drut) 12 beats Sawana ki bundania barasata ghana ghora Bijali chamakata damakata das’ nanawa ati larajata maur karey shor The torrents of rain drops are pelting down in the monsoon.
m. MG PM MP MM DP RS ND NR • SN SS. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. S N D P. 5. • MP DP MP MD DP MM MR RR SS PM PM ND DP • • • • • •• •• ND NN DP ND RS. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. Time of Recital : M Samavadi : to 10 p. MM MM RS NN NN DP RN SN DP ND DN ND SN RS ND NN SN • •• •• • • • MM ND • • MM RS PM DP • • •• NN DP MP MM ND SN RS • RS. DM PM NN DP ND SN MP DP SN • MM MM RS 7 p. SN RS NS MM RS • • MM RN • • SM MM PM PP MM MG MM RS. ND SN RS SR •• • RS SN • SR ND DD RS DP DN RN • ND •• DN ND •• •• SN • SM • MG PM RS DD •• S M P. •• • •• • • • Thhat : Kalyan Thhat : Kalyan C. M P D P M.m. MM MM MM RS ND NN DP DP 4. N D M P D P M S R S. M G P N D S. S D. 32 33 .Kedar Raga Raga : Kedar 1. • RN • SN • DN ND PM DP ND SN • SM RS • ND ND PM DM PN DP B. Main Phrase : M P D N. NN NN NN DP MM • • MM MM DP RS • • • • • • RS SN ND • •• DD PM MM •• MG PM SS •• ND SS •• RS RN SM MM RS DN ND ND PM PP NN SN • • SN • Examples of a Few Taans : A. S N R S.
X Durbari Kanada . 2 0 R R S 3 R SN • ka S wa R oo Jhana ka jha na MG MG moo oo RS D N • • tao wao NP MG oo rey G rey • M oo • R bi R ta SN D N N • • • • chhu wao oo gha M • R N • ra G a S a G oon S oo M S i P S lo P oo S NS • oo mio MM GM moo oo P P P • se N • ka S ba oo GM oo oo R mi kai RS wao to rey N D NS • • • oo oo M MP P D D na R oo • SN N chhum chha S • na na M ra • nao na S sa • S • S • S oo MP oo • RR boo GM loo •• SN oo GM • S ley • S oo • SM jaa •• G oo • G ga • R hi • S • bi chhu wa ba Raga N N PM ghao rao NP key RS N D NS • • • gao wao oo oo 34 35 .Durbari Raga Kanada (The Royal Sensation) Raga Durbari Kanada Taal : Teentaal (Drut) Jhanaka jhanak’wa morey bichhuwa ghara ailo mitawa kaisey kaba aoon torey morey mitawa Chhum chhanananana bichhuwa boley jaag’ rahi saba ghar’key logawa “My anklet bells are jingling. It is a raga. In drut teentaal sung by Pdt. gives the listener some idea of this majestic raga in a capsule form. Sung at the dead of night is attributed to Miyan Tansen. How do I come stealthily to you . whose grandeur is fully revealed in alaap or the slow exposition. the legendary singer of Emperor Akbar’s court. Bhimsen Joshi some of the vigour put in by him. when all the members of the house are awake?” the lover tells to her sweetheart. Durbari Kanara.is one of the most important and dominating ragas in Hindusthani Music. The atmosphere of this raga is intimately associated with the grandeur and sensations of the Royal Court and Palace.my beloved.
S D N P S. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. P • 36 37 . P N S R S D N P M P D N S. D D NS RS RN • • • • DN NS ND • • • SR SD • • • D N PP • • • •• D D NS • • • RR RG G G MM MM MR RR SN • • • •• • • D N NP MP D N MR RR SN SD • • N D NR SS.Durbari Raga Kanada 1. 4. Main Phrase : D N P. • • • RN • NP NM PG MR M R S. NP NM PG D N RS. SD NP MP G G MM RS N • SS. • • • D. 5. MP GM RS N D NR • • • NS • RN • • SD • NS SD • • RN • SD • N N NS • • • R M P D N S. C. G G M R.m. S N D N P M P G • • • • • • • • • Thhat : Kafi B. Time of Recital : R Samavadi : to 3 a. • RR G G MM MP MP D D NS SN D N RS. PG MR SN RS • •• • RN SD • • • NS RR • •• RR • • G G GM MM •• PP NS • DD DN D N N N RS RN SD SD NS RN SD • • • • NS G G MM MR SN • RS • • •• RS •• 12 m. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3.n. MP MP PD PD RN SR N N SR • •• •• • D N D N NS RN SD RN RS • • • • • • NS NP SD • • SR NM NS • •• SR PD •• RR DN •• G G MM NS • • • • • •• RS GG • • • • Examples of a Few Taans : A.
Todi Raga (The Morning Glory) Raga Todi Taal : Teentaal (Madhyalaya & Drut) Bar’ Saraswati se mang’ta hoon vidyadhita karata nirata nitidhi sab’ jagat’ ke gunijana pujije Raga thhat’ aur tala sahasa hay. in the sense there is no mention of it in ancient scriptures. Bahaduri Todi.the consort of Lord Hari. I worship you . bhaja hari ke dayani dayani Oh! Saraswati (the goddess of learning). Gurjari Todi. Govardhani Todi. Deshi Todi.g. which however is an afternoon raga. Khat Todi. Hussaini Todi. Bhimsen Joshi.a popular morning raga sung in this series by Pdt. Barari Todi. It has very close similarity with raga Multani. Lachari Todi. Along with all the learned persons of the world. It is a comparatively recent raga. beats and melody of music. Jaunpuri Todi. an even more well known morning raga. In Karnataki Music the northern Bhairavi is equivalent to this main stream raga Todi. Some musicologists think. Please grant me the boon and give me learning and wisdom. X 2 0 S Ba R ra G Sa G ra 3 R swa M ta S ti S oo R se S S S on M ni M ni S ga D ra GR ja S ta M ta G na R SR G D vid S sa MG Rao M oo R ba D dya M ja D oo G ga D dhi D ke N ta D oo D ka D oo man oo P ra P ta DM guo oo hoon oo G ni R pu R ti S ji S dhi S je G oo D ja G ga D ha DM M thha oo D ri G oo • M ta R ke • ND auo S oo • • D r S oo • • Raga S ta ND dao • S oo D ya • S la D oo • S sa MG nio • S ha R da • R sa R ya • S ha G oo • S y RS nio • D bha 38 39 . Bilaskhani Todi and Mian ki Todi etc. Ashavari Todi. Todi . that it is derived from Bhairavi. Chhaya Todi. There are several kinds of Todi e. Bless me with the knowledge of moods.
Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. R G MG RS DN • • SN • DP •• • MD SR • • •• ND RGMG. B. S. R G R G R S DN DN DP SN DS ND SN MD ND SN SD • • • • • R G R G RS • • DN DS DR DG GR PM PM S SR •• R G G R SN • • • NN • • ND D D ND DP • ND SN SR •• R G G R SN • • DS • ND ND Samavadi : to 10 a. 4.m. P M D M G M R G. ND PM DM 40 41 .Todi Raga Raga : Todi 1. MDP. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. D 6 a. • Thhat : Todi Thhat : Todi • • • • • • •• • • • • • S • R N G D M P. S N R G. MD ND PM DM DP MR G R SS. • R S. C. R G R S. D. DN SR G R G G R G R S R G R G R G R G MG • • SN ND ND DM DM MG MG SR GM DP MD DP RG PR MR G R G R RS G R R G MR G R SS. N S. MG MD MD MD ND SN R R GG •• • • SN • • • SR • • GR RG •• GM MG ND • • RR SN • • • Examples of a Few Taans : A. • G PR G R R G MG R G RS. Time of Recital : Main Phrase : Also 5.m. D M P. M R G R S. M D. MG R G MG R G RS ND •• SN • ND • • • • PM MD DN •• • • NS • SR R G MD ND ND ND DN • •• • • • • • • ND • PM DM DS • DP MG R G MD GR RG ND SN RS R G R G G R SN MR G R SS. S N D. D D M N G.
Your praise is sung by the Gods. Madhumat Sarang. Bada Hansa Sarang. Lankadahan Sarang.which are Shuddh Sarang.Vrindavani Raga Sarang (The Melody of Vrindavan) Lord Krishna’s childhood Town Raga Vrindavani Sarang Taal : J haptaal (Dhima . N • 2 N • 0 S o M ka M t P o S ba P ra M mey P la PNSR • • 3 R ma P o M o M ra N • S ra R hi R • M • P • Tu N • ma S ma S ta PNS laoo tuooo NM taao P pu R bha sa MR oo N ra PNMP bhaooo he R o P o MR oo ba S ra P na RS or tu N • gha M ja ghaa N tha M Tuma NS gao M • P hi RM oo PNS raoo • •• N Ka R wa N na • P ri S ta P ra • P m NR guo R su • NS tuma S ni M ra • • S hi N gan NMP taao • N Ra M dha MR oo S hi P or RN oo • • S m P va NS • • Raga su or 42 43 . this raga is more mobile. Vrindavani Sarang has more or less the same notes as those of raga megh without the gandhar. Miya-ki Sarang. etc. Your benevolence make the rivers flow and make the lands fertile. T h e r e a r e o t h e r v a r i e t i e s o f Sarang b e s i d e s Vrindavani .is usually sung in mid-day. the scene of Lord Krishna’s earlier deeds as a child. the creator of nature and universe. X Vrindavani Sarang . Gaud Sarang. You are the enabler and benefactor.10 beats) Tum’ rab’ tum’ saheba tum’hi karataar’ ghata ghaat mey purana jala thala bhara bhar Tum’hi Karim tum’hi Rahim gawata guni gandharva sura nara surataar “You are the Lord. Samant Sarang. nimble and more swift moving than raga Megh Malhar and is named after Vrindavan. By nature. saints and all human beings.
the protector of the poor .please save me. “You.my Lord.Raga Vrindavani Sarang Taal : Teentaal (Drut) Jaoon may to pe balihaari rey (mana) tumhi mero mana hara lino. and fulfil my wants” - X 2 0 R Ja P P 3 PN PM RS bao • NS • lio • oon mai too peo R haa SR lio •• R o SN oo • R o PN oo R ri PM oo S re RM noo S o RS oo S o NR • S o S oo N • S hi R me M P N na S ha S ra tum ro ma oo S pu SR •• • M ga N ma P rib N to P ki P ga N ic S • P ch S o • N chha S ba • N o S na • S o SN • • S ra PN oo • S na PM oo • N ka RM oo R ra RS oo • S dey NR • • S o S az • P tu ri wao oo oo 44 45 . You have captivated my heart and mind”. Garibki ichchha purana kara dey tuma to garib’ nawaaz “I dedicate and surrender myself to you .
S. RM RM MM RS • NS RM PN MN PM RS NR B. • • S N S. Time of Recital : R Samavadi : to 4 p. PN SR MM RS •• • •• • • NS • RM PP NP PM MR RM RR SN • SR • MP N N PM •• PN SN SR NR NS • NR SS NP MP •• NS RS.m. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. Main Phrase : M P N P M R.m. 5. • • Examples of a Few Taans : A. MR •• N N PM SR •• N N NP RM PN MR SN PM RN • 46 47 . Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2.Vrindavani Raga Sarang 1. P S • Thhat : Kafi D. NS NS RS NS • • • •• NP NS • • RM SS. C. 4. MM MR RR SN MM RS NS RS MR RR SR NS • •• •• • •• SN NS • RS NS • MR PM PP •• NP • SN PP •• RS MM RS. R M R M R S N N S. RM RM MS SR •• RR SS NN •• •• PN MM NS • •• PN •• NM •• PP SS RS •• •• NS NS SP NN • • • • SR •• RN RS • MR RR MR MM RN • • • • • SN N N PP PM MM RR NS NP NP MR NS • • RM PN MN PM RS. SR NS RN SS • R N N P P M N R. 1 p.
you the naughty fellow. It suggests the feeling of apathy towards worldly interests. do not trouble me. It is a remarkable feature of Indian music that two ragas Puriya & Marwa use the same notes but sounds different because of different emphasis and different combination of notes. (The Tune of the Dusk) Marwa . Both are sung at the same time in the early evening.Marwa Raga Raga Marwa Taal : Teentaal (Drut) Bangari mori muraka gayi chhaandona baiyan tori karile chori langarwa hasata khelata kini mosey barajori Sangakey saheliya lughayo gaiya woto door’ door’ ekase lata. It should be noted that the shruti (microtone) of Komal re or minor second is slightly higher than the Komal re used in Raga Todi. what is known in our language as ‘Vairagya’. All my playmates are watching. The use of D with R is emphasised more in Marwa. X 2 D M 0 D ri M mo G ri RS muo 3 N • R ka G ga M yi Ban ga ra ND D D do S wa MG rao D na S oo RS joo M bai N • ha NR • G yan R sa S ri M to G ta M ri G khe G ka M la G ri D ta G le R ki • R cho R oo • R oo R ni • S ri N mo S oo D oo S lan D se chhaa n N • ga R ra MG MD bao oo oo M San S R i • M ga ND G ke R • G sa R • DM heo R ra • M li R ND yao R S lu R ra • S gha R e • S oo R ka • S yo R se • S oo R oo • S ya MG oo • S oo RS oo • M wo NS • Raga ga too doo oo S oo doo oo RG MD lao oo tao 48 49 . whereas N with G is stressed in Puria. You have twisted my bracelet.a heart touching raga sung at dusk. stay away from me. Marwa is also a Sandhi-prakash raga. Please let go off my hand.
Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. DD MD DM DD ND ND •• MD SS. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. Main Phrase : D D M G R . •• • •• • • ND SN •• • R R R G MD RN DD DM MD MD MG R R C.m. DN RN DN DR • • RN ND • • • MD ND DM MD MD MD NM MG GR DN ND • DN MD •• ND R N G D. • • Examples of a Few Taans : A. 5. N D S. DN RN DR ND •• • • • DN ND SN R R ND RR ND SN RS. R R R R R R NN ND DD •• • • • DR R R ND ND MD MD MN MG GR DN ND •• ND ND MD DM GR GR ND SN DR RN DS. Time of Recital : D 5 p. SN R R RG MG GR ND DM GR ND DN •• • • • • • • • M D M G R G R S. Samavadi : till dusk R N S • • Thhat : Marwa D. M D. • • • • 50 51 . DM GR ND SN •• • RG MD DM GR GR ND B. • RN ND SN DR RN ND • • • •• 4.Marwa Raga 1. RN ND SS. N D S.
is yet again another ‘Sandhi prakash’ raga sung at dusk like Puriya Dhaneshree with an additional madhyam. and relieve me from the distress of this world. In certain Gharanas. it is also recited with shuddha dha also.Give poor Vinda (the poet) your blessings. This melancholy is melodised in raga Poorvi. Like Bihag the phrase Pa Ma Ga Ma Ga and the delicate komal Re brings out the character of the raga beautifully. Give me wealth. Please have mercy on me and cover my sorrow with happiness”. children and fulfil all my needs for sustenance. Poorvi. X Purav means East : the East cries when the Sun sets in the west. D sa N • 2 0 G Ha M du G kir R ri G dha GM opa GM 3 P P P ko S au R Go • P oo S ra R oo • yeo mai oo M pu M oo G oo D yo R ta D oo D oo N • P ba R dha N M su G na ND dao G kha G La N di M di P G oo P G no P oo P oo M A a R • na RN • chha mi DP noo P oo vin dao Vin M ga D kir D ka R a • G ma S pa P ra N ta • G oo S oo P na D ki • M pa S ka P oo P no • M oo S ra P oo P • D ra S na P oo M • D na S oo P oo G ka) • S ja • S ga R du P ba • • S ni N kha P ba • S s D ha P oo • S ta N ra P ta • N oo N na D na R ra P mi • S na R su P la • • N kha P ye Raga P sa oo (mai 52 . like Bishnupur Gharana in Bengal.Poorvi Raga (The Cry of the East) Raga Poorvi Taal : Teentaal (Madhyalaya) Hariye mai ko saba sukha dino dudha puta aur’ anadhana Lachhami kirpayo Govinda Vinda dino Agama parana jaga nistarana kirpa karaneko dukha harana sukha karana saba batana milaye ata kino “Oh! Lord Hari. give me the true joy of life.
5. •• • • ND D D RM MG MM GG •• • PP • • •• PM MM GR ND NN SN PP • RN • GM GR GR NR • MP PG • ND PM MP GM RM GR NR 4. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3.m. 54 55 . N R G Examples of a Few Taans : A. ND SN RS NR GM PM DP • • GR GR NR RN • •• • • • ND ND PG MG PM DM R R MG PM PG MG RS. Samavadi : to 7 p.Poorvi Raga 1. Main Phrase : P M G M G R S. GM GM MP MP GM GM RM GG MM DP ND SN RN ND DP • • GG NN GR MG MM RM SS. N N R G M P D N S. • • • Thhat : Poorvi D. GM PM DP D D DP MP MP NR • GM ND RN DP SN • • ND ND PP MM PM MP MG GG GG RR MR R R MG GN MN NR • • MG PM PG MR NR MG GR RS. • B. NR GM GM PM DP • DM PM PG MR GR RM MG RS NS.m. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. Time of Recital : G 3 p. MR ND DP DM C. S N D P M G M G R S.
Folk. This raga uses all the minor notes of the scale beginning from middle C. The young girl in love. instead. It is also called ‘sada suhagan’ raga i. X 2 0 SG Boo 3 MP N D PM G R oo oo ley na S oo S wo GM S oo P S oo MG nao D ra S • SS N • GS pi RS tao S • ND • • D • N • N • SG G M san S • M ga N ta oo hama sey M oo P yee G ja P o G oo ya P ha • san P oo P ga P ga • oo aura na P ni • D ta N ka raio oo P cha N tu ma san D pi • ra MG GMPD SN oo oooo oo • • DG yao • GM DN S S gi P S S S oo N ran S ta D ga N u P ni N na M ta S san MP naa • S ga N oo • hama sanga laa S ka • oo pree P ma S oo D na S ma S ra PM • S wo M • N oo M wo G su S ru • • S • ND kha chai na S oo • Raga D S • S ma mao cha ma jhu 56 57 .e. Chaiti. many an artiste sing Bhairavee as the last item of a concert. though a fundamental one which can be sung in Dhrupad and Khayal also leads itself spectacularly to Thumri.” Manaranga narrates the poetry singing and rejoicing. Hama sanga laagi preet’ una sanga karawo sukha chaina Manaranga nita naam’ machawo ruma jhuma. he goes around looking for happiness and joy with some other woman. Bhairavee . spends time with someone else . This raga.Bhairavee Raga (The Chant of Dawn) Raga Bhairavee Taal : Teentaal (Madhyalaya) Boley na wo ham’sey piya sanga aurana sanga rain’ jata hama sanga nita karata chaturayee piya.“My beloved does not speak with me any more. while this is a major raga. laments .decieving me. for its long lingering mood of sweet melody. categories. Dadra.” “Even though he is my lover. Ghazal. As a speciality. it can be sung at any time keeping its soft and sombre touch.an omnipotent early morning raga associated with the peace and tranqulity of the sacred moment of sunrise. Bhajan etc.
S N D P M G R S. Main Structure : Arohi : Abarohi : 2. Prime Notes : Vadi : 3. 5. D. • • SN • R G G R SR DD DN SN GR • • • D N N D PD DP • • MP PM GM MP MG MM MP PP • N N SN Examples of a Few Taans : A. SD ND PD N D MP GP MP MG MP B. Time of Recital : M 4 a. MG MP D N D N SN SR • • •• NS • SG G R R N SN R N SD • • •• • • • • SN • DP PD NS N D DM PG MG RS MG MP PM DP SN DP • NS • R G G R GM MP GM RS. Samavadi : to S S R G M P D N S. • • SN PS PN N D PM DP • GM G R NS.Bhairavee Raga 1. PD NS G R SN • •• • DP • • • • PD NS • G R SN PM PM N N SN • • • • DP PD D N NS • SR RN • PP • • G R MG RS R N SD SN SR GM PD • • N D PD • • •• GM G R G R SR NN DD ND DD N D R R RS MP SN DP DM PG MG RS. R G MP D N SR 12 noon — and last item •• G R SN • • • NN D D DP SN • PP SS •• MM • • SN • • • ND •• DP RS •• PM NS • • PD PD D D D N D N D N N N 4.m. Main Phrase : D P G M G R S. • • • • •• •• • Thhat : Bhairavee C. SR GM PD N D PD PN N D MP MP MG MR D N SN NS. D N S. 58 59 .
Mukherji. The first attempts to blend anecdotal history and analysis of the major Khayal gharanas with the history of creativity in Hindusthani music.Biography PANDIT KUMAR PRASAD MUKHERJI K umar Prasad Mukherji is the son of Late Prof. he has done a complete analysis of five major Khayal gharanas with illustrations from old archives as well as his contemporary artistes. He also had training from Ustd. Ustd. Sociologist and Musicologist and a literary figure of Bengal. 60 61 . This attempt has received ‘Rabindranath Tagore Award’ from the Government. This enabled him to have a direct access to many Ustads including great Faiyaz Khan of Agra School and Mustaq Hussain Khan of Gwalior School. His childhood and formative period was spent largely around strongholds like Agra. Calcutta. Kumar is equally at ease with both the styles. Dhurjati Prasad Mukherji the internationally known Economist. Atrauli. He has also been one of the most brilliant music critics of the country and wrote for about 15 years for two leading English dailies of Calcutta. he has given lecture demonstrations in S a n g e e t R e s e a r c h A c a d e m y y. As a deft vocalist. The Music Academy and Thyagaraja Bidwat Samaj (Chennai). Ata Hussain Khan and Khan. Latafat Hussain Khan Very few musicians have had the opportunity of being exposed to these two most important and authentic schools of singing. the Gwalior and the Agra. Institute of Advanced Studies (Simla) and Gana Kala Parishad (Bangalore) where he was conferred the title of Pandit He has Pandit. Delhi University. As a musicologist. also received the Rabindranath Tagore Award Award. Administrative Staff College. His last book in Bengali ‘ Dishi Gaan Biliti Khela’ published by Ananda Publisher is a Jugalbandi (twin play) of cricket and music. On behalf of Sangeet Research Academy. Viswa Bharati (Shantiniketan). He has authored three best sellers in Bengali. entitled “Kudrat Rangi Birangi ” “Majlis” and “Mehfil ”. The Ford Foundation financed this project. Calcutta University. He is currently under contract with Penguin India to write a book on Hindusthani Music and Musicians. Gwalior and Rampur wherefrom radiate the principal vocal styles of North Indian Music.
How do I come stealthily to you . Samar Saha is a full time faculty member of ITC Sangeet Research Academy since its ver y inception in 1978. Shyaam (Lord Krishna). His formal training star ted under the tutelage of Shri Sachchidananda Goswami and then flowered under the able guidance of Shri Krishna Kumar Ganguly (Natubabu) of Benaras Gharana .II Sawana ki bundania barasata ghana ghora Bijali chamakata damakata daas’ nanawa ati larajata maur karey shor The torrents of rain drops are pelting down in the monsoon. saints & wise men and other passers by. Such a percussionist is Samar Saha. 62 63 . when all the members of the house are awake?” the lover tells to her sweetheart. therefore. Raga : Durbari Kanada Jhanaka Jhanak’wa morey bichhuwa ghara ailo mitawa kaisey kaba aoon torey morey mitawa Chhum chhanananana bichhuwa boley jaag’ rahi saba ghar’key logawa “My anklet bells are jingling. She ponders with her mates and wonders when the groom is going to arrive with his entourage along with the singers for the celebration. Music also becomes lively and enjoyable categorically with the help of the rhythm. Born in Kolkata. Yogi jangala jati jati aur’ gunimuni saba nara nari miley moholiyo hai Manaranga kahata. It was he. Raga : Kedar Bandish .I Sohey larayi mai banara janey aa banari tu Kaun kaun gaweko ata dhum’ dham’ daney (data) banari The anxious bride awaits her groom for her wedding ceremony. Bandish . The enchanting melody bewitches all men.my beloved. who shaped up Samar into a performer of great promise. A matured musician. and the peacocks are screeching with delight. Numerous musical performances by renowned artistes start throbbing with life with the magical touch of his fingers on the tabla in style that belongs to the ‘Benaras Gharana’. Thunder and lightning are scaring the devils away. ambiance and virtuosity. says the poet Manaranga. Samar’s initial training started at a very tender age under the guidance of his father Shri Sudhangsu Bhusan Saha and brother Shri Tarak S a h a . a tabla player of repute. without whom his recital does not bloom. Biography of Raga : Yaman Kalyan Shyaam bajaayey aaj’ muralia wey apno adharana guni so. The slow and fast tempo in soft or bold tones bring tremendous variety to an otherwise monotonous musical event. needs a matured percussionist.Biography Lyrics PANDIT SAMAR SAHA ‘Rhythm’ represents life. plays the flute with his divine lips resting on a branch of a tree in a forest.
Raga : Poorvi Hariye mai ko saba sukha dino dudha puta aur’ anadhana Lachhami kirpayo Govinda Vinda dino Agama parana jaga nistarana kirpa karaneko dukha harana sukha karana saba batana milaye ata kino “Oh! Lord Hari. Give me wealth. the protector of the poor . stay away from me. and relieve me from the distress of this world. You have captivated my heart and mind”. the creator of nature and universe. Your praise is sung by the Gods.“My beloved does not speak with me any more.my Lord.” “Even though he is my lover. Bandish . I worship you . Please grant me the boon and give me learning and wisdom.” Manaranga narrates the poetry singing and rejoicing. bhaja Hari ke dayani dayani Oh! Saraswati (the goddess of learning). Bless me with the knowledge of moods. Raga : Bhairavee Boley na wo ham’sey piya sanga aurana sanga rain’ jata hama sanga nita karata chaturayee piya Hama sanga laagi preet’ una sanga karawo sukha chaina Manaranga nita naam’ machawo ruma jhuma. Your benevolence make the rivers flow and make the lands fertile.decieving me. You have twisted my bracelet. you the naughty fellow.I Tum’ rab’ tum’ saheba tum’hi karataar ’ ghata ghaat mey purana jala thala bhara bhar Tum’hi Karim tum’hi Rahim gawata guni gandharva sura nara surataar “You are the Lord. “You. Please have mercy on me and cover my sorrow with happiness”. spends time with someone else . children and fulfil all my needs for sustenance. All my playmates are watching. instead. Please let go off my hand. give me the true joy of life. You are the enabler and benefactor. do not trouble me. Along with all the learned persons of the world. 64 65 .II Jaoon may to pe balihaari rey (mana) tumhi mero mana hara lino.the consort of Lord Hari. he goes around looking for happiness and joy with some other woman. Raga : Vrindavani Sarang Bandish . saints and all human beings. The young girl in love. Garibki ichchha purana kara dey tuma to garib’ nawaaz “I dedicate and surrender myself to you . Give poor Vinda (the poet) your blessings. and fulfil my wants” - Raga : Marwa Bangari mori muraka gayi chhaandona baiyan tori karile chori langarwa hasata khelata kini mosey barajori Sangakey saheliya lubhayo gaiya oto door ’ door’ ekase lata. beats and melody of music.please save me.Lyrics Raga : Todi Bar ’ Saraswati se mang’ta hoon vidyadhita karata nirata nitidhi sab’ jagat’ ke gunijana pujije Raga thhat’ aur tala sahasa hay. laments .
Canada 66 .Conceived and Produced by Arya Bhattacherjee Hosted by Gautami Bhattacherjee Arya Bhattacherjee Excutive Producer Subhanjan Sarkar Arindam Mukherjee Creative Co-ordination Sanjoy Ganguli Soumya Bose Accompaniments Samar Saha: Tabla Sudhir Nayak: Harmonium Srinivas Joshi: Tanpura & Voice Additional Tracks Roshan Ali: Sarengi Babu Shome: Synthesizer Music Recording & Arrangement Soumya Bose Daman Sood Music notes. Lyrics and Editorial Compilation Pdt. Post production Bappa Roy Malay Pradhan Anil Pandey Graphic Design Utkarsha Malakar Audio Daman Sood: Wester n Outdoor. Kumar Prasad Mukherjee Sanjoy Ganguli Kumar Roy Anirban Bhattacharya Costumes Niraj Chokhani: Bloomingdales. Mumbai Bablu Prasad: Om Studio. Kolkata Video Photography. & Mrs. Rashid Khan Santosh Nag Meghnath Mukherjee Bud Bremner: Coastal Mastering. Kolkata Jhantu Jana: Studio Inframe. Kolkata Studio & Post Production Umesh Upadhayay: New Delhi Communication Network Limited Acknowledgements Kuntal Bhadar Debajyoti Bhattacharjee Adip Tandon Gokul Bhai Mr.
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