SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 15th June to 30th July

Submitted By:Gaurav Srivastava 0713231040 ECE-1(7th sem)

ABOUT THE COMPANY
CORPORATE VISION :
“A world class integrated power major, powering India's growth with increasing global presence.”

CORE VALUES : B C O M I T
Business ethics Customer focus Organizational & professional pride Mutual respect & trust Innovation & speed Total quality for excellence

NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India, public sector company. It was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India. At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others. Within a span of 31 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country.

Type Industry Founded

State-owned enterprise Public (BSE: 532555) Electricity generation 1975

Headquarters Delhi, India Key people Products Revenue R S Sharma, Chairman & Managing Director Electricity ▲ 50,188.52 crore (US$ 10.89 billion)(2009-10)[1] ▲ 8,837.65 crore (US$ 1.92 billion)(200910)[1] 25944 (2009) www.ntpc.co.in

Net income

Employees Website

Source: Wikipedia

. NTPC becomes third largest by Market Capitalisation of listed companies 2005 The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its changing business portfolio and transform itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility. Government of India granted NTPC status of “Navratna‟ being one of the nine jewels of India.5%. In the last 30 years. accounting for about 20% of India‟s installed capacity. NTPC is the largest power utility in India.EVOLUTION OF NTPC 1975 NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the Government of India. NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India. 1997 In 1997. enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors. 2004 NTPC became a listed company with majority Government ownership of 89.

000 17 Bongaigaon(erection phase. HQ NER SR HQ WR HQ City Delhi Patna Bhubaneswar Lucknow Hyderabad Mumbai NTPC Project Sites: 1 Singrauli 2 Korba 3 Ramagundam 4 Farakka 5 Vindhyachal 6 Rihand 7 Kahalgaon 8 NCTPP.100 1.260 Andhra Pradesh 1.000 1.835 Andhra Pradesh 2.330 3.050 460 440 705 1000 1980 750 24.600 Madhya Pradesh 3. Dadri 9 Talcher Kaniha 10 Unchahar 11 Talcher Thermal 12 Simhadri 13 Tanda 14 Badarpur 15 Sipat-II 16 Sipat-I(erection phase) Total Uttar Pradesh Chhattisgarh West Bengal Uttar Pradesh Bihar Uttar Pradesh Orissa Uttar Pradesh Orissa Uttar Pradesh Delhi Chhattisgarh Chhattisgarh 2. HQ ER-II.000 2.) Assam .340 1.000 2.Sites of NTPC NTPC Head Quarters Sr.600 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Head Quarter NCR HQ ER-I. No.

supplier scheduling. fixed assets Project management Costing. and commission calculation Financials General ledger. rostering. training. payroll. customer contact. cash management. time and attendance. benefits Customer relationship management Sales and marketing. cost management. manufacturing process. suppliers and/or employees Access control Management of user privileges for various processes . manufacturing flow Supply chain management Order to cash. purchasing. accounts payable. bills of material. The distributed design allows a business to assemble modules from different vendors without the need for the placement of multiple copies of complex and expensive computer systems in areas which will not use their full capacity Manufacturing Engineering. workflow management. time and expense. capacity. call-center support Data services Various "self-service" interfaces for customers. quality control. commissions. accounts receivable. product configurator. supply chain planning. service. billing. inspection of goods. manufacturing projects. inventory. claim processing. work orders. scheduling.Need for communication Among different sites Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) An ERP system can either reside on a centralized server or be distributed across modular hardware and software units that provide "services" and communicate on a local area network. performance units. activity management Human resources Human resources. order entry.

775 Kg (Mass at Lift-off) 1218 Kg (Dry mass) September 28. The speed provided is up to 2 mbps. This Network is provided by operators like BSNL or VSNL. Mission Spacecraft Mass Launch date Launch site Launch vehicle Orbit Communication 2.Types of networks used by NTPC NTPC uses 3 different types of networks for the purpose of communication among its various sites.09. ISDN Network ISDN is the Integrated Service Digital Network. INSAT-3E carries 24 Normal C-band and 12 Extended C-band transponders. These are listed below: MPLS Network ISDN Network VSAT Network MPLS Network MPLS Network is the Multiple Protocol Level Shift Network. 2003 French Guyana Ariane5-V162 Geostationary Orbit . Launch Date 28. It is an exclusive communication satellite to further augment the communication services that are being provided by the INSAT System. VSAT Network VSAT or Very Small Aperture Network is a satellite based network. It is the primary network which is used by the NTPC sites. It provides a network speed of 2 mbps to 34 mbps. The speed provided by VSAT is about 2 mbps. in the form of a leased line which is a dedicated line. It is used as a backup network. Weighing 2775 kg at lift-off.2003 INSAT-3E is the fourth satellite launched in the INSAT-3 series.

2 m). nearly all VSAT systems are now based on IP. VSATs access satellites in geosynchronous orbit to relay data from small remote earth stations (terminals) to other terminals (in mesh configurations) or master earth station "hubs" (in star configurations). Now days. A very small portion of a transponder is used for each VSAT return path channel. In addition. Technology: VSAT was originally intended for sporadic store-and-forward data communications but has evolved into real-time internet services.VSAT Network Definition: A Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT). and each of these return-path channels is further subdivided using to serve multiple customers. several return-path channels can co-exist on a single satellite transponder. The satellite antenna at the customer's location includes. VSAT data rates typically range from narrowband up to 4 Mbit/s. in addition to the receiver. with a very broad spectrum of applications. Each VSAT terminal is assigned a frequency for the return path which it shares with other VSAT terminals using a shared transmission scheme such as time division multiple access. VSAT uses existing satellite broadcasting technology with higher powered components and antennas manufactured with higher precision than conventional satellite television systems. is a two-way satellite ground station with a dish antenna that is smaller than 3 meters (most VSAT antennas range from 75 cm to 1. . a relatively high-powered transmitter that sends a signal back to the originating satellite. VSATs access satellites in geosynchronous orbit to relay data from small remote earth stations (terminals) to other terminals (in mesh configurations) or master earth station "hubs" (in star configurations). An innovative feature of VSAT is that the technology has evolved to the point that something that previously could only be done with large. highpowered transmitting satellite dishes can now be done with a much smaller and vastly lower-powered antenna at the customer's premises.

Ku Band VSATs make up the vast majority of sites in use today for data or telephony applications.000 units in 1984-85. using a central uplink site. where each VSAT terminal relays data via satellite to another terminal by acting as a hub. Others configured in only a single star topology sometimes will have each terminal connected to each other as well. In 1985. resulting in each terminal acting as a central hub. to transport data back and forth to each VSAT terminal via satellite. Advantage of VSAT Network: VSAT is a satellite based communication service that offers a flexible and reliable communication solution including Enterprise Wide Networking with high reliability and reach that extends even to remote sites. These configurations are utilized to minimize the overall cost of the network. . A mesh topology. A combination of both star and mesh topologies. minimizing the need for a centralized uplink site. Configuration: Most VSAT networks are configured in one of these topologies: A star topology. Equatorial later developed a C band (4/6 GHz) 2 way system using 1 m x 0. Some VSAT networks are configured by having several centralized uplink sites (and VSAT terminals stemming from it) connected in a multi-star topology with each star (and each terminal in each star) connected to each other in a mesh topology. and to alleviate the amount of data that has to be relayed through a central uplink site (or sites) of a star or multi-star network. More than 30. such as a network operations center (NOC). Schlumberger Oilfield Research co-developed the world's first Ku band (12/14 GHz) VSATs with Hughes Aerospace to provide portable network connectivity for oil field drilling and exploration units.History: The first commercial VSATs were C band (6 GHz) receive-only systems by Equatorial Communications using spread spectrum technology. A recent breakthrough in the VSAT technology has enabled us to use Ka band frequency which further reduces the size of Antenna to 3 meters.000 60 cm antenna systems were sold in the early 1980s.5 m antennas and sold about 10.

A VSAT Network provides: Reliability in transmission of data (data. video) Allocation of resources to different users (bandwidth. . NTPC has been assigned Transponder No. and in case of INSAT 3E it is 4197.Delivered GHz print Power 3 to 7 10 to 18 18 to 31 Large Medium Small Low Medium High Rainfall effect Minimum Moderate Severe However. voice.425 GHz and downlink frequency range of 3.925 GHz to 6. point-to-point communication and broadband multimedia services. amplification power) Fixed Network solution.7 GHz to 4. Provide point-to-multipoint (broadcast). Provide communication to remote and inaccessible areas.51 MHz which is measured with a spectrum analyzer connected to antenna through the LNA.2 GHz.  Earth Segment. The frequency at which satellite confirms its position by sending a signal is called the Beacon Signal. multipoint-to-point (Data Collection). The central frequency range used by NTPC to uplink and downlink its signals are 6025000Hz and 3800000 Hz respectively.  Space Segment. A VSAT System can be broadly classified into two segments. 3 in the recently launched satellite INSAT 3E with uplink frequency range of 5. Band Band C Band Ku Band Ka VSAT Frequency Spectrum Allocation Frequency Area Foot. NTPC uses C Band frequency range (4GHz to 6 GHz).

This segment is available from the organizations that have procured satellites.000 km above the equator. a number of private players have emerged who own or lease satellites which are used to carry their own or their customers‟ data traffic. .Earth Segment Space Segment Space Segment: This segment is primarily the satellite that is used for communication. Outdoor unit 2. In addition to international agencies. The satellites used are exclusively in the Geo-Stationary orbit. Located on an arc 36. Ground Segment: This is primarily called the Earth Terminal segment. The Earth terminal (or equipment at the customer‟s premises) can typically be divided into two parts 1. Indoor Unit The outdoor unit is generally. ground or even wall mounted and the indoor unit. which is the size of a desktop computer. is normally located near existing computer equipment in your office. arranged launch and who operate these satellites on commercial basis.

PABX.) VSAT Specifications Antenna diameter: 11 m Traffic Capacity: 9. host server etc. Telephone. Ethernet hub.Satellite communication concept Note: HPA – High Power Amplifier (Earth Station equipment that amplifies the transmit RF signal) CPE – Customer Premises Equipment (eg.6 kbps – 2 mbps Diagram Frequency Bands: C-Band (4/6 GHz) Ku-Band (12/14 GHz) Ka-Band (20/30 GHz) Network: Point-to-Point .

. LNA.Configuration: Point-to-Multipoint Equipment List:  Antenna.  Outdoor Unit: HPA. SSPA(Solid State Power Amplifier)  Indoor Unit : Chassis Note: Antenna size is used to describe the ability of antenna to amplify the signal strength. Outdoor unit (ODU) is connected through a low-loss coaxial cable to the indoor unit (IDU) called IFL (Inter-facility Link).

025 GHz.725 to 7.5 to 4. Antenna varies – antenna size is describe the ability of the antenna to amplify the signal strength feed-horns directs transmitted power to antenna dish or collects the received power from it. Antenna size is used to describe the ability of the antenna to amplify the signal strength.Typical VSAT System Outdoor Unit: The antenna system consists of a reflector. Up converters and High Power Amplifiers (HPA) used for converting and amplifying the signal before transmitting to the feed horn. 7. down converter receives the signal at 4. The feed horn is mounted on the antenna frame at its focal point by support arms.8 GHz and the up converter converts it to 6.8 meters or 11 meters.8 meters to 3-8 meters. Extended C band. The feed horn directs the transmitted power towards the antenna dish or collects the received power from it. The size of the antenna varies from 1. . feed horn and a mount.

Radio Frequency Terminal (RFT): RFT is mounted on the antenna frame and interconnected to the feed horn + Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) + down-converters. It also consists of demodulators which receive the signal from the RFT in the IF range and demodulates the same to segregate the user traffic signal from the carrier. It performs the necessary protocol conversion on the input data from the customer end equipment prior to modulation and transmission to RFT. satellite communication and eliminates the need for long transmission lines. Used for monopulse radar. EPABX as per the requirement. routers. 5. ranging from standalone computers. . Noise temperature is a parameter used to describe the performance of LNA. telephone instruments. Permits a reduction in the axial dimension of the antenna. Employs a parabolic contour for the sub dish. LANs. Indoor Unit (IDU): The IDU consists of modulators that superimpose the user traffic signal on a carrier signal.Cassegrain Antenna System: 1. Greater flexibility in the design of the feed system. 4. A Double reflector system 2. 3. This is then sent to the RTF for up conversion. multiplexes. LNA – minimize signal noise. amplification and transmission. IDU also interfaces with various end user equipments. Works on the principle of cassegrain optical telescope.

Block Diagram of a VSAT System .

Antenna Tracker This checks the voltage level of the signal and when reduced automatically moves the dish antenna to track the maximum strength. Hence tracking in small antennas is not required but in case of antennas with big diameter. Tracking modes (For checking): a) Time mode – The antenna tracker checks for the voltage level after every 10 sec. 1. This receiver the 4197 MHz signal can convert it to 70 MHz signal for antenna tracking. Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) – It is a parameter to check the strength of the signal. tracking is essential. 20 sec or whatever time is. 2. c) Time and Signal mode – It is the combination of both the above modes. b) Signal Mode – The antenna tracker tracks the antenna to obtain the maximum signal strength whenever there is a difference of 3dB. The antenna tracks the signal whenever the signal strength decreases.Antenna Control Unit: This unit works to receive and transmitting signals from the satellite using antenna and tracks antenna when required.e. Beacon Signal Receiver The satellite sends a self generated signal named beacon signal to the earth station so that the antenna can track the signal. . Given by HPBW = 70λ/DxD where λ = Wavelength D = Diameter of antenna λ=V/n V = Velocity of the wave As the antenna size is decreased HPBW increases as D is inversely proportional to HPBW. beam width at that point of half power. This signal is 4197 MHz for NTPC. The width of the beam when the there is a difference of 3 dB from the maximum point of the gain i.

Antenna Control Unit .

. valve amplifiers are much more cost effective in high power applications such as RADAR. 1. or communication equipment. 1kW. Also used. etc. 4. NTPC CSES has got is low both types of High Power Amplifiers. 4.High Power Amplifier: These are also known as Vacuum Tubes (Valve) Amplifiers or Tube Amplifiers. 3kW 100W. So to avoid heating up we use Klystron II & TWT HPA alternatively. Used for high power i. Needs tuning so that maximum wide band signal gain is achieved at a particular frequency. while semiconductor amplifiers have largely displaced valve amplifiers for low power applications.e. Narrow band signal. Both run each at a time to avoid burnout. eg. 400W. countermeasures equipment. No tuning required as the signal is 2. 3. 750 W 2. Now we‟ll compare two types of HPA which were used in our training TWT High Power Amplifier Klystron II 1. Suitable for NTPC as power rating 3. for less power rating around requirements. Used where power required is less.

the current builds up and thus is amplified as it passes down). which then passes down the middle of a wire helix that stretches the length of the tube. fed with low powered radio signal that is to be amplified.Working of Travelling Wave Tube (TWT): This device is an elongated vacuum tube with an electron gun (a heated cathode that emits electrons) at one end. positioned near the collector. A TWT integrated with a regulated power supply and protection circuits is referred to as a Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA). The voltage gain of the tube can be of the order of 40 decibels. In some cases a coupling probe is used to couple the microwave energy from a klystron into a separate external waveguide. and the electromagnetic field due to the beam current then induces more current back into the helix (i. The electromagnetic field due to the current in the helix interacts with the electron beam. It has the advantage (over the magnetron) of coherently amplifying the reference signal and so its output may be precisely controlled in amplitude. The bandwidth of a broadband TWT can be as high as one octave. frequency and phase. The helix acts as a delay line. and operating frequencies range from 300MHz to 50 GHz. the solenoid coil can be replaced by permanent magnets) A directional coupler. A second directional coupler. A solenoid coil wrapped around the tube creates magnetic field which focuses the electrons into the beam. which can be either a waveguide or an electromagnetic coil. finally striking a collector at the other end. Many Klystrons have a waveguide for coupling microwave energy into and out of the device. An attenuator prevents any reflected wave from travelling back to the cathode. (In Lower power devices. in which the RF signal travels at the same speed along the tube as the electron beam. is positioned near the emitter. . although it is quiet common for lower power and lower frequency klystrons to use coaxial couplings instead. Working of a Klystron II Tube: Klystrons are used as an oscillator or amplifier at microwave frequencies to produce both low power reference signals for super heterodyne radar receivers and to produce high power carrier waves for communications and the driving force for linear accelerators. causing bunching of the electrons (an effect called velocity modulation). includes a current into the helix. receives an amplified version of the input signal from the far end of the helix.e. although tuned (narrowband) versions exist.

As the electrons leave the heated cathode of the tube. Other NTPC sites generally have LNA of 54 K rating. The electrons bunch together and are directed into one or more additional chambers that are tuned at or near the tube‟s operating frequency. Here at CSES NTPC we have LNA of 37 K rating. where they are acted upon by a RF signal. LNA is rated with Noise Temperature Rating. Both are run each at a time to avoid burnout. Electrons in a klystron are accelerated to a controlled speed by the application of several hundred volts. Low Noise Amplifier: The Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is a special type of electronic amplifier used in communication systems to amplify very weak signals captured by antenna. Strong RF fields are induced in the chambers as the electron bunches give up energy. the noise of all the subsequent stages is reduced by the gain of the LNA and the noise of the LNA is injected directly into the received signal. NTPC CSES has got both types of HPAs. It is often located very close to antenna.A klystron makes use of speed-controlled streams of electrons that pass through a resonating cavity. they are directed through a narrow gap into a resonating chamber. Thus. These fields are ultimately collected at the HPA alternatively. Make : NEC : Paradise make Down Converter . So to avoid heating up we use Klystron II & TWT HPA alternatively. Lower the noise temperature better the quality and more is the cost. it is necessary for a LNA to boost the desired signal power while adding as little noise and distortion as possible in the later stages in the system. Using a LNA.

up converter converts 70 MHz frequency to 5. The center frequency of up converter is 6025 MHz and Down converter is 3800 MHz. while down converter are used to decrease the frequency while reception. Up converter are used while transmitting.9-6. to increase the frequency. .UP Converter UP/Down converter: They are used to convert signals from low to high frequency or from a high to low frequency respectively.4 GHz and just the opposite occurs in down converter while reception. In C band.

Block diagram of up converter .

Multiplexer: Multiplexer is a device that allows multiple logical signals to be transmitted simultaneously across a single channel. . This is a device which modulates the transmitting signal and demodulates the receiving signal. it extracts the message signal from carrier wave at receiving end. This is represented in fractions eg. Works in the following manner: Quantization + Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) + Compressor. QAM 16 Forward Error Correction (FEC) – this is a parameter determining the output of QPSK & BPSK.e.Modem: Modem is a combination of two words Modulation and Demodulation. typically from digital to analog and then from analog to digital. ½. 7/8. etc. ¾. Modulation techniques used: QPSK – Quadrature Phase Shift keying. Modulation means superimposing the baseband signal on a carrier of high frequency so that it can be transmitted and demodulation is just vice versa of it i. A communication device that converts one form of signal into another that is suitable for transmission over communication circuits.

. Multiplexer Pulse Code Modulation – In PCM system. so both „time and amplitude‟ are quantized. Compressor – It reduces the output frequency (compresses) to optimum level.Quantization – Quantizing refers to use of a finite set of amplitude levels and a selection of level nearest to a particular sample value of the message signal as the representation for it. the message signal is sampled and the amplitude of each sample is rounded off to the nearest one of a finite set of allowable values.

Block Diagram of MUX & Modem networking .

But when different ports are connected like port of router with DCE port of MUX then there will be straight connection. group (chord) & circuit number. same ports then there is a cross connection. even if there are several networks to traverse. When two routers are connected i. such a device is called router. unit. . Like bridges. Router Exchange Exchange: A workplace that serves as a telecommunication facility where lines from telephone can be connected together to permit communication is called Exchange. Parameters: Route Number – It specifies NTPC site which has to receive data. The voice signal from modem + mux is sent to exchange so that it can distribute it to its telephone subscribers.e. It is a 25 pin data port. remote sites can be connected using routers over dedicated or switched lines to create WANs.Router: A device or setup that finds the best route between any two networks. There are data ports in router known as DTE ports. In NTPC 184 trunk lines are possible. Trunk number Transmission network Lens number – Combination of Module.

Communication between two Sites via VSAT: CSES NOIDA .

VSAT Topology: STAR – the hub station controls and monitors can communicates with a large number of dispersed VSATs. A hub station in a mesh network performs only the monitoring and control functions. Mesh – a group of VSATs communicate directly with any other VSAT in the network without going through a central hub. Since all VSATs communicate with the central hub station only. this network is more suitable for centralized data applications. These networks are more suitable for telephony applications. . Generally. the Data Terminal Equipment and 3 hub antenna is in the range of 6-11 m in diameter.

Usually used in star topology as a transmission technique. thereby accruing benefits of both the topologies. where a part of the network operates on a star topology while some sites operate on mesh topology.Hybrid Network – In practice usually using hybrid networks. it restricts the maximum bandwidth in most cases to about 19. All VSATs share satellite sources on a time slot basis.2 kbps. this design is similar to packet switched networks. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access): When numerous remote sites communicate with one central hub. Offered to domestic needs. . Because of competition with one another for access to the central hub.

Reservations Systems Financial and Banking Applications (tellers. ATM) etc. and can go up to a maximum bandwidth of 256 kbps. SCPC (Single Carrier Per Channel) SCPC-based design provides a point to point technology. making VSAT equivalent to conventional leased lines. Example of Point of Sales (POS transactions). Petrol stations. The incoming or return channel from the dispersed VSATs uses the TDMA channel technology that enables a large number of respective VSATs to share this single return channel. loans. The incoming routes typically operate at 128kbps. Credit Card Verification. . financial institutions and many large corporation that requires transfer of low to medium rate data applications between its head office and. Dedicated Bandwidth up to 2 Mbps Usually using an international VSAT service in Asia Pacific.The VSAT Hub communicates with all dispersed VSATs (typically a 1. information providers. retail chains.8 m diameter parabolic shaped dish) on an outgoing channel of up to 512 kbps based on the TDM scheme. local and outstation branch offices.

SCPC overview In the Hub-to-Remote configuration. . A VSAT antenna at the remote end or the distant end (normally the branch office) of the VSAT link is then interconnected to the VSAT hub via the satellite. one end of the VSAT link (normally the customer‟s HQ) is connected to the 11m VSAT Hub (Earth Station) via a terrestrial leased line.

The earth stations must be carefully power controlled to prevent the microwave power spilling into the bands for the other channels. The satellite channel bandwidth is broken into frequency bands for different earth station. Typical VSAT antenna size ranges from 1. all VSATs share the satellite resource on the frequency domain only.4m. FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) Oldest method of channel allocation. .VSAT links with a Remote to Remote configuration bypass the VSAT Hub and has a stand-alone VSAT antenna at both ends of the link.8m to 2. 3 Types: PAMA (Pre Assigned Multiple Access) DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access) CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) PAMA (Pre-Assigned Multiple Access) The VSATs are pre-allocated a designated frequency. Here. Equivalent of the terrestrial (Land Based) Leased line solutions.

fax. a central network monitoring system allocates a unique code to each of the VSATs. Enabling multiple VSATs to transmit simultaneously and share a common frequency band. DAMA offers point-to-point voice. no callup delays in the interactive data applications or high traffic volumes.PAMA solutions use the satellite resources constantly. Reception at the end of the link is accomplished by mixing the incoming composite data/code signal with a locally generated and correctly synchronized replica of the code. Satellite connections are established and dropped only when traffic demands them. so that a call can be established. PAMA connects high data traffic sites within an organization DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access) The network uses a pool of satellite channels. On demand. and data requirements and supports video-conferencing. Since the satellite resource is used only in proportion to the active circuits and their holding times. STAR topology is the best one. which are available for use by any station in that network. Therefore. voice and video between an unlimited number of geographically dispersed sites or from these sites to headquarters. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access): Under this. this is ideally suited for voice traffic and data traffic in batch mode. a pair of available channels is assigned. VSAT Characteristics and Advantages: Reliability: Reliable satellite transmission of data. the channels are returned to the pool for an assignment to another call. Since this network requires that the central network management system co-ordinates code management and clock synchronization of all remote VSATs. The data signal is combined with a high bit rate code signal which is independent of the data. Once the call is completed. . Mainly used for interference rejection or for security reasons in military systems.

Flexibility: The VSAT networks offer enormous expansion capabilities. VSAT Services Interactive real time application: o Point of sale/retail/banking (eg. Video streaming) o Interactive Distant Learning/ Training Direct-to-Home o Broadband internet access for consumers and businesses Opportunities in VSAT Technology: Voice over IP (VoIP) via satellite Frame Relay via Satellite ATM via Satellite . A low mean-time to repair: Few hours. This is significantly higher than the typical leased line uptime of approximately 80-85%. lesser elements imply lower MTTR. Network Management: Network Monitoring and control of the entire VSAT network is much simpler than a network of leased lines. VSATs offer unrestricted and unlimited reach. Internet and IP infrastructure o Multimedia delivery (eg. Link Budgets: RF equipment would cater to the requirements of the network topology and satellite modems in use. ATM) o Corporate data Telephony o Rural: individual subscriber o Corporate Telephony Intranet. compared to leased lines which extend up to a few days. no matter however remote. Cost: VSAT network offers significant savings over 2-3 years timeframe. The link budget estimates the ground station and satellite EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) required. Additional VSATs can be rapidly installed to support the network expansion to any site.5 % is achievable on a VSAT network. The service charged depends on the bandwidth which is allocated to the network in the line with customer requirements. easily integrates end-to-end monitoring and configuration control of all network subsystems. On the other hand. Essentially. Up time of up to 99.

However one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. Most LANs are connected workstations and personal computers. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a Wide-AreaNetwork (WAN). by sending emails or engaging in chat sessions. but it is also able to access data and devices anywhere on LAN.Video-on-Demand via satellite Multimedia Application o Internet/e-mail connection o Telemedicine o Distance Learning LAN/WAN: A computer network that spans a relatively small area is called LAN. In addition to above installation charges are also leviable. Most LANs are confined to a single building or a group of buildings. A Leased circuit may be speech may be speech circuit. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other. LAN WAN Leased Circuits: A leased circuit is a dedicated link provided between two fixed locations for the exclusive use of the customer. . Each node (individual computer) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executes programs. This means that many users can share expensive devices such as Laser Printers. a data circuit or telegraph circuit. Leased Line charges are uniform in all cases and are same as applicable to point to point leased circuit. as well as data.

minicomputers. Proxy Server . and a real server is called Proxy Server. enabling the users to send electronic mails anywhere in the world. Companies that are fully computerized make extensive use of e-mail because it is fast. but others have gateways to other computer systems. Some e-mail systems are confined to single computer systems or network. If not. such as web browser.Minimum hiring period for all regular leased circuit is one year. it forwards the request to the real server. Leased Line Circuit E-mail: Shorter for electronic mail. flexible and reliable. It intercepts all real requests to the real server to see if it can fulfill the requests itself. Proxy Server: A server that sits between a client application. The message can be notes entered from the keyboard or the electronic files stored on the disk. the transmission of messages over communication networks is called e-mail. Most mainframes. and computer network have an e-mail system.

A third type of hub. Intelligent hubs are also called manageable hubs. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port. actually reads the destination address of each packet and then forwards the packet to the correct port. Switched Ethernet LANs. a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments is known as switch. Switch . enabling it to go from one device (or segment) to another. Hubs are commonly used to connect the segment of LAN. A passive hub serves simply acts as a conduit for the data. A Diagram showing Hub connecting nodes Switches: In networks. called a switching hub. it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all the packets.Hubs: A common connection point for the devices in a network is called hub. Switches operate at the data link layer (Layer 2) and sometimes the network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI Reference Model and therefore supports any packet protocol. LANs that use switches to join segments are called switched LANs or incase of Ethernet networks. So called intelligent hubs include additional features that enables an administrator to monitor the traffic passing through the hub and to configure each port in the hub.

Routers: A device that forwards data packet along with networks is called Router. the places where two or more network connect. Mobile communication . A router is connected to at least two networks. Router Mobile Communication: In a mobile communication system at least one of the transceivers is mobile. or it may be a handheld unit by a pedestrian. Routers are located at gateways. and they use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best routes between any two hosts. commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP‟s network. Very little filtering of data is done through routers. Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path for forwarding the packets. It may be on board a vehicle that can move at high speeds.

office buildings. Radio paging Applications of Radio Paging: Industrial Site Paging Alarm Monitoring Security Systems Warehousing Hotels and Restaurants Medical Facilities Environmental monitoring Retail Checkouts Local Area Network (LAN): The Local Area Network (LAN) is by far most common type of data network. Wireless networking utilizes specific equipments such as NICs. or similar locations. unlike public systems. In these locations. no call charges are incurred once the system has been installed. wireless is the term used to describe any computer network where there is no physical wired connection between sender and receiver. Radio Paging Overview: On site Pagers provide a fast and flexible means of communication between fixed installations and mobile packet pagers. APs and routers in place of wires (copper or optical fiber) for connectivity. They can be used to transmit tones. text message and alarm conditions and.Wireless Network: In networking terminology. but in some cases spanning a distance of several kilometers). a LAN serves a local area (typically the area of the floor of a building. it is feasible for the . college or university campuses. As the name suggests. but rather the network is connected by radio waves and/or microwaves to maintain communications. Typically installations are in industrial plants.

high-speed communication links interconnecting nodes. Intermediate nodes (i. . but a few types have more recently become dominant. In summary. bridges and switches) allow LANs to be connected together to form larger LANs. one building or groups of buildings) Controlled by one administrative authority Assumes other users of LAN are trusted Usually high speed and is always shared LANs allow users to share resources on computer within an organization. repeaters. a LAN is a communication network which is: Local (i. A LAN may also be connected to another LAN or WANs and MANs using a “router”.e. Typical data transmission speeds are one to 100 megabytes per second. A wide variety of LANs have been built and installed.e.owning Organization to install high quality. The most widely used LAN system is Ethernet system developed by Xerox Corp. and may be used to provide a (shared) access to remote organizations through a router connected to a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) or a Wide Area Network (WAN).

e. Each outlet is connected via a colored patch lead to either 10 or 100 Mbps Ethernet Switch (blue. There are five major topologies used today in wired networks: Bus. Access to the remainder of the campus network is controlled via a TCP/IP Internet Router (blue. Tree. and Mesh.The photograph shows some of the networking equipment at the center of the LAN used by the Communication Group in the Department of Engineering. Unshielded Twisted Pair cabling (UTP) enters the rack from the five such laboratories and is terminated on the patch panel (housed in the bottom box). computers. describes a network in which there is one central base station or Access Point (AP) for communication. this refers to the arrangement of nodes (i. In our case. Star. A second switch/router may be used to connect other equipment (white) forming separate experimental test LANs. These include the star and mesh topologies. servers. similar hubs also provide connection for the fiber optic links to other parts of the work area. but only two make sense in a wireless environment. with cables connected at the rear). which happens to be in widest use today. Wireless Network Topologies Topology: The physical (real) or logical (virtual) arrangement of elements. The information packets transmitted by the originating node and are received by the central station and routed to the proper wireless destination node. network printers. above the patch panels). Ring. etc. . The two smaller boxes on the top are Ethernet Hubs for connecting groups of workstations. The Star topology.) in which the network is connected.

With this software. the Internet. and etc.This station can be a bridge to a wired LAN giving access to other wired clients. other network devices. any computer that is connected to the wired network has a wireless Network Interface Card (NIC) can act as bridge. From our review system. . Each node that is in range of one another can communicate freely. The mesh topology is a slightly different type of network architecture than the star topology. Complex‟s SoftBridge program provides a “software bridge” to wired clients and services without specialized hardware or AP. except that there is no centralized base station.

No longer will you have to copy files to floppies and carry them from another computer to yours for processing. color or laser quality.Advantages of Networking: Sharing Resources #Software The ability to share both a software application and the files it creates amongst all of your computers is the primary reason for setting up a network. . Not only will you see an increase in your employees‟ productivity.e. #Printers Sometimes the printer connected to your machine doesn‟t have the capabilities of another printer of your office. but an increase in the organization of their computer files as well. you have two options. Opening files on a computer across your office will be as simple if they were stored on their own machine. i. . To print on another printer in a non networked situation.

In a networked situation it is easy to select the printer in the network. #Logging Every time something happens on your network. 3. or drive based on the user‟s access level. 6. you could copy the file to a floppy disc and load it into the computer with connected printer. 5. Some examples include: 1. Logging in or out of workstation. Virus Scan results. 7. 2.First. you can disconnect your printer and install the new printer on your computer. #Security Windows NT uses a file system called NTFS. Second. Errors or problems on the server or network. Opening or closing a file. 4. . These log files can be then analyzed and to detect and solve the problems and weaknesses in your network. an entry to the server‟s log is added. which has an ability to permit or deny the use of a file. Using a technology such as Roadrunner and a cable/DSL router combined with a network allows multiple computers to share the same account. Creating or deleting a directory. #Internet Most of the employees in the office can increase their productivity with access to internet. Files printed and by whom. folder. Copying a file or files.

the information that is needed will be accessed from the mirrored drive without any interruption to the user. Inc servers are built with mirrored storage for increased up time. #Redundancy All Networks. your employees produce many electronic documents. Daily or Weekly backup tapes of the entire server can be produced and placed in a fireproof save or take off-site as a precaution . with the proper security requests them. including: #Dedicated File Server Throughout a business day. If there is a network problem accessing a drive. The job of the server is to give or “serve” these files to whatever user.#Centralization A Server-based design which increases the organization of the network in many important ways. #Disaster Recovery The server provides a central location for saving files and thus a central location for backing them up. A server is built with enough storage space to save all of your company‟s important files at one location.

the server scans the file and can actually restrict access to an infected file and alert the administrator with a popup message. If a user accidentally deletes a file.for a natural disaster or theft. . and watch for new viruses on the network. When the user tries to open any new file. When dealing with more than one computer in an office environment. the task of stopping viruses and updating virus patterns can waste a lot of human and computer time. the file can be replaced by using the copy on the latest backup. #Virus Scanning Every computer should have a virus scanner installed. A virus scanner on the server can be setup to scan and repair all the files on the server regularly.

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