The process is carefully planned and implemented to benefit y the organization y its employees and y its stakeholders.ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT Definition : Organization Development (OD) is the process of improving organizations. It involves both 'hard' and 'soft' issues .

FEATURES OF OD y Planned y Organization-wide y Managed from Top y Increase organization effectiveness and health y Planned interventions y Using behavioural-science knowledge .

Assumptions and Beliefs y The field of OD rest on a foundation of Values and Assumptions about people and Organisation.OD ± Beliefs. Values & Assumptions y OD is characterized by a set of Values. y These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation. .

Values & Assumptions Beliefs y Belief is a proposition about how the world works y A cognitive fact for a person y That which an individual accepts as true Values y Values are judgmental beliefs i.Beliefs .e good/ bad y Beliefs about what is desirable or good ( eg : truthfulness ) y Beliefs about what is un-desirable or bad ( eg : theft or dishonesty ) .

Values & Assumptions Assumptions y Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as valuable and correct y They are taken for granted and very rarely questioned or examined.Beliefs . .

y Relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization. y Decision-making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources exist.UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS OF OD THEORY y The basic building blocks of an organization are groups not individuals. .

y Goal of healthy organization is to develop generally open communication. y People support what they help create.UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS OF OD THEORY y Control are interim measures not the basis of managerial strategy. .

y Self-organizing systems and self-managed teams y Spirituality in the workplace y Learning relationships ."LINEAR " to "HOLISTIC" OD Linear Model y Analyzes a symptom y Makes a diagnosis y Treats the apparent problem with an intervention y When the symptom goes away. Holistic Model y Take a systems view of organizations. the practitioner concludes that the problem is ³fixed´.

. Optimistic 3. y OD values tends to be: Humanistic 2. assumptions and beliefs provide structure and stability for people as they attempt to understand the world around them. Democratic 1.OD Approach y Values .

Reason and Goodwill are tools for making progress .OD Approach Humanistic y Values proclaim the importance of the individual y Treat people with respect and dignity y Assume that everyone has intrinsic work y View all people as having the potential for growth and development Optimistic y Values consider that people are basically good y That progress Is possible and desirable in human affairs y Rationality .

. the right of the individual to be free from arbitrary misuse of power y The importance of fair and equitable treatment for all and the need for justice through the rule of law.OD Approach Democratic y Values assert the sanctity of the individual .

Mechanistic v/s Organic Systems MECHANICAL SYSTEM Rely on ³authority ± obedience´ relationship Insist on ³strict division of labour and hierarchical supervision´ Encourage ³centralized Decision making´ ORGANIC SYSTEM Rely on ³mutual confidence and trust ´ Foster ³multi group membership and responsibility´ Encourage ³wide sharing of responsibility and control´ .

HISTORY OF OD y Laboratory Training y Action Research and Survey Feedback y Participative Management y Quality of work life (QWL) y Strategic Change .

CLIENT ORGANISATION The client organization may be an y Entire company y Public agency y Non-profit organization y Volunteer group or y Smaller part of a larger organization. .

.? y The Board of Directors. CEO or Vice Presidents y Middle Managers y First-line supervisors y Line workers .WHO DO THEY SERVE.

y Demographics Of Work force has also changed. .NEED FOR OD Concerns impacting Org Goals y Profitability y Productivity y Morale and y Quality of work life y Increasing trend to maximize an organization's investment in its employees. y Customers oriented market y Adaptability & Responsiveness are essential to survive and thrive.

OD PRACTITIONERS Organizational Physicians 1) Establishing relationships with key personnel 2) Researching and evaluating systems in the organization 3) Identifying approaches to improve effectiveness 4) Applying approaches to improve effectiveness 5) Evaluating the ongoing effectiveness of the approaches .

.OD PRACTIONERS v/s CONSULTANTS OD differs from traditional consulting because y Client involvement is encouraged throughout the process. y The change process supports improvement as a whole. y Current situation is assessed to identify opportunities y The client and consultant work together y Technical or procedural are addressed concurrently.

Positions & Procedures y Human relations and Interactions y Politics and Power y Cultures and Values of the organization . Operations.WHAT TYPE OF OD PRACTIONER ARE YOU«? Understand the Preferred Lens Through Which You View Organizations y Structures.

2.OD SERVICES y Organization Development (OD) practioners provide services    to increase productivity work satisfaction and profit for the client company. Improve Organization Effectiveness and/or Improve Individual Employee Effectiveness . y Strategies applied are 1.

(I) ORGANISATION EFFECTIVENESS« y Action Research y Conflict Management y Executive Development y Goal Setting y Group Facilitation y Managing Resistance to Change .

(I)ORGANISATION EFFECTIVENESS y Organizational Restructuring y Project Management y Teambuilding & Self-Directed Work Teams y Socio-technical Systems Design y Strategic Planning y Total Quality Management .

(II) EMPLOYEE EFFECTIVENESS« y Career Counselling y Coordination & Management of Multi-Disciplinary Consultants y Creative Problem Solving y Customer Service Training y Developmental Education .

(II) EMPLOYEE EFFECTIVENESS« y Interpersonal Communication Skills y Human Resource Management y Labor Relations y Leadership Development y Management Development y Outplacement .

(II) EMPLOYEE EFFECTIVENESS y Sales Training y Stress Management y Technical Training y Time Management y Training Evaluation y Workforce Diversity .

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