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Plastics New Zealand 29th March 2006
• All plastics • ASTM D883
– a plastic designed to undergo a significant change in its chemical structure under specific environmental conditions resulting in a loss of some properties that may vary as measured by standard test methods appropriate to the plastic and the application in a period of time that determines its classification.
• What does it mean to the consumer?
• Petrochemical feedstock
– Polyolefin with pro-degradant additives – Biodegradable polyesters – PVOH derivatives
• Renewable resource feedstock (bioplastic)
– – – – Cellulose Starch Vegetable oil Others
– Various bioplastics – Starch / polyester
Degradation Mechanisms • • • • • Water solubility UV triggered photo-oxidation Thermally induced oxidation Hydrolysis Biodegradation – bacteria and fungi .
Biodegradable Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials (RRM) : Starch (Foams) Starch blends Polylactic acid (PLA) (with approved biodegradability) Based on Petrochemicals (Synthetics) : Specific Polyesters Specific Polyesteramides Polyvinylalcohol Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Cellulose esters Caseines a. (use synergies for improved competitiveness) .o. ⇒ Make the best out of both worlds.
oxidation causes reduction in molecular weight leading to disintegration into small pieces .Oxo – degradable polyolefin • Incorporate metal compounds like cobalt stearate • Under certain conditions.
Why are they used? • Consumer demand for products with reduced environmental impact at all stages of manufacture. use and disposal. reduce reliance on oil – Reduce accumulation of greenhouse gases. – Can be organically recycled through composting along with organic waste . • Retailers and manufacturers perceive a marketing advantage • Government regulations / industry codes of practice • Help address litter concerns • Assist organic waste recycling • Bioplastics – Utilise renewable resources.
Biobased Polymers Directly extracted from Biomass Classically synthesised from bio-derived monomers Lipids Plant Zein Soya Gluten Xanthan Curdlan Pullan Cross-linked tri-glyceride Polylactate Other Polyesters Polymers produced directly by organisms PHA Bacterial cellulose Polysaccharides Starch Potato Maize Wheat Rice Derivatives Proteins Animals Casein Whey Collagen/ Gelatine Cellulose Cotton Wood Other Derivatives Gums Guar Locust bean Alignates Carrageenan Pectins Derivatives Chitosan/Chitin .
Performance claims • • • • • • • • • Degradable 100% degradable Biodegradable 100% biodegradable Compostable 100% degradable environmentally friendly bag This bag is guaranteed to biodegrade in landfill Environmentally friendly This is a biodegradable plastic bag .
Issues • What do the claims mean? • What does the consumer think the claims mean? • What are the implications of product failure to meet reasonable expectations? .
Standards • Define what the consumer can expect • Performance requirements – EN13432 • Biodegradability • Compostability • Toxicity • Test methods – ISO 14855: aerobic biodegradability – ISO 14852: biodegradability in aqueous medium .
International Compostability Certification Network • • • • DIN CERTCO – Europe Biodegradable products Institute (BPI) – US Biodegradable Plastics Society (BPS) – Japan Biodegradable Materials Group (BMG) – China – agreement with BPS on mutual recognition of test reports • Environmentally Biodegradable Plastics Association (EBPA) – Taiwan – memorandum of understanding about future cooperation .
Japan .Current Standards / Performance requirements • • • • EN 13432 – Europe ASTM D6400 – USA DR05402 (draft) – Australia GreenPla .
Australian Standard Draft DR05402 • Biodegradable plastics packaging – Biodegradable plastics packaging recoverable through composting and other microbial degradation – Biodegradability – must biodegrade 90% when tested to ISO 14855 – Compostability – no more than 10% of the original dry weight retained on a 2mm sieve after 12 weeks tested to ISO 16929 – Toxicity • compost quality must not be negatively affected • Maximum levels for certain elements • No ecotoxic affect on plants and earthworm .
BIODEGRADABILITY/COMPOSTABILITY • BIODEGRADABLE AND COMPOSTABLE ACCORDING TO EN13432. DIN 54900. UNI17585 Biodegradation 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 (CO2/ThCO2) Pure cellulose Mater-Bi (100um) Mater-Bi (1mm) 10 20 30 40 50 60 % Time ( Days) • COMPATIBLE WITH ANY TYPE OF COMPOSTING PLANT (FROM HOME COMPOSTING TO ROTARY FERMENTING REACTOR) .
g.Approval of Biodegradability & Compostability ⇒ Key feature! Consumer trust and acceptance in composting/waste management industries ⇒ Compostable products: Comply with EN 13432 (ASTM 6400) No harmfull or accumulating substances/intermediates ⇒ Product identification: Certification + Labeling needed! ⇒ Note: IBAW Position on oxo-degradable PE films June 2005 Step 1 Step 2 Finished Product (crosscut) Report 1 Material 1 Product Labeling Polymers tested according to EN 13432 Report 2 Product Certification Material 2 Report 3 content Expert decision based on test reports and product description Material 3 Packaging & Content (produced from three different biodegradable polymers) proved as being compostable Tests accomplished by accredited test institute Certification by accredited certification body (e. DIN Certco in Germany) .
Labelling • Materials tested to relevant performance requirements and test methods • Testing by approved laboratories • Certification: – DINCERTCO – AIB Vincotte • Labelling details – Eg. Biodegradable and compostable according to the requirements of EN13432 .
OK Compost. They can therefore carry the following logos: Compostable Kompostierbar 7W0039 Dincertco. NL & Pol.NatureFlexTM Product Range All NatureFlex™ packaging films have been fully tested & certified to the European composting norm EN13432:2000. Germany Also UK. Belgium Plus in the USA… BPI. USA .
Code of Practice • Plastics and Packaging Industry focus • Objective – For the consumer or customer to understand what he is buying • Signatory commitment – Labelling guidelines – Ingredient control and disclosure – Selection of materials on merit • Why have a code of practice? – – – – Corporate responsibility Self regulation Supported by government Alternative is government regulation .
Using Degradable Plastics In Australia An Industry Code of Practice Peter Bury Director: Industry Development .Plastics March 2006 .
Greetings / Background • Greetings to New Zealand colleagues • Grateful to Warwick Hall to share our work • Partnership with Federal Gov’t Department of Environment and Heritage to develop product stewardship programs • Part of global group who developed 2003 “Common Framework for the Use of Degradable Plastics” • Members leading from the front .
engaged & has prosecuted • Insufficient plain language information and education to guide decision making • Leadership & self regulation better than poor performers & Governments setting industry image and regulation including penalties . Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC). potential in others • Regulator.Drivers for a Code • Potential damage to Members / Industry • Misleading claims / labeling of environmental performance by some companies – Mainly in bag market.
PACIA Degradable Plastics Reference Group to manage ongoing issues • Appendices: – Definitions and terminology – Material Data Sheets • Draft form at present .The Code • • Voluntary instrument with cooperative support from Govt (DEH) and regulator (ACCC) Industry commitments from: – Raw material suppliers – Product manufacturers to: 1.June 2006 completion . Clear and Accurate labeling of products 2.
Clear and Accurate Labeling • Principles of Product Stewardship • Comply with law regarding: – ISO/AS 14021: 2000 – Environmental Claims – ACCC: False and Misleading information – Having evaluation method and data in place before making a claim – Plain language .
Reference Group • Ongoing governance and development of the Code: – 5 year major review – Regular updating (living document) • Coordinate ongoing Australian Standards work (complementary) • Assist with product stewardship work (recyclers. composters etc.) • Differentiates PACIA Members as leaders .
Definitions and Data 1. Plain language definitions and terminology used in industry for external groups 2. Material data sheet appendix using existing commercial information on claimed performance • Independently verified – – – – – – Type of material Properties of material How it breaks down (method) Which standards it has been tested to (verified) Test methods used (verified) Environments where is it suited to degrade in .
Harmonisation • • • • • New Zealand Australia Europe USA Asia .
Industry Group Participation • • • • Plastics New Zealand PACIA Australasian Bioplastics Association (ABA) International Biodegradable Polymers Association and Working Groups (IBAW) • Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) • Biodegradable Plastics Society .
Current Applications • • • • • • • • Shopping bags Doggy bags Organic waste collection bags Mulch film Disposable hygiene products Disposable cutlery Planter pots Food packaging – – – – Tray Bottle Blister pack Bread bag • • • • Cosmetics packaging Void fill – – Loose fill bead Bubble wrap Packaging for recycled paper products Coated paper products .
Challenges • Plastics and packaging industries – – – – What is achievable? Selection of appropriate material Processing Labelling • • Consumers – What performance can be expected Plastics recycling industry – Effect on processing – Effect on recyclate properties – Sorting technologies • Composting Industry – Effect on process – Effect on properties of compost .
Recovery systems for bioplastics • Europe: organic waste collection and composting stream • Australia and New Zealand 2005: landfill • Australia and New Zealand future: organic waste collection and composting stream • Drivers: – zero waste objectives – Organic waste collection and composting infrastructure – Focus on renewable resources .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?