This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

**T60 Restricted Ground Fault Protection Calculations
**

GE Publication No. GET-8427B

Copyright © 2004 GE Multilin

GE Multilin

Technical Notes

DESCRIPTION

The T60 Transformer Management Relay is equipped with number of RGF (Restricted Ground Fault) protection elements. The RGF element uses a novel algorithm where the restraint current is a maximum of pre-calculated values based on positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence symmetrical components derived from the measured winding phase currents. The actual ratio of the ground differential and restraint currents is then compared to the quantity formed by the pickup and a single slope RGF characteristic.

SETTINGS CALCULATION EXAMPLE

Consider a transformer with the following nameplate data: • • • • • • Transformer type: Delta/Wye 30° Rated MVA: 10 MVA Nominal phase-phase voltage: 33 kV (Winding 1) / 11 kV (Winding 2) Phase and Neutral CT ratios: 600:1 Impedance: 10% Winding neutral grounded through resistance of Rg = 6.3 Ω

The rated load current of the Wye connected winding is calculated as: Rated MVA 10 MVA I rated = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = ---------------------------- = 525 A 3 × Winding 2 Nominal Voltage 3 × 11 kV The maximum phase-to-ground primary fault current is calculated as: 11 kV I gf(max) = Winding 2 Nominal Voltage = ---------------------------- = 1000 A ----------------------------------------------------------------------3R g 3 × 6.3 Ω

(EQ 2) (EQ 1)

1

and I_1 > I_0 . Let us consider the case of an internal ground fault that occurs on in the winding at 5% distance from the transformer neutral. IR0 quantities.5 pu of phase CT. IR2.08 pu (EQ 8) The restraint current used by the relay algorithm is defined as the maximum from the IR1. Hence. I 2 = I 0 = 0 pu (EQ 7) (EQ 6) The ground differential current is calculated according to the following equation. 2. IR0 ) The value of IR1 is calculated using the positive-sequence current: If I_1 > 1.GET-8427B: T60 Restricted Ground Fault Protection Calculations For a winding fault point at 5% distance from the transformer neutral.5 pu . Reliable detection of the internal fault currents corresponding to the point of the selected distance from the grounded neutral. IR2. then IR1 = ---------.875 pu and the symmetrical components are: I 1 = 0.= ----------.08 pu + 0 pu = 0. and high sensitivity on internal faults.05 × I gf(max) = 50 A (EQ 3) Increases in phase current (Iph) due to the fault are negligible. if I_1 < 1. then IR1 = 3 × ( I_1 – I_0 ) else IR1 = 0 I_1However.08 pu Phase CT Primary 600 (EQ 4) Note that phase CT primary is used as a unit for calculating the RGF settings. the primary fault current of 50 A is: I G = 0. The ground differential pickup setting can be calculated as: I fault 50 A I GD = 3I 0 – I g = 0 – -----------------------------------------------. According to the data from the example. Security on external faults with or without CT saturation. magnitude scaling is applied to the measured ground current. I GD = I G + I N = 0. The new restraint calculation algorithm provides very secure behavior of the element on external faults and CT saturation.875 pu. meaning that 3I 0 ≈ 0 ..08 pu (EQ 5) Based on 100% transformer load currents of 525 A on the Wye winding. The setting of the slope should be selected based on two criteria: 1. the phase-toground primary fault current is calculated as: I fault = 0. based on the following symmetrical components calculations: I GR = max ( IR1.= 0. 8 (EQ 10) (EQ 9) 2 GE Multilin . the phase unit currents are: I A = I B = I C = 0.

However.67 pu ∠180° GE Multilin 3 .194 pu The RGF element would therefore calculate a ground differential/restraint ratio of: I GD 0. if no CT saturation is involved. gives us the following values: I_1IR1 = ---------.08 pu – 0 = 0.08 pu and the ground restraint current is: I GR = max ( I R1. In this case. IR2 = 3 × I_2 . I R2.194 pu. Ideally. the RGF protection detects no differential current during ground faults that are external to the zone.GET-8427B: T60 Restricted Ground Fault Protection Calculations The value of IR2 is calculated using the negative-sequence current. following complete de-energization of the winding (all three phase currents below 5% of nominal for at least 5 cycles). Otherwise.67 pu ∠0° IB = 0 pu IC = 0 pu IN = 1000/600 = 1. I R0 ) = max ( 0.= 0. The value of IR0 is calculated using the zero-sequence current: IR0 = I G – I N = I G – ( I A – I B – I C ) Applying the formulas from above to our example.67 pu ∠0° IG = 1000/600 = 1. 0.194 pu (since I_1 < 1. the slope should be set at some level below 73. the ground differential current is: I GD = I G + I N = 0.× 100% = 73. Given the following currents and corresponding secondary values: (EQ 17) (EQ 16) (EQ 15) (EQ 12) (EQ 13) (EQ 14) (EQ 11) Primary Currents IA = 1000 A IB = 0 A IC = 0 A IN = 1000 A IG = 1000 A Secondary Values IA = 1000/600 = 1.08 pu Therefore.194 pu Thus. IR2 = I_2 for the first two cycles.875 pu = 0. 0.1%.5 pu ) ---------------------8 8 IR2 = 3 × I_2 = 3 × 0 pu = 0 IR0 = I G – I N = 0.08 pu ) = 0.× 100% = ---------------------. the RGF slope setting should be also selected to maintain the security on external faults with CT saturation. EXTERNAL SOLID PHASE A TO GROUND FAULT WITH NO CT SATURATION Consider an external solid phase a to ground fault with no CT saturation.1% I GR 0.08 pu + 0 = 0.08 pu-------.

IR2. producing only 5% of the total fault current on its secondary winding.34 pu and the protection element is effectively in non operating stage.557 pu = 0.67 pu ∠0° + 1. IR2.0835 pu ∠180° The symmetrical components derived from the secondary phase currents are: I 1 = I 2 = I 0 = 0.587 pu The IR1.07 pu ---------------------8 8 IR2 = 3 × I_2 = 3 × 0.= 0.67 pu ∠180° – 1. IR2.67 pu ∠0° = 3.GET-8427B: T60 Restricted Ground Fault Protection Calculations The symmetrical components derived from the phase unit currents are: I 1 = I 2 = I 0 = 0. and IR0 currents are: I_1IR1 = ---------.67 pu ∠0° + 0.07 pu ---------------------8 8 (EQ 27) (EQ 26) (EQ 25) 4 GE Multilin . As per the previous example.67 pu ∠0° IG = 0. and IR0 currents are: I_1IR1 = ---------.67 pu ∠180° = 0 pu The IR1.67 pu ∠0° IB = 0 pu IC = 0 pu IN = 1000/600 = 1. IR0 ) = 3. EXTERNAL PHASE A TO GROUND FAULT WITH SATURATION ON THE GROUND CT Suppose an external phase A to ground fault where the ground CT saturates as a result.05 × 1000/600 = 0.= 0.557 pu The ground differential current will be: I GD = I G + I N = 1. and IR0: I GR = max ( IR1. I GD 0 pu -------.× 100% = ------------------.× 100% = 0% I GR 3.67 pu IR0 = I G – I N = 1.34 pu Therefore.557 pu = 1.0835 pu ∠180° = 1.34 pu The restraint current is the maximum of the three currents IR1. IR2.557 pu The differential ground current is calculated as: I GD = I G + I N = 1. the phase fault currents (primary and secondary) would be: (EQ 24) (EQ 23) (EQ 20) (EQ 21) (EQ 22) (EQ 19) (EQ 18) Primary Currents IA = 1000 A IB = 0 A IC = 0 A IN = 1000 A IG = 50 A Secondary Values IA = 1000/600 = 1.557 pu = 0.

IR2.5% ---------------------I GR 1. giving the following ratio: I GD -------. so that if the worst case of saturation occurs after a cycle.5 cycles. the slope would have to be above 50% (assuming very severe saturation leading to only 5% current from the saturated ground CT).23 pu. and IR0: I GR = max ( IR1. GE Multilin 5 .67 pu ∠0° = 1.587 pu × 100% = 90. the restraint current will be approximately 3. IR2. and below 70% (assuming detection of faults on the winding at 5% distance from the neutral point).587 pu × 100% ≈ 49% ---------------------I GR 3. I GD -------. The restraint will drop to 50% of its original value after 15.GET-8427B: T60 Restricted Ground Fault Protection Calculations IR2 = 3 × I_2 = 3 × 0. Since the CTs do not immediately saturate at the same instant the fault occurs.× 100% = 1. IR0 ) = 1. the ground restraint IGR is set to decay slowly.34 pu (as in the no saturation case).67 pu IR0 = I G – I N = 0.557 pu = 1.× 100% = 1.0835 pu ∠180° – 1. the restraint current will be equal to the initial fault current value of 3. In our case. For cases of CT saturation and switch off conditions.23 pu SUMMARY (EQ 32) These examples can help the user identify the boundaries from the security/sensitivity range for setting the RGF slope.753 pu (EQ 28) (EQ 29) (EQ 30) (EQ 31) This is well above the restraint characteristic in the operating region if no special treatment to the restraint is provided.753 pu Therefore.753 pu The restraint current is the maximum of the three currents IR1.

- Ge Multilin Motor Protection Seminar
- Generator
- 2_Retrofitting_Steam_Turbines.pdf
- SYSTEM_MANUAL_A8_SIPROTEC4_DIGSI4_EN.pdf
- Guide for Transformer Fire Safety Practices
- Modelling of High Frequency Excitation System
- Indian National Tariff Policy 2014-19
- vol3-2.pdf
- GRIDTECH Composite Insulation
- 15. Busbar Protection
- Pump PracticeProblems
- Power-System Commissioning and Maintenance
- 151.Power System Damping & Field Test
- 4.Autotransformer Test
- Electrical Lab Accredition NABL 104 Doc
- HB959202000 (J) A30 Excitation Controller
- Online Condition Assessmentof High Voltage Current Transformers
- CIGRE PMU Communication Experience
- Vfd and Cooling Towers
- GE protection Journal PCJ_2006-04
- Siemens relay 7RW600 Manual
- Differential Protection RADSB
- Paper 1 Fuel Flexible Gas Turbines
- 23.IEEE 1990 New Method for Measurement of Resistive Leakage
- IEEE standard for Transformer Oil analysis

- 07a4ec03 Control Systems
- A Practical Second-Order Based Method for Power Losses Estimation in Distribution Systems With Distributed Generation
- GET-8427B.pdf
- Synchronous Generator Transient Analysis
- SE130A_HW03
- Inductors - Multilayer
- EulerâBernoulli_beam_equat
- Ansys Fracture Tutorial
- Parametric Analyses of Multispan Viscoelastic Shear Deformable Beams Under Excitation of a Moving Mass.pdf
- Module 6 Introduction to Power Flow Studies
- Q2
- Flow-Induced Vibration (FIV) Analysis (Vortex Shedding) _ BETA Machinery Analysis
- 122917313 Structural ANalysis
- Cont Analysis
- Luchtenburg2009romfc
- Structural Analysis
- Anna Univ Struc Anlys
- Help Power Modeling Block
- Tech Drilling FractureGrad
- Beam Element
- Tech Drilling FractureGrad
- 842805
- PhDDefence_rethore
- broken conductor protection.pdf
- IEC 61400-13 (2001-06) Wind Turbine Generator Systems - Part 13 Measurement of Mechanical Loads
- Tutorial CT Transformer
- BS5950
- A New Sinusoidal Shear Deformation Theory for Bending, Buckling-1

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd