P. 1
34753700 Psychology

34753700 Psychology

|Views: 148|Likes:
Published by RepunzelHH

More info:

Published by: RepunzelHH on Sep 18, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/22/2013

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • Varieties of Psychology
  • The Science of Consciousness
  • The Science or Behavior
  • Introspection
  • Objective Observation
  • General Lines of Psychological Investigation
  • Summary and Attempt at a Definition
  • The Reaction Time Experiment
  • Reflex Action
  • The Nerves in Reflex Action
  • Internal Construction of thk Nerves and Nerve Centers
  • The Synapse
  • Reactions in General
  • REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS
  • Different Sorts of Stimuli
  • The Motor Centers, Lower and Higher
  • Facilitation and Inhibition
  • Super-motor Centers in the Cortex
  • Speech Centers
  • The Auditory Centers
  • The Visual Centers
  • CoRTicAi, Centers for the Other Senses
  • Lower Sensory Centers
  • The Cerebellum
  • EXERCISES
  • REFERENCES
  • TENDENCIES TO REACTION
  • What the Preparatory Reactions Accomplish
  • What a Tendency Is, in Terms of Nerve Action
  • Motives
  • NATIVE AND ACQUIRED TRAITS
  • The Source of Native Traits
  • ^y Reactions Appearing at Birth Must Be Native
  • ^Vy Experimental Detection of Native Reactions
  • Is Walking Native or Acquired?
  • Universality as a Criterion op Native Reactions
  • Why Acquired Traits Differ from One Individual to
  • What Mental Traits Are Native?
  • INSTINCT
  • The DirFERENCE Between an Instinct and a Reflex
  • An Instinct Is a Native Reaction-Tendency
  • Instincts Are Not Ancestral Habits
  • Instincts Not Necessarily Useful in the Struggle for
  • EMOTION
  • Organic States That Are Not Usually Classed as Emotions
  • The Organic State in Anger
  • Glandular Responses During Emotion
  • The Nerves Concerned in Internal Emotional Response
  • The Emotional State as a Preparatory Reaction
  • Reactions
  • Constitute the Conscious State of Emotion ?
  • The James-Lange Theory of the Emotions
  • Emotion and Impulse
  • Emotion Sometimes Generates Impulse
  • Emotion and Instinct
  • The Higher Emotions
  • INVENTORY OF HUMAN INSTINCTS AND PRIMARY EMOTIONS
  • Classification
  • (1) Responses to organic needs,
  • Responses to Organic Needs
  • Instinctive Responses to Other Persons
  • The Play Instincts
  • Pleasantness and Unpleasantness Are Simple Feelings
  • Feeling-tone of Sensations
  • Theories of Feeling
  • Sources of Pleasantness and Unpleasantness
  • Primary Likes and Dislikes
  • Other Proposed Elementary Feelings
  • SENSATION
  • Analysis of Sensations
  • The Skin Senses
  • The Sense op Taste
  • The Sense of Smell
  • Organic Sensation
  • The Sense of Sight
  • Simpler Forms of the Color Sense
  • Visual Sensations as Related to the Stimulus
  • What Are the Elementary Visual Sensations?
  • Theories of Color Vision
  • Adaptation
  • Rod and Cone Vision
  • After-Images
  • Contrast
  • Comparison of Sight and Hearing
  • Theory op Hearing
  • Senses of Bodily Movement
  • ATTENTION
  • The Stimulus, or What Attracts Attention
  • The Motor Reaction in Attention
  • The Shifting of Attention
  • Laws of Attention and Laws of Reaction in General
  • Sustained Attention
  • Doing Two Things at Once
  • The Span op Attention
  • Summary op the Laws op Attention
  • Attention and Degree op Consciousness
  • The Management of Attention
  • Theory of Attention
  • Intelligence Tests
  • Performance Tests
  • Group Testing
  • Some Results of the Intelligence Tests
  • Limitations of the Intelligence Tests
  • The Correlation of Abilities
  • Generai, Factors in Intelligence
  • Special Aptitudes
  • Heredity of Intelligexce and of Special Aptitudes
  • Intelligence and the Brain
  • REFERENCES'
  • LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION
  • Acquired Reactions Are Modified Native Reactions
  • Acquired Tendencies
  • Animal Learning
  • Summary of Animal Learning
  • Human Learning
  • Human Compared With Animal Learning
  • Learning by Observation
  • The Learning of Complex Practical Performances
  • Higher Units and Overlapping
  • Moderate Skill Acquired in the Ordinary Day's Work
  • Habit
  • MEMORY
  • The Process of Memorizing
  • Economy in Memorizing
  • Retention
  • Recall
  • Recognition
  • Memory Training
  • ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY
  • What Can Be Recalled
  • Memory Images
  • Limitations op Imagery
  • The Question of Non-Sensory Recall
  • Hallucinations
  • Free Association
  • Controlled Association
  • Examples of Controlled Association
  • THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION
  • The Law op Exercise
  • The Law of Effect
  • Limitations op the Law of Exercise
  • Association by Similarity
  • Association by Contiguijso
  • The Law op Combination
  • The Law of Combination in Recall
  • The Laws of Learning in Terms of the Neurone
  • The Difference Between Percejption and Sensation
  • Perception and Image
  • Perception and Motor Reaction
  • What Sort of Response, Then, Is Perception?
  • Practised Perception
  • Corrected Perception
  • Sensory Data Serving as Signs of Various Sorts or Fact
  • The Perception of Space
  • Esthetic Perception
  • Social Perception
  • Errors of Perception
  • Illusions
  • Animal and Human Explohation
  • Reasoning Culminates in Inference
  • Varieties of Reasoning
  • Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
  • Psychology and Logic
  • Beginnings of Imagination in the Child
  • Preliminary Definition op Imagination
  • The Play Motives
  • Empathy
  • Dbeams
  • Invention and Criticism
  • The Enjoyment of Imaginative Art
  • Imagination Considered in Generai,
  • Development of Voluntary Control
  • Thought and Action
  • The Influence of Suggestion
  • The Unconscious, or, the Subconscious Mind

ASTUPY€FMEN.

mL:LlF
ROBERT S,"-^0'DW(

wn

CORNELL UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY

BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME OF THE SAGE ENDOWMENT FUND GIVEN IN 1 89 1 BY

HENRY WILLIAMS SAGE

Date Due

JAN, 6

I

1952

Rf^Jft'l3

"Sf

^5^4657
hroctt^w
IdOb

DP

^m
Jit

-ini#r^-b

l«il02.

gg£l^lHgC7H

tr

by

R

lPlllijm™'™'^7Jj"
olin

Cornell University Library

The
tlie

original of

tliis

book

is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the text.

http ://www. arch

i

ve o rg/detai Is/cu31 924032305470
.

PSYCHOLOGY
A STUDY OF MENTAL LIFE
BY

ROBERT

S.

WOOD WORTH,
-as-

Ph.D.

Professor of Psychology in

Columbia

University

NEW YORK HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY
1921

COFTHIaHT,

1981

Br

HENKY HOLT AND COMPANY

Phinted in the U.

S.

A.

PREFACE

A

few words to the reader are in order.

In the

first

place, something like

an apology

is

due for the free way in

which the author has drawn upon the original work of
fellow-psychologists, without

many

This

is

any mention of their names. practically unavoidable in a book intended for the

beginner, but the reader

may

well be informed of the fact,

and cautioned not to credit the content of the book to the
writer of
it.

The

author's task has been that of selecting

from the large mass of psychological information now available, much of it new, whatever seemed most suitable for
introducing the subject to the reader.

The book aims

to

represent the present state of a very active science.

Should the book appear unduly long in prospect, the
longest and most detailed chapter, that on Sensation, might
perfectly well be omitted, on the
first

reading, without ap-

preciably disturbing the continuity of the rest.

hand should any reader desire to make this more extensive course of reading, the lists of references appended to the several chapters will prove of service. The books and articles there cited will be found interesting and not too technical in style. Much advantage can be derived from the use of the "Exercises". The text, at the best, but provides raw material*. Each student's finished product must be of his own making. The exercises afford opportunity for the student to work
the other
text the basis of a

On

over the material and

make

it

his own.

A first or preliminary edition of this book, in mimeographed
sheets,

was

in use for

two years

in introductory classes con-

iv

PREFACE

ducted by the author and his colleagues, and was subjected to exceedingly helpful criticism from both teachers and
students.

The

revision of that earlier edition into the pres-

ent form has been very much of a cooperative enterprise, and so many have cooperated that room could scarcely be found for all their names. Professor A. T. Poffenberger, Dr. Clara

F. Chassell, Dr. Georgina

I.

Gates, Mr. Gardner
S. Achilles

Murphy,

Mr. Harold E. Jones and Mr. Paul

have given

me the advantage of their class-room experience with the mimeographed book. Dr. Christine Ladd-Franklin has very
the passages dealing with color Miss Elizabeth T. Sullivan, Miss Anna B. Copeland, Miss Helen Harper and Dr. A. H. Martin have been of great assistance in the final stages of the work.
carefully gone over with
vision

me

and with reasoning.

Important suggestions have come also from several other
universities,

where the mimeographed book was inspected.

R.

S.

W.

Columbia Univeksity
August, 1921

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
What
J

I

PAGE

Pbtchologt

Is

and Does

1

Varieties of Psychology Psychology as Related to Other Sciences The Science of Consciousness The Science of Behavior Introspection Objective .Observation General Lines of Psychological Investigation Summary and Attempt at a Definition Exercises

2 3
7

References

8 10 11 14 17 19 20

CHAPTER
REACTIOlfS

II

The Reaction Time Experiment
Reflex Action

The Nerves

in Reflex Action Internal Construction of the Nerves and Nerve Centers .......

The Synapse
Coordination Reactions in General Exercises References

21 22 24 26 31 34 37 39

42 44

CHAPTER
Reactions or Different Levels
Difi^erent Sorts of Stimuli

III

The Motor Centers, Lower and Higher How the Brain Produces Muscular Movements Facilitaflon and Inhibition
Super-motor Centers in the Cortex Speech Centers The Auditory Centers The Visual Centers Cortical Centers for the Other Senses Lower Sensory Centers The Cerebellum Difi'erent Levels of Reaction
'

45 47 49 S3
54
55 57 59 62

63
64 65 65 67

Exercises

References

67

V

vi

CONTENTS
CHAPTER IV
PAGE
68
''^0

Tendencies to Reaction
Purposive Behavior Organic States that Influence Behavior Preparation for Action Preparatory -Reactions What the Preparatory Reactions Accomplish What a Tendency Is, in Terms of Nerve Action Motives
Exercises

'i'2

'^^
'^'^

References

79 82 84 86 88

CHAPTER V
Native and AcauiRED Traits The Source of Native Traits Reactions Appearing at Birth Must Be Native Reactions That Cannot Be Learned Must Be Native Experimental Detection of Native Reactions Is Walking Native or Acquired ? Universality as a Criterion of Native Reactions Some Native Traits Are Far from Being Universal Why Acquired Traits Differ from One Individual to Another. What Mental Traits Are Native?
Exercises

89 90
91 92

References

93 95 97 98 99 100 103 104

CHAPTER VI
Instinct

The Difference Between an

Instinct

and a Reflex

Instinct Is a Native Reaction-Tendency Fully and Partially Organized Instincts Instincts Are Not Ancestral Habits Instincts Not Necessarily Useful in the Struggle for Existence. The So-called Instincts of Self-preservation and of Reproduction

An

105 107 109 Ill 113 114
116 117 117

Exercises References

CHAPTER
Emotion

VII
118 119 120 121 122 124 125

Organic States That Are Not Usually Classed as Emotions... How These Organic States Differ from Regular Emotions The Organic State in Anger Glandular Responses During Emotion The Nerves Concerned in Internal Emotional Response .... The Emotional State as a Preparatory Reaction " Expressive Movements," Another Sort of Preparatory Re.

actions

126 128 129

Do

Sensations of These Various Preparatory Reactions Constitute the Conscious State of Emotion ? The James-Lange Theory of the Emotions

CONTENTS
Emotion and Impulse Emotion Sometimes Generates Impulse Emotion and Instinct The Higher Emotions
Exercises
,

vii

PAGE
130 132 134 135 136 136

,

References

CHAPTER
Inventory op

~"

VIII
137 138 139 145 151 170 171

Human

Instincts and Primary Emotions

Classification Responses to Organic Needs Instinctive Responses to Other Persons The Play Instincts

Exercises

References

CHAPTER IX
The Feelings
.-

Pleasantness and Unpleasantness Are Simple Feelings Feeling-tone of Sensations Theories of Feeling Sources of Pleasantness and Unpleasantness Primary Likes and Dislikes Other Proposed Elementary Feelings Exercises References

172 173 174 175 178 180 184 186 186

CHAPTER X
Sensation The Sense Organs

Analysis of Sensations The Skin Senses The Sense of Taste The Sense of Smell Organic Sensations The Sense of Sight Simpler Forms of the Color Sense Visual Sensations as Related to the Stimulus Color Mixing What Are the Elementary Visual Sensations? Theories of Color Vision

187 188 197 197 201

203 204
204 209 212 214 216 220 224 226 226 227 228 231 234 236 241 243

-

Adaptation Rod and Cone Vision After-images
Contrast The Sense of Hearing Comparison of Sight and Hearing Theory of HearinK Senses of Bodily Movement Exercises References

Group Testing Son^e Results of the Intelligence Tests Limitations of the Intelligence Tests The Correlation of Abilities General Factors in Intelligence Special Aptitudes Heredity of Intelligence and of Special Aptitudes Intelligence 271 272 275 276 278 281 283 285 288 289 292 294 295 and the Brain Exercises References CHAPTER Acquired Tendencies Animal Learning XIII . or What Attracts Attention The Motor Reaction in Attention The Shifting of Attention Laws of Attention and Laws of Reaction in General Sustained Attention Distraction Doing Two Things at Once The Span of Attention Summary of the Laws of Attention Attention and Degree of Consciousness The Management of Attention Theory of Attention Exercises References CHAPTER IlTTELLIGESrCE Intelligence Tests XII • Performance Tests . Learning and Habit Formation Acquired Reactions Are Modified Native Reactions Summary of Animal Learning Human Learning Human Compared with Animal Learning Learning by Observation The Learning of Complex Practical Performances Higher Units and Overlapping Moderate Skill Acquired in the Ordinary Day's Work Habit Exercises 296 297 299 302 310 311 313 317 321 323 326 328 330 331 References CHAPTER XIV Memory The Process of Memorizing 332 333 .viii CONTENTS CHAPTER XI FAGE 244 245 248 251 256 257 259 260 261 262 265 267 268 270 270 Attentiost The Stimulus.

CONTENTS Economy in ix Memorizing PAGE 338 34. Is Perception? Practiced Perception Corrected Perception Sensory Data Serving as Signs of Various Sorts of Fact The Perception of Space Esthetic Perception Social Perception Errors of Perception • Illusions Exercises References 418 421 423 425 427 431 433 435 437 439 443 444 446 450 460 461 . Then.8 Unintentional Learning Retention Recall Recognition Memory Training Exercises References 348 354 357 360 364 365 CHAPTER XV Association astd Mental Imagery What Can Be Recalled Memory Images Limitations of Imagery The Question of Non-Sensory Recall Hallucinations Free Association Controlled Association Examples of Controlled Association Exercises 366 366 368 371 373 375 376 381 References 384 386 388 CHAPTER XVI The Laws or Association The Law of Exercise The Law of Effect Limitations of the Law 389 389 391 of Exercise Association by Similarity Association by Contiguity The Law of Combination The /Law of Combination in Recall The/Laws of Learning in Terms of the Neurones Exercises References 393 395 396 398 413 414 418 418 CHAPTER XVII PEftOEPTION Some Definitions • The Difference Between Perception and Sensation Perception and Image Perception and Motor Reaction What Sort of Response.

Imagination Exercises References Considered in General CHAPTER XX Will Voluntary and Involuntary Action Development of Voluntary Control Ideomotor Action Conflict and Decision Obstruction and Effort Thought a'nd Action Securing Action The Influence of Suggestion Exercises References 628 624 526 627 628 635 539 641 546 551 651 CHAPTER XXI Pebsoxality Factors in Personality 652 653 565 658 561 665 671- The Self Integration and Disintegration of the Personality The Unconscious. Reasoning Culminates in Inference Varieties of Reasoning Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Psychology and Logic Exercises References CHAPTER XIX ImAGIX ATION Beginnings of Imagination in the Child Preliminary Definition of Imagination Play The Play Motives 481 482 483 485 488 491 497 498 499 605 508 509 512 617 519 521 622 • • Empathy Worry Day Dreams Dreams Freud's Theory of Dreams Autistic Thinlcing Invention and Criticism The Enjoyment of Imaginative Art The Psychology of Inventive Production • .X CONTENTS CHAPTER XVIII PAGE *^2 463 465 468 474 475 480 480 Reasonistg Animal and Human Exploration . . or. the Subconscious Mind Unconscious Wishes and Motives Exercises References 671 Index 678 .

and the work of the is investigator has been so successful that to-day there quite title a respectable body of knowledge to assemble under the of scientific psychology. problems. that for a long time it seemed doubtful whether there ever could be real science here but so . following the lead of biology and physiology. complex an object. then. AND ITS METHODS Modern psychology of scientific is PROBLEMS an attempt to bring the methods which have proved immensely to bear investigation. Psychology. fruitful in other fields. " The science of the mind " has a more modern sound. for that has a theological tang and suggests problems that have so far not seemed accessible to scientific investigation. is a science.PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER I WHAT PSYCHOLOGY IS AND DOES ITS THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF THE SCIENCE.? "The science of the soul" —that is what the name means by derivation and ancient usage. a beginning was made in the nineteenth century. Psychology does not like very well to call itself the science . " The science of bdiavior " is the most recent attempt at a concise formula. Psy- chology does not like to call itself the science of the soul. It is the science of what shall we say. " The science of consciousness " is more modern still. is The human individual. None of these formulas is wholly satisfactory. upon mental life and its the main object of study.

One line of question is that always interests the beginner in psychology people differ as to —how cumstances — and why. under process of investigation. chology does not like to limit itself to ness. lem. then it lost its mind. and there is no such thing to be observed (unless it be the brain and body generally).' some of them practical problems. how far on environment. would be a very suitable term." . which urges that consciousness should be entirely left out of psychology. 1 A series of waggish critics has evolved the following: " First psyehology lost its soul. a great number of individuals to see how they and tries to discover on what factors their differtests how far on heredity. but finds it tions. It still has behavior. means a part of the subject and not the whole. anyway. survey would reveal quite a variety of problems others not directly practical. and. would be to inspect the actual work of psychologists. as the mind seems to imply some thing or chine. we watch the professional him working at just this probif He differ. then it lost consciousness. of a kind. or at " Behavior psychology ". we often how cir- different people act under the same and find psychologist. Varieties of Psychology Differential psychology.2 PSYCHOLOGY ma- of the mind. and of reaching an adequate definition of its subject-matter. if the study of consciousnecessary to study also unconscious acit As to " behavior ". as the term least disregarded. psychology? Psyis distinctly a study of actions rather than of things. so as Such a to see what kind of knowledge they are seeking. would be understood to-day. only it had not become so closely identified with the " behavioristic movement " in psychology.^ The best way of getting a true picture of psychology. " psychologist " in such a place as the children's court The ences depend.

WHAT PSYCHOLOGY is IS AND DOES 3 a specialist whose duty it is to test the delinquent children that are brought before the court. When the psychological tests were introduced. The " psychological examiner " in the Army. such as courage and leadership. court psychologist. to business and other occupations. as well as to the art of right living. during the Great War. some companies or regiments made much slower progress in training than others . with the special object of measuring the intelligence of each individual child and of helping in other ways to understand the child's peculiar conduct and attitude. The Army engaged psychologists. From that time on. scientific knowledge to the practical problems of and there are many other applications of psychology. it happened during the earlier part of the war that predict telligence. that he will not get much good from the regular classes in school. and a whole Division was delayed for months because of the backwardness of a single regi- ment. Scientific knowledge enables you to and control. these slow-learning units were found to contain a disproportionate number of men of low intelligence. Having devised scientific tests for inyou can predict of a six-year-old boy who tests low. Applied psychology. It was desirable to measure the intelligence of each recruit as he entered the service. it was possible by aid of the tests to equalize the intelligence of different units when first formed. and thus insure equal . to education. while those of high intelligence made the best officers. had the same general object in view. and thus you are in a position to control the education of this boy for his own best interests. officers and non-commissioned provided they also possessed good physique and cer- tain less measureabl^mental qualifications. to medicine. like the in were applying life. since military experience had shown that men of low intelligence made poor soldiers. In the Army.

4 PSYCHOLOGY training. and it is even concerned with the animal. How What what do "we" observe. what natural and acquired impulses to action? How are our natural powers and impulses developed and organized as we grow up? Psychology is concerned with the child as well as the adult. which began as a pure science and only recently has found ways of applying to practical affairs. and some have no patiejice with any study that does not seem immediately practical. The the most striking example of this. learn. understand. must remain fundamentally a " pure science " that is. Practical scientific knowledge was usually first obtained without any inkling of science of electricity is how it might be used. tirely with differences Our science is not concerned en- between people. think? we have. the more complete. systematic and reliable) his knowledge is. which seemed to be nothing but curiosities . progress in " control ". It began as an attempt to understand certain curious phe- nomena. however much it is applied. imagine. its discoveries So the student beginning the science. should let himself be governed for the present by the desire to know and understand. sensations and feelings do . This was a good example of ^ Most of us are attracted by the practical use of a science. the more available it will be for practical application. confident that the more scientific (which is to say. General psychology. yet when the knowledge of these phenomena had progressed to a certain point. it must seek most of all to know and . Much the same is true of psychology. instincts. and this is indeed its central problem. what emotions. remember. It is concerned with the abnormal as well So you will find books and as the normal human being. though properly desirous of making practical use of what he learns. but asks also in what ways people are alike. abundant use was found for it. But really any science.

the science of mental of biology. the study of mental heredity . whereas psychology would break several voters.WHAT PSYCHOLOGY psychology. since economics and politics. abnormal cholpgy " hold in — Now general psychology —or just plain " psy- has to do with the fields. as sociology would know the motives that swayed chology on reached by the majority.. being the science of includes psychology. such as an tion. or life. individual voters. as it is sometimes called. It has very close contact with several other branches biology. Psychology and sociology. There ia no difficulty in framing a good logical distinction here. which studies the behavior of animals. including side. Sociology studies the activities of a group of people taken as a whole. while psyto its side is interested know what decision was they All the social sciences. Animal psychology overlaps that part of zoology Genetic psychology. The science of life includes call We may psychology a part of we may call it one of the biological sciences. like to but breaks down often in practice. Biology. living creatures. especially from those neighboring sciences with which in closest contact. which studies these creatures on the mental side. main laws and principles that all these special as Psychology Related to Other Sciences would distinguish it A good it is definition of our science from other sciences. child psychology. Social psychology studies the individual in his social relations. up into the acts of the The distinction is clear enough theoretically. Both might be interested in the same social act. i. IS AND DOES 5 courses on animal psychology. have a psychological evidently are concerned to know the causes that govern hu- man conduct. Psychology and biology. while psychology studies the activities of the individuals. elec- but sociology would consider this event as it a unit.e.

also. more apt to be interested and other speech disturbances which are said to be " mental rather than physical ". so that we find biologists gathering data ability. Its activity is bodily activity and lies properly within the field of physiology. thought. it and. and psychology to concern itself with the classification of sensations and the use made of them for recognizing objects or for esthetic purposes. That one of all the is sciences that has the closest contacts with psychology human and animal is physiology. concentrates tion Where shall we class sensation. Broadly defined. lies is far from sharp at this point. dovetails and with the general biological science of genetics. In psychology devotes itself to desire. Physiology is perhaps more apt to go into the detailed study of the action of the sense organs. while psychology has studied the child's process of learning to speak and the relation of speech to thought. which breaks down at many points. which seems as purely mental as any. But this is only a rough distinction. and such " mental functions ". But the line be- tween the two sciences Speech.6 PSYCHOLOGY development. practice. on the heredity of feeble-mindedness or of musical while psychologists discuss the general theory of heredity. . Physiology has studied the action of the vocal organs and the location of the brain centers concerned in speech. physiology that part of biology that studies functions or activities. memory. in stuttering. requires brain action t and the brain is just as truly a bodily organ as the heart or stomach. in both provinces. includes psychology as part.? Is it "mental" or "bodily"? Both sciences study it. so defined. It would be hard to mention any activity that is mental is and without being physical at the same time. Psychology and physiology. while physiology its effort upon " bodily functions " like digesand ciirculation. Even thinking. slips of the tongue.of itself.

the is action of the liver then. or the " subconscious mind " — a matter on which psychologists . unconscious except when disturbed.WHAT PSYCHOLOGY But that in is it. is Why not say. itself from the activities which studies certain conscious —speech. before any food physically in the stomach . but psy- chology would certainly need to follow from the initial to the final stage. Therefore we find physiologists interested in these emotions. We do not find any clean separation between our science and physiology. later unconscious. that entirely unconscious. The Science of Consciousness Typically. And then there is the " unconscious ". difficult to mention any function and not mental at the same time. while many of those falling to physiis ology are unconscious. There would be objection also from the which does not wish to limit itself to first conscious action. Thus digestion the heart beat is mostly unconscious. and automatic after pracit at first it is conscious. Take the case of any act that can at be done only with close attention. but we find. but that becomes easy tice. on the whole. in order to make a complete study of the practice effect. IS AND DOES 7 would be equally exclusively bodily. for example. while in anger or fear digestion comes to a sudden halt. p sychology the s tudy ofconscifi this definition There might be some obj ection to side of physiology. and psychologists interested in digestion. Take is digestion for example: the pleasant anticipation of food will start the digestive juices flowing. side of psychology. and that it studies them as the performances of the whole individual rather than as executed by the several organs. and especially sensation. that psychology examines what are called " mental " activities. the activities that psychology studies are conscious performances. some degree.

they could only observe in to say. guished from the unconscious activity of such organs as the liver by being somehow like the conscious mental processes. define It it is as the science of consciousness. it remains true that the typical mental process. then. But from the nature of the case. do not wholly agree among themselves but all would agree that the problem of the unconscious was appropriate to psychology. the typical matter for psychological study. as the serve the consciousness of animals their behavior. When then the animal psychologists were warned by the in the science that they mighty ones chologists must interpret their results in terms of consciousness or not call themselves psy- and some of the best by insisting that human psychology. they among them took the offensive. they could not obas the science of consciousness. and had discovered much that was important regarding instinct and learning in animals. that is . The Science or Behavior No one has objected so strenuously to defining psychology and limiting it to consciousgroup of animal psychologists. they had proved that the animal was a very good subject for psychological study. " Unconscious mental processes " are distinis conscious. and that it had been a great mistake ever tO' rebelled. to limit psychology to the study of conscious activities and of activities akin to these. a natural assumption that animals are conscious. no less than animal. ness. By energetic work.8 PSYCHOLOGY . the motor (and some cases glandular) activities of the animals under known conditions. fighters any longer. It would be correct. and you cannot logically confute those philosophers . For all the objections. was properly a study of behavior. but after all you cannot directly observe their consciousness.

his facial expression. is thinking of his walking or of something quite be sure. nor performing the whether he diflPerent. and external results produced by these bodily actions — results such as objects moved. to get at that. etc. there are. Psychology has two methods of observation. animal's sensation or state of behaviorist to " consciousness psychology " this arises partly from distrust of the part of a Indeed.WHAT PSYCHOLOGY who have contended that automaton. may give some clue to his thoughts and feelbut " there's no art to read the mind's construction . subjective facts can be observed only act. we can hardly define psychology without considering its methods of observation. served etc. better indeed than he can himself. The by the person While another person can observe. hits on a target. The objective facts consist of movements of the person's body or of ajiy part of it. path and distance traversed. vocal or other Such objective facts can be ob- by another person. which is To an objective fact. you would need a trustworthy report from the animal Each individual must observe his own conscioushimself. marks made on paper. two sorts of facts to be observed. he alone can observe the sensations in the joints and muscles produced by the leg movement. the " objective " ana the " subjective ". no one can do it from outside. secretions of his glands (as flow of saliva or sweat). since evidently the method of observation limits the facts observed and so determines* the character of the science. The objection of the ness.. the motion of his legs in walking. ings. of figures added. When a person performs any act. No one else can observe his pleased or displeased state of mind. or may be. Still less IS AND DOES is 9 the animal was an unconscious can you be sure in detail what the mind at any time. even on human observer. method of inner observation. columns sounds produced.

is going on A meditating may wear an To get the mischief. a sensation or feeling or idea hangs on in consciousness for a few seconds. its study of the senses. and not speculation or reaIt is soning from probabilities or from past experience. for you must let the process run at observing it. and then turn your eyes upon a dark back- there ground. As a matter of fact. natural course unimpeded by your efforts and then turn your " mental eye " instantly its it back to observe retrospectively before it disappears. is observation by an individual of his It is own conscious Notice also called subjective observation. but practically difficult and . But psychology would it like to make vations on the more complex mental processes as well and must be admitted that here introspection becomes difficult. that it is a form of observation. You cannot hope to make minute observations on any process that lasts over a very few seconds. and can be observed in this retrospective way. we shall have to enlist the person himself as our observer. Look for an instant at the glow- ing electric bulb. as a most confirmed begood method of observaintrospective obser. as well as by psychology precise and it gives such and regular results that only the it haviorists refuse to admit tion. This sim. direct observation of fact. and observe whether the glowing filament appears this would be the " positive after-image ". or at least One may feign sleep or absorption while really attending to what around. a One very simple instance of introspection is afforded by the study of after-images. ple type of introspection is used by physiology in . in the face ". style There is no theoretical objection to this it is of introspection. child angelic expression while subjective facts. Introspection This action.10 PSYCHOLOGY no sure art.

that a welllittle practised act goes on with very inner. is absurd in the face of the facts. making use of no other sort of observation. We mustn't expect it to give microscopic deit Rough observations. Objective Observation But to say. will not report the same facts. of adding —what numbers you spoke internally. when you are aiming at a certain result. One difficulty is with introspection of the more comJ)lex menthat individuals vary more here than in the tal processes simpler processes. for example. observing each his own processes. . then immediately turn back and review exactly what went through your mind ing the process in the process etc. Even well trained introspectionists are quite at variance when they attempt a minute description of the thought processes. silent speech often consciousness. gives with consider- able certainty. Who can doubt. however. that psychology is purely an introspective science. tails." to observe yourself in this At first. you may find way. and one upon another so easily as in the simpler introspection of after-images and other sensations. and it is probable that this is asking too much of inobserver cannot serve as a check trospection. IS AND DOES : 11 Try it on a column of figures first add the column as usual. for the natural is tendency.WHAT PSYCHOLOGY tricky. But with practice. as used to be said. Try again by introspect- of filling in the blanks in the sentence: " Botany could not make use of introspection because have probably no it difficult processes. so that different observers. or that accompanies thinking? And yet we have only introspection to vouch for these facts. the goal to reach and then shift to something else. rather than to turn back and review the steps by which you reached the goal. you acquire some skill in introspection. or as in the observations made in other sciences.

the psychologist. are objective. or the quantity accomplished in a fixed time or he may measure the correctness and excellence of the work done. such as those used in studying differential psy- chology. and his performance the examiner. but they are aU objective measures.12 PSYCHOLOGY We have animal psychology. equally difficult lesson to be learned under altered conditions.? The lattei. Suppose. and another uses another. or the 'difficulty of the task assigned. One all test uses one of these measures. observations on himself or may he be objectively observed by the all psychologist. In animal psy--. also. nearly tests. is That is to say that the person tested is given a. as observer.. are not often reliable introspectionists. you are investigating a memory -problem your method may be to set your subject a lesson to memorize under certain defined conditions. Now how is it with the normal adult human being. You could not depend on the intro- much by watching Abnormal persons. the observer else. In fact. What is true of tests in differential psychology is true . and observe whether he . and the obobjective in character. In objective observation. where the observation is ex- clusively objective.? Does he make ail the spections of a baby. The same is true of child psychology. observed in one way or another by The examiner may . the observer another. watches something and not himself. . watches the animal. of the majority of experiments in general psychology: the performer servation is is one person. at least for the first years of childhood. certainly. for example. chology. and the study of abnormal psychology is mostly carried on by objective methods. and see how quickly and well he learns it then you give him another. but you can learn his behavior. observe the time occupied by the subject to complete the task. not depending at on the introspection of the subject. the standard subject for psychology. task to perform.

has been along. thence can infer something of the is way in which memorizing accomplished. and on principle. In the whole experiment you need not have . and. once strongly insisted on by the " consciousness have accomplished is the definitive psychologists ". that introspection of observation in psychology . as in reading. The much more used than introspection ists What the behavior- overthrow of the doctrine. these types psychology by those who chology since first Not psy- at all. set IS AND DOES 13 of conditions is Thus you discover which more favorable for memorizing. and his success is and measured. is objectively observed There is another type of objective psychological observa- tion. in etc. but towards the changes in breathing. is the only real is method and this no mean achieve- ment.WHAT PSYCHOLOGY does better or worse than before. Now not true as a matter of history that either of of objective observation was introduced into call themselves behaviorists. experiments of both sorts have been it common in began to be an experimental all science. type. in emo- dreaming or waking from it is sleep. by any method that . But we should be going too far if we followed the behaviorists to the extent of seeking to exclude introspec- tion altogether. which occur during the course of various mental processes. eyes. called on your subject for any introspections and this is a type of many experiments in which the subject accomplishes a certain task under known conditions. or involuntary movements of the hands. directed not towards the success with which a task accomplished. negative principles. tion. brain circulation. stomach movements. the success-:xieasuring experiment. There is no sense in such Let us accumulate psychological facts will give the facts.. heart beat.

by the be called double comparison.14 PSYCHOLOGY General Lines of Psychological Investigation Either introspective or objective observation can be em- ployed in the experimental attack on a problem. typical and what exceptional. physical) traits. by which to get a more precise measure of the individual's performance. the two are found to correspond fairly well. in controlling the conditions under which a mental performance occurs. Psychologists are inclined to regard this as the best line of attack. Unfortunately. where good procedure has been Another general line of attack worthy to be mentioned is alongside of the experimental the comparative method. as just illustrated in the case of memory. or " correla- you work out the relationships of various mental ( and For example. from which we fairly conclude that the size of the brain has something to do with intelligence. . classes or species. varying the conditions systematically. emotion and reasoning are not this reason easily brought under control. You intro- tests of various sorts. when many different species of animals are compared in intelligence and also in brain weight. and for fields of psychology has made slower progress in underit standing them than has made in the experimental sensation and memory. and notice how closely people cluster norm and how duce far individuals differ from it. the more intelligent species having on the whole the heavier brains. You compare is the actions of individuals. noting likenesses and differences. whenever the mental activity to be studied can be effectively subjected to control. But when we correlate brain weight and intelligence in human individuals. use of what tion ". You see what behavior You establish norms and about the averages. developed. may Further. which consists. and noting the resulting change in the subject's mental process or its outcome.

be to trace the development either of mentality in gen- or of some particular mental performance. may eral. The genetic method is another of the general lines on psychological problems. however. It may be to trace the child's progress in learning to speak. ment belongs under what we called and a test under " differential psychology ". from the most primitive tongues up to those of the great .WHAT PSYCHOLOGY we find so IS AND DOES ( is many exceptions to the rule stupid men with large brains and gifted men with brains of only moderate size) that we are forced to recognize the importance of other factors. or of the race. whether intellectual ability and moral goodness tend on the whole to go together. Tests and correlations have become so prominent in recent psychological investigation that this form of the comparative method. in a way. The results may. The object here is to of attack trace the It mental development of the individual. method ranks on a par with the strict experimental A test is an experiment. such as the perfection of the microscopic structure of the brain. or not. or to follow the development of language in the human species. since the first outcome of a test is to show how the individual differs from others in a certain respect. and at least is often based upon an experiment is . but the difference between the two lines of attack that an experiment typically takes a few subjects into the laboratory and observes how their mental performances change with planfuUy changed conditions . either for such practical purposes as guiding the individual's choice of an occupation. " general psychology ". such as examining re- whether intelligence goes with brain semble each other as size. whereas a test g-oes out and examines a large number An experiof persons under »ne fixed set of conditions. whether twins much mentally as they do physically. or for primarily scientific purposes. be utilized in various ways.

mental disturbance primarily an aiFair of emotion and desire rather than of intellect. and the maladaptations that appear in insanity and other disturbances. the branch of medicine concerned with the in fact has contributed and which psychological information derived most of the from the pathological is. The object of the pathological method on the one side. It traces the gradual decline of mental power with advancing age. for we all know that it is when it a machine gets out of order that one begins to see how ought to work. is The value of the genetic method easily seen. Here psychology makes is close contact with psy- chiatry.16 PSYCHOLOGY It civilized peoples of to-day. with the prac- preventing or curing them. Just as the development of a performance throws light on the perfected act. the losses due to brain disease. Usually the beginnings of a function or performance are comparatively simple process of mental growth and easy to observe and analyze. life. method. . Also. the is an important matter to study akin to the genetic. so the decay or disturbance of a function often reveals its inner workings . maladaptation throws into relief the mental work that has to be done by the normal individual in order to secure and maintain his good adaptation. to understand abnormal forms of mental tical object of side. which insane. may be to trace the improve- ment of a performance with continued practice. etc. Failure sheds light on the conditions of success. The pathological method is the decay or demoralization of mental instead of its growth.. and on the other life to understand normal mental the better. and conse- quently they believe that the pathological method cial is of spe- importance in the study of the emotional life. is According to the psychiatrists. but traces life on its own account.

One word more. his attitude differs considerably from that of the for example. the is a psychologist has no concern with praise and blame. we evaluate their behavior according as ing as it it aifects ourselves. or. We conclude. Now. A mental activity . then: psychology life. of the field of psychology. In everyday life we study our acquaintances and their actions from a personal standpoint. and of the aims and methods of the workers we ought to be / in a position to give some sort a part of the life. but seeker after the facts. is scientific study of being the science of mental Life con- sisting in process or action. in a word. for the purpose of examining children that are " problems ". on the psychological point of view.WHAT PSYCHOLOGY IS AND DOES 17 Summary and Attempt at a Definition Having now made a rapid preliminary survey in this field. human actions. psychology is the scientific study of mental processes typically. Psychology is not interested either in dead bodies or in disembodied spirits. whereas it as " mental " simply comes from the organism or indi- vidual as a whole. He would know and understand judgment on them. Psychology. accord- squares or not with our standards of right and wrong. perhaps. of a definition. or activities. case it is which analyzed into the action of bodily organs. introduced into the school or children's court. he . is the science ofV the conscious and near-conscious activities of living indi-/» viduals. Further. conscious and we can roughly designate as mental those activities of a living creature that are either conscious themselves or closely akin to those that are conscious. We always find something to praise or blame. That is. any mental activity in / can also be regarded as a physiological activity. is though not universally. rather than pass is When. but in living and acting individuals.

better con- and even saner standards of living. for while they almost inevitably pass judgment on the child in the way of praise or blame. since causes in the mental realm are often all very complex. in giving clearer insight. . but asked to lend his eflFort cooperation in an to discover the cause why his con- duct is as it is. in the long run. To effect.18 PSYCHOLOGY officer of teacher or the law . feeling in the course of his investigation. indeed. but able in its place. No one can be a psychologist of the time no one can or should always maintain this matter-of-fact attitude towards self and neighbor. for solving the prob- lems presented by the human its individua. this psychological attitude is it is not necessarily " better " than the other. as seen distinctly valudelin- from the fact that the young quent often does cooperate. of practical value to any more toleration. the psychologist. the psychologist simply tries to understand the child. is . even though the psychologist may seem unNothing. Nothing is more humane than psychology. as fast as discovered. The young delinquent brought he is into the laboratory of the court psychologist quickly senses the unwonted atmosphere. Now. this . But some experience with the psychological attitude one.l or its if group. conduct of natural law. may help. is a matter of cause and is His business to know the laws of that part of nature which we call human nature. For him. gist He feels that if the psycholo- can find out what is is the trouble with him. even the most capricious conduct has most inexplicable has explanation — causes. even the only the cause can be unearthed. which he does not pretend he can always actually accomplish. where neither scolded nor exhorted. and to use these laws. trol. more probable it is when we have the facts and trace out cause and effect that we are in a fair way to do good.

(a) Experimental: vary the conditions and see how the mental activity changes. ing: hours of work. (a) Introspective. (1) A . What What different sorts of objective fact can be observed in psy- chology? 5. 3. or closely related conscious activities. Methods of psychology: (1) Methods of observing mental activities. (2) Activities of individuals. (4) May be activities of human or animal. normal or abnormal individuals. State two reasons why it would be undesirable to limit psychology to the introspective study of consciousness. crime. (c) Genetic: trace mental development. baseball.s A sub-class under vital activities. as distinguished from (a) Activities of social groups (sociology). here given: A. (b) Objective. (2) Hovi' individuals are alike in their mental activities. C. (b) Activities of single organs (3) Either (physiology).WHAT PSYCHOLOGY IS AND DOES IS EXERCISES sample outline of the briefer sort 1. is the difference between the physiology of hearing and the psychology of hearing? 6. etc. (b) Comparative: classes test different individuals activity or dif- and see how mental fers. Outline the chapter. Problems of psychology: (1) How individuals differ in their mental activities. the observation of the behavior of other individuals. 2. adult or child. (d) Pathological: turbance. .. 4. (2) General lines of attack upon psychological problems. Subject-matter of psychology: mental activities. B. the observing by an individual of his own actions. examine mental decay or dis- Formulate a psychological question regarding each of the followDistinguish introspection from theorizing. genius. (3) Practical applications of either (1) or (2). to conscious.

1917. Behavior. The Psychology of Childhood. Educational Psychology. On individual psychology.) Is the difference between an experiment and a test. (a) in purpose. On child psychology: 1918. parts of. (a) Is this introspective or objective observation? Why so? (b) Is it a test or an experiment? Why? Compare in arranged 9. PSYCHOLOGY What (b. Watson. Norsworthy and Whitley. Briefer Course. Daniel Starch. Margaret F. On abnormal psychology: On A. The Animal Mind. a vertical column. 1914. 1920. . Educational Psychology. 1917.20 7. 8. Write a psychological sketch of some one you knov. 1914. Applied Psychology. L. E. and arranged in a horizontal line. 5th edition. Rosanoif. REFERENCES Some of the good books on the different branches of psychology are the following: On animal psychology: edition. in method? the time it takes you to add twenty one-pl&ce numbers. 1919. taking care to avoid praise and blame. Manual of Psychiatry. and to stick to the psychological point of view. 2nd John B. Washburn. applied psychology: HoUingworth and Poffenberger. Thorndike.r well. J.

or with sensation and perceptions? Probably the higher forms of mental activity seem most attractive. The behaviorists would prefer to start with reflexes. where to commence operations. either. composed of these simple motor to either Without caring to attach ourselves exclusively introspectionism or behaviorism. field of psychology open before us. but we till may best leave complicated matters and agree to start with the simplest sorts of mental perfofmance. or with feelings and emotions. AND HOW THE NERVES OPERATE IN CARRYING THEM OUT Having the question is. we may take our cue just here from the behaviorists.CHAPTER II REACWaiff EEFIEXES AND OTH»R EHEME^TAKY FOKMS OF REACTION. and they think of sensations as is the chief elements of which consciousness composed.will later prove of much assist- ance in unraveling the more complex processes. and because the facts of sensa- . certain elementary facts which . with memory. because we shall find the facts of motor reaction more widely useful 21 in our further studies than the facts of sensation. and we might begin with is The introspective psycholo- gists usually start with sensations. Thus we may hope to learn at the outset later. imagination and reasoning. the next Shall we begin will. because their great object to describe consciousness. or with char- acter and personality. because they conceive of behavior as reactions. Among the simplest processes are sensations and reflexes. or with motor activity and skill.

and called a The stimulus is any force or agent that.22 tion fit PSYCHOLOGY better into the general scheme of reactions than the fit facts of reaction tion. is acting upon the individual.15 sec. and the time is found to be about . in is the simplest cases. arouses a response. conducted as follows The experimenter tells his " subject " (the person whose reaction is to be observed) to be ready to as make a la certain certain movement stimulus. a and the stimulus may be a sound.18 sec. and delicate apparatus must be employed to measure it. and the response. the reaction time is scope " or clock used to measure the reaction time reads to the hundredth or thousandth of a second. If the forcible contraction of my muscles is my old friend's picture brings tears to my eyes. the noise the stimulus. and the flow the response. in responding to sound or touch. a etc. If I start at a sudden noise. and is given a " Ready " signal touch on the skin. With formance. in responding to light. The Reaction Time Experiment One of the earliest experiments to be introduced into psychology was that on reaction time. Even the simple reaction time varies. into any general scheme based on sensa- A reaction_i§_a„rggiPO«^g to a stimulus. " motor response " a muscular movement. usually a slight move- ment of the flash of light. is The response. from one . promptly as possible on ^receiving is The response prescribed forefinger. ! so simple a pervery short. however. The subject knows in advance exactly what stimulus is to be given and what response he has to make. The " chrono- a few seconds before the stimulus. about . the picture (or the light reflected from of tears is it) is the stimulus. here a " glandular " instead of a motor response.

or respond to the sight of any number by calling out the next larger number. about a tenth of a second longer. after practice be- tween narrow limits. Here the brain process very . or read any shown. the choice reaction time longer than the simple reaction time —about a tenth longer still. if hand and to the other with the left a red light appears he must respond with if the right hand. second longer. time is longer. while a few can get the is much below time down to . in distinction from other experiments that deof the subject. but a green light appears. and from one 'their Some persons can never bring record stated. It is curious to find the elementary fact of variability of reaction present in such a simple performance. since he doesn't brain process know exactly what the stimulus is going to be. which is about the limit of human ability. bound to vary from trial to trial.REACTIONS individual to another. He cannot be so well prepared as for the simple or choice reaction. with the left. 23 trial to another.10 Every one the figures sec. runs into many is sec- onds and even into minutes. also. there are two stimuli and the subject to the one with the right may be required to react for example. he " ass ociative reacti on " time the subject must letter that is is is Here name any color that shown. Here he cannot allow himself to become keyed up a pitch as in the simple reaction. It than the choice reaction. the is more complex here so that the reaction . What we have mand more been describing is known as the " simple reaction". while any serious thinking or choosing has to be done. for if to as high will he does he make of a many is false reactions. or respond to any suitable word by naming its opposite. at the best. at first widely. may run up it to two or three if seconds. Therefore. even in fairly simple cases. but always by a few hundredths of a second at the least. In the " choice reaction ".

are making " simple " reactions. dodging to the right or the left according to the blow aimed at his adversary. Reading wordsj adding numbers. taking about . is him by type is making choice all reactions. also.05 second. and the motoreveryday performances. In most cases from ordinary life. mentioned. This " lid reflex " is quicker than the quickest simple reaction.24 PSYCHOLOG"^ complex and involves a series of steps before the required motor response can be made. The reflex " is the narrowing of the pupil of the eye . after the preparatory " Ready Set ". not every reflex is as quick as those proceed.03 second. These laboratory experiments can be paralleled by many The runner starting at the pistol shot. and a large share of simple mental performances. ! ! man applying the brakes at the expected sound of the bell. or in response to an object suddenly approaching the eye. A familiar example the reflex wink of the eyes in response to anything touching the eyeball. the preparation is less complete than in the laboratory experiis ments. which. flex ". is is bent and the lower leg hanging taking about . are essentially associative reactions. a prompt motor response to is a sensory stimulus. A " pupillary few other examples of reflexes may be given. and this very common in kinds of steering. The knee jerk or " patellar rearoused by a blow on the patellar tendon just below when the knee quicker still. The reason for this extreme quickness of the reflex will appear as we However. handling tools and managing machinery. Reflex Action The simple reaction has some points of resemblance with is the " reflex ". The boxer. and the reaction time accordingly longer. the knee freely. and some are slower than the quickest of the simple reactions.

ing are like this in Coughing and sneezbeing protective reflexes. as the There are All in also inhibitory reflexes. essential to its welfare.) The attachment of a certain response to a certain stimulus. (The subject in a simple reaction experiment would not make the particular finger movement that he makes unless he had made ready for that movement. Reflex action is in- voluntary and often entirely unconscious. widen- ing and narrowing of the arteries resulting in flushing and paling of the skin. is we see first that the reflex more deep-seated in the organism. the flow of the gastric juice when food reaches the stomach. quicker than the simple reaction. The " flexion reflex " is the pulling up of the leg in response to a pinch. not need a " Ready " signal. inherent and permanent in the reflex. There are many internal stomach and movements of the intestines. Now comparing and more the reflex with the simple reaction. in that they adjust the organism to the conditions affecting it. in response to a tasting substance. while others might be called regulative. dash of cold water. are to be found.REACTIONS in response to a bright light 25 suddenly shining into the eye. are permanent. such momentary stoppage of breathing in response to a all. Reflexes. such as the discharge of saliva from the salivary glands into the mouth. we said. is rather arbitrary and temporary in the simple reaction. These are muscular responses . and the scratchreflexes: ing of the dog belongs here also. prick or burn on the foot. the flow of tears when a cinder gets into the eye. That is because they . but The reflex is typically The reflex machinery does is always ready for business. and there are also glandular reflexes. a large number of reflexes Most reflexes can be seen to be useful to the organism. swallowing and hiccoughing. nor any preparation. A large proportion of them are protective in one way or another.

• any The nerve path from sense sense organ to muscle always leads through a nerve center. as he grows up. stimulus closely knit. and these " secondary automatic " reactions resemble reflexes pretty closely. the stimulus is applied to the skin of the hand (or foot). as distinguished from what he has to acquire through training and experience. He does acquire. while the response generally —we is made by muscles of the limb have to ask what sort of connection exists between the stimulated organ and the responding organ. is The reflex connection can observe between stimulus and response something the child brings with him into the world. There is no instance in human body of a direct connection between organ and any muscle or gland. and always ready for action. is But the the surprising fact that the nerves do not run di- rectly from the one to the other. and response is something essential. One . in reflex action. The answer is that the nerves provide the connection. but at best may have about the speed of the simple reaction. These acquired never reach the extreme speed of the quickest reactions reflexes. Strands of nerve extend from the sense organ to the muscle.26 PSYCHOLOGY You in the are native or inherent in the organism. The Nerves in Reflex Action Seeing that the response. in the case of the — flexion reflex. damentally necessary as the of The reflex connection na. Though often useful enough. they are not so funreflexes. is usually made by a muscle or gland lying at some distance from the sense organ that receives the stimulus as. a tremendous number of habitual responses that become automatic and almost unconscious. them new-born child. taking it Grasping for your hat when you feel the wind from your head is an example.tive. and we turn to physiology and anatomy for our answer.

which a stimulus. and the only connection between Fig. called the sensory nerve. The nervous system What passes along the nerve akin to the electricity that . runs from the center to the muscle. but. is the connection.REACTIONS nerve. 27 from the sense organ and another. " re. 1. center. — is receiving The nerve the sense organ and the muscle is this roundabout path through the nerve center. flex " and " arc ". The path consists of three parts. being suggested by the indirectness of resembles a city telephone system. taken as a whole. and the arm muscle which maltes the response. and motor nerve. the motor nerve. center is indicated by the dotted lines. The connection from the back of the hand. sensory nerve. runs to the nerve center. it is called the re-flex arc both the words.

— (From Martin's " Human Body. cord. passes along the telephone wire it is called the " nerve curin nature. are effected connections. called " centrals " in . showing brain. like the great majority of telephone connecthrough the centers. tions. rent ".") General view of the nervous system. 2. and is electrical and chemical All nerve Fig.28 PSYCHOLOGY . and nerves.

REACTIONS the case of the telephone. stem continues the cord upward into the skull cavity. Location of the cord. with " nerve center " Cerebrum Cereellum Fig. — The brain substituted for " central "." A The advantage St/stem. cerebrum and cerebellum. The brain lies in the skull and the cord extends from the brain down through a tube in the middle of the back- . The nerve centers are located in the brain and spinal cord. . is A and B are through the central switchboard. telephone indirectly connected. That B likewise. and unifying the whole complex organism. of the centralized system is that it is a affording connections between any part and any other. and the way it is in the nervous system. 3. 29 Telephone A is connected directly with the central. and " sense organ " and " muscle or gland " for " telephones and B.

while interconnecting nerve strands extend be- tween the lower centers in the cord and brain stem and the Jiigher centers in the cerebrum and cerebellum. nected by nerves with the sense organs. while the higher centers have direct connections with the lower and only through them with the sense organs. and is connected by sensory and motor nerves with the limbs and trunk. and throw into relief what is really true even of simpler reflexes.30 bone. The nerve center that takes part in the flexion reflex of the foot is situated in the lower part of the cord. The brain stem contains the reflex centers for the head and also for part of the interior of the trunk. a continuation of the spinal cord up along the base of the skull cavity. contain The lower centers are directly conthe " higher centers ". in the sense that difl'erent muscles co- operate in its execution. further forward in the brain legs of Big movements. that for the similar reflex of the hand lies in the upper part of the cord. . cord and brain stem contain the lower or reflex centers. glands and muscles. The spinal cord contains the reflex centers for the limbs and part of the trunk. but for the present it js^nough to divide it into the " brain ste m ". such as the combined action of all four an animal in walking. and the two great outgrowths of the brain The spinal stem. and the motor nerves run out of these same. including the heart and lungs. PSYCHOLOGY Of the brain many parts can be named. and that for winking stem. In other words. the sensory nerves run into the cord or brain stem. require cord and brain stem to work together. glands and muscles. and especially the cerebrum. while the cerebellum. called ''cer ebrum " and " cerebellmn ". namely that a reflex is a coordinated movement. that for breathing lies in the lower or rear part of the brain lies stem. and is connected with them by sensory and motor nerves.

running along the street. A not to be thought of as a unit. 4. —A motor nerve cell from the spinal cord. some peculiar A nerve is a bundle of many slender insulated threads. just as a telephone cable.REACTIONS 31 Internal Construction of thk Nerves and Nerve Centers We nerve shall understand nerve action better if we know someis thing of the is way in which the nervous system built. highly magnified. . nor are the brain Fig. of as mere masses of and cord to be thought substance.

^ The " white matter " of the brain and cord is composed of axons. cells in branches of nerve Similarly. are often called a " nerve fiber "- . and between one nerve center and another. A nerve center. The whole nervous system neurones. Most nerve cells have two kinds of branches. and axon and sheath. The axons which make up the motor nerves are branches of nerve cells situated in the cord and brain stem . are the brain stem. while its axon is is often several inches or even feet in length. the axons of the nerve of smell are branches of cells in the nose. the eye. Axons afford the means of communication between the nerve centers and the muscles and sense organs.32 is PSYCHOLOGY a bundle of telephonic many separate wires which are the rea] units of communication. of the sensory axons are branches of nerve The remainder cells that lie in little bunches close alongside the cord or 1 The axon is always protected or insulated by a sheath. The nerve cell is Its dendrites are short tree-like branches. cells in the reflex center. starting from the nerve to activity. and extend into Light striking the eye starts nerve currents. single telephone wire. taken together. The axon the " slender thread ". called the axon a microscopic speck of living matter. runs rapidly along the axons to the optic nerve. which run along these axons into the brain stem. A nerve current. like the switchboard in a telephone central. they ex- tend from the reflex center for any muscle out to and into that muscle and make very close connection with the muscle substance. is essentially cell composed of its A neurone is a nerve with branches.^ and the dendrites. or nerve of muscle and arouses it The axons which make up the sight. just spoken of as analogous to the A nerve is composed of axons. consists of many parts and connections.

Brain Stem Cord Fig. — and their nerve cells. but their axon. the sense organ. and thus cells its These connects the sense organ with " lower center ". 5. or the neurone with which . and by connects. or breaks Where an axon terminates. organ and the other direction into the cord or brain stem. Sensory and motor axons. The arrows plate. S3 dividing. it broadens out into a up into a tuft of very fine branches this thin (the "end-brush "). means makes close contact with it the muscle. indicate the direction of conduction. reaches in one direction out to a sense in have no dendrites.REACTIONS brain stem.

Now here is a curious and significant fact: the dendrites are receiving organs. There contact. neurone. not a thing. The junction good enough so that one of the two neu- rones. when a nerve current reaches it from its own nerve cell. a synapse dendrites. is Communication across always in one direction. and this contact or junction of ". the two neurones remain di&tinct. but send out no messages to those end-brushes. then. but no actual growing-together . they pick up mes- sages from the end-brushes across the synapse. 6. two neurones is is called a " synapse The synapse. end-brush. in close contact with the is dendrites of another neurone. -if itself active. not transmitting. from end-brush to the This.— The synapse between the two neurones lies just above the arrow. but simply a junction between two neurones. is then. The Fig. these axons terminate in the brain stem. and the axons of these . arouses the dendrites of the other neurone. for example. the pupillary reflex. can arouse the other to activity. and thus starts a nerve current running along those dendrites to their nerve cell and thence out along its axon.34 PSYCHOLOGY The Synapse Now let us consider the neurone and another in a nerve center. where their end-brushes arouse the dendrites of motor nerve cells. through its mode of connection between one The axon of one is end-brush. Light entering the eye starts a nerve current in the axons of the optic nerve. is way in which a reflex is carried out.

is — terminate. In " c. DlflFerent forms of synapse found in the cerebellum. The " gray matter " comprises the nerve centers." what might be called a Imagine " d " superimposed upon "a": the axon of "d" rises among the fine dendrites of "a. The axons of the cells the center in the center (or some of them) extend out of this center and through the white matter to the second center. In " b. cause again. and narrow the pupil.REACTIONS cells. cells Let the first center be thrown into this and immediately. Or first is arouses another to way in which one nerve activity. this to contract. and "b. consists of axons." winding about the main limbs of the Purkinje cell. An axon from the . and there are many. The white matter." and then runs horizontally through them. their end-brushes forming synapses with the of the second center. one of the large motor cells of the cerebellum (a "Purkinje cell"). Fig. through connection. activity. with its dendrites above and its axon below. as issues was said before. Thus the Purkinje cell is stimulated at three points: cell body." the arrow indicates a " climbing axon.veloping the cell body." "c" and "d" show three forms of synapse made by other neurones with this Purkinje cell. it arouses the second. It is made up of nerve cells and their dendrites. while "d" shows " telegraph-wire synapse." the arrow points to a "basket"— an end-brush er. lower and higher. and twigs of the dendrites. of the beginnings of axons issuing from these cells and of the terminations of incoming axons. where they " a 7. 35 it extending out to the muscle of the pupil. trunks of the dendrites. many such axons strung among the dendrites.

The before.Skin Muscle Fig. perhaps sometimes they are — Bit of the Spinal Cord . 8. or their synapses are not close enough to make good connections. not well developed. billions of them. besides the " nucleus " which living cell present in eve^ry and is essential for maintaining its vitality and special characteristics. and numerous very fine fibrils cotirsing through the cell and out into the axon and dendrites. Stimulus /. where it crosses a synapse and enters the dendrites of a motor neurone and so . There are lots of nerve cells. and finally turns into the gray matter at another point. it extends along a sensory axon (really along a team of axons acting side Tjy Beginning side) to Its end-brush in a lower center. traverses the white matter for a longer or shorter distance.36 PSYCHOLOGY gray matter at one point. certain peculiar granules which ap- pear to be stores of fuel to be consumed in the activity of the cell. and yet well. reflex arc can now be described more precisely than in a sense organ. and thus nerve connection is mamtained between these two points. That ought to be plenty. the nerve is cell is seen to contain. Examined under the microscope. —A two-neurone reflex arc.

This also another. arc consists then of a sensory neurone 37 reaches the cell body and axon of this neurone. This would be a two-neurone arc. meeting at a synapse in a lower or reflex center. Very often. The cen- tral neurone plays an important role in coordination. a " central " neurone intervening between the sensory and motor neurones and being connected through synapses with each. COOKDINATION The internal structure of nerve centers helps us see is coordinated movement produced. concerned in respiration.REACTIONS extends out to the muscle (or gland).-Gray matter Respiratory center in brain stem Motor center in cord for the diaphragm Diaphragm Fig. influences illus- reflex arc really consists of three neurones. the White matter . which last The simplest reflex and a motor neurone. how how . and possibly always. The question is. trates 9. how one nerve center —A three-neurone arc.

causes a big muscles. as enters the cord. movement it of many Well. it is definite. and also how it is. Where there are central neurones in the arc. we find the sensory axon. each of which terminates in an end-brush in synaptic connection with the Cord Motor Sensory neurone neurone Pig. co- work on the part of the muscles as distinguished from indiscriminate mass action. from a single sensory neurone is distributed to quite a number of motor neurones. and so we get a big movement is in response to a minute. That means selective distribution of the nerve current. But the response not simply big. though intense stimulus. sending off a number of side branches.38 several muscles are PSYCHOLOGY made to work together harmoniously. directly affectmg just a few sensory axons. producing ordinated. The axons of the sensory and central neurones do not connect with any and every motor neurone indiscriminately. and thus harness together teams that wiU work in definite ways. possible that a pin prick. lO. Thus the nerve current .^-Coordination brought about by the branching of a sensory dendrites of a motor nerve cell. their branching axons aid in distributing the ex- citation . representing team . but link up with selected groups of motor neurones.

one-celled animals. — Motor Central Sensory brought about by the branching of the axon one is reflex arc. for coordinated and depends on the nervous system. 11. have no nervous system. The most its distinctive part of any reflex arc likely to be central neurones. that the same sensory neurone may be utilized in more than Fig. not the simplest animal reaction. The same motor neurone may however be harnessed into two or more such teams. any more than they have muscles or organs of any . and extension Every reflex has its own team of motor neurones. such as its speed and rhythm of action. 39 a limb in the case of one such team. harnessed together by its outfit of sensory and central neurones. as is seen from the fact that the same muscle may participate in different reflex movements and for a similar reason we believe . while the simplest animals. Coordination of a central neurone. Reactions in General Though the reflex it is is simple by comparison with voluntary it is movements. which are believed to play the chief part in coordination. and in determining the peculiarities of any given reflex.REACTIONS flexion of in the case of another.

A loaded gun counts for more than a stone. Even the stone counts for something in determining its own behavior. like the trigger of the gun. these little creatures do nevertheless take in and digest food. reproduce their kind. and move. Newton teach that " action and reaction are and he was thinking of stones and other inaniis mate objects. is passive motion and not but if the wave stimulates active. PSYCHOLOGY Without possessing separate organs for the different vital functions. and a negative or avoiding reaction. The " reaction " of the gun is greater than the force acting on it. An animal reaction resembles the discharge of the gun. all fully obeys the it law of the energy it puts out being accounted for by stored energy oxygen. utilized and converted The stimulus. because of the stored energy of the powder that is set free by the blow of the hammer. then I am respond or react. Every animal shows at least two different motor reactions. The organism. The motion of a stone or ball depends on its own weight and shape and elasticity as much as on the blow it receives. The general notion of a reaction is that of a response to The stimulus acts on the organism and the a stimulus. is since there stored energy in the animal. Now equal " .40 kind. that action . simply releases this stored energy.'' there Did not — no such thing as wholly passive motion. when the organism . consisting in the in- chemical attraction between food absorbed and oxygen and some of this energy is into motion when the animal reacts. animal or human. because of this stored energy that is discharged. spired. organism acts back. conservation of energy. If I am struck by a wave and rolled over on the beach. a positive or approaching reaction. I me to maintain my remy foot- ing. has taken in in food and receives But at any one time.

a reaction consists in the release by a stimulus of some of the stored energy of an animal. shall make The nervous system it is of the higher animals. Without any stimulus whatever. true even of the simplest animals. we may add. however. and the direction of that energy by the animal's own internal mechanism of nerves and muscles (and. such as that of hunger. nec essary in order In general. Stimuli are necessary to arouse the activity of the or- ganism. but its own internal arrangements deterof the mine how that energy shall be directed. bones and sinews) into the form of some definite response. to a by the connections provides between the stimulus and the stores of especial importance in deter- of energy in the muscles. organism does not blow up indiscriminately. is There another its way in which the organism counts in Not only does it supply the energy response. but makes some definite movement. should be said. then. the determining reaction. like a charge of This is dynamite. That is to say. it seems likely It that the animal would relapse into total inactivity.REACTIONS a stimulus. but some stimulus to release the stored energy. the more the animal it itself has to do with the kind of response stimulus. mining the nature of the response. The is stimulus may be external or internal. and the more elaborate the internal mechanism of the animal. . that stimuli. may arise within the organism itself. the energy that it 41 puts forth in reaction comes from inside itself.

The energy stored in the organism. ''~-^- (5) a muscle or D. Among very prompt reactions are the reflex and the " simple reaction ". ^--'^ nerve. located close beside the or E.". no in the organism. and thence . G. fc-*^ nerve.' nerves consist of -=— — . but sometimes two words will be better) A.42 PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES 1. Outline of the chapter. the and the '' ' • . Definition: stimulus A reaction is a response to a ^ ^— . The communication takes place from the of the first neurone to the — of the second. Communication from one neurone to another occurs across a —"-^ called the synapse. tesf. . and the has a definite form determined by the organism's own machinery of and B. The reflex diifers from the " simple reaction" in that: (1) It usually takes less (2) It requires . The sensory and motor branches of ''*^'^ in the . the . Internally. (3) a nerve ^'-• . *' is the ' ' ' of which the nervous It consists of a ——— ' is . The neurone coijiposed. which are lie The . and of two ' sorts of branches. . The machinery for a reflex consists of: (1) a (2) a (4) a —^^ organ. The " nerve current " in a reflex therefore runs the following course: from the sense organ into a ^-^ this to its- ^— " in there into the a lerve'^^—of a —— axon. cells for the motor nerves lie in 7"' f^and those for the sensory nerves two cases in the and -. (3) The machinery for it is C. neurone shows a peculiar structure of and i. '-' and across a neurone. being at the same time a " completion Complete the following outline by filling in the blank spaces (usually a single word will fill the bank. — of an axon The here comes into close contact witb the or with the of another neurone. ' in all other cases in bunches . along ^ .

etc. (c) along the base 3. and so to a team of 2. an in- trospective or an objective experiment^ Mention two cases from common life that belong under the two that belong under " choice reaction ". (e) What other stimulus. H. Compare with this time the time required to respond to each letter by the letter following it in the alphabet (saying "n" when you see m. but you can observe it in yourself by aid On another person you can also observe the of a hand mirror. and notice the response of the eyelid. (e) in the arm? it takes you to them in reverse order from the end of the line to the beginning.out along REACTIONS the — of this js ' 43 ' ' ' that executes the reflex. ' '- and the is . nevertheless. by throwing the light into one eye only while you watch the other eye. " simple reaction ". or wink reflex. of the skull. as described in the text. your subject can voluntarily prevent (inhibit) the lid reflex. does it differ from true reflex action? Describe the reaction of the pupil of the 8. What part of the nervous system lies (a) in the forehead and top of the head. 6. Reduce each drawing to the simplest possible form. This response can best be observed in another person. (c) See whether (b) See whether you can get a crossed reflex here. (b) a synapse. What sort of connection do you suppose to exist between the two eyes.). and "t" when you see s. will arouse the same response? . " crossed " pupillary reflex. besides the visual one that you have been using. Coordination current is . The lid reflex. and (d) a coordinated movement. by moving his own hand suddenly up to his eye. 4. Which of these two " stunts " is more like reflex action. Arrange the reflexes mentioned in the text under the two heads of " protective " and " regulative "5. sensory and — effected ' of the axons of the by the . (b) in the very back of the head. and still retain everything that is essential. and how. Is the reaction time experiment.neurones. close to another person's eye. Using a watch to take the time. but often there the neurone to the or This is a two-neurone neurone between a third. by which means the nerve to a team of . The pupillary reflex. (d) See whether the reflex occurs when he gives the stimulus himself. see how long name the letters in a line of print. (d) within the backbone. reading eye to light suddenly shining into the eye. making this crossed reflex possible? (a) Bring your hand suddenly 9. (c) a reflex arc. Draw diagrams of (a) the neurone. and two that belong under the " associative reaction ". 7.

and of reflex action in Chapter IV.44 PSYCHOLOGY REFERENCES Judson Herrick. III and IV. Percy G. gives . 1911. in his Nervous System and Its Conservation. 1915. discusses these matters in Chapters II. in his Introduction to Neurology. a fuller and yet not too detailed account of tiie neurone in Ciiapter III. C. 1918. Ladd and Woodworth's Elements of Physiological Psychology. Stiles. has chapters on these topics. 2nd edition.

as a physical stimuit is comes to me. the noise. imagination and reasoning. and internal . The boat's whistle me of a vacation spent on an island — In clearly a memory ing this response.CHAPTEE III REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS HOW SENSATIONS. external or it is therefore. PERCEPTION^ AND THOUGHTS MAY BE CONSIDERED AS FORMS OF INNER RESPONSE. —now. while my a reaction. called a perception or perceptive response. The memory to imagine arouses an agreeable be called. Having defined a reaction is as an act of the individual aroused by a stimulus. we do not mean to imply that he 4S always conscious . this may its turn. there no reason why we should not include a great variety of mental processes under the general head of reactions. and my own may be doing. it feel- —an may affective response. hearing my own act. Any is mental process is an activity of the it aroused by some stimulus. organism. I hear a noise lus. lead me how pleasant would be to spend another vacation on that island. of a steamboat — I recognize the noise as the whistle this recognition is clearly dependent on reminds my own past experience. and to cast about for ways and means to accomplish this result —here we have stimulus. aroused by what preceded just as the sensation was aroused by the physical is In speaking of any mental process as an act of the individual. AND HOW THESE HIGHER REACTIONS ARE RELATED IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM TO THE SIMPLER RESPONSES OF THE REFLEX LEVEL. my sensory reaction to the stimulus.

What comes from outside and is received by the individual is the stimuliis. is not " self-activity " in any absolute It does not issue is sense. while he feels in simply " being hard muscular work or hard thinkpassive in reflex action. and reminded " of anything without any effort on his own part. same as what others is receive. sometimes pas- He feels active in ing. and every manifestation of life. Life is activity. such as reflex action or sensation. but he responds differently. To call a sensation a form of reaction means. sive. The only way to be inactive is But vital activity ' to "be dead. as is espeis abnormal or peculiar. because his own sensory apparatus peculiar. the light stimulus. The main point of this discussion is that all mental phe- . in sensation. then. is a form of vital activity. and he does everything that depends on his being alive.. but his response That . The same stimulus that arouses in most people the sensation of red arouses in the color-blind individual the sensation of brown. that is the sensation not something done to the person. It represents the discharge of internal stored energy in a direction determined by his own inner mechanism. and the sensiation is what he does sively recrfved in response to the stimulus. for it is aroused by some Stimulus. with a different sensation. make-up as well as cially obvious The sensation depends on his own when the sensation on the nature of the stimulus. is is the sense of calling any mental process a reaction it something the individual does in response to a stimulus. color-blind Now what the is individual receives. nor pas- by him from outside. from the individual as an isolated to a stimulus. but something that he himself does when aroused to this particular form of activity. unit. Take the case of color blindness. But he is active in everything he does. the i. PSYCHOLOGY Sometimes he feels active.46 of his activity.e.

many known Such internal stimuli as these are external stimuli in that they act like the better upon sense organs. striking on a sense organ. but it . A thought or a feeling tends to " express itself " in words or (other) deeds. have pushed the stimulus away into the back- ground. consisting of changes occurring within the body and acting on the sensory nerves that are distributed to the muscles. but that every act response to some present stimulus. whether movements. such as light or sound. lived. however. while others. sensations. Different Sorts of Stimuli To call all mental__pjQcesses _reactioiis . and reflexes are aroused in the same way. only. impulses a This rather obvious truth has not always seemed obvious. stomach and most of the organs. in emphasizing the spontaneity and " self-activity " of the individual.' Experience. and of hun- ger and thirst. or inhibited altogether. to mental action tends to arouse and ter- minate in muscular and glandular activity. it is not received. but the tendency always in that direction. the an external force or motion. are aroused by internal stimuli. Some theorists. lungs. The concept of reaction covers the ground. are a person's acts. emotions. There are also the in- ternal stimuli. fixing their attention on the stimulus. The sensations of muscular strain and fatigue. The motor response may be is delayed. have treated the individual as the passive recipient of sensation and " experience " it is generally. is 47 nomena. bones. is done in response to stimuli. stimulus is Typically. While speaking of sensations and thoughts as belonging under the general head of reactions.means that it is always in order to ask for the stimulus. however. bear in mind that all it is well.REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS or thoughts. and that means done.

each of these items a response to the preceding.48 PSYCHOLOGY seems necessary to recognize another sort of stimuli which act directly on the nerve centers in the brain. •it seems quite in order to call the first thought the stimulus and the second the response. then. makes me angry of the thought stimulus arousing this emotional response. external or internal. your words are the stimulus and my thought the response. what else can we say than that the thought of Calcutta acts as a stimulus to arouse the thought of India as the response. and calls for justifica- What the excuse for thus expanding the notion of a stimulus. as when the thought of A .'' In a long train of thought. Well. a stimulus to the one fol- lowing. thought m^y is arouse an my enemy. . There stimuli " is no special difficulty with the notion of " central from the physiological side. first. tion. where A reminds you of is. These may be called " central stimuli " and so contrasted with the " peripheral stimuli " that act on any sense organ. second. B and B of C and C of D.'' The excuse stimulus. is found in the frequent occurrence of mental processes that are not directly aroused by any peripheral though they are plainly aroused by something Anything that arouses a thought or feeling can properly be called its stimulus. suddenly occurthen the think of ring to mind. and next think of India. To is do this is to take considerable liberty with the plain meaning of " stimulus ". is by means of the Say the auditory center aroused by hearing some one mention your friend's name. If hearing you speak if Calcutta makes me India. and else. just preceding thought. and. I think of Calcutta in the course of a train of thought. We have simply to think of one nerve center arousing another tract of axons connecting the two. emotion. Now it often happens that a thought is aroused by another.

the series of brain responses would peter out after awhile. arouses the second group to activity. But response nerve currents coming from another brain center. and not directly from any sense organ. which gives off axons running to some other center or out to muscles or glands. keep- up for a long time without is fresh peripheral stimulus. fit We have evidence of Likely a dream or of abstraction. but only with other All the evidence we have would is indicate that the brain not " self-active ". Lower and Higher A "center " is a collection of nerve cells. The Motor Centers. while also receives axons it organs. located some- where in the brain or cord. may successively long series become active at many other points. in the absence of any fresh peripheral stimulus. so that a of mental operations may follow upon a single sensory stimulus. or from sense These incoming axons terminate in end-brushes of and so form synapses with the dendrites the local . any sense organ. this sort of thing in remarkable. and so on. but. pens in a train of thought rones is that first your friend. enough. spread- ing along the axons that extend from this group of neurones to another. it. must be the rule rather than the exception. since most of the brain neurones are not directly connected with parts of the brain itself.REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS and this 49 promptly calls up a mental picture is here the auditory center has aroused the visual. once thrown into activity at one point. but this simple scheme gives the gist of The way nerve ing it currents must go shooting around the requiring any brain from one center or group of neurones to another. and then this activity. coming from other centers. The brain process may often be exceedingly complex. but only reit sponsive . and of one brain center to total inactivity ensue. What hapone group of neuof aroused to activity.

see Fig. Temporal Brain — rise to the with the muscles and glands. and their nerve Central Fissure give —4J Parietal Lobe Fissure of Sylvius si^em Stem Lo>>° Cprebellum Fig. The visual area proper." lies just around the corner from the spot marked " Visual. narrow strip of cortex. or " vlsuo-sensory area. The lower motor centers. are cells located in the cord or brain stem. motor area " gray the motor area is forward of what a is long. 18). is transmitted out along the axons issuing from that center. lying just called the " central fissure " or " fissure of Rolando ". where it adjoins the other hemisphere. More precisely. nerve The axons entering any center and terminating there arouse that center to activity. Side view of the left hemisphere of the brain. called also reflex centers. when aroused. is The principal higher motor center the " of the brain." on the middle surface of the hemisphere. and produces results where those axons ter- minate in their turn.50 PSYCHOLOGY cells. . axons that form the motor nerves and connect muscle is thrown into action A by nerve currents from its lower motor center. located in the cortex or external layer of matter. 12. showing the motor and sensory areas (for the olfactory area. and this activity. in the cerebrum.

The motor area in "^ Giant pyramid cell from the motor area of the cerebral cortex. about halfway back from the forehead. close the motor areas of the two cerebral hemispheres will under the path traced by your finger. control muscular movement.) Type of the Fig. the motor area of the left hemisphere similarly affects . magnified 35 diameters (After Cajal. Cell Axon body of same further magnified — 'brain cells thai most directly the right hemisphere is connected with the left half of the cord and so with the muscles of the left half of the body.REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS If 51 you run your finger over the top of the head from one lie side to the other. 13.

not far from the center for tongue and mouth. in Fig. and the ears. ters for the several limbs Within the motor area are cenand other motor organs. Fig. such as is given. path consists of axons issuing from the motor cells of the cord and extending out to the muscles. pyramids ". next below and to the side is the center for the trunk. and are from motor area. on a larger scale. next Cortex Muscles motor area of the cortex influences the muscles. whieli latter. is the pyramidal tract. Thus. 18. the bottom. The upper part of this path. next that for the arm. their shape. The top of the figure represents a vertical cross-section of the brain. the " giant The largest nerve cells of all are found in the called. 14. near the middle line of the head (and just about where the phrenologists located their " bump of veneration"!). They have large dendrites and very long axons.52 PSYCHOLOGY the right half of the body. at the top. . —The nerve path by which the that for head movements. is the center for the legs. consisting of axons issuing from the giant pyramids of the motor area and extending down The lower part of the into the spinal cord. is at.

and the resulting movement is then called a reflex. as. the principal path of communication from the cerebrum to the lower centers. constitute the " pyramidal tract ". any motor effect of brain action exerted through the motor area. by way of the motor area that any There are a few exceptions. by way motor area find the pyramidal tract. The motor area. but. The lower of the center can be aroused in quite another way. and capable of directly arousing a certain coordinated muscular movement. of flexion One such unit gives flexion of the leg. another gives extension of the leg. group of motor and central the cord or brain stem. the movement? of the eyes are produced generally by the " visual area " acting directly on the lower motor centers for the eye in the brain is stem. in the main. lying anywhere in more closely. but we must look into this matter a little is A lower motor center a neurones. a third gives the rapid alternation and extension that we see in the scratching movement of the dog. How THE Brain Produces Muscular Movements is itself The motor area rents entering it aroused to action by nerve cur- through axons coming from other parts it is of the cortex . which in turn act on the muscles. but acts through the pyramidal tract on the lower centers. for example. and other part of the cortex produces bodily movement. acts on the lower motor centers in the cord and brain stem. Thus flexion of the leg can occur voluntarily as well as reflexly. and these in turn on the muscles. The motor area of the brain has no direct connection with any muscle. and that is by nerve currents coming from the brain. Such a motor center can be aroused to activity by a sensory stimulus.TIEACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS 53 running in a thick bundle down from the cortex through the brain stem and cord. as already mentioned. The same .

and the same motor neurones. pointing to the ground under the stranger's feet. tract. when a native called out to him " Hist (hoist). He " histed " obediently. even if he had spied the though impulsive and in- voluntary. his feet had been hanging. We see excellent and inhibition in the case This sharp forward kick of the foot and of the knee jerk. lower leg is aroused by a tap on the tendon running in front examples of cerebral facilitation . which is to say that he voluntarily threw into play the spinal center for leg flexion and then. the muscles. which we have seen to affect movement through the medium But if the snake had made the first of the motor area.means action by the cerebral cortex. looking down. and in the voluntary movement by the pyramidal The story is told of a stranger who was once dangling platform at a small ! his legs. still Now rattler first. over the edge of the station " backwoods town. do the job in either case. been the flexion Facilitation and Inhibition Not only can the motor area call out essentially the same movements that are also produced reflexly. move. and it can rein- force or facilitate the action of the sensory stimulus so as to assist in the production of the reflex. the resulting flexion. in response to the painful sensory stimulus. the same leg movement on the man's part. saw a rattler coiled just beneath where . since the movement would have been a response to knowledge of what that object was and and knowledge. lower center is aroused by a sensory nerve. would have been aroused by way of the motor area and the pyramidal tract. made now signified.54 PSYCHOLOGY In the reflex. would have reflex. but it can prevent or inhibit the execution of a reflex in spite of the sensory stimulus for the reflex being present.

Thus the cortex controls the reflexes. on the knee jerk. the cerebrum can exert an influence inhibits it. the motor area facilitates or inhibits the action of the lower centers. Other examples of such control are seen when you prevent for a time the natural regular winking of the eyes by voluntarily holding them wide open. and to expire vigorously in order The coughing. carrying a hot dish which you know you must not drop. Super-motor Centers in the Cortex Another important efl'ect of the motor area upon the lower centers consists in combining their action so as to pro- duce what we know as skilled movements. this voluntary movement does not have the suddenness and quickness of the true reflex. It will be remembered that the lower centers themselves give coordinated movements. and the knee So purely reflex is this movement that it cannot be duplicated voluntarily. . For all that. though the foot can of course be voluntarily kicked forward. Anxious attention to the knee jerk fist it. and gradually comes to have control over the tract breathing movements. you check the flexion reflex which would naturally pull the hand away from the painful The young child learns to control the reflexes of stimulus. higher coordinations result from cerebral control. sneezing and swallowing reflexes likewise control. for. and tap the tendon just below the knee cap. come under voluntary In all such cases.REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS of the knee. such as but still flexion or extension of the whole limb. so as to hold his breath or breathe rapidly or deeply at to blow out a match. will. evacuation. leg. gritting the teeth or clenching the reinforces These are cerebral influences acting by way of the pyramidal upon the spinal center for the reflex. 55 Cross the knee to be stimulated over the other jerk appears. or when.

T. Tlie " Corpus Callosum " is a great mass of axons extending across from each cerebral hemisphere to the other. N. and enabling both hemispheres to work together. connecting distant parts of the cortex with one another. connecting near-by portions of the cortex." and " C. handling tion controlled m A -=^ V f r / tr Fig.) Axons connecting one part of the cortex " with another. while " B. or in playing the piano or violin.56 PSYCHOLOGY the two hands. (From Starr. which can be seen also in Fig. as if in section. — A movement of a single hand. about which more later. Examples of this are seen an ax or bat. 18. though executing different movements." are interior masses of gray matter. " O." is the thalamus." and "D" show bundles of longer axons. as in writing or buttoning a coat. may also represent a higher or cortical coordination. The brain is seen from the side. At " are shown bundles of comparatively short axons. it Now by the appears that the essential work in producing these is higher coordinations of skilled movement performed not by neighboring parts of the cortex. T. 15. we have coordina- When work by the cortex. Some of these motor area. •which act on the motor area in much the same way as the motor area acts on the lower centers. together to produce a definite result." " C. but . " O.

in the adjacent parts of the frontal lobe. The cases differ in severity. but cuts off volun- tary movement and cerebral control. Destruction of the cor- tex there. Through brain injury it sometimes happens that a person loses his ability to speak words. Speech Centers Similar to apraxia speak. deprives the individual of some of his skilled movements. or super-motor centers. though knowing what he wants to do. and pro". though he can still. which exerts control over the movements of the right hand and right side of the body generally. some re- taining the ability to speak only one or two words which. at least. Injury to the spinal cord. probably lost in the left-handed the right hemisphere dominates. though not really paralyz- ing him. and though still able to move his limbs. also plays the leading part movements of either hand. brings complete paralysis. are lo- cated in the cortex just forward of the motor area. through injury or disease. This is true. It is a curious fact that the hemisphere. . destroy- ing the lower motor center for the legs. It bears the is " aphasia " or loss of ability to relation to true paralysis of the same speech organs that hand apraxia bears to paralysis of the. duces the condition of " apraxia which the subject. hand. make vocal sounds. Injury to the motor area or to the pyramidal all tract does not destroy reflex movement. Injury to the " superin motor centers " causes loss of skilled movement. simply cannot get the combination for the skilled act that he has in mind.REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS 57 skilled-movement centers. He can still make simple movements. in skilled of right- handed persons . but not the left complex movenients of writing or handling an instrument. Motor power may be in the through injury at various points nervous system.

showing the location of The region marked " Motor " is the motor the " speech centers. that . the subject knows the words he wishes to say. and perhaps there skilled is no other motor It is performance so highly acquired so early in as this of speaking. in right-handed people. and that marked "Visual" the visual speech center. or (swear words.58 PSYCHOLOGY reflex from frequent use have become almost sometimes. "yes" and "no"). but cannot get them out. Side view of the left hemisphere." speech center. In pure cases of motor aphasia. and practised so constantly. life. It and larynx. tongue is forward of the motor area for This " motor speech center " the best-known instance of a super-motor center. The brain tences. while others are ahle to pronounce single words. coordinates the elementarj^ speech movements into the combinations called words . just the mouth. but not any connected speech. that marked " Auditory " the auditory speech center. 16. injury here lies in the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere. — Stem and still others can utter simple sentences. but can no longer put them together fluently into the customary form of phrases and senCentral Fissure-^ Fissure of Syl^^"^ Braifi Fio.

and that the front part of it is related to the part further back as this is to the motor area back of it. sometimes there is word deafness. There is some evidence that the motor speech center extends well forward into the frontal lobe. That is to say. but first. called tensory aphasia. as spoken. the back of the speech center combines the motor units of the motor area into the skilled movements of speaking a word. ability to there called is. more precisely. The Auditory Centers Besides the motor aphasia. till it was finally discovered that what he wanted was to have his mind. auditory aphasia. just mentioned. there is another type. In pure auditory aphasia there is no inpronounce words or even to speak fluently. an inability to " hear words ".REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS we take it 59^ quite as a matter of course. while in fact even a short word. and think of a word as a simple and single movement. so that the individual so and having sense in One his friends one morning by declaring old gentleman mystified that he must go and " have his umbrella washed ". while the more forward part of the speech center combines the word movements into the still more complex movement of speaking a sentence. and often also an inability tO' find the right afflicted. It is even possible that the very front part still of the speech center has to do with those higher com- binations of speech movements that give fluency and real excellence of speaking. misuses his while speaking fluently enough words and utters a perfect jargon. hair cut. The cated a cortical area aff^ected in this little form of aphasia is lo- further back on the surface of the brain than . words to speak. or. is a complex movement requiring great motor skill.

indeed.60 PSYCHOLOGY the motor speech center. connected (through lower centers) with the ear. as it may well be called). In other cases. to loud noises. word deafness mentioned just above. it. are unable At least. though they musicians before this portion of their may have this been fine cortex was destroyed. motor remains the fact throughout that the auditory speech center all is in most persons. It appears that this precedence of auditory speech over life. consciously. being close to the auditory area The latter is a small cortical region in the temporal lobe.e. the organ of hearing. we sometimes find individuals who. region. In the immediate neighborhood of the auditory area proper (or of the " auditory-sensory area ". but. and concerned i. He may make a few reflex responses . are portions of the cortex intimately connected by axons with sounds. used in reading. and one more not yet the most fundamental of is the speech centers.. proper. . in what may be called audi- tory perceptions. instead of music deafness. or an organ of hearing. talk that so often accompanies is is word deafness auditory reminds us of the fact that speech first of all He understands what said to him before he of under- talks himself. and is the only part of the cortex to receive nerve currents from the organ of hearing. The jargon to the child. of which there mentioned. The auditory area is. with recognizing and understanding Probably different portions of the cortex near the auditory-sensory center have to do with different sorts of auditory perception. he does not hear at all he has no auditory sensations. as a result of injury or disease affecting this general They cannot " catch any longer to follow and appreciate music. for without it the individual is deaf. the tune " any longer. and his vocabulary for purposes standing always remains ahead of his speaking vocabulary. we the find.

and some of their fine branches. One view shows nerve cells and their dendrites. while the other shows axons. Imagine one view superimposed upon the other. with only a few axons. to . outgoing and incoming. — (From Cajal.REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS 61 Fio. show the complexity of its inner structure. and you get some idea of the intricate interweaving of axons and dendrites that occurs in the cortex.) Magnified sections tlirougli the cortex. . 17.

only the beginning of which is shown here. and without them the Other portions are concerned individual is " word blind "in in perceiving (recognizing. Other por- . This visual-sensory area occupies only a small portion of the occipital lobe. and the callosum or bridge of axons connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. — out it. some of the paths to and from the cortex. at the back of the brain.62 PSYCHOLOGY The Visual Centers There is a visual-sensory area is in the occipital lobe. and yet practically the whole lobe is concon- cerned with vision. the thalamus and other interior masses of gray matter. and is without them the individual " object blind ". 14. With- Olfactory Area Fig. 18. understanding) seen objects. the individual still shows the pupillary reflex to light. but has no sensations of sight. showing the cortex Oil the outside. that connected with the eye in the same is way as the auditory center connected with the ear. Some portions of the lobe are cerned perceiving words in reading. Vertical cross-section through the brain. The " Motor path " is the pyramidal tract. its further course being indicated in Fig. He is blind.

has not been definitely located. and correspondit. CoRTicAi. also in the visual as in the motor region and probably and Skill in handling objects is partly deauditory regions. Destruction of any part of this somesthetic area brings loss of the sensations from the corresponding part of the body. are portions of the cortex concerned in perceiving facts by aid of the body senses. as in lighting a fire when you have the various injuries to the parietal lobe. extending parallel to the motor so that the sensory area for the legs. as well as . but it Probably there a similar taste center.. are dependent on the parietal lobe and disappear when the cortex of this region is destroyed. Perception of size by the muscle sense. just in front of the fissure. of touch. perception of degrees of warmth and cold by the temperature sense. ing part for part with legs lies just behind the motor area for the and so on. 63 and still other portions in perceiving spatial relations through the sense of sight and so knowing where seen objects are and being able to guide one's movements by sight. with the body senses generally. Then there is a large and important area called the " somesthetic ". chiefly with the skin and muscle senses..e. area which This area is located in a narrow strip just back of the central lies fissure. in the parietal lobe. and this related to the sense of smell in the is same general way. perception of weight It appears that there is and shape by the sense a sort of hierarchy df centers here. . connected i.REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS tions are concerned in perceiving color relations. Just behind this direct sensory center for the body. Centers for the Other Senses part of There is an olfactory area is in a rather secluded the cortex. pendent on the " feel " of the objects and so is impaired by frontal lobe by injury to the and knowing how to manage a fairly complex situation.

— trunk or the first the cord this path centers." shown in Fig. not even is the sensory areas. in what the skin. . no portion of the cortex. terminate in may be called the lowest sensory Cortex Fig.thalamus or interbrain. Lower Sensory Centers As already indicated. 19. The last part of is the " Tactile path. lying just outside the spinal cord. And cells here send their axons up to the somesthetic area of the cortex. Sensory path from the skin of any portion of the The path consists of three neurones. for example.64 PSYCHOLOGY this materials assembled before you. that of the second lying in and that of the third lying in the thalamus. the cell body of limbs. directly connected with any sense organ. 18. The sensory axons from the spinal cord. where they terminate in a second sensory center. Here are nerve cells whose axons pass up through the cord and brain stem to the. seems also to depend largely on part of the cortex.

by way of the brain stem. but it is difficult is much knowledge it at to give the gist of in a few words.REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS The thalamus all is 65 remarkable as an intermediate center for is the senses. The phrenologists taught that the cerebellum was the center for the sexual instinct. but there is no evidence in favor of this guess. we have the first a sensation of sound. on the other certainly has nothing to do with conscious sensation or perception. Possibly these are related to motor activity. When this last is is aroused to activity. passing through the lowest and intermediate centers and reaching the aUditory-sensory area of the cortex. Its use seems to be motor. except smell. though certainly appears that the thalamus has something to do with feeling and emotion. the cerebellum receives a vast . number of axons from the lower sensory centers hand. there hand. Different Levels op Reaction Let a noise strike the ear and start nerve currents in along the auditory nerve. Though is it has no known sensory or intellectual functions. sensory to the near-by cortex give a perception of some fact indicated by the external and this perception is a . it while. it very closely connected with the dif- cerebrum. which to the external stimulus. receiving a tremendous bundle of axons from ferent parts of the cerebrum. The Cerebellum Regarding the cerebellum. On the one hand. but exactly what accomremains plished by this big intermediate it sensory cehter rather a mystery. and probably also with maintaining the steadiness and general efficiency of muscular contraction. conscious reaction Axons running from the auditorystimulus. It has much to do with maintaining the equilibrium of the body.

combining the action of these into the speaking of a and in a similar way. already mentioned. the intention to speak a sentence expressing a certain mean- ing acts as a stimulus to call up in order the separate words that make the sentence. but fact the facts of brain injury. On the sensory and intellectual side. the lower reactions are aroused by the higher. the higher reactions : follow the lower sensation arouses perception and perception thought. The perceived noise . centers for the speech organs. or a recognition of some further fact directly signified still by the these would be reactions of is higher order. it seems. A general plan of action precedes and arouses the particular acts and muscular movements that execute the plan. motor and probably concerned somehow in the recognition of facts that are only very indirectly indicated by any single sensory stimulus. may call up a less mental image. which. On the motor side. enable us to draw the distinction. or with the planning of actions that only indirectly issue in muscular movement. Much is of the cortex apparently not very directly connected with either the sensory or the areas. . to be sure. Thus the speech center arouses the motor word .66 PSYCHOLOGY second and higher conscious reaction. ordinarily occurs so quickly after the first that introspection cannot distinguish one as first and the other as second.

Brain activities of all sorts influence the muscles by way of the motor area and the lower motor centers. (1) External. and see whether the reflex response is (c) Ask the subject to clench his fists or grit his teeth. Central. (2) Internal. Relations of reactions of diiferent levels. and consider what loss of function would result from destruction of each of 5. Peripheral . Brain action in recognizing seen or heard objects. 9. "- 2. Brain action in sensation. 37. Brain action in skilled movement. 1918. cortical Show by a diagram how one Compare the diagram in Fig. H. reflex center for the patellar reflex. of the patellar reflex or "knee j erk ".REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS 67 EXERCISES Fill in sub-topics under each of the fol1. (a) Compare the reflex movement so obtained with a voluntary imitaFacilitation sit subject tion by the subject. and whence comes the reinforcing influence ? Construct a diagram showing the different centers and connecmaking the skilled movement of writing. tions involved in the centers. Mental processes of all kinds are reactions. B. Which is the quicker and briefer? (b) Apply a fairly strong auditory stimulus (a sudden noise) a fraction of a second before the tap on the tendon. p. Outline of the chapter. E. 3. The stimulus that directly arouses a mental process is often " central C. lowing heads: A. 4. B. Let your with one leg hanging freely from the knee down. Define and illustrate these classes of stimuli: A. . XI and XII. Chapters X. With the edge of your hand strike the patellar tendon just below the knee cap. on the " Functions of the Cerebrum ". F. D. REFERENCES Herrick's Introduction to Neurology. and tap the tendon as he does so. Reinforcement? (d) Where is the reinforced. Brain action in speech. G. Stile's Nervous System and Its Conservation. Chapter XX. center arouses another.

Perhaps no more suitable motto could be inscribed stimulus. and. Whenever we have any human action before us for explanation. The notion it is of a reaction of great value here. could find a congenial home in a stimulus-response laboratory. advancing to more complex responses. spectionists. will so as to predict what response be made to a given and what stimulus can be depended on to arouse a desired response. just because so hard-headed and concrete. we have to ask what the stimulus is that arouses the individual to activity. unless we pin ourselves down to hard-headed ways is of thinking. would observe the conscious 68 processes entering into the response. Such a motto would not frighten away the modern introno less than the behaviorists. AND HOW THEY FIT INTO A PSYCHOLOGY WHICH SEEKS TO ANALYZE BEHAVIOR INTO REACTIONS.CHAPTER IV TENDENCIES TO REACTION HOW MOTIVES INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR. practical as well . and prevents our discussions from sailing off into the clouds of picturesque that but fanciful interpretation. over the door of a psychological laboratory than these two words. for they. for if it can establish the laws of reaction. and how Stimulus-response psychology is solid. Psychology is very apt to de- generate into a game of blowing bubbles. and he responds. " Stimulus-Res ponse. They would begin by studying sensations. it furnishes the " knowledge that is power ". One advantage of basing our psychology on reactions is it keeps us " close to the ground ". .

Here is another who. or congregating about an automobile that has broken down in the crowded thoroughfare. and seems to be looking for some one in particular . He seems in a hurry. Suppose we are looking out on a city street during the noon hour. if motives. obviously enough. waving their hands to friends across the street. 20. and some have flatly denied them any place in scientific psychology. whistling to — — a stray dog that comes past. perhaps. — R hard-headed psychologists have fought shy of such matters. we must not allow it to blind our eyes to at first thought. He is not simply responding to the stimuli that come to him. and. The symbol of stimulus-response psychology. or. simply keeping his eyes open enough to avoid colliding with any one else. and we say of him. " He must have business on hand sights he has to keep an appointment or catch a train ". But here comes some one who pays little attention to the and sounds of the street. but has some purpose of his own that directs his movements. interests and pur- poses did not fit into the stimulus-response program. <S Many ^R Fig. We see numbers of people who lunch over. since he peers closely at the faces of the men. looking at anything that chances to catch their eye.TENDENCIES TO REACTION 69 But. it any of the seems as real facts of mental life. however useful the reaction may be as affording a sound basis for psychological study. he neglects men and . neglecting the women. nothing to do till one o'clock! are standing or walking about. 8 means the stimulus. and there is no difficulty in fitting their behavior into the stimulus-response scheme. while not in such a hurry. The line between is the connection from stimulus to response. and the response. is not idling by any means. These people are responding to stimuli.' But let us see.

and typically an external stimulus. a purpose persists. in purposive behavior. purpose seems a misfit here. while a typical reaction. First. since At first thought. which thought of the individual as activity But if originating his acts from within himself. and acts in its turn as a " central stimulus " is show that a purpose itself to further reactions. women lost something. and looks anxiously at the ground. as if he had Some inner motive shuts him off from most of the stimuli of the street. busy people as well as stimuli some inner purpose or motive. —otherwise he would be What makes a man busy is He still responds to present in a dream or trance and out of all touch with what was going on about him-^but his ac- tions are in part controlled by an inner motive. we could an inner response to some external stimulus. hurrying all the way down the street and around the corner and how much farther we cannot say. It keeps the . what persists. in our illustration. like the reflex or the sim- prompt and over with at busy man. while sive to certain sorts of stimuli. then. we fit need to purpose into the general plan of stimulus and response. It is very different from a momentary response. old " self" psychology. making him extra respon- Purposive Behavior Now it individuals out of our psychology. To complete the foundations of our psychology. Second.70 PSYCHOLOGY alike. is the tendple reaction of the experiment. would be a great mistake to rule these purposeful We wish to understand idlers. We do not wish to drop back into the. Third. is once. a purpose is an inner force. or from a stimulus that arouses a momentary response and nothing more. whereas what arouses a response should be a stimulus. this difficulty would disappear.

quite a series of responses. In the middle the individual has an inner steer towards a certain result. Fig.. In addition. and is striving towards some future result. and then the notion of a " tendency " is by no means superfluous.TENDENCIES TO REACTION ency towards some end or goal. aroused by an external stimulus. then it would be But often superfluous for psychology to speak of a tendency at all. This highest level of inner control over one's behavior had best be left for consideration in later chapters on imagination and level. R^. There are two levels below this. This element of action directed towards some end is absent from the simple response to a stimulus. which. need to find room for conscious foreknowledge of all the goal towards which the action is directed. In short. — We and must find room for internal states that last for a time direct action. such as escape. 21. a goal beckons to him from ahead. etc. an inner motive or tendency. all tending towards the same end-result. we have to find room in our stimulus-response psychology for action persistently steered in a certain direction by some cause acting from within the individual. The stimulus-response scheme complicated to allow for the existence of T. Whereas a stimulus pushes him from behind. " Purpose " is not the best general term to cover internal factors that direct activity. 71 The purposeful person wants something he has not yet got.use that response with infallible certainty and promptness. R^. since this implies foresight of the goal. though without conscious foresight of that result. but still his inthe lowest level. we sometimes. itself arouses a motor response. At we can scarcely speak of the individual as being directed towards any precise goal. If the reactiontendency were linked so firmly to a single response as to aro. follows upon a single stimulus. will. which the word rather intellectual demands the ability to imagine a result not present to the senses. though not always. .

though not. but may be any inner state or that drives the individual in a given direction. let us observe not even the simplest animal. " Wants " or " needs " might be substituted for " motives ". to the lowest of our " Tendencies ". the response is weak. Often " preparation " or " readiness for action " is the best expression. as far as we know. if we agree at the outset that a motive is not always scious purpose. namely that the individual. or " tendencies to reaction ". the idea here being to liken the individual to an adjustable machine which can be set for one or another sort of work.72 ternal state is PSYCHOLOGY such as to predispose him for certain reactypified is tions and against other reactions. it responds to each shock by contracting. No single word in the language stands out clearly as the proper term to cover all three levels. . is by The middle level. is The highest level. because of his internal state. typified by the hunting dog. carries about the right meaning. lowest level. If we give a muscle electric shocks as stimuli. Organic States that Influence Behavior Beginning at the lowest of our three levels. having any clear idea of the result at which his actions are aimed. force and would apply better than " motives " three levels. with the meaning that the inner tendency determines or Much used also are " adjustment " and directs behavior. " Determining tendencies " (perhaps better. that of internal steer. To a weak stimulus. " Motives " would serve. " directive tendencies ") is a term that has been much used in psychology. that of con- who knows exactly what he wants and means to get. *' mental set ". tends towards a certain action. The fatigue. represented by any one clearly conscious or definite. but a single muscle. that of organic states. striving towards his prey.

TENDENCIES TO REACTION
to a strong stimulus, strong.
series of equal shocks of

73

But now let us apply a long moderate intensity, one shock every

Then we shall get from the muscle what is " fatigue curve ", the response growing weaker and called a
two seconds.
weaker, in spite of the continued equality of the stimuli.

How

is

such a thing

possible.''

Evidently because the inner
its

condition of the muscle has been altered by
activity.
gists,

long-continued

The muscle has become

fatigued, and physiolothis fatigue,

examining into the nature of

have found

the muscle to be poisoned by " fatigue substances " produced

by

its

own

activity.

Muscular contraction depends on the

Fig.

22.— Fatigue curve of a muscle.

The

vertical

lines

record

a.

series of successive contractions of the muscle, and the height of each Read from left to right. line indicates the force of the contraction.

oxidation of fuel, and produces oxidized wastes, of which carbon dioxide is the best known and these waste products,
;

being produced in continued strong activity faster than the blood can carry them away, accumulate in the muscle and
partially poison
it.

The

" organic state "

is

here definitely

chemical.

This simple experiment is worth thinking over. Each muscular contraction is a response to an electric stimulus, but the force of the contraction is determined in part by
the interaal state of the muscle.

Fatigue

is

an inner state

carries of the muscle that persists for a time (till the blood

the wastes), and that predisposes the muscle towards Thus the a certain kind of response, namely, weak response. behavior that seemed so three characteristics of purposive

away

74
difficult to
fit

PSYCHOLOGY
into the scheme of stimulus

and response are

all

here in a rudimentary form.
notice this fact also: the inner condition of muscular
is itself

But
fatigue

a response to external stimuli.

It

is

part

and parcel

'of

the total muscular response to a stimulus.

The

total response includes an internal change of condition,
is

which, persisting for a time,

a factor in determining how

the muscle shall respond to later stimuli.

These facts afford,

in a simple form, the solution of our problem.

Before leaving the muscle,
fact.
If

let

us take note of one further
closely,

you examine the " fatigue curve "
It
is

you
from

will
its

see that a perfectly fresh muscle gains in strength
first

few responses.
;

said to "

warm up

" through ex-

and the inner nature of this warming up has been in a moderate accumulation of the same products which, in greater accumulation, produce fatigue.
ercise

found to consist

The warmed-up
" organic state
".

condition

is

then another instance of an

There will be more to say of " organic states " when we come to the emotions. For the present, do not the facts already cited compel us to enlarge somewhat the conception of a reaction as we left it in the preceding chapters? Besides the external response, there is often

an internal

re-

sponse to a stimulus, a changed organic state that persists
for a time and has an influence on behavior.

The motor

response to a given stimulus
stimulus,

is

determined partly by that

just preceding stimuli.
will

and partly by the organic state left behind by You cannot predict what response
the organic

be

state present

made to a given stimulus, unless you know when the stimulus arrives.
Preparation for Action

At

the second level, the inner state that partly governs the
is

response

more neural than chemical, and

is

directed

TENDENCIES TO REACTION
specifically

75
in-

towards a certain end-result.
is

As good an

aiForded by the " simple reaction ", described in an earlier chapter. If the subject in that experiment is

stance as any

to raise his finger

promptly from the telegraph key on hearis

ing a given sound, he must be prepared, for there

no per-

manent
and
all

reflex

connection between this particular stimulus

this particular response.

You

tell

your subject to be

ready, whereupon he places his finger on the key, and gets

response

ready for this particular stimulus and response. The is determined as much by his inner state of readiness

as by the stimulus. Indeed, he sometimes gets too ready, and makes the response before he receives the stimulus.

The preparation
etc.

in such a case

is

more

specific, less

a

general organic state, than in the previous cases of fatigue,
It is confined for the most part to the nervous system and the sense organ and muscles that are to be used. In an

untrained subject,
the finger

it

includes a conscious purpose to
is

make
;

movement quickly when the sound
what he
is

heard

but

as he becomes used to the experiment he loses clear con-

sciousness of

to do.

He
but

is,

as a matter of fact,

ready for a

specific reaction,

all

he

is

conscious of
is

is

a general readiness.

He

feels

ready for what
it,

coming,

but does not have to keep his mind on

since the specific

neural adjustment has become automatic with continued use.

Examples

of

internal

states
it

of preparedness

might be

multiplied indefinitely, and
sider a few more,

may

be worth while to con-

already been suggested, to the effect that preparation

and try out on them the formula that has is an

inner adjustment for a specific reaction, set up in response to some stimulus (like the " Ready! " signal), persisting for

a time, and predisposing the individual to make the
reaction whenever a suitable stimulus for
it

specified

arrives.

The

preparation may or may not be conscious. It might be named " orientation " or " steer ", with the meaning that

76
"the

PSYCHOLOGY
individual
It
is is

headed or directed towards a certain endrudder of a sailboat that, by turna

result.

like so setting the

when a puff

of wind arrives, the boat will respond
side.

ing to the one

The runner on

the mark, " set " for a quick start,

is

perfect picture of preparedness.

Here the onlookers can

see the preparation, since the ready signal has aroused visible muscular response in the shape of a crouching position.

It
if

is

not simple crouching, but " crouching to spring."

But

the onlookers imagine themselves to be seeing the whole

preparation

if

they suppose the preparation to be simply

an

affair of the muscles

—they overlook
if
is

the established fact

that the muscles are held in action by the nerVe centers,

and would relax instantly acting. The preparation

the nerve centers should stop

neural more than muscular.

'

The

neural apparatus

is

set to

respond to the pistol shot by

strong discharge into the leg muscles.

What
reaction

the animal psychologists have called the delayed
is

a very instructive example of preparation.
all

An
look-

animal
third

is

placed before a row of three food boxes,
alike,

ing just
is

two of them, however, being locked while the unlocked. Sometimes one is unlocked and someis

times another, and the one which at any time
is

unlocked

designated by an electric bulb lighted above the door.
is first

The animal

trained to go to whichever box shows the

light; he always gets food

has thoroughly learned to respond in
reaction " experiment begins.

from the lighted box. When he this way, the " delayed

Now
is

the animal

is

held while

the light the light

is is

burning, and only released a certain time after
out,

and the question
will

whether, after this delay,

he

will still follow the signal

and go straight to the right
do
so,

door.

It

is

found that he

not too long

provided the delay

is

how long depends on the animal.
it

With

rats

the delay cannot exceed 5 seconds, with cats

can reach 18

TENDENCIES TO REACTION

77

seconds, with dogs 1 to 3 minutes, with children (in a similar
test) it increased from 20 seconds at the age of fifteen months to 50 seconds at two and a half years, and to 20 minutes or more at the age of five years.

Rats and

cats, in this experiment, need to keep their heads

or bodies turned towards the designated box during the interval between the signal
orientation.

and the
still,

release;

or. else

lose their

Some dogs, however, and

children generally,

can shift their position and
tation,

through some inner orien-

react correctly when released.
is

The point

of the

experiment
into

that the light signal puts the animal or child

a state tending towards a certain result, and that,
state per-

when that result is not immediately attainable, the sists for a time and produces results a little later.

Preparatory Reactions
In the delayed reaction, the inner orientation does during the interval before the
tain a readiness for
final reaction,
;

little

making that reaction

except to mainbut often " pre-

paratory reactions " occur before the
place.

final reaction

can take

is some Suppose you whistle give one loud whistle You distance off and out of sight. and wait. Presently the dog swings around the corner and dashes up to you. Now, what kept the dog running towards you after your whistle had ceased and before he caught sight of you.? Evidently he was directed towards

for your dog when he

the end-result of reaching you, and this directing tendency

governed his movements during the process.

He made many

preparatory reactions on the way to his final reaction of jumping up on you; and these preparatory reactions were,
of course, responses to the particular trees he had to dodge, and the ditches he had to jump ; but they were at the same

time governed by the inner state set up in him by your

78
whistle.

PSYCHOLOGY

This inner state favored certain reactions and excluded others that would have occurred if the dog had not

been in a hurry.
out so much

He

passed another dog on the

way

with-

as saying, "

How

d'ye do.? "

And

he responded

to a fence by leaping over

it,

instead of trotting around

through the gate. That is to say, the inner state set up in him by your whistle facilitated reactions that were preparatory to the
were not
final reaction,

and inhibited reactions that

in that line.

A hunting dog following tHe trail furnishes another good example of a directive tendency. Give a bloodhound the
scent of a particular
sistently, not

man and

he will follow that scent per-

turning aside to respond to stimuli that would

otherwise influence him, nor even to follow the scent of an-

other man.
set

up

in

Evidently an inner neural adjustment has been him predisposing him to respond to a certain stimof the carrier pigeon

ulus and not to others.
is a good instance of by an inner adjustment, since, when released at a distance from home, he is evidently " set " to get back home, and often persists and reaches home after a

The homing

activity directed in part

very long

flight.

Or, take the parallel case of the terns, birds
little

which nest on a

island not far from

Key West.

Of

ten birds taken from their nests and transported on ship-

board out into the middle of the Gulf of Mexico and released .500 miles from home, eight reappeared at their nests after
intervals varying

from four to eight days.

How

they found

their
is

way over

the open sea remains a mystery, but one thing

clear: they persisted in a certain line of activity until a

certain end-result was reached, on which this line of activity
ceased.

One

characteristic of tendencies that has not previously

been mentioned comes out in this example.

When
is

a tend-

ency has been aroused, the animal (or man)

tense and

TENDENCIES TO REACTION
restless till the

79

goal has been reached, and then quiets down.
clearly conscious of the
restless

The animal may or may not be
goal, but he
is till

the goal has been attained, and

his restlessness then ceases. see
is

In terms of behavior, what we
till

a

series of actions

which continues

a certain result
Introspec-

has been reached and then gives
tively,

way

to rest.

what we
is

feel

(apart from any clear mental picture
series

of the goal)

a restlessness and tenseness during a

of acts, giving

way

to relief and satisfaction

when a

certain

result has been reached.

A

drink, which

hungry or thirsty animal is restless he seeks food or means that he is making a series of preparatory
;

reactions, which continues till food or drink has been found, and terminates in the end-reaction of eating or drinking.

What the Preparatory
The behavior
of a

Reactions Accomplish
is

hungry or thirsty individual

some further attention

worth

for

it is

the business of psychology

to interest itself in the most commonplace happenings, to

wonder about things that usually pass for matters of course,
and,
if

not to find " sermons in stones ", to derive high in-

from very lowly forms of animal behavior. Now, Fundamentally an organic state; next, a sensation produced by this organic state acting on the internal sensory nerves, and through them arousing in the nerve centers an adjustment or tendency towards a certain end-reaction, namely, eating. Now, I ask you, if hunger is a stimulus to the eating movements, why does not the hungry Why, at least, does he not go individual eat at once?
struction
is

what

hunger.''

through the motions of
nothing to eat.
there

eating.?

You
still

say, because he has

But he could

is no physical impossibility in swallowing movements without the presence of food.

make the movements his making chewing and
Speak'

80

PSYCHOLOGY
make
these

ing rationally, you perhaps say that he does not

movements because he sees they would be of no use without food to chew but this explanation would scarcely a'pply to the lower sorts of animal, and besides, you do not have
;

by any such rational considerations. start to chew except when food is in the mouth. Well, then, you say, chewing is a response to the presence of food in the mouth and taking food into the mouth is a response to the stimulus of actually present food. The response does not occur unless the stimulus is
to check your jaws

They simply do not

;

present; that

is

simple.

Not

quite so simple, either.

Unless one

is

hungry, the

presence of food does not arouse the feeding reaction; and
even food actually present in the mouth will be spewed out
instead of chewed and swallowed,
if

one

is

already satiated.

baby to take more from his bottle than he wants Eating only occurs when one is hoth hungry and in the' presence of food. Two conditions must be met: the internal state of hunger and the external stimulus of food; then, and then only, will the eating reaction take place. Hunger, though a tendency to eat, does not arouse the eating movements while the stimulus of present food is lacking; but, for all that, hunger does arouse immediate action.
to get a
!

Try

It typically arouses the

food.

Any

such reaction

preparatory reactions of seeking is at the same time a response to

some actually present stimulus. Just as the dog coming at your whistle was responding every instant of his progress to

some particular object

—leaping

fences,

dodging trees
be-

so the

dog aroused

to action

by the pangs of hunger

gins at once to respond to present objects.

He

does not

start to eat them, because they are not the sort of stimuli

that produce this response, but he responds by dodging them

or finding his

way by them

in his quest for food.

The

re-

sponses that the hungry dog makes to other objects than

TENDENCIES TO EEACTION
food are preparatory reactions, and these,
the dog in the presence of food.
if

81

successful,

put

That

is

to say, the preis

paratory reactions provide the stimtdus that
to arouse the end-reaction.

necessary

They bring

the individual to the

stimulus, or the stimulus to the individual.

What we
then,

can say about the modus operandi of hungerj

this: Hunger is an inner state and adjustment predisposing the individual to make eating movements

amounts to

^T

>i?

./'
Fig. 23. A stimulus arouses the tendency towards the end-reaction, B, but (as indicated by the dotted line), T is not by itself sufficient to arouse R; but T can and does arouse P, a preparatory reaction, and P (or some external result directly produced by P), cooperating with T,

gives rise to

iS.

in response to the stimulus of present food

;

in the absence

of food, hunger predisposes to such other responses to vari-

ous stimuli as will bring the food stimulus into play, and
thus complete the conditions necessary for the eating reaction.

In general, an aroused reaction-tendency predisposes

the individual to

make a

certain end^reaction
is

when

the proper
it

stimidus for that reaction

present; otherwise,

predis-

poses him to respond to other stimuli, which are present, by

preparatory reactions that eventually bring to bear on the
individual the stimulus required to arouse the end-reaction.

Let us apply our formula to one more simple case. While reading in the late afternoon, I find the daylight growing
dim,
rise

and turn on the
is

electric
is

light.

The
;

stimulus
the
first,

that sets this series of acts going
inner response of habit, to

the dim light

a need for

light.

This need tends, by force
it

make me turn

the button, but
air.

does not

make
this
first

me

execute this movement in the
is

I only

make

movement when the button

in

reaching distance.

My

82
reaction, rising

PSYCHOLOGY
from

my

chair,

is

preparatory and brings
not by
is

the button close enough to act as a stimulus for the hand
reaction.

The button

within reach

is

itself sufficient

to arouse the turning reaction, nor

the need for light

alone sufficient.

The two

conditions must be present tois

gether, and the preparatory reaction
need, the other condition will be met

such that, given the

and the reaction then

aroused.

What
Very

a

Tendency

Is,

in Terms of

Nerve Action

little

need be added to our neural conception of a
Principally,

reaction in order to get a satisfactory conception of a tend-

ency to reaction.

we must add

this fact, that

a nerve center aroused to activity does not always discharge
instantly and completely into the muscles, or into some other
center,

and come to rest

itself.

It does so, usually, in the
;

momentary reactions as when A makes you think of B, and B at once of C, and so on, each thought occupying you but a moment. But a tendency means the arousing of a nerve center under conditions The which do not allow that center to discharge at once.
case of a reflex, and in other

center remains in a condition of tension

;

energy

is

dammed

up

there, unable to find

an

outlet.

We
this

have already seen what the conditions are that cause
of energy.

damming up

The

center that

is

aroused
itself

tends to arouse in turn soma lower motor center, but by

does not have complete control over that lower center, since

the lower center also requires a certain external stimulus in

order to arouse

it

to the discharging point. Until the proper

external stimulus arrives to complete the arousal of the

lower center, the higher center cannot discharge its energy. When there is an " organic state " present, such as hunger or thirst, this

may

act as a persistent stimulus to the

sensory nerves and through them to the higher center in

TENDENCIES TO REACTION
question ; and then we can readily understand

83
it is

how

that

the center remains active until the organic state

is

relieved.

But where there
the

no such persistent organic stimulus, as there can scarcely be in the case of the bloodhound or of
is

to a train or seeking in the crowd for a we have to suppose that a center, once aroused to activity and prevented from complete discharge, remains active by virtue of energy dammed up in itself. There is pretty good physiological evidence that this sort of thing is a fundamental fact; for there are certain rhythmical
friend, there
reflexes, like

man hurrying

scratching or stepping, that, when started goit up for a time There seems to be no doubt

ing by a momentary sensory stimulus, keep
after the stimulus has ceased.

that a nerve center, once aroused,
time.

may

stay aroused for a

" here is not to be confused with " stored energy " spoken of under the head of reactions. the

The " dammed-up energy

We

said, in that connection, that a stimulus released

energy

stored in the organism.
ergy,

That, however, was potential en-

dormant within the organism till aroused; but what we have here in mind is active or kinetic energy. Stored energy is like that of coal in the bin dammed-up energy is
;

like

that of stearn in the boiler.
in the nerve centers accounts for the

Dammed-up energy

persistence of a tendency to reaction after the stimulus has ceased! It accounts for the " delayed reaction " and simi-

we account for preparatory reacin an active state, tending to discharge into a certain lower motor center^ but unable
lar cases. tions?
shall

But how

We

have a nerve center

to do so because a peripheral stimulus

is

necessary, in addi-

tion, in order to arouse this lower center.

Then we

find

the higher center discharging into other lower centers, and
so giving rise to preparatory reactions.

More

precisely,

what we

find is that the higher center facilitates the response

we have said little of distinctively human mo- That will come later. and also that with the additions the notion of a reaction has room for tendencies or inner adjustments. The dammed-up energy is stays there till the proper stimulus procured for arousing its main channel main center then finally comes to rest. In general. desirous of " keeping close to the ground ". It by a higher center over a means that the higher center. The action of the m^in center on the subordinate centers concerned in executing preparatory reactions does not relieve the tension in the main center. It may fairly be urged that no violence has been done to the general conception of a reaction by these additions. or by previous training. some of these centers it facilitates chapters. pei-ceptions and thoughts. It has a place for sensations. This is the same sort of thing that we observe lower. These connections between the subordinate centers may have been established by inborn nature. while inhibiting the response of other lower centers to their appropriate stimuli. a tives. tendency which is itself aroused by some stimulus. Motives In the present chapter. desires and motives generally. and which . a motive is a tendency towards a certain end-result or end-reaction. and will do justice to all forms of human behavior. as we saw in the preceding chapter. has minor lines of connection with certain other lower centers and others main and the it inhibits.84 PSYCHOLOGY of certain lower centers to their proper peripheral stimuli. and the job. besides its main in all control exerted line of connection with the lower center that will give the end-reaction. as will be explained in later . and then escapes through of discharge. and it has a place also for purposes. So that we conclude that stimulus-response psychology is adequate to the the end-reaction.

" In everyday speech we are apt to use the words " motive and " reason " interchangeably. to be sure. like Motives range from the primitive or primal. On become a motive unless takes hold of us and arouses a genuine tendency towards the planned result. as in asking some one what his " motive ". You may prove to me. which a the other hand. hbwever. a motive. amour propre and esprit de corps. but you have to stir some real motive of child life in order In the highest type of conduct. the desirability of a course of action. logically. motive and reason pull together. a reason does not it motive need not be. to the great permanent forces of life. terizes The restlessness that charac- an individual driven by an inner motive gives way to is rest and satisfaction when the end-result reached. which means that they bring to bear on the individual the necessary stimulus which can arouse the end-reaction. to get action. is not necessarily a reason. reason showing the way to the goal at which motive is aimed. such as zeal for a cause. it can only be aroused by an appropriate stimulus. inner activity. illustrated by the need for more light reading. . hunger. The reactions facilitates are prepara- tory to the end-reaction. facilitates But the motive. persisting in its reactions to certain stimuli it and inhibits others. but your reasons do not necessarily make me desire it. But the permanent motives are they sleep and are awakened again by appropriate stimuli. You can give a child excellent reasons for studying his lessons. to the very advanced. nor a reason is A reason thought-out and conscious.TENDENCIES TO EEACTION persists for a time because its end-reaction is 85 not at once made. or what his " reason " is for doing so and so. acting in conis The end-reaction not made at once because junction with the motive. A motive. in that they provide the necessary conditions for that reaction to occur. not always active . They range in like from the momentary.

(1) A whole series of acts stimulus. . by filling in 1. (1) (2) They are neural rather than chemical. They persist for a time. (2) Inner adjustments towards certain foresight of the results. a purpose (1) (2) for some time. stimulus except for the active adjustment towards the end-result. wards certain forms of behavior. E. is (3) A stimulus not directed towards a result. series may be set going by a single (2) The comes to an end when a certain result is a response to some parand yet would not be aroused by has been reached. a purpose internal. F. (2) It has room for introspective as well as behavior study. (3) Each that act in the series ticular stimulus. They amount to a preparation or readiness certain response. stimulus persists is typically external. some- times for many minutes at least. (3) H A A can be applied practically. (1) (2) (3) They are aroused by stimuli. (1) Organic or physiological states that predispose toresults.86 PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES Complete the following outline of the chapter. . They influence the response to other stimuli. (1) It keeps close to the facts. main headings to fit the subordinate headings that are given below: A. for a (3) They persist sometimes for only a few seconds. stimulus typically acts for a moment. (3) Conscious purpose^ without D. a pur- pose is so directed.

and this. blanks in the following paragraph: motive or (1) is a reaction that has not yet come oif. Fill in the "A acts to 3. is meant by the last sentence in the chapter? experiment on the " delayed reaction ". but requires the assistance of another (4) which is not yet present. holding a pencil. close. What An — — . (1) It may be kept active by a continuing peripheral its stimulus. and so brings the whole (10) of 2. close your eyes. What conclusions can you draw from the experiment ? 7. finally bring the required (7). 5. E. It has been (2) by some stimulus. introspective record at once what you can of the way you kept your aim during the delay." Cite cases illustrating the importance of preparatory adjustment (a) tion. and it tends towards a certain (3). Cite a case where a need or desire leads to the omission (inhibiof acts that would otherwise have occurred. The persisting activity of the main center influences other centers by way of facilitation and Inhibition. a. — (1) (2) may be unable to discharge fully because path of discharge is blocked. With the first sheet. Cite a case whe-'e some need or desire gives preparatory reactions. and F. (2) It H. if (6). and determine how much the delay affected your aim. is now to take aim at one of the letters. which however it is unable of itself to produce. then the same with B. and (b) for securing keen observarise to 4. and so on. and mark the point hit with an a. for securing prompt reaction. strike as soon as you have got your aim and closed your eyes. Take two sheets of paper. main The main center has minor connections with other centers. B.TENDENCIES TO REACTION (4) 87 The end-result cannot be reached reaction. The task. while your hand. combined vrith the (8) arouses the (9). and count ten slowly before striking. D. Second. Two sorts of observation should now be made: first. in addition to its main path of discharge. and on each write the letters A. and then to close the eyes and strike at the letter aimed for. keeping the eyes closed till the stroke has been made. First aim at A. objective measure the errors. a series of tion) 6. but with the second sheet. C. which. is raised to the side of your head. aim. scattering them irregularly over the sheet. The motive gives rise to (5) responses. until a particular stimulus helps the adjustment to arouse the end(6) The preliminary acts in the series bring the required stimulus that can give the end-reaction. in general.

Behavior Monographs. 1915. see Historical and Experimental Study of negie Institution of Washington. 1913. A brief summary of this work can also be found in Hunter's General Psychology.88 PSYCHOLOGY REFERENCES On the "delayed reaction". published by the Car- Interesting examples of changed organic states affecting the behavior of unicellular animals are given by Jennings in his Behavior of the Lower Organisms. 246-257. 1906. Hunter. On the homing of pigeons and terns. C. pp. Watson and Lashley. see Walter S. 1919. 2nd edition. An Homing. 1917. pp. and by Margaret F. Washburn mal Mind. "The Delayed Reaction in Animals and Children ". 31-33. in The Atii-^ . No.

fond of children and also of women. over six fee^t high. and the individual fail to reach his " natural " height and weight.? The distinction between native in the field of anatomy. with a scar on his cheek. clean. blue-eyed. dafk-haired. broad face and large ears^ slangy and even profane in his voice He is easy-going. tools. with big bones and muscles. and the afterOf effects of disease or injury. rather taffi.CHAPTEK V NATIVE AND ACQUIRED TRAITS SOME RESPONSES ARE PEOVIDED BY NATUXIE. WHILE OTHERS HAVE TO BE LEARNED BY EXPERIENCE John Doe is a strongly/ built man. movements. of these traits of Which John Doe are native and which are acquired. has a deep. On the other hand. though undoubtedly growth may be stunted by poor nutrition. and acquired is clearest Hair color and eye color are evi- dently native. He is is handy with Rather a fairly good carpet salesman. the native character of the reflexes has already been noted. is the size of the body. and it is clear that skill in handling tools or man89 . scars. with plenty of color in his face.-sha^£ji. and so. in the main. and how far have they been ingrained in him or imposed upon him by his training and environment. erect. but free in spending his much prefers out-of-door work. even-tempered.'' How far are his physical. which turned out badly for him. are evidently acquired. mental and moral characteristics the result of his " original nature ". can drive or repair an automobile. he has never run into debt except on one occasion. money. tan. vigorous. sonorous and can carry the bass in a^oho wiB.

but at the same time a means of gratifying some natural tendency. We it is cannot dodge so fundamental a problem. then it is almost imperative to find a substitute gratification in order to eliminate the habit. during by . even though they can be modified and specialized in different ways. The nature also sets limits beyond which he cannot be brought by no matter how much training and individual's effort. or an erect carriage. or his menhis uterine life.90 PSYCHOLOGY is aging the voice learned. Temperament traits we usually think of as belonging to a " nature ". is Practically it is important be- reason to believe that native traits are deeply seated and not easily eradicated. If a habit is not simply a habit. important as the starting-point of a genetic study we must know where cause there the individual starts in order to understand the course of his development. Scientifically . or free spending. Difficult as it certainly is to separate the native from the acquired in human action. though the individual may have a natural aptitude for these performances. On the other hand. though we have to admit that a naturally man's and emotional cheerful disposition may be soured by ill treatment. may have been impaired. he may be congenitally an idiot may because of head injury during a tality difficult birth. the effects of " nature " and " experience " are almost inextricably interwoven in the behavior of an adult person. The Source " Native " means a child of Native Traits little more th"an " congenital. while we reckon habits. and other natures to other habits. having been infected by disease germs shortly before birth . we know that some natures are prone Thus to certain habits. and this is true of mental development as well as of physical. the attempt must be made." A be born blind. as belonging with the acquired traits. such as profanity.

crying. are to be counted as native reactions. His breathing. sucking and swallowing. stocky or slender. sheltered as within the mother's body. the native or in- This microscopic. and a simple sphere in shape. not learning or any effect of The traits displayed by the new-born child experience. grasping. Native traits date back to the original constitution of the child. all somehow contains the determiners for new individual. which was fully de- months before termined at the time when his individual life began. except of certain abnormalities such as were alluded to above. there no chance any is acquisition. blonde or brunette. are.NATIVE AND ACQUIRED TRAITS alcohol reaching his brain from a drunken mother. accordingly. certainly. short or tall. 91 Such but acquired. nine birth. as reac- . stretching. and latent within it and the only question. very mysterious. formed by the combination of two cells. native traits. regarding such traits. traits are already determined These and all other native . feaindividual. period What occurs during this prenatal natural development. is whether the environment is going to be such as to enable this young individual to live and mature and unfold what is latent within it. —those that we —already It is a it human is being as distinguished from any other species. that is to say. and other movements made from birth on. male or female. starting at a noise. The " fertilized ovum ". ^y Reactions Appearing at Birth Must Be Native individual's is For for the first few it is months of the existence. a white or colored individual. squirming. perhaps a " born " musician or adventurer or leader of men. mentally gifted or deficient. though microscopic in herited traits of the It is size one from each of the parents. traits are congenital. with certain call " native " tureless creature is already a human of its future traits settled.

birth. that it shall appear at. y-. Of course native when it is it more difficult to make sure that a trait Is does not appear it till some time after birth. what does maturity mean. then you can . especially during the first few years. keeps on till maturity. With the growth to a functional condition of their sensori-neuro-muscular mechanisms. far from being complete to at birth. cial native The native intelligence of the child gradually unfolds. beard. This is the first and clearest sign of a native trait. mental and motor reactions that are native. and their synapses in the nerve centers to become closer kiiit. except that the it is natural characteristics have finally reached their complete development.? And as true of internal structure as of external. that natural development. In fact. anatomical and build. make their appearance. just by virtue of natural growth. muscular and nervous machinery that have become ready for use by the mere process of natural growth. and thus reand other reaction machinery. like stature turity. though not present at birth. one by one reach the ready-to-use stage during the individual's growing-up. do not fully make their appearance till matraits. The neurones continue grow. Reactions That Cannot Be Learned Must Be Native But native the child's traits continue to make their appearance as Inherited development proceeds after birth.92 tions executed PSYCHOLOGY by sensory. though certainly determined by native and constitution. tions under which the If by a process of learning has you can so control the condijndivid'aal young grows as to elimi- nate the possibility of learning a certain act. likewise his spe- " gifts " and his inherited emotional and impulsive traits. flex arcs. hair color. shape of nose. for the chance of acquiring to be taken into account.

Compare with cessful. the birds began . After a time. little A very successful experiment ! —and conclusive. Off^ they flew. under ordinary conditions. the young bird has some chance to learn flying. by watching the old birds fly and by trying and gradually getting the motion. skilfully managing wings and tail. after a time. Experiment enables us to decide the question. and then released them. ^Vy Experimental Detection of Native Reactions Take come to enough. 93 is acquired or provided by the native constitution. it no chance to stretch Here he fed and cared for them till the age at which flying usually begins. whether the act . But. just hatched. the question whether birds learn to fly or simply fly when their natural development has gone far The newly hatched its bird cannot fly . The old birds. whether the song of the oriole is fixed by nature or learned by imitation. when growth had advanced to a certain stage. had had no chance to learn to fly. swooping around the trees and soon disappearing wings or to see other birds from sight. Scott took some little ones. and brought them up away from older birds. to be teaching them to fly. push the young ones from the nest and seem. to our eyes. experiment another one no less suc- To discover though it turned out differently. The flew.NATIVE AND ACQUIRED TRAITS make sure. wings are not feathered. and nerve mechanism for coordinating the wing movements has still some growth to make before being ready for use. its muscles are its not strong enough. in animal One of the earliest experiments in psychology was made by Spalding little 1873. He took newly hatched birds from the nest and shut each one separately in a its box that gave fly. yet they Flying must have come to them in the natural course birds this of growth.

so that the characteristic song of the oriole did not appear. so that the laboratory became the center for a new school of oriole music. though the elements of vocal utterance are truly native. The child comes to speak the language of those about it. since the child uses the words that it hears spoken. but were combined of the oriole in unusual ways. but a new song. Probably this last is about the result one would get in speech. as " da-da " and " goo-goo. and apparently are alike all over the world without regard to the various languages spoken. his vocal Without an experiment.94 to sing. The experiment showed that the elements of the oriole's song were provided by nature. however. and even puts them together into simple compounds. without regard to the speech of its ancestors. we have certain facts that point to a conclusion. further combinations of the speech movements must be made. and attaches the same meanings to them as people do about it. organs from birth on . . His " native language " is therefore acquired. PSYCHOLOGY The elementary notes and rattles characteristic made their appearance. and adopted this new song. other new-hatched orioles were brought up with them. while the combination of these elements was acquired by imitation. he produces ous vowels and consonants. affording additional evidence that so real much of speech is native. When these birds had grown up in the laboratory. and the combinations (words) must have meaning attached to them. The child uses and before he reaches the vari- age when he imitates the speech of others. To get speech. deaf children do about the same as others. if the analogous case of human a similar experiment should be tried on children. These higher achievements are evidently the result of learning." So far.

and immediately up she got and walked and from that moment . or does it simply come to walk when fectly its natural development has gone far enough? it We think the child learns to walk because begins very imperit and usually takes several weeks before can be de- scribed as really walking of itself. etc. a very active child. . strict labo- but here is a well-attested case that ap- proximates to an experiment. but the doctor decided that her feet were too small to use. let us consider the child's walking. it We even think we teach though when we examine our teaching we soon know how we walk. We might prevent the baby from making any attill it tempt to walk had it fully reached the normal age for it walking. one day. and that what we are doing with the baby is to stimulate and encourage him to walk.. Then. A little girl of seven months. and of the kind of evidence that throws light on the problem in the absence of direct experiment. Does the child learn to walk.NATIVE AND ACQUIRED TRAITS Is 95 Walking Native or Acquired? of this same general problem of dis- As another example tinguishing native from acquired reactions. and then turn itself. and great care was exercised never to place her on the floor without them. rather than teaching him as we later teach the child to write. she was set down without her dress. Another rather different case. loose and see whether walked of Such an experiment has never been made under ratory conditions . seemed to want to get on her feet. convince ourselves that we do not ducted along the lines of Spalding's experiment on the young birds. protect him from hurting himself. but tending towards the . and directed that she be put back in long dresses. An experiment to settle the matter might be conto walk. she was very agile on her feet. For four months she was kept in long dresses.

no reason for overlooking the fact that it does that its native powers are gradually growing use.96 PSYCHOLOGY is same conclusion. up to the age of seventeen months. It would really be very surprising left if the human infant were to learn locomotion for himself. The numer- ous synapses in the nerve centers that must be traversed by nerve currents in order to arouse the muscles to this particular act are not. in contrast to the preceding. and it takes some little time for them to pass from . holding on to the table. and raised herself to a standing position. She would stand holding on. the nerve connections for coordinating this comchild's plex movement have also just about reached the stage of development when they are ready for business. i. she wouldn't walk. thus.e. and reaching the condition of being ready for The most probable conception of " learning to walk. is about as follows. laid them on the table. and learns a vast deal while is maturing. while all other animals have this power by nature. and then marched across the room. She then took a cuff in one hand. but after that was able to dispense with them. differing in details. For a few days she could walk only with cuffs. mature.. trial and went through nothing that could properly be interpreted as a process of learning. Just because the hu- man infant matures slowly. for the first time. that of a little girl who. but agreeing on the that the baby walked well on its first There are a few other main point. The little girl crept to the table. removing his cufFs. At the age when the bones and muscles have become strong enough for walking. but not trust herself to her feet alone. and inserted the other hand into it. as proud as you please. gave her parents some anxiety because. all ready at the same instant." in the light of the evidence. She put on the other cuff manner. cases. standin like ing unsupported. we may suppose. One noon her father came in from his work and.

and one of some but unfortunately cially with a slowly as the human. this represents it. they conduct perfectly. is It is improbable because the attraction between the sexes so universal not only among mankind but among birds and mammals and. for example. This is the one perfect criit cannot always be applied. practically throughout the animal kingdom. there has been abundant opportunity for the quick-learning child to observe sex attraction in older people. Yet it is. and ask whether language ". . sign or criterion of a native trait. a native tendency. Consider. Before the body reaches sexual maturity. highly improbable that the liking for the other sex which he begins to show strongly in youth is simply an acquired taste. is Fighti ng a similar case. the attraction between the sexes. several weeks ing grown more. Universality as a Criterion op Native Reactions The fundamental make quire terion its it . It takes growth to pass from the barely functional condition to the fully functional condition. the neural mechanism for walking can function imperfectly before of it can function perfectly. havIn other words. while really his exercise of the partially developed neural effect except to hasten their mechanisms has no growth to some extent. it still appears almost universally among birds and mammals. In is accordance with what we have been saying. indeed. value is the criterion of universality/. and it is during these weeks that the child seems to be learning to walk. espematuring and much-learning species such We need other criteria. Not so universal as the sex instinct. that it shall appearance when there has been no chance to acthrough experience.NATIVE AND ACQUIRED TRAITS the stage when they will first 97 conduct to the stage when. or whether each individual acquires as he does his " native by learning from his elders.

and possesses the traits that are common to members of that stock. . and the same with family traits. specific and practices taught by Similarly with any may very well be true in such cases that the universal practice appeals to some native tendency of the people. and yet one of two brothers may have blue eyes and the other brown. that it peoples. a primate. He is a mammal. was introduced among of America. It the older to the younger generation. for a trait color may be native and yet appear in only a fraction of those who have a is common descent. Smoking is universal among many Malay fact. racial traits belongs to a more or less definite stock or' breed within the race. but we know. in families. with are universal among vertebrates. The criterion of universality.98 PSYCHOLOGY The human individual is an animal. with primate traits. though not present in all animals. but we see the superstitious language. : comes down to this that when descent show all individuals having the same trait is to be a trait in common. not very is Superstition universal beliefs many geheraamong some peoples. Mental deficiency runs but usually some members of such families have . the opposite is not always true. but the specific practice is handed down by tradition and not by inheritance. in the light of these facts. and some of animals. Eye certainly native. Some Native Traits Are Far from Being Universal ' Though sumption the universality of a trait creates a certain prein favor of its being native. . his native traits are universal among He is a vertebrate. that as belonging to their native constitution — regarded evidence unless can be brought forward to the contrary. a man with human traits a Chinaman or Indian or European with and some of his traits. as a historical them after the discovery tions ago. mammalian traits.

Why Acquired Traits Differ from One Individual to Another Acquired traits are on the whole much less universal. is The acquisition of mental accomplished by the process of learning. and will be different in one who has been accustomed to walk over rough ground and streets.NATIVE AND ACQUIRED TRAITS normal mentality. but it is 99 Genius is almost certainly a native trait. and we shall later have abundant occasion to examine it in more detail. Acquired traits are often specializations of the native traits. The to which the individual has adapted himself. but are They are the basis of the native traits. but by acting in accordance with the native tendencies and making such readjustments as the environment demands. They are read- justments of the individual to environmental conditions. Enough has been is said to show that the terion of universality one that needs to be applied with judgment. along with certain traits that appear in the native constitu- tion of a stock provides also for traits that appear only cri- sporadically. acquired not by laying aside native tendencies and working developed on out something entirely new. and. even when native is traits are the same. fact is that. the reverse of universal. and as the peculiar gait of an a specialization of the universal walking movegait differs with the environmental differences ment. The all. so the adjustments vary. traits . much more individual. in one whose walking has been done on the city Acquired traits are not independent of native. as any specific language indi- a specialization of -the vocal utterances that are native all and common to vidual is men. as the environment varies. than native traits.

and notice what types of reactions are native and what acquired. etc. cold. " I see a dog ". as they are on experience. nature provides the use of the sense organs and the sensations immediately resulting from their stimulation. He sees the though the sensations themselves are native. warmth.100 PSYCHOLOGY What Mental Traits Are Native? For mental the present. the reflexes are native. but also remembered and thought of when they are not present to the Such memories and items of knowledge. or as one of a class . the meanings of sensations are acquired. Things come to be known by use of the senses. or practically so. Of the emotions. it is born. either as an individual thing posed to do at baby can scarcely be supdog to the extent that he responds by visual sensations to the light coming from the dog. In other words. But when we say. emoacquired. and undoubtedly has the corresponding sensations. some are called " primary " or native anger and fear are examples while others result from the compounding of these primary emotions and are therefore As people and things come to be known. we mean This known sort of object. dependent senses. dog.. and this the first. implies recognition of the object. while habitual and skilled movements are acquired. we mean more than that we are getting certain visual sensations that we see a known object or . On the motor side. are to be reckoned among the ac- quired reactions. and when thus known are not only recognized when present. the rudiments of seeing. sound and light as soon as. tional reactions become attached to them. let us simply take a brief survey of the field. Ideas or conceptions of things also be- long here. and give what — . but not to the extent that he recognizes the dog as a In short. The baby responds to touch. On the sensory side. are provided by nature. hearing.

Our next task be to examine more closely the native equipment of man. to escape from danger. 101 " sentiments ". These bound up as they are with knowledge and ideas. patriotism. to add. One sort of native impulse is the impulse to notice or pay attention to certain sorts of stimuli. is easy to understand. another for things. are certainly acquired. another for mathematics. traits of the we must count among the native individual his inherited aptitudes for certain kinds of work. The acquired is based upon . family pride. then the acquired. and not to anything like the same degree in animals. First the native. One child shows a natural aptitude for music. It on the basis of such native aptitudes that each individual proceeds. and so on. tools.NATIVE AND ACQUIRED TRAITS are often named son. Closely akin to the primary emotions are the native impulses. to cry. to laugh. and after that to take up the process of learning. to resist external compulsion and to overcome obstacles. to build up his various acquired abilities. attention to a bright light represents a native interest the older child's fixing his eyes on a dark interest brown piece of chocolate represents an acquired which has developed in a way that Finally. to speak a certain language. such as the ability to' work with and to take part in social to sing. such as love for this per- sentiments. As any of these all " natural gifts " is present in some degree in nearly memlbers of the human is family. another for language. another for mechanical acting. as the impulse to eat. through the processes of learning. The native impulses are the raw material out of which the numerous acquired desires of child and adult are formed. which is the way reactions are acquired. to perform athletic will feats. contempt for that one. These native interests of the child give birth to the various specialized interests of the adult. they are the characteristically hu- man traits. The baby's . activities of various sorts.

there are several chapters will. and after that a study of the process of learning or acquiring reactions. so that the student comprehensive survey of this out may hope to obtain a fairly field. has been providing a stock of methods and general conceptions to serve as tools in psychological study: consciousness and behavior. Native reactions are much less numerous. withas follows. . then. Finally. native and acquired. the introspective and objective methods. and the part played by the nervous system. devoted to such topics as imagination.' in meeting the exigencies life. is Up to this point. much detail. though. native and acquired. reactions and tendencies to reaction. of course. let alone examine each one separately. The general plan it of this book. we cannot attempt even to Hst them all. reasoning and which are ways in which the individual of utilizes his whole equipment. but we can at least study the way in which they are acquired. Next comes a survey of reactions provided by the native constitution.102 PSYCHOLOGY Acquired reactions are indeed so numerous that the native.

~-(d) Production of vowels by diflfei'ent positions of the mouth. and which acquired? ^^a) Production of voice by the vocal cords and air blast from the lungs. -(e) Production of consonants by lip and tongue movements. tion of stimulus In each of the following reactions. Briefer Course. (j) Nasal twang.NATIVE AND ACQUIRED TRAITS 103 EXERCISES 1. gives a general survey of the native factors in mental life and behavior. does the individual come into existence as an individual? does he begin to acquire traits? How long does he continue to unfold his native traits. (c) Varying the voice in pitch. (h) Attachment of meanings to words. Thorndike. (g) Combination of words into idioms and grammatical sen~-(b) tences. 1914. ( i) Sweet-toned voice. (f) Combination of vowels and consonants into words. (k) Fluency in speaking. When When traits? 3. decide whether the connecand response is probably native or acquired: Stimulus - Response starting " —^a) a sudden noise — (b) a bright light blinking (c) a bright light (d) cold ~-(e) shading your eyes putting on coat shivering cold —(f) sight of a ball (g) ball in the hand -(h) slipping reaching for it throwing it righting yourself ^ i) ( j ) row of objects insulting language counting them anger REFERENCES L. Which of the following elements of spoken language are native. Edward . Varying the voice in loudness. in Chapter I of his Educational Psychology. and how long does he continue to acquire 2. Outline the chapter. 4.

7.104 PSYCHOLOGY HolKngworth and Poifenberger. Davenport. in his Heredity and Eugenics. Vol. Yerkes and Bloomfield. B. in their Applied Psychology. pp. "Do Kittens Instinctively Kill Mice?". presents evidence of the importance of heredity in determining mental and moral traits. in their Psychology of Childhood. furnish a good illustration of the method employed in distinguishing native from acquired reactions. . 253-263. devote Chapters I and II to " original nature "C. Norsworthy and Whitley. under the title. 1917. devote Chapters II ana III to the matter of mental heredity. in a short article in the Psychological Bulletin for 1910.

knowledge. The baby has not learned to eat. She has never seen a wasp's nest made. but exactly the same as that only on his native constitution. but is impelled to build the nest. she cannot possibly know the' use of the nest with its eggs and store of food. The case of the baby eating is of the wasp. It is contrasted with habit. he knows nothing of the use of food and therefore has no ulterior purpose in eating. no ulterior purpose. and this knowledge ac- by the is individual in the course of his experience. lays eggs beside the food and covers the is whole with a wall of mud. She has no " reason " for building the nest.CHAPTER VI INSTINCT CONDUCT AS DETERMINED BY NATIVE EEACTIONTENDENCIES Instinct is native behavior. . Calculated action is based on is knowledge of cause and quired effect. we know that her behavior instinctive because she has had no possible chance tc learn from older wasps. simply and solely for the sake' of doing just that thing. but eats simply because hunger 105 is a native impulse to eat. is Thus instinct contrasted with calculated or reasoned action as well as with learned action. of learned reactions. or anything in the way When for the mother wasp gathers a store of food suitable young wasps. he does not reason about the matter. but instinct not based on the individual's experience. Therefore. for when the last preceding crop of nests was being made she was herself an unhatched egg.

i. equipment of mo- tor organs. The firefly instinctively makes flashes of light. . still the possession of wings.e. and partly in the nei-ves and nerve centers that.. in turn The dependence of instinct on sensory equipment becomes clear when we think of animals possessing senses that human beings lack. or the accomplishment of some particular result. Different species of animals have they are differently organized by in the nature. The differences of organization lie partly in the equipment of sense organs. as a collective term. The instinct of dogs to follow the scent depends on their keen sense of smell. philosophical point of view. Or. way of the sense organs. and that is what eating continues to be even to the hungry adult. partly being themselves aroused by arouse the motor organs. . If instinct. more The dependence of instinct on motor equipment is The flying instinct of birds depends on obvious. *' an instinct " is a unit of such behavior. however much he may learn From a broad iibout the use of food in maintaining life. means native behavior. such as the preservation of the individual or the propagation of the race. different instincts. Fishes have special sense organs along their it is in sides that are stimulated by water currents. instinct may be seen to work towards some great end. and not a means to some further end. and fish instinctively response to this stimulus that the keeps his head turned upstream. and the swimming instinct of the seal depends on the fact that his limbs have the peculiar form of flippers.106 PSYCHOLOGY Eating is an end in itself to a hungry baby. and follow their trails own by tasting them. but from the individual's own point of view. Bees have something akin to a sense of taste in their feet. it is directed simply towards the performance of some particular act. it is some unit of native organization that equips the individual to behave in a certain way.

since is it is there that the coordination of the muscles accomplished. have said regarding instinct thus far could equally well be said of reflex action. as to arouse certain motor reactions in response to certain sensory stimuli. diff^erence between the typical reit is and the typical what the difference instinct. though not very obvious The typical reflex is a much simpler act than the typical instinct. At the best.INSTINCT 107 and the electric eel instinctively discharges his electric organ and gives his enemy a shock. and this is simpler than the scratch . flex " swallowing instinct ". this would be a diff'erence of degree and not of kind. is In terms of the nervous system. but it is impossible to separate the two classes on this basis. using this adjective as equivalent to "native". or the " flexion is There some is. but even the simplest is compound in the sense of being a coordinated movement. Among reflexes. an instinct the activity of a team of neurones so organized. We might speak of a reflex as " in- stinctive ". But the core of an instinct is to be sought in the nerve centers. or of the " knee jerk instinct ". muscles were excited to action by the nerve cenit and would be of very use unless the nerve centers were so organized as to arouse the muscles in a cer- tain combination. its A wing or flipper would be of no use little unless ters. The DirFERENCE Between an Instinct and a Reflex What we reaction. and so connected with muscles and sense Organs. and with a certain force and rhythm. some are simpler than others. The knee jerk is simpler than the flexion reflex. or the instinct". A reflex is a native and it is taken care of by a team of neurones in the way just stated. but we should shrink for some reason from speaking of the pupillary reflex to light as an instinct.

a reflex works consciousness. But the a little different. But this distinction also breaks down on examination of cases. reflex rather These compound that it is reflexes is show that we cannot accept the sometimes given for an instinct. The reflex. a strong impulse to cough is is felt if the coughing moveis ment checked. When unimpeded. PSYCHOLOGY which consists of a rapid alternation of flexion and is stiffly extended and extension by one leg. and held by the foot being impulse reflex is felt seized —and . it may be said. usually a slow reaction. a protective reflex. a strong conscious according to the to pull the leg away so that. and no sharp line can be drawn on this score between the reflexes and the instincts. simple definition that a compound of Such a definition would place coughing and swallowing among the instincts. and so do violence to the ordinary use of the word. for instance. Another distinction has been attempted on the basis of Typically. to be sure. consists of a similar alternation of inspiration and forced expiration. Sneezing. automatically and unconsciously. instincts. the reaction be hindered- But let —either voluntarily or. flexion reflex is is entirely unconscious. we find a graded series ranging from the pupillary reflex at one extreme to the nesting or mating instinct at the other. the instinct a conscious reaction. occurs so promptly that we are scarcely aware of the painful stimulus before the reaction has occurred. accordingly. while an instinct is consciously impulsive. The it pupillary reflex. which would be called a than an instinct. In point of complexity. and swallowing consists of a series of tongue. throat and gullet movements.108 reflex. would be an unconscious reaction. while the other Coughing. giving time for a conscious impulse to . here the flexion would belong among the distinction. reflexes. supports the trunk. proposed since Similar remarks would apply equally well to coughing.

then. These cases point the way. on the contrary. to consider an instinct It is this. then we speak of instinct. and is done with. When . it is The same is true and of a number of other impossible to draw a satisfactory between reflexes and instincts on the basis of conscious impulse. She is in a certain " orthem ganic state " that facilitates this response. and directed towards a result which cannot be instantly accomplished. we speak of reflex action provided. When a stimulus promptly arouses a reaction. rather than just a reaction. and when the tendency so aroused persists for a time in and gives rise to preparatory reactions. The " broody " hen makes a good picture of instinct. the instinct. by sitting persistently on and keepipg them covered. an inner adjustment. set up by a given stimulus. In the absence as she does not at other times. a reflex is a of the character of an instinct. on the occurrence of What is characteristic of its stimulus. the connection between stimulus — is native. It is probably was and it was because sneezing was a slow response that it had something Typically. or tendency to reaction. of scratching and of swallowing. line 109 In short. or towards an end-result which cannot immediately be reached. however. An Instinct Is a Native Reaction-Tendency as We would propose. and response activity. of course. and that ends the matter. was when the like flexion reflex delayed that it began to look an instinct. in this condition she responds to a nestful of eggs. to what the best distinction. It occurs at once.INSTINCT sneeze before the reaction takes place. reflexes. is the persisting " tendency ". prompt reaction. But when a stimulus sets up a tendency to a reaction that cannot be immediately executed.

but evidently these movements are not sufficient to quiet the tendency. the ani- ing instinct in a dog. in unsophisticated is The mating human species. in the nest-building season. the finished nest. ." who knows hens that this one " wants The tendency that has been awakened in her cannot be satisfied by any momentary act. the nest-building bird. can- not be instantly had. for if varies them until. and gives way to something quite different. Clearly enough. attack. such as pecking The persisting tendency does not produce the movements all for food. more com- plete example.110 PSYCHOLOGY of any nestful of eggs. when this instinct lot of movements of various sorts. but persists and The nesting instinct of birds affords a still governs her actions for a considerable period. as was explained in speaking of tendencies in general. and the pair of birds keep on gathering materials and putting them together until this endresult is present before their eyes. for they continue till the prey is captured. such that they are impelled the completed to build. probably not. ing the fence at different points but such reactions it evi- dently do not bring satisfaction. is members of the So is the huntaroused. a way out of the inclosure has been left. it reaches the other chicks. she shows a peculiar restless behavior that indicates to one to set. The behavior of a gregarious animal when separated from his fellows shows the same sort of thing. The end-result here. mal makes a another perfect example. It is not necessary to suppose that the birds have any plan or mental image of what the nest is to be like . is is But till their state. It " peeps " and runs about. instinct. responses to various particular stimuli. but. and the tendency nest is not quieted there. it Take a young chick out of the brood and fence away from the rest. when this series of acts terminates. series of by itself. cooperates with sensory stimuli in producing them.

His powers of observation. It would be a mistake to suppose that encies . and inhibits others. Mammals are more plastic. try-and-try-again . as peck. that we see in the insects. He does not peck at random. but when a man needs a honie. and do not have to potter around. They make few mistakes. The nest-building tend- ency favors response to certain stimuli. more adaptable. Only. hem-and-hawing of animals. the instincts of By con- mammals is are rather loosely organized. For example. to the crotch in the tree. made character Man is by all odds the most pottering. and thus instinct in man is complicated and partly conseek this cealed by learning and reasoning. he would not react to these stimuli fit unless the nesting were on him. and this notably true of man. if driven by a mere blind impulsion to He reacts to twigs. but makes him way and that till he finds it. Fully and Partially Organized Instincts Insects afford the best examples of very highly organized instincts. man has few instinctive tend- perhaps he has more than any other creature. stinct does not lead In- him straight to his goal. It fa- cilitates reactions that are preparatory to the end-result. is 111 reacting to that twig. But ready- his instinctive behavior has not the hard-and-fast. to the half-built nest. Their behavior is extremely regular and prein- dictable. and not to others it facilitates certain reactions and inhibits others. memory and thought are drawn into the game. trast.INSTINCT picking up a twig. when an insect needs a nest. he goes about it in a variable. their progress towards the end-result of an stinct remarkably straightforward and sure. it proceeds in orderly fashion to construct a nest of the pattern in- stinctive to that species of insect. and at the same time less sure.

and these connections do not have to be acquired by experience and training. In a loosely organized instinct. spell of While a creature under the stinct is a fully organized in- busy. and goes through the kind of behavior that is called " trial and error ". Just the right preparatory reactions are linked to the main tendency. and how. but are well formed by native growth. and any specific so gives quite variable behavior. a tree house.' a wigwam. those among the trial-and-error reactions that are actually preparatory to the end-result become firmly attached to the main tend- ency. except in the fact that it is a habitation and thus satisfies a need which is undoubtedly as instinctive in man A fully organized instinct one where the necessary preparatory reactions are linked up closely with the main reaction-tendency. He tries this thing and that. a clifi' dwelling — —something that as in the insect. so that what was by native constitution a loosely or- . once the main tendency is aroused to activity. experimenting. but is loosely linked with a great many preparatory reactions. and finally producing a dugout. so that the whole series of acts is run off with great regularity.112 PSYCHOLOGY manner. so that. however. The main team of neurones is closely connected with the subordinate teams that give the preparatory reactions. the main tendency firmly linked with is not preparatory reactions. then. in an animal that can learn. We shall see later how trial and error furnishes a starting point for learning. one driven by a loosely organized instinct may be better described as restless. the preparatory reactions follow with great sureness. is differs altogether from many other human habitations. while a loosely organized instinct gives trial and error behavior. leads on the whole towards the main goal. A closely knit instinct. gives a perfectly definite series of preparatory reactions. scheming. which. getting suggestions from other people.

relieve the He not inherit the language habits of his ancestors. acquired skill is not. You may make your experience valuable to him by teaching him. Learn to cook. knowledge is not. The theory by the board. Nor are acquired behavior traits transmitted by heredity. are not transmitted by heredity to the children of the individual who acquired these traits. he comes. and affords a all his good test of this matter. Instincts Are Not Ancestral Habits acquired traits has gone it. immunity to measles acquired by having measles. a man has occasion to build himself many homes. may does have spoken the same language. Here in America we have children born of stocks that have spoken foreign languages for many " generations but English becomes their " native tongue . there is from infancy. or pilot an airplane as perfectly as possible. that child hears English is to say. but not in the way of heredity. Language parents. but that does not child of the necessity of learning that language. a closely organized habit. tropics. He has no native tendency to say " dog ". after a while. after a generation or two here.INSTINCT ganized instinct lis may become. on sight of this animal. of inheritance of biologists no longer accept Such traits as an individual's tanned skin acquired by living in the horny hands acquired by hard labor. A child's ancestors for many generations. as soon as the In short. and your child will still have to learn all over again. to typewrite. or " chien ". to build almost as uniformly and surely as an insect. or " bund ". big muscular develop- ment acquired by gymnastics. no likelihood whatever that any instinct . Learned reactions are not so transmitted. through the individual's experiIf ence.

who behaved neutral. rather squirming. or observed in some kinds of birds. But a mode of behavior might be in . random movements of up the face. the " struggle for existence " would eliminate individuals them in procuring food or escaping from enemies ways that seriously handicapped and therefind really harmful instincts fore we should not expect to preserved in the race. such as feeding or mat- — or hunting. but it is could believe contrary to Instincts all the known facts. Not Necessarily Useful Existence in the Struggle for Some ing of the best-known instincts. along with the definitely useful reactions. or flight from danger. wrinkling that appear in young animals. . or the hibernation of frogs- — are so essential for the all instinctive is. but at least their use there is not obvious. and yet not be weeded out unless the struggle for existence were very keen. there are the less definite.. it towards the survival of the individual or of this is the race. that we tend to behavior has " survival value ". actual observations of instinctive behavior. well hesitate We may is before definitely asserting that these movements are of no use for survival. running about. and seems not to be borne out by since. But an assumption. survival of the individual or the propagation of the next generation that assume that value. And etc. all instinctive must necessarily be To be sure. kicking. that would furnish an easy explanation of the origin of an instinct. If we had so originated. others occur that would seem to have no survival value.in this respect. or even slightly disadvantageous. and behavior no reason for assuming that useful. Perhaps the in crowing of the rooster at dawn would be a case the elaborate bowing that is point .114 PSYCHOLOGY it ever originated out of a habit or learned reaction.

not prejudiced by the assumption that instinct must necessarily be useful. to the effect is found in what has just been that some instinctive behavior has no known survival value. there is anNeither of these two big " inother. all by some. of self-preservation ". stinctive behavior as he finds and not allow himself to be in each case. This seems logical enough.INSTINCT The main point is 115 that the psychologist should take init. while feeding. It would certainly have to include both feeding and escape from danger. That has to be shown assumed at the outset.. . This amounts to saying that some instincts do not serve either the preservation of the indi- vidual or the propagation of the species and such a statement is probably true. and shunning extreme heat or cold are modes of self-preservation. But even if this objection should not hold. for example. The So-called Instincts of Self-preservation and or Reproduction You will hear it stated. more radical one. without any consideration of the way the individual is of the organized. But feed- ing and flight from danger do not belong in a single series . but it is very bad psychology. that there are just two under is instincts. and that instinctive behavior belongs the head of one or the other of these two. especially of human instincts. instinct to preserve one's individual instinct to life. flight from danger. It amounts to a classification of native reactions from an external point of view. Perhaps the most obvious objection to these two supposedly all-inclusive instincts said. The one the propagate the species. Take the " instinct stincts " is a behavior unit in any sense. and the other is the Mating. nesting and care young come under the reproductive instinct.

that begins with a fairly continuous series of reac- mating. and ends in the care of the young series birds. the whole feeding and checked for the time being. laythere ing eggs and incubating them. of acts. It is from an external point of view that the two can be classed together. to be sure. they are two distinct distinct tendencies. they is are antagonistic. Before giving a detailed list of the various human instincts. the other out. which is closely bound up with instinct. but mating comes to a close and an interval elapses in which there is no behavior going on that has anything to do with reproduction. . in their actual operation throw only one into action. we shall do well to consider emotion. instincts are antagonistic. The two . and you throw. continues with nesting. But in mammals is no such continuous of reproductive acts. as we If shall in the next chapter.116 PSYCHOLOGY series. there tions. is In birds. see and represent two So distinct are they that. are Not much different is the " instinct of reproduction ". the danger-avoiding tendency digestive activity is aroused. in the organization of the individual they entirely separate.

Watson. II. pp." (b) " The bee knows by comb. Explain Action Action Action the differences between these three: governed by instinct. What governed by deliberation. governed by habit. Why Why How is so difficult to find a valid distinction between instinct and 5. reflex action? are instincts is instinct more universal and uniform than habits? an important matter to consider in a study of hungry child of six or eight years "- human 7. 3. 2. the objection to each of the following expressions? (a) "The ex-soldier instinctively saluted when he met an officer is in the street. in Chapters IV and of his Behavior. 383-441.INSTINCT 117 EXERCISES 1. gives a good account of the instincts of animals. has a very stimulating chapter on instinct. Outline the chapter. in Vol. V . motives? Show how the behavior of a fits the picture of a "loosely organized instinct REFERENCES William James in his Principles of Psychology. 1914. 6." it instinct how to construct the honey- 4. John B. 1890.

Or. labored breathing. rather than simply a We shall have a more comprehensive definition. Anger is a state of the organism. however . sorrow.CHAPTEE VII EMOTION VAEIOUS OEGANIC STATES. What appears to introspection as the scarcely analyzable state of anger appears to the external observer as clenched fists. tense muscles. It is a conscious state. then. since almost any such state of mind includes also elements that are cognitive. we might better speak of emotion as the stirred-up-ness present in a state of mind. or it may have less as to intensity down to zero. He may be 118 . an " unconscious emotion " would be practically a contradiction in terms. can also be observed objectively. if we substitute " state of the individual " for " state of mind ". and many other describable state of mind. The emotional overshadow part of the total state all other may be so strong components. loud voice. anger. and say that emotion is a stirred-up state of the individual. disgust and curiosity illustrate the meaning of the term " emotion ". details. AND THE CONSCIOUS STATES THAT GO WITH THEM Joy. Such but it is emotion from the introspective point of view. like recognition of present objects or memories of the past. or state of the individual. amusement. flushed face. An emo- tion is a " moved " or stirred-up state of mind. Not but that a person may be angry without knowing it. fear. and in fact there is more to say about it objectively than introspectively.

Something was said before about " organic states the general head of tendencies to reaction. under Fatigue was an example. the normal or neutral state. the state of the muscles makes by " fatigue sensations ". it is uneasy. not called an emo- but a sensation or complex of sensations.EMOTION " unconscious of the fact " that he is 119 angry . which simply means that he not introspectively observing himself and analyzing his mental state. But it is impossible that his is organic state shall be all stirred up and his mental state In short. as Also. Many other organic states are akin to emotion in the same way. and the sum total of these. After hard itself felt muscular work. fatigue. coming from many of fatigue.jip^ state_of the organism. diiferent muscles. there may be fatigue sensations from the eyes and perhaps from the neck. makes up the complex sensation After prolonged mental work. Though fatigue thus so it is much like an emo- tion that it fits under our definition. it is when we speak of the " tired feeling " not a purely —not simply a recognition of the fact that we are fatigued—^ut a of to work cognitive state. Now we could include fatigue under the term. if not pre. brought on by a certain amount of activity after . emotjgii_is_ a consci ous stirred. cisely " stirred-up ".. longer. which is often fixed rigidly during strenuous mental activity . Organic States That Are Not Usually Classed as Emotions ". the " warmed-up condition. and there are perhaps other obscure fatigue sensations originating in other organs and contributing to the total sensation which we know as mental fatigue. or as general . " stirred-up state of the organism " at least. an meanwhile perfectly calm and intellectual. state. It is a deviation from often a conscious . either state is disinclination any tion. The opposite of fatigue.

Thirst we localize in the throat. rather than in any part of " feel mad all over ". is a lack of water resulting . in the direction of greater readiness for activity. but still true of the emotions. in the bowels or diaphragm. which means. and an emotion such as anger. which we feel as in us. and other ancient " seats ". Thirst. The which means about the same as " feeling Drowsiness is — this condition. another of states . the heart is the seat of the emotions. fatigue and the by the name of emotions.'' For two reasons. no doubt. Hunger we feel it in call a sensation because it is localized. is a case in point. it This is is not entirely true less of drowsiness or euphoria. apparently. and there are several other organic states that come to us as sensations from particular organs. agree to this extent that they point to the interior of the trunk as the felt. How These Now why Organic States Differ from Regular Emotions rest do we hesitate to call hunger. full of " ginger " or " name " euphoria ". The second difference between the emotions and the other organic states comes to light when we notice their causes. and we feel glad or sorry all us. is given to these emotion-like pep " in short. general location where the emotions are the location of emotions is But at best much less definite than that of the sensations of fatigue or hunger. but hunger and thirst are as typical examples as any. as an organic state.120 PSYCHOLOGY It is rest. muscular fatigue in the fatigued muscles. we the region of the stomach. full of life. that they are felt in the region of the heart more than elsewhere . There are two salient differences between an organic state such as hunger. It is true that. a deviation from the average feels or neutral condition. good ". traditionally. We over. The warmed-up person ready for busi- ness.

. the brain and lower centers.EMOTION from perspiration. Each of these organic states results naturally from some internal bodily process while. the cat is contentedly digesting her meal. and. me and throws me 'this state seems to be inside me. and everything there is going on as usual. In comes a fox visible machine. after feeding her a good meal containing some substance that is opaque to the X-rays. on the contrary. itself aroused by the brain. that knows us well.? Evidently. is the organic state in an emotion the brain external. the question is squarely before us whether or not there any internal bodily response in emotion. insults my organic state neutral. when some one into a state of rage . perfectly queer calm and normal. Suppose we have a tame cat. and the motor nerves to the interior. so as to get a shadow of the stomach upon the plate of the X-ray Well and good. by way of the audi- tory nerve. suppose we place her on a table and pass X-rays through her body. fatigue results from prolonged muscular activity. and the X-ray picture shows her stomach to be making rhythmical churning movements. usually The Organic State But perhaps we is in Anger are going too fast in assuming that there state in emotion. Here I am. At least. 121 etc. which has nothing directly to do with the internal state of the body. While. . being aroused by some stimulus. organic states of the hunger class result directly from internal physiological processes. specially in the trunk. then. any peculiar internal is Possibly our subis jective localization of anger in the trunk all wrong. Now how can the sound of the insulting person's voice produce in any change my insides. hunger as an organic state results from using up the food previously eaten. the exciting cause of an emotion is usually something external.

so long regarded as the seat of the emotions. and hence the excel- lent rule not to get angry on a is full stomach. stomach. and the dia- phragm. does beat more forcibly than usual. sweating in anger. even the gastric juice stops flowing into the stomach. who shows the usual feline signs of anger but she is held in position and her stomach kept under observation when. Glandular Responses During Emotion Thus far. churning movements of the intestine cease along with those of the stomach. not the only internal response dur- The heart. There are yet other and more curious changes that have recently been discovered by the physiologists. not to begin again till — The the dog has been gone for perhaps fifteen minutes. we have been considering muscular responses. all pour out their secretions either upon the mucous membrane of the mouth. and. The whole So business of digestion halts during the state of anger. . but now we must turn our attention to the glands. where the old Greeks located the emotions. anger is an organic state. is At least in cats but the same found to be true of man. as other experiments show. Stomach-inhibition ing anger. These particular glands upon the skin or etc. as witness the shedding of tears in grief. Internal secretions are dis- . and such secretion is called " external " in from the " internal secretion " of certain other glands which may be called the glands of internal secretion distinction or the " endocrine glands ". without doubt. the stomach movements abruptly cease. does make extra-strong breathing movements. . the dry mouth during fear due to inhibition of the' salivary glands. The glands are often affected during emotion. as just noted. and the stoppage of the gastric juice during anger.122 terrier PSYCHOLOGY and barks fiercely at the cat. to our surprise.

is Without its internal secretion. situated in the lower part of the neck. we will mention only two. It also affects the liver. These inhibitory effects are started by the stomach nerves. and carried by the blood to parts of the body. a very hav- stimulating influence on the limb muscles. by the increased circulation. Thus the muscles of the limbs get an unusual quantity of their favorite fuel supplied them. But let an anger stimulus occur. it . which known to play an important part in mental life. It hastens heart. the adrenal secretion oozes slowly into the blood. and within a few seconds the adrenals are secreting rapidly all the organs soon get a big . though they have nothing to do with the kidney in function). The thyroid is gland.EMOTION charged into the blood all 123 vessels. and some of them are strongly and strengthens the action of the causes the large veins inside the trunk to squeeze the blood lagging there back to the heart and by these two means greatly quickens the circulation. and has a tonic influence on the heart and muscles. are Of the endocrine glands. two little glands located near the kidneys (whence their name. into the blood. and also. an unusual quantity of oxygen. brain activity very sluggish. have a close connection with such emotions as anger. dose of the adrenal secretion. In the normal or neutral state of the organism. and they are enabled fatigue. and they have important effects on the activity of various organs. necessary for normal brain activity. having just is the opposite effect on the digestive organs in fact it ing the effects described above as occurring there during anger. causing it to discharge large quantities of stored sugar aflFected by it. The way against is While the adrenal secretion thus exerting it is . The adrenals. to adrenal secretion also protects them in some work with unusual energy. but are continued by the^ action of the adrenal juice .

one from the middle reach of the cord. divisions are related to three different division. possess a large degree of " autonomy " or independence. as it has nothing to do with " sympathy ") checks digestion. intestines and other internal organs. one nerve acting to reinforce the activity of the organ and the other to inhibit it and both the reinforcing and the inhibiting . favors by promoting the flow of gastric juice and the churning movements of the stomach and at the same time digestion . it seems to favor the comfortable. nerves belong to the autonomic system. blood vessels. The middle division (often called the " sympathetic ". so called because the organs it supplies heart. thus giving . PSYCHOLOGY walls. The upper emofrom the medulla. the nerve centers. hastens the heart beat. and one from the lower part of the cord and these three tional states. stomach. even when cut off altogether from any influence of the nerve centers and the same is true in some measure of the other Yet they are subject to the influence of internal organs. The rapid secretion of the adrenal glands during anger is itself aroused by the nerve running The Nerves Concerned in Internal Emotional Response There is a part of the nervous system called the " autonomic system ". it will be remembered. It has three divisions. on the stomach to this gland. rather lazy state that is appropriate for digestion. one from the medulla. The heart. . Each internal organ has a double supply of nerves. beats of itself. and stimulates the adrenal glands to rapid secretion. The autonomic is not separate from the main nervous system. but consists of outgoing axons from centers in the cord and "medulla" (part of the brain stem). which reinforce and inhibit their activity.124. though the name is rather misleading to a student of psychology.

if normal quiet and as it of the organism's machinery. The lower centers in the medulla and cord that give rise to the autonomic nerves are themselves fluence of the higher. protection from fatigue these are all positively useful and the halting of digestion is useful also in relieving the circulation from taking care state. appetite can be aroused in corresponding ways. Suppose the upper division is active. can be aroused by the good food. or sight of even by merely thinking of food and both anger and sex . appetite is is shunted In the same way. for one thing. Rapid circulation.EMOTION rise to the organic condition of anger. and the flow of gastric juice. What we occurs also " have been calling the " organic state in anger in' fear of the strong type (as distinguished from . as we . But if we think ourselves back into a primitive condition of life. of an activity that can aff'ord to wait. or by hearing or reading about food. The Emotional State as a Preparatory Reaction An emotion is often spoken of as a .disturbance of the represented a breakdown Anger or fear is often a nuisance in civilized life. sex shunted out by anger. rectum and sex organs. digestion halts. we see that the organic response in anger makes a first-class preparation for the fight. should notice right here the antagonism that exists between the middle division of the autonomic and the other digestion. . and active during sex excitement. 125 The lower division is has to do with the bladder. when anger means a fight. as in comfortable when an angering stimulus supervenes then. We two. much under the Thus appetite in- for food. and any strong emotion is apt to disturb mental work or skilled manual work. abundant muscular fuel. have seen. cerebral centers. the upper autonomic out of action by the middle division.

126 PSYCHOLOGY fear paralysis). to judge whether not they have any utility as preparatory reactions." This of the oi- holds good. pouting. the sense of these movements. scowling. we know too internal responses that little may occur. suggests the following generalization " Any emotion represents in: ternal preparation for some type of overt action. being certainly a state of preparedness for attack or defense. at least. such as the state of a football player before the game. sobbing. the ques- senseless. and thus are explained those remarkable cases of extraordinary strength and endurance in great emergencies. we almost always find some characteristic external movement. fear. cles will The fear-anger state of the organism. shouting or dancing.'' tion itself is But what At first thought. zeal and all being " keyed up ". : so on. as in escaping from a fire or from a bombarded city. sneering." Another Sort op Preparatory Reactions little Though we know of any internal response in many of the emotions. such as smiling. It is the state of excitement. Regarding the other emotions. What sense is there protruding th*i lips when sulky. the movements are so much a matter is of course. or of So far as known. and in certain other states that are not exactly either fear or anger. for food appetite and sex appetite. When an individual is in this organic state. . " Expressive Movements. the organic response (including the adrenal secretion) is the same in these various instances of excitement anger. his mus- work harder and longer than is otherwise possible. while on second thought they certainly do seem odd. screaming. By aid of able to is such " expressive movements " we are sometimes judge the emotional state of another person. or the state of a student about to take an examination.

it frightens the enemy away and saves the bother of actually attacking " small fry ". to a . after studying a great many of these expressive move- ments. was carried over to analogous situations that aroused the child's reluctance. of the individual or Shaking the head from side to willingness. even after fighting with the teeth has largely disappeared. Directly useful in this case. assume all instinctive Darwin. was originally a defensive movement against bad odors and the set lips of determination went primarily with the set glottis and rigid chest that are useful in lifting heavy Such moveweights or in other severe muscular efforts. both in men and in animals. Many other expressive movements are traced back in a it similar way. Baring the teeth in these animals is a preparation for using the teeth and often. when movement was made it in rejecting undesired food.EMOTION canine teeth in contempt? of instinct 127 or in drawing up the corners of the mouth and showing the Perhaps they are just odd tricks — for we agreed in the preceding chapter not to responses to be useful. has survived Showing the teeth win. ments. in negation or unindi- back to the nursing period of the this vidual's life. they were survivals of acts life that had been useful earlier in the of the race. in scorn dates back. The nasal expression in disgust . in the race. become linked up with analogous situations in the course of the indi- . The movement. and is seen in its useful form in animals like the dog or gorilla that have large canine teeth. reached the conclusion that. according to Darprehuman stage of development. also. how- ever. Darwin urges. dates side. if not of present utility. directly useful in certain simple situations. though survivals are usually less convincing than those must be admitted that the racial from the infancy of the individual.

. and ask yourself whether any angry feeling remains.? you conclude that the conscious emotion consists wholly of these sensations. Think all these sensations away. which is . you could sense also the disturbed breathing. Some from the clenched fist. unacceptable. In genuine anger. and notice what you get. but the resulting readiness of the limb muscles for extreme activity is sometimes sensed as a feeling of tremendous muscular power.128 vidual's experience. certainly. you will find this theory If . Do Sensations of These Various Preparatory Eeactions Constitute the Conscious State of Emotion ? No Try one can doubt that some of the bodily changes that felt as sensations. Now lump together all these sensations of bodily changes. and ask yourself whether this mass of sensations is not identical with the angry state of mind. some from the contorted face some from the neck. internal responses of the adrenal glands and liver The you could not expect to sense directly. can you detect in the conscious emotional state besides these blended sensations produced by internal and external muscular and glandular responses. we can regard as preparatory reactions. no doubt. then you are an adherent of the famous James-Lange theory of the emotions if you find any other component present in the emotion. hot face. What else. and quivering. PSYCHOLOGY Many of them. if anything. occur during an emotion make themselves this —go through sensations stiff experiment : pretend to be angry — it is not hard the motions of being angry. violent heart beat.

it and judge it best to run. or at least lack much of its " emotional Evidence of this sort has been slow in warmth ". according to the theory. destitute of emotional warmth. sensations. colorless. of the trunk entirely in which case. are afraid because we do not tremble because we are afraid.EMOTION The James-Lange Theory of the Emotions 129 The American psychologist James. coming in. to appear. but we should not actually feel afraid or angry. The only real test . " Without the bodily states following on the perception " i. independently of each other. cording to the theory. and this the Danish psy- chologist Lange. put forward theory in the early eighties of the last century. until it has produced the trembling and other similar responses and got back the sensations of them. and the it has ever since remained a great topic for discussion. the conscious emotion should fail satisfactory test.. perception of the external fact that arouses the whole emotional reaction —" the latter would be purely cognitive in form." It has proved very difficult to submit this theory to a would be to cut off sensations from the interior.e. pale. and deem right to strike. James tions of trembling (along with the sensations of other mus- cular and glandular responses). but we tremble. By that he means that the conscious state of being afraid is composed of the sensasays. He means danger is that the mental state of recognizing the presence of not the stirred- up state of fear. fear or grief. One or . Just as fatigue or hunger so is a complex of bodily anger. if the theory is right. of The is mind " is the complex sensation of the stirred-up state of the body. receive the insult. We might then see the bear. the emotion is Ac- while executing the various internal way the body feels and expressive move" stirred-up state ments that occur on such occasions.

The tendency to escape is aroused directly by the percep- tion of danger. It does not depend on trembling. the theory does not ring true to them. the theory would certainly seem to have broken down at this point. In any case. dently it would be absurd to say we want to get away from the bear because we tremble.ISO PSYCHOLOGY clinics. If not. what they mean by " being angry " " wanting to strike the offending person ". of that there can be no doubt. in fear of the energetic type. These cases strongly support the theory. and in general is the trouble lies just by " being afraid " is " wanting to get is Now what they mean by any of the named " emotions " particular sort of not a " stirred-up conscious state ". Sometimes we recoil from a sud- . finding it wholly unsatisfactory. and were found to have lost internal bodily sensation. but an Evi- impulse towards a certain action or a certain result. or in minor internal responses not yet discovered. but for that matter neither does it depend on feeling afraid. there is no denying the service done by the James-Lange theory in calling attention to bodily sensations as real components of the conscious emotional state. or that until we started to tromble we should be perfectly indifferent whether the bear got us or not. that here : away from is what they mean the danger ". shows that the difference between these emotions must be sought elsewhere. two persons have turned up at nerve complaining that they no longer had any emotions. They know all. though unable to locate the trouble precisely. Emotion and Impulse Most people are rather impatient with the James-Lange theory. Possibly sufficient difference could be found in the expressive movements. The and fact that the internal response is the same in anger. but others have tended in the opposite direction.

may put is in an appearance after the main act is all There nothing in all this that speaks either for or against the James- Lange theory. in finding any great distinction between fear and anger. The seen danger directly arouses an adjustment towards the end-result of escape. however. a few moments ago. while " anger " is and attack it. Notice. Psychology has. indeed. We were having some difficulty. sense does not bother to distinguish them. after we have escaped. or they over. and These statements need further elucidation. organic states The adjustments are much alike. made a mistake in taking over these names from common speech and trying to use them as names of specific emotional states. result is the preparatory bodily responses and the feeling of fear deIf the end- reached instantly. Fear means the impulse to escape. In behavior terms. first. and both velop after this adjustment has been set up. consid^just because we were overlooking ered as emotional states the obvious fact that " fear " is an impulse to escape from — something. common and the common names for the " emotions " are more properly names of impulses. that psychology makes a perfectly proper and important distinction between emotion and impulse. An impulse is a conscious tendency. emotion is " feeling somehow ". and impulse an adjustment of the nerve centers towards a certain reaction. rather than any specific stirred-up state. The stirred-up state develops more slowly than the tendency to escape. an impulse to get at something are very different. Since emotion and impulse so often go together. but the . impulse is " wanting to do something ". In terms of consciousness. emotion is an organic state. the preparatory reactions and the feeling may not develop at all. and are frightened and tremble the next moment.EMOTION 131 den danger before experiencing any thrill of fear.

since the two tendencies are so different in spite of the likeness of the organic state. together with T. The stimulus that sets the whole process going us say. also. The ellipse here stands for the brain. Second response recognizing the dangerous situation.132 PSYCHOLOGY state in fear or anger cannot generate the The organic escape or fighting tendency. Emotion Sometimes Generates Impulse Typically. or end-result. : Sixth response (by good luck) definitive escape reaction. lows. B. Fifth response: conscious stirred-up state consistall ing of blended sensations of these preparatory reactions. — reactions. S arouses T. The tendencies are aroused directly by the perception of the dan- gerous or offensive object. But T also arouses P. the organic state of fear to be present But suppose . probably. Seventh response : satisfaction and quiescence. etc. The reaction tend- ency is primary and the emotion secondary. Here the stimulus-response diagram is complicated to take account of the emotional state. a bodily state of preparedness. adrenal. let The order of events is as folis. : First response : seeing the bear. and sensations {E) of this bodily state. a tendency towards the response B. constitute the conscious state of the individual while he is tending towards the response. impulse generates emotion. . Third response: adjustment towards escape. a bear in the woods. 24. Fourth response (unless escape is immediate) internal preparatory : Pio. external expressive in the general direction of movements and movements steered escape.

do so this evening. times and be safe. We all know the somewhat similar experience of being " nervous " or " jumpy " after escaping from some danger . persists after the reaction to that stimulus is finished and predisposes the individual to make the same sort of reaction to other stimuli. In such cases. and he is likely to take it out on his wife or children. the organic state. it something to justify his frightened state? This may be the way in which abnormal fears sometimes arise: a natuis thrown by some obscure stimulus and then attaches this fear to anything that suggests itself. and so comes to be afraid of something that is really not very terrific. because that thing at the office has " made him so cross. if I do happen to do it twice. the organic fear state.EMOTION never mind 133 it how it got there —might not act like it hunger not be or fatigue. and a hearty laugh may be aroused by a feeble. and for fear of inadvertently stopping with twice. eff^ort that at other times would have fallen flat. such as the number " I mustn't do anything twice. . find something to be afraid he was afraid of and without really having anything to be afraid of. that would be dantwo." In the same way. gerous ." it is best always to do everything three is That the report of a naturally timorous young man. In the same way. without knowing what were. let a group of people get into a very mirthful state from hearing a string of good jokes. let a man be " all riled up " by something that has happened at the office. once aroused. once set up in response to a certain stimulus. rally timid individual into the state of fear. and predisposes us to make avoiding reactions. as of. Slightly irritating perform- ances of the children. stays awhile. and generate a fear impulse? that a person should first Could be fearful. that would usually not arouse an angry reaction. I have to do it once more to avoid the danger. and then.

they and instinctive are like instincts in being native behavior. and do not have to be learned or acquired through experience. curiosity with the exploring instinct. lust. grief (the state of the a few others. It has Where we find find also a tendency to action that leads to emotion. but up to the present has not been worked out very them. They or. the emotion of anger goes with the fighting instinct. is while the instinct directed outwards or at least involves action on external objects.134 PSYCHOLOGY Emotion and Instinct Anger. such as that for walking. eral of the stincts : Sev- primary emotions are attached to specific in- thus. that to say. emotion is been suggested. like anger and fear. curiosity. are " primary emotions is ". it This is a very attractive idea. tender mating in- emotion with the maternal instinct. the emotion of lust with the stinct. the emotion of fear goes with the instinct to escape from danger. fear. seem to have no specific emotion attached to Others. Another distinction is is that the emotional response is something in the nature of a preparadirected towards the end- tory reaction. the " tender emotion " (felt most strongly by a mother towards her baby). satisfactorily. that each primary simply the " aff^ective " phase of an instinct. and its that every instinct has own peculiar emotion. and probably digestion. Some instincts. resemble each other very . They occur. the comfortable state appropriate to weeping child). One havior distinction is between emotional be- that the emotion consists of internal responses. The close connection of emotion and instinct is fully as important to notice as the distinction between them. are native states of mind . we some end-result. accordingly. disgust. while the instinct reaction. mirth or amusement. as modes of behavior. by virtue of the native constitution.

and third by combination of one emotion with An example of compound emotion is the blend of little child. a subtler bit of humor. to arouse the emotional response) another. dancing up and down in exciteetc. where the emotion represents bodily readiness for the instinctive action. disappointment. screaming. them from the primary emotions is is a difficult task. biting and scratching. by which socially acceptable reactions are substituted for the primitive crying. guffawing. —which probably life There are dozens of names of emotions in the langratitude. stand for compound emotions rather than for primary emotions. tenderness and amusement awakened in the friendly adult the actions of a of anger and fear. esthetic. for the individual . danger. The probability is that the higher emotions. . of ideas. Primary emotions become refined. but the derivation of each one of —resentment. religious. ness. are derived from the primary in the course of the individual's experience. The most important emotion is relationship between in the cases of instinct and what we have seen anger and a few others. life The emotional cannot be kept apart from the a good deal of a unit. by Hate is perhaps a compound and pity a compound of grief and tenderreverence. social.EMOTION closely as organic states. 135 though differing as impulses. first by modifications of the motor response. such that the emotion is no longer called out by the original simple type of situation (it takes a more serious ment. . guage etc. The really distinct emotions (not impulses) are much fewer than the instincts. second by new attachments on the side of the stimulus. The Higher Emotions We have been confining our attention in this chapter to the primary emotions.

it it. see his Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals. What internal nerves are concerned with digestion? 6. 33-41. and scrutireally attacks the theory. in the Psychological Review for 1914. (b) the James-Lange theory. 3. Show by diagrams the differences between (a) the common-sense theory of the emotions. Hunger. or misconceives carries nize each objection carefully. (a) by facial expression alone. Principles of Psychology. Vol. a list of 20 words denoting various emotional states. For the internal physiological changes. to see (a) whether (b) whether 7. For pictures of facial expression in various emotions.136 PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES 1. (c) the JamesLange theory modified to take full account of the reaction-tendency. list of objections to the James-Lange theory. Discuss the relative practical importance of emotion and impulse. Act out several emotions. For Darwin's views on expressive movements. How many times does he guess right under (a). 1915. Chapter II. the . see Walter B. Cannon's Bodily Changes in Pain. see William McDougall's Introduction to Social Psychology. see Antoinette Feleky. 21. it much or little weight. 1890. William James. Outline the chapter. Trace the expressive facial movement of pouting back to its probable origin in the history of the individual. Fear and Rage. For an interesting and important view of the close connection between emotion and instinct. With fear? 4. and under (b) ? 8. 2. (b) REFERENCES For the James-Lange theory. Vol. II. 6. Make Make a. pp. in 442-485. his see the chapter on the emotions by pp. and by facial expression plus gestures. and let another person guess what emotion you are trying to express. first published in 1872.

there are " native likes and dislikes " (for color. A complete account of an instinct would cover the follow: ing points result at the stimulus that naturally arouses it is it. the instincts are extraordinarily important in the study of motivation. It would be a great mistake to suppose that instinct was adult governed his conduct entirely important only in animal or child psychology. etc. any more than he outgrows emotion. Man does not outgrow instinct. number. persons. the preparatory reactions that 137 occur. according to this book. but illuminating as well.CHAPTER VIII INVENTORY OF HUMAN INSTINCTS AND PRIMARY EMOTIONS A LIST OF THE NATIVE STOCK OF TENDENCIES AND OF THE EMOTIONS THAT SOMETIMES GO WITH THEM. as will be set forth later.) to be placed beside the instincts as primary motives. Even in his most intelligent actions. external and internal. he has no other motives than these. because the human by reason and calculation of consequences. the end- which aimed. from the introspec- . accord- ing to either view. but not eliminated nor even relegated to an unimportant place. the adult is animated by motives that are either plain instincts or else derivatives of the instincts. Life is a great masquerade of the instincts. and a complete and accurate them is very much to be desired. but. and it is not only entertaining list of to unmask them. He does not outgrow the native reaction-tendencies. and also. modified and combined in various ways. These primitive motives remain in force. tone. According to some of the leaders in psychology.

there can be no instincts specifically related to them it is and incumbent on the psychologist to show how such acfull quired tendencies are derived from the native tendencies. built up by experience and training. The program outlined above being much we too extensive to follow out completely in this chapter. shall only men- tion a few salient points under each instinct. for example^ or a teacher-hating instinct. these three and perhaps no others. the The first class includes eating. simply to Since fit behavior which needs to be explained —a money . reaction-tendencies.138 PSYCHOLOGY tive side. Classification Of all the instincts. we should know (if what modifications or disguises the instinct takes on in the course of experience what new stimuli acquire the power — what learned reactions are substituted for the native preparatory and final reactions. Besides all this. the conscious impulse. . it would be very desirable to present conis vincing evidence that each instinct listed stinct. and what combinations occur between the instinct in question and other of arousing it. We shall try to point out the primitive behavior of the child. two groups or classes stand out from the rest: the responses to organic needs. and not something It is rather absurd. and the special sort of satisfaction that comes when the end-result is reached. and give some hint also of its importance in adult behavior. a a genuine in- part of the native equipment. and the responses to -other persons. getting instinct. avoiding many others. money and teachers do not exist in a state of nature. that reveals the instinct at its lowest terms. the second class includes the herd instinct mating and the parental instinct. Further. the free and easy way in which an instinct is often assumed. the peculiar emotional state any). injury* and instinct.

. laughter. to the main tendency. so that this group has great personal. or for propagating the species and are. Responses to Organic Needs Something has already been said ^ of the manner in which an organic state. Thus. curiosity. including the " 139 These two groups out. the all. instincts ". because the stimulus for each not easy to specify. See above. if the end-result cannot immediately be attained. only loosely attached so that the tendency leads to trial and The reactions that are nearest to the end- result are likely to be closely attached to the main tendency. ment 1 itself is about in man. but sometimes being imThis third class might also be called the " play since they are less essential than the other life maintaining the individual . we may say. drinking move- while those that are farther from the end-result are loosely attached. in the case of thirst. 79-81. such as lack of water. being sometimes another person. They might be named the is " non- specific instincts ". locomotion. that is purely instinctive. in other cases by nature. classes for social importance. preparatory reactions occur. less concerned with the struggle for existence than with the joy of living. the rest are rather a miscellaneous random " or playful activity of young rivalry children. and fighting. vocalization.INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS collection. and how. arouses in the nerve centers an adjustment towards an end-result. (3) Play responses. (2) Responses to other persons. Our classification then has three heads (1) Responses to organic needs. 112. and error behavior. acting on internal sensory nerves. the preparatory reactions being in some cases closely attached. pp.

of aqueducts and reservoirs. wells and drinking places of all kinds in the life of the race. when we think of the role played by springs. and only becomes Still less can fixed as the result of a process of learning. ready-made. Instincts connected with hunger. is a matter for trial and error. makes some additional appeal.? Hardly. Here again. to in Anything like definite food-seeking behavior. (and other things) into the mouth by the hands seems almost and yet it has to be fixed by trial and error. instinct. and to that extent is an instinctive activity. in the hu- man being. seeking the breast. scarcely gets a chance to show itself . or the mouth to the water. or a " kick ". by combination with other instincts. And shall we say that so simple a matter as meeting this organic need is below the dignity of psychology. amounting a huntimg instinct. the reactions nearest to the end-result (food in the stomach) Sucking and swallowing appear at appearance of the teeth. of all the beverages that have been invented. that are provided by the native constitution. and by the learning and fixing of various preparatory reactions that were not pro- vided. is not simply a thirst-reliever. Yet the whole business of relieving thirst is directed by the native thirst-impulse. chewing with the are provided by nature. as well as movements of rejecting satiated and of spitting out bad-tasting food.140 PSYCHOLOGY and the way of getting water to the mouth. we mention any specific water-seeking reactions. and can have little influence on the behavior of mankind. but . or thirst impulse. is The drinking a very good example of this whole class of organic instincts. and of all the people whose job it has been to provide and dispense them. good or bad but all this simply illustrates the way instincts become modified. and the infant also makes what seem to be instinctive movements of birth. To be sure. it when Putting food instinctive. in the native constitution. any beverage with a taste.

haymow children. we can easily see the . birds and mammals. and the stifling sen- as impulsive as hunger or thirst. stalking. simply because air so easy to get. hunting a highly organized instinct. Breathing and air-getting. and food-storing its shows the acquisitive or collecting Possibly. that is tendency in lowest terms. Responses to heat and cold. somewhat higher in birds). for any reason. But let breathing be sation is difficult. and in spite of great variations in the . parallel to Closely connected with breathing is tion of circulation. because his food is is provided for him. In 'many animals. springing and teasing the mouse when caught. Possibly the delight in being out of doors in which shows food-hunting. thus. The stuffy air in a cave or in a hole under a frantic escape. are originally parts of the food-getting behavior. which give impulsive sensations akin to hunger and and lead to more or less organized instinctive reactions. will lead a child to not lost in the func. have the remarkable power of keeping the body temperature constant (at 98-99 degrees Fahrenheit. However this may be.INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS the 141 human child. The warm-blooded animals. in spite of great variations in the external temperature to which the body is exposed. having the general character of reactions preparatory to eating. great importance of the hunger motive in human life we have only to consider the matter in the same way as we considered thirst just above. should mention also the organic needs of waste-elimination. itself young and is adults. is ordinarily automatic and needs no preparais tory reactions. as well as disgust (primarily of badtasting or bad-smelling food). in man. obviously a native reaction. represents a sort of air-hunting instinct. crouching. Some animals have possibly definite food-storing instincts also. hunt- ing and collecting. automatic for the most part and we thirst. to say. have been proved to be instinctive in young cats. Breathing.

shrinking. prick or burn. scratching. they are repeated climax of the avoiding reactions is flight or Akin to flight are cowering. while seeking shelter from the heat or cold is a preparatory renot definitely organized in the native constitution of man. sneezing. wincing. discomfort and a conscious im- pulse to get rid of the irritation is often present. which pulls it life. too. itching. the stirred up organic and conscious state of fear. along with the impulse to escape. changing from an uncomfortable position actions. running away. reflex. skin. The " flexion or leg. clinging to another person. but gives rise to a great variety of learned action that is reactions. squirming. coughing. and those that are simply avoiding reactions — The smaller flexion coughing. tickling. shivering paUng of the and general muscular activity are responses to cold and prevent the body temperature from falling. are instinctive reactions. those that directly cause some irritating sensation. Shrinking from great heat or cold are also instinctive. —most or all of them instinctive re- With each goes some sort of irritating sensation. — are . getting all under cover. The stimulus. and prevent the body temperature from rising.142 PSYCHOLOGY amount of heat generated in the body by muscular exercise. of defensive the type of a host reactions —winking. Sweating and flushing of the skin are reactions to heat. etc. as pain. When the simpler avoiding reactions do not remove the irritating more vigorously or give way to some bigger reaction tending towards the same result. rubbing the skin. and most or of these. dodging or warding off a blow. huddling into the smallest possible space. reflex " of the arm is away from a pinch. limping. . The sorts : stimuli that arouse movements of escape are of two signs of danger. and plays a considerable part in Shrinking from injury. clearing- the throat. With flight is and the other larger danger-avoiding reactions there often pres- ent.

will arouse escape child. Children do pick up fears in this way. not at all clear whether escape moveor. But you cannot get any shrinking from directly irritating. A etc. children who are natu- . 14S aroused by stimuli that are directly painful or irritating. not felt directly on or in the body. are mostly responses to mere " sign of danger " is usually seen or heard at some distance. but it is impossible to be sure that the older child has not learned to be afraid of them. application of a loud. if ments are natvmly attached to any signs of danger. Now. you get no sign of fear from a little child on suddenly confronting him with a furry animal. cowering. had been warned against dogs by his elders or had observed his elders shrinking from dogs. . I have seen a child of two years simply laugh when a large. . . you do get shrinking from animals. such a noise as tating in itself is irri- without regard to what it may signify. for example. signs of danger. while avoiding reactions are attached it is by nature to the irritating stimuli. strange dog came bounding towards him in the park but a year later he would shrink from a strange Whence the change? There are two possibilities: dog. though actually never bitten by a either shrinking response only reached — — dog. that are not directly irritating. stimuli that are not For example. to what particular signs of danger they are at- What For visual or auditory stimuli. grating noise. no such stimuli have been You can easily get avoiding reactions from a little baby by producing pain or discomfort you can get the •clinging response by letting the child slip when he is being and you get crying and shrinking on held in your arms found. they are..'' movements in a young the youngest children.INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS whereas flight. a native connection between this stimulus and the its maturity when the child was about three years old and there is nothing improbable in this or else the child. With older children. tached.

or discomfort or pain. which baby specialists stimulus gives the tell us sounds differently from the cries of pain and of tive reaction. the danger-avoiding reactions are probably not linked by nature to any special signs of danger.144 PSYCHOLOGY and lightning may rally not the least bit afraid of thunder acquire a fear of them from adults who show fear during a thunderstorm. anger that in not helpless expresses some other way than crying. uncomfortable and . — ^where he helpless wants something but sets is is powerless to get The baby up a wail that brings some one to his assistance. to a condition where the individual cannot help propriate himself it. perhaps most of all. or To name it grief or sorrow little chilis would dren. hunger. Still. On the whole. the emotion of fear. there is so much in common to the different is ways of crying that we may reasonably suppose there some impulse. and. Crying. and While of the many escape movements are native. from discomfort. " cry of anger ". He cries from hunger. aside from directly irritating Fear we do not learn. that the utility of crying. though the baby. The cry is of anger is the cry itself of helpless anger. and the same is true of Crying is the reaction aphunger. is fit the crying of adults better than that of best guess The that the emotional state in crying the feeling of helplessness. from cold. the escape impulse. the attachment of these responses to specific stimuli stimuli — is acquired. and perhaps some emotional state. common all to of them. The common emotion cannot be anger. We have the best of evidence that this is a na- baby cries from birth on. from pain. since the hunger. pain and discomfort. from being This last thwarted in anything he has set out to do. as he gets a little older. but we learn — what to fear. but simply is cries because he hungry and helpless. at first. does not have this result in view.

as some over-enthusiastic workers have pretended to hope. but do not know how far these are instinctive and how far acquired. such as the curling up of the dog or cat to sleep. In a social animal. . 14S thwarted and helpless. Instinctive Responses to Other Persons We are next to look for action and emotion aroused by persons. With the vocal element of crying goes legs. In the way of preparatory reactions. Closing the eyes is undoubtedly a native preparatory reaction for sle^p. gives rise to fatigue sensations and to a state that gives —a —and that drowsiness a somewhat an — is disinclination to work any has been different organic all inclination to sleep this Going to sleep is a definite act. we find many interesting performances in birds and mammals. movement of the arms and but what which also has utility in attracting attention may be the utility of shedding copious tears re- mains a mystery. almost any instinct comes to have — .INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS helpless. specifically not by persons and things alike. the standing on one leg of some birds and we see characteristic positions adopted by human beings. rest and sleep sufficiently set forth in earlier chapters. rest and sleep. Like the other responses to organic needs. as in find- good place to sleep. in spite of several ingenious hypotheses that' have been advanced to explain it. primarily an organic state. because he learns more and more to help himself. an instinctive response to the drowsy state. Certainly if fatigue and sleep could be eliminated. neural adjustment for rest longer That fatigue. figure pretty largely in the behavior of the adult. such as man. the roosting of hens. but also by things. life would be radically ing or providing a changed. Fatigue. Fear can be aroused by persons. The child cries less as he grows older.

cold. There lion. will pull up stakes and accept an inferior economic status in the city. which not the single home that illustrates this. symbolizes the mating and child-care. and all the organic instincts figure in the placing and mak- ing of a home. is no doubt that man belongs by nature with the is deer or wolf rather than with solitary animals such as the He a gregarious creature. men to- gether and so gives a chance for social doings. but the almost universal grouping of homes into villages or cities.146 iBocial PSYCHOLOGY bearings. just because the country is too lonely for them. male it with female. trates very well the herd instinct. in some isolated country spot. all where you eat and where you sleep. instinct does not The gregarious account for all by any manner of means It brings of man's social behavior. because " she didn't want to see trees and rocks. and beautiful place in the country. adults with children. It might be argued that a city or village was the result of economic causes. a means of protection against any instinct in man But often a family who know perfectly well that their economic advantage demands their remaining where they are. typical of a great many. in the olden days. One woman. she wanted to see people ". it is Home meets is a place of shelter against heat and it is a refuge from danger. Eating and drinking become social matters. which are re- sponses to persons unlike in sex or age. but these doings are learned. But home also illus- is a response to " birds of a feather flocking together ". The herd instinct or gregarious instinct. declined to work in a comfortable enemies. and thus family instincts ". is Home *' a place where unlike persons foregather. or. It these organic needs but — it is spe- cially where " your people " are. It is like persons. and not a direct satisfaction of to flock together. not provided ready-made by the instinct- About all we can lay to the herd instinct is uneasiness when .

in man.t all. So much as as but no more. by most young people beginning from 15 to 20 years of age. as well as instinct. Probably there herd instinct. The mating sex is Attraction towards the opposite by a small number of children. demonstrating one's prowess. A child Sometimes you ciable. but he is the exception. followed by efforts to attract that one's attention by " display " (strutting. animals. court- ship elaborate enough. but has little desire to talk to and wishes to see the any one or to take part in any social activities rule. is is one more fact that belongs under the is lonely even in company. The feeling of loneliness or lonesomeness goes with being alone. never a. aad fol- lowing the rest as they move from place to place. Then the male takes an aggressive attitude. In man. Preparatory re- actions. see an adult who is gregarious but not so- who insists on living in the city people. unless he allowed to participate in what the others are doing. decoration of the person. are very definitely organized in many is . is thing " —that shall felt this may be ascribed to the " Let's get together and do some- far as the gregarious instinct goes. by a small number. goes with this instinct. by a minority not till a few years later. What we do depends on other motives. and a feeling of satisfaction goes with being in. . remaining in company. " courtship ". but not definitely organized as an instinct and yet it follows much the same line as we observe in animal courtship. especially in opposition to rivals). On account instinctive of the late maturing of this instinct. the . 147 seeking company.company. behavior is here inextricably interwoven with what has been learned. A definite organic and emo- tional state. and. called. As a people wish not only to be together but to do some- thing together. and on learning instinct. It begins with admiring attention to one of the opposite sex. instinct.INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS alone. lust. and often quite elaborate.

all enjoyment. the mals it is always the mother. in order to be convinced of the one-sidedness of such a view. Instinctively. it But has " play value " also.148 PSYCHOLOGY female a coy attitude. especially those that remain to be men- tioned. In some kinds of it is fish. contributes to the joy of living as well as to the struggle for survival. The " out it survival value " of this instinct is absolute it . the male woos. and something analogous to pursuit and capture takes place. though not is reached. but is this as false as the other view. In mammammalian in- mother feeds. and in literature sex impulse. It can be and when so combined contribute some of motive force to quite a variety of human activities. There is much in social interand art. one or both of the parents stays by the young till some degree of maturity of animals. as to consider is it that arise out of the sex essentially gross and bad . the female hangs back. course. life. The parental or mothering instinct. some moralists have been so difficulties deeply impressed by the motive. team. except that the capture may be heartily accepted by both parties. Just as . it is the male that cares for the young. On the other hand. in birds often both parents. all the softer and lighter side of life. In many species by any means in all. warms and defends her young. with- the race would not long survive. even all the spiritual side of list One need only run over the long still of instincts. harnessed a horse that does not always pull well capable of tendencies. yet it is up with other its teamwork. is The sex impulse like a strong but skittish horse that capable of doing excellent reins work but in a requires a strong It is hand at the fine and a clear head behind. that is motivated by the Some would-be psychologists have been so much impressed by the wide ramifications of the sex motive in human conduct that they have attributed to it all play.

compound mothering instinct and it is mated couple each mothering the other. he has less hold on the maternal instinct.'' male human being. the little instinct. 149 in- the human mother does is the same. older children baby is the strongest stimulus to this and even adults. for want of a better name.INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS stinctively. that objects similar to the natural stimulus may arouse the same impulse and emotion. Even a young plant may be tended with a devotion akin to the maternal. and a " darling little calf " or a " cute little baby elephant " may awaken something of the same thrill. or in any one not a Unis doubtedly the woman who has recently become a mother most susceptible to the appeal of a little baby. provided they are like the baby in being winsome and helpless in some way. called. the " tender baby emotion ". tender feeling and protective behavior. baby mostly to the But they do object strongly to seeing the . A pet animal may arouse the same tendency. may arouse the same sort of feeling and behavior. Though The fact seems to be here. so soon as there a is little baby there. After a child weaned. but the response of other women and of girls to a baby is lb spontaneous that we cannot but call it instinctive. Love between and the interesting to watch a happily of sex attraction But in the is it allowable to speak of this instinct as present mother. stimulus to arouse this instinct is the little. The love and care that he may still get is less a simple matter of instinct. as with other instincts. is the sexes often a . The strongest helpless baby. The is older child has to take second place is with the mother. This stinctive reaction to the little attended by a strong emotion. Men and boys have no special desire to feed or cuddle a quite contented to leave the care of the little baby. and after he able to get about and do for himself to quite an extent. and are " women folks ".

Is there any parental. probably not instinctive for the child to do for the is parent. seldom taken by . when she plays with her young nd stimulates them to action. she is acting instinctively. at least reminds us of the behavior of a lother cat or dog or horse. and like to help its efforts it long in 1 the to do things. any " instinct filial in the child it answering to the " instinct. as were ? Psychologists have usually answered no. but would not be unnatural in a child to take It It is an unreceptive and distrustful attitude towards Filial love is different. But that a grown-up attitude. and probably a man is obeying the same instinct when he brings the baby a toy and derives . but it not instinctive for the child to take from the parent. and to look to the parent for what he wants. and the answering instinct would be one to tak€ It is —not to give in return. the desire to protect the helpless. they like to watch the baby act.-• 50 PSYCHOLOGY ill-treated. The parental instinct is an instinct to give. is not purely instinctive. it may be instinctive man. When the mother cat brings live mouse for her half-grown kittens to practise on. but possibly they have been misled by the word " filial " and looked in the wrong direction. aby hurt or Llso.? It is not exactly " unnatural conduct " in a child to impose on his mother. considered as an enterprise of adults directed towards getting the young to acquire the behavior of the race. and will respond by protecting This it.'' the child. only possible the child has the intelligence to see the parent as something besides a parent the —as some one needing care and protection a parental attitude is —and if child himself takes towards the parent. pleasure from watching the baby's attempts to use it. The parental instinct would thus seem to lie at the root of education. as it would be it in the mother to impose on his mother. but if depends *on intelligence. and it also lies at the root of charity.

dependent. the " economy of ef- . The Play Instincts has " play value ". but some have also " and so are serious affairs. produce no definite change in external objects. but they accomplish no definite result. " survival value Survival value Any instinct characterizes the instincts we have already listed. and tend to disappear during fatigue. It is impossible to specify the stimulus for any given movement. good for the child's mus- and nerves. Playful activity. is 151 if It is not the infantile instinct. It leads to is except indeed that the exercise cles no result of consequence. But there are other no less of instincts with less of survival value. and these we play instincts. many people are inert. and require a certain amount of condition. are not uncoordinated by any means. The movements. both the responses to organic needs and the responses to other people. which.INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS young there children. As activity to " warm up " to the active the child grows older. and so seem random and aimless to adult eyes. state of There is a counter-tendency to this tendency towards gen- eral activity. on The kicking and throwing the arms is about that we see in a well-rested baby its evidently satisfying own account. and that is inertia. childlike and childish behavior. this also appears in lassitude and inert states that cannot be called fatigue because not brought on by excessive activity. docile. the tendency towards inacMost pronounced in fatigue. taken singly. After sleep. the spring of trustful. though probably stimuli from the interior of the body first arouse these responses. without attaching any great importance to the name or even to the classification. but call the play value. tivity or economy of effort. is such an instinct. They are most apt to occur during the organic " euphoria ".

Second. out of the great variety of the random movements certain ones are picked out and fixed. then. so less playful and less isponsive to slight stimuli. so that the human species is no exception to the rule that every Locomotion. Simpler performances which enter into the very complex movement of walking make their appearance separately in the infant bespecies has its instinctive fore being combined into walking proper. aal to get He has to have some definite is up his energy. Holding up the head. a small amine them. external objects. . 95. life. We tivity. his playful itivity First. and the that the adult is random activity otive weaker. and take an important place in his play. his Third. into the mouth or drumming on the illustrate the the and these instances important fact that many ity.' learned acts develop out of the child's Without play activity there would be random activlittle work or accomplishment of the distinctively human type. certain specific movements. group of instincts that is very ac- closely related to the fundamental instinct of random Evidence has already been presented ^ indicating that walking is instinctive and not learned. mode of locomotion. instead of to internal stimuli as at The playful responses to external objects fall into two classes.152 )rt PSYCHOLOGY " motive becomes stronger. This is the way with putting floor with the hand heels. according as they manipulate objects or simply exhave. whereas the child active by pref- •ence and just for the sake of activity. During the first year or so of the child's takes shape in several ways. appear with the ripening of the child's native equip- ment. kicking with an alternate motion of the 1 See p. sitting up. those of locomotion and vocalization. play comes to consist more and more of responses to first.

. and.creeping. are probably learned. There certainly no special emotion going with locomotion. such as Others. Experiments of this sort result badly. it . consists in clinging and is attended by the emotion of fear. What is the natural stimulus to locomotion? it is It is as difficult to say as to specify the stimulus in other forms of playful activity. like running and jumping. and certainly children show a great propensity for while the acrobatic ability displayed those adults whose business leads is by them to continue climbing essentially a land- so great as to raise the question whether the ordinary is citizen right when he thinks of man as living or surface-living animal. the victim clutching frantically at any In support. consequently. is As to swimming. and sometimes dragging down with him the theorist who is administering this drastic sort of education. and that. the theory is sometimes advanced that this too a natural form of locomotion for man. hopping and skipping. ordinarily precede 153 walking and lead up to it. the instinctive response of a man to being in deep water is the same as in other cases of sudden withdrawal it of solid support. Often the impulse attending locomotion derived simply from the free is is the impulse to approach some seen object. there is As to climb- some evolutionary reason for suspecting that in this an instinctive tendency the direction might persist in human species. are probably native. any one thrown into deep water will swim by instinct. plenty of " survival value ". and might have been included among the organic instincts. of course. short. but probably some satisfaction is movement itself. Some of the other varieties of human locomotion. we judge that the sense of sight furnishes some of the most effective stimuli to this response. From the fact that blind children are usually delayed in beginning to walk. Locomotion has. ing.INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS two legs.

ing a moving light with the eyes. and will germ of constructivecome into view again un- der the head of " imagination. lag behind them as the months go by. after a time these give place to manipulation of objects. but simply movements of the arms and legs. and all Along with manipulation Listening to a sudFollow- goes the examination of objects by the hand. since the baby makes before he shows any signs of responding It seems to be imitatively to the voices of other people. The baby skill in turns things about. but we are more interested just here in the playful cooing and babbling that appear when Vocalization. fixing the eyes upon a ." Exploration or curiosity. the mouth. throws them. Thus he acquires handling things and also learns how things behave. Though whistling. consists of free While the first random activity of the baby has nothing to do with external objects. pulls and pushes them. so that deaf children. also it This cheerful vo- instinctive. pounds with them. Manipulation. child derives satisfaction not so The much from the muscu- lar activity of vocalization as from the sounds that he produces. one form of the random activity that goes with euphoria. clear that the child naturally enjoys producing sounds of various The baby's cheerful babbling is the instinctive basis on which his speech later develops through a process of learning. who begin to babble much like other children. the senses. shaking a rattle it is and beating a drum are not native responses. the child calization is is a few weeks or months old. blowing a horn. den noise is one of the first exploratory reactions. drops them. in all probability. This form ness of playful activity contains the and of inventiveness. sorts. from not deriving this auditory satisfaction from the vocal activity. the eyes and ears.154 PSYCHOLOGY Crying at birth proves voice-production to be a native response.

under under " reasoning ". Quite a group of conscious impulses and emotions goes with exploratory behavior. and somewhat akin to this is " wonder ". he approaches what arouses his curiosity. something that everybody knows like other im- when the end in view cannot pulses. When an object has been thoroughly examined.INVENTORY. and embarks on litis tle expeditions of exploration. it is When you are prevented by conbe immediately reached. ing for knowledge. or at least relatively so. shall We . It contains the germ of seek- have to recur to this instinct the head of " attention " and again more than once. Exploration. then it is that curiosity is most " gnawing ". has great practical value in making the child acquainted with the world. though fundamentally a form of playful activity. osity is The felt feeling or impulse of curi. his walking dominated largely by the exploring tendency. and arouses little exploratory response. is Similar behavior is seen in animals and without doubt instinctive. it. most strongly very definite emotion that occurs on encountering something extremely novel and strange is what we know as " surprise ". and exploring an object visually by looking months of the baby's by the mouth appear exploratory response. appear in the first few Exploration by the hands and early. it is dropped for something else. the child's exploration largely takes the form of asking questions. life. siderations of propriety or politeness from satisfying your A curiosity. With the ac- quisition of language. It is when the cat has just been brought into a strange house that she rummages all over it from garret to cellar. The stimulus that arouses this sort of behavior is some- thing new and unfamiliar.OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS successively at different parts of 155 bright object. A familiar object is " taken for granted ". Sniffing an odor is a similar When the child is able to walk.

sniffs. Whether caution is simply to be identified with fear or is a somewhat different native tendency.156 PSYCHOLOGY The child Manipulation and exploration go hand in hand and might be considered as one tendency rather than two. By " contentment " we mean here a liking for the familiar. but at the same time he " feels strange ". can watch how nipulation. you and you get from inanipulating an object unless you it and make it perform . wishes to get hold of an object that arouses his curiosity. to be sure — —-more some children than ^with the result less that the child's curi- osity gets him into much trouble than might be expected. Tendencies running counter to exploration and maJust as playful activity in general is limited by the counter tendencies of fatigue and inertia. You cannot properly get acquainted with an object by simply looking at need to manipulate little satisfaction it it. and cannot commit himself heartily to getting acquainted. behaves. it in He and approaches a hesitating manner suddenly he runs away for a short distance. There in is quite a dose of caution in the child's make-up in others. You can see that he is almost evenly balanced between two contrary tendencies. one of which is curiosity. Watch an animal it. not so is much like fear. and he examines it while handling it. it is certainly a check upon curiosity. The child seems fascinated. . It much a tendency to escape is as an alertness to be ready to escape. Watch a child just introduced to a strange person or an odd-looking toy. while the other not full-fledged fear. in the presence of a strange object. and can scarcely take his eyes from the novel obj-ect. then faces about and approaches again.. so the tendency to explore and handle the unfamiliar is held in check by counter tendencies which we may call " caution " and " contentment looks at ".

INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS
If

157

which offsets to some extent the fascination of the novel.

you are perfectly contented, you are not
like to

inclined to
fill

out exploring; and when you have had your

of the

go new

and strange, you

get back to familiar surroundings,

where you can rest in content.

Just as playful behavior

of all sorts decreases with increasing age, so the love for

exploring decreases, and the elderly person clings to the
familiar.

But even

children

may

insist in

occupying their

own particular chair, on eating from a particular plate, and on being sung to sleep always with the same old song. They
are "
little

creatures of habit ", not only in the sense that

they readily form habits, but in the sense that they find

ways and things. Here we see the germ of a " conservative " tendency in human nature, which balances, to a greater or less extent, and may decidedly oversatisfaction in familiar
balance, the " radical " tendency of exploration.

Laughter.
list

We
it

certainly must not omit this from our

of instincts, for,

though
all

it

does not appear

till

some

time after birth,
response.
If
it

has

the earmarks of an instinctive
it

were a learned movement,

could be

made

at will, whereas, as a matter of fact, few people are able to

produce a convincing laugh except when genuinely amused,
which means

when the

instinctive

tendency

to

laugh

is

aroused by some appropriate stimulus.
goes with laughing
it is

The emotion that

may

be called mirth or amusement, and

a strongly impulsive state of mind, the impulse being
question about laughter
is

simply to laugh, with no further end in view.

The most
it.

difficult

is

to

tell in

gen-

eral psychological terms what

the stimulus that arouses

have several ingenious theories of humor, which purport to tell; but they are based on adult humor, and we have as yet no comprehensive genetic study of laughter,
tracing
it

We

up from

its

beginnings in the child.

certainly belongs with the play instincts,

Laughing and possibly the

158

PSYCHOLOGY
is

stimulus

no more

definite, at first,

than that which arouses
first,

other playful activity.
just from good spirits

The baby seems to smile, at (euphoria). The stimuli that, a

little

later, arouse a burst of laughter

we may

call

have an element of what " expected surprise " (as dropping a rattle and

exploding with laughter when it bangs on the floor, and keeping this up time after time), and this element can still be detected in various forms of joke that are effective mirthprovokers in the adult.

But why

the child should laugh

when

same time trying to escape, is a poser. Many students of humor have subscribed to the theory that what makes us laugh is a sudden sense of our own superiority,
tickled, at the

thus attaching laughter to the self-assertive instinct, soon
to be discussed.

The laugh
it

of victory, the

laugh of

defiance,

the laugh of mockery, the sly or malicious laugh, support
this theory,

but can

be stretched to cover the laugh of good

humor, the

tickle laugh, -or the baby's

laugh

in

general

.i*

That seems very
thing
is

doubtful, and we must admit that

not know the essential element in a laughter stimulus.
fairly certain: that, while laughing
is

we do One

a native re-

sponse, we learn
as

what

to

laugh

at, for the

most part, just

we learn what to fear. Hold the new-born infant's arms tightly against its sides, and you witness a very peculiar reaction: the body stiffens, the breath may be held till the face is
Fighting.
" red with anger " ; the child begins to cry and then to scream the legs are moved up and down, and the arms, if
;

they can be got free, make striking or slashing movements.

In somewhat older children, any sort of restraint or inter-

movement may give a similar picture, except that the motor response is more efficient, consisting in struggling, striking, kicking, and biting. It is not so much pain
ference with free
as interference that gives this reaction.

You

get
if

take away a toy the child

is

playing with, or

it if you you forbid

INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS
the child to do something he
the fighting response
is

159

is

bent on doing.

In animals,

made

to restraint, to being attacked,

or to being interfered with in the course of feeding, or mating, or in the instinctive care of the young.
lioness,

The mother

or dog or cat or hen,

is

proverbially dangerous;

any interference with the young leads to an attack by the The human mother is no exception to this rule. In human adults, the tendency to fight is awakened by any interference with one's enterprises, by being insulted or got the better of or in any way set down in one's self-esteem.
mother.

In general, the stimulus to fighting
ference.

is

restraint or interfirst

Let any reaction-tendency be

aroused and
is

then interfered with, and pugnacious behavior
tive result.

the instinc-

The

stimulus

may

be an inanimate object.

You may
it
;

see

a child kick the door viciously when unable to open

and

grown-ups

will

sometimes tear, break or throw down angrily

any

article

which they cannot make do as they wish.
his
tools.
is

A

bad

workman quarrels with
interference

Undoubtedly, however,

from other persons
so aroused
is

the most eff^ective stimulus.

The impulse
infiicting

directed primarily towards get-

ting rid of the restraint or interference, but also towards

damage on

the opponent; and with this impulse

often goes the stirred-up organic and emotional state of

anger.

As brought out
is

in the chapter

on emotion, the orstates of the indi-

ganic state in anger

nearly or quite identical with that
;

in fear of the active type

and the two
is

vidual differ in respect to impulse rather than in respect to

emotion.

In fear, the impulse

to get

versary, in anger to get at him.

away from the adThe emotion of anger is
is

not always aroused in fighting, for sometimes there
cold-blooded desire to

a

damage the adversary.
consisting of
strug-

The motor
gling, kicking,

response, instinctively
etc.,

as already described, becomes modified

160

PSYCHOLOGY

by learning, and may take the form of scientific fistwork, Or, the ador the form of angry talk, favored by adults. versary may be damaged in his business, in his possessions,
in his reputation, or in other indirect ways.
spirit, the

The

fighting

most stimulating of the emotions, gives energy The sucto many human enterprises, good as well as bad. cessful reformer must needs be something of a fighter. Thus far we have said nothing to justify our placing fighting here among the play instincts. Fighting against attack has survival value, fighting to protect the young has survival value, and, in general, the defensive sort of fighting

has survival value, even though interference with play activity
is

just as apt to give this response as interference

with more serious activities.

But there
dogs.

is

more than

this to the fighting instinct.
is

The

stimulus of interference

not always required.
is

Consider

The mere
a

presence of another dog

often enough

to start a scrap, and a good fighting dog will sally forth
in search of
fight,

and return considerably mauled up,
his

which does not improve
the least.

chances for survival, to say
is

Fighting of this aggressive sort
It has

a luxury rather

than a necessity.
value.

play value rather than survival

There can be no manner of doubt that pugnacious more solid satisfaction from a good fight than from any other amusement. You see people " itching for a fight ", and actually " trying to pick a quarrel ", by provoking some other person who is strictly
individuals, dogs or men, get

minding

his

own

business and not interfering in the least.

A

battle of words usually starts in
real reason,

some such way, with no

and a battle of words often develops into a batTwo women were brought before the tle of tooth and nail. judge for fighting, and the judge asked Mrs. Smith to tell how .it started. " Well, it was this way, your honor. I met Mrs. Brown carrying a basket on her arm, and I says

INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS
to her,
'
'

I6l
',

'

What have ye got in that basket? says I. Eggs No says I. Yes says she. Ye lie says Ye lie I. says she. And a Whoop says I, and a Whoop says she and that's the way it began, sir."
'

says she.
'

*

!

'

'

!

'

'

!

'

!

'

'

!

'

!

'

;

We

have, then, to recognize aggressive fighting, in addi-

tion to defensive," and the aggressive sort certainly belongs

among the play instincts. The instincts that by acting counter to
in check are several
:

hostility

the

the use?

—a good laugh together or the parental —a parent stand ment from that he would quickly from —" Too proud to " But any one or —" What's most checks are by "— and and by
laughter
allays
;

fighting hold

it

instinct

will

treat-

his

child

resent
!

else

;

self-assertion

fight

direct

afforded
fear

inertia

especially

caution.

Fighting, both defensive and aggressive, has so close a
connection with the more generalized self-assertive tendency

that

it

might be included under that

instinct.

It

may

be

regarded as a special form of self-assertive behavior, often
complicated with the emotion of anger.
Self-assertion.
self-assertion, to

What

then

is

this

wonderful instinct of

subordinate ? " mastery impulse " are alternative names.
tive tendencies, this is the one

which fighting and much of laughing are " Assertiveness ", " masterfulness ", and the

Of

all

the na-

most frequently aroused, since there is scarcely a moment of waking (or dreaming) life when it is not more or less in action. It is so much a matter of course that we do not notice it in ourselves, and often
not in other persons
ers
;

and even

clever psychological observit,

have seemed entirely blind to

and given

it

no place in

their list of instincts.
Self-assertion, like fighting, has

two forms, the defensive

and the aggressive, and
self-assertive behavior,

in either case it

may

be a response

to either people or things.

That

gives

four varieties of

which

may

be labeled as follows

162
1.

PSYCHOLOGY
Defensive reaction to things, overcoming obstruction,

putting through what has been undertaken
tive.

—the success mofor power. to dominate.

2.^ Defensive reaction to persons, resisting domination by

them
3.
4.

—the independence motive.
will

Aggressive reaction to things

Aggressive reaction to persons
take these

—seeking —seeking

We
1.

up

in order, beginning with the

most

elemental.

Overcoming obstruction.

The

stimulus here

is

much
is

the same as that which induces fighting, but the response
simpler, without anger

and without the impulse to do damage. Take hold of a baby's foot and move it this way or that, and you will find that the muscles of the leg are offering resistance to this extraneous movement. Obstruct a

movement that the baby is making, and additional force is put into the movement to overcome the obstruction. An Let him be pushing a lawnadult behaves in a similar way. mower and encounter unexpected resistance from a stretch of tough grass involuntarily he pushes harder and keeps on going unless the obstruction is too great. Let him start
;

to

lift

something that

is

heavier than he thinks; involun-

tarily he " strains " at the weight, which

means that a com-

plex instinctive response occurs, involving a rigid setting of
the chest with holding of the breath, and increased muscular
effort.

This instinctive reaction

may

be powerful enough to

cause rupture.

Other than purely physical resistance
self-assertive responses.

is

overcome by other

When

the child's toy will not do

what he wants it to do, he does not give up at once, but tries again and puts more effort into his manipulation.

When,
in

in school, he

is

learning to write, and finds difficulty

twists his foot

producing the desired marks, he bends over the desk, round the leg of his chair, screws up his face,

INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS
and
in other

l63

ways

reveals the great effort he
in

is

making.

some piece of mental work, and encountering a distraction, such as the sound of the phonograph downstairs, may, of course, give up and listen to the
adult,
.

An

engaged

if he is very intent on what he is doing, he puts energy into his work and overcomes the distraction. more

music, but,

When

he encounters a baffling problem of any sort, he does
it

not like to give

up, even

if it is

as unimportant as a conun-

drum, but cudgels

his brains for the solution.

As a general

proposition, and one of the most general propositions that

psychology has to present, we

may

say that obstruction of energy

any

sort,

encountered in carrying out any intention what-

ever, acts as a stimulus to the putting of additional

into the action.

Anger

is

often aroused by obstruction, but anger does not

develop a tenth as often, in the course of the day, as the
is not to do damand do what we have set out to do. The emotional state might sometimes be called " determination ", sometimes " zeal " but the most

plain overcoming reaction.

The impulse

age, but to overcome the obstruction

;

elementary state belonging here
effort
is,

is

effort.

The

feeling of

partly at least, a sensation complex resulting from

stiffening the

trunk and neck, knitting the brows, and other

muscular strains that have practical utility in overcoming
physical resistance and that are carried over to the over-

obvious utility.

coming of other sorts of resistance, where they have no Effort is a simpler emotion than anger,

and occurs much more frequently. The child 2. Resisting domination by other persons. " has a will of his own ", shows from an early age that he and " wants his own way " in opposition to the commands of There is an independent spirit in man that other persons.
is

native rather than acquired.

The strength

of this im-

pulse differs, to be sure, in different individuals, some chil-

164

PSYCHOLOGY
;

dren being more " contrary " and others more docile
disobedience in his make-up.
dient child,

but

there probably never was a child without a good dose of

In order to have a nice, obe" break " him like a colt, though you you have to

This can use reason as well as force in breaking a child. " breaking " gives a habit of obedience to certain process of
persons and along certain lines
the child's independence
is still
;

but, outside of these limits,

there and ready to be awak-

ened by any attempt to dominate him.
sense of

In youth, with the

power that comes from attaining adult stature and muscular strength, the independent spirit is strengthened, with the result that you seldom see a youth, or an adult,

who can take
3.

orders without at least some inner opposition

and resentment.
Seeking for power over things.
is

The

self-assertive re-

sponse to things
offered

not limited to overcoming the obstructions
to the accomplishment of our purposes

by things

but we derive so much positive satisfaction from overcoming
obstruction and mastering things that we go out in search
of things to master.

The
it,

child's

manipulation has an

ele-

ment
form.
it

of masterfulness in

for he not only likes to see things

perform, but he

likes to

be the one that makes them peris

If he has a horn, he

not satisfied
is

till

he can sound

himself.
it

The man
is

with his automobile

in the
it
;

same

case.

When
that

but when it runs smoothly for him, he has a sense of mastery and power
balks, he

stimulated to overcome

Chopping down a big tree, or moving a big rock with a crowbar, affords the same kind of gratification and so does cutting wi1;h a sharp knife, or shooting with a good bow or gun, or operating any tool or
is

highly gratifying.

;

machine that increases

one's

power.

Quite

apart from

the utility of the result accomplished, any big achievement
is

a source of satisfaction to the one
it

who has done

it,

because

gives play to

aggressive self-assertion.

Many

INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS
great achievements are motived as

165

much by
the

the zest for
to

achievement
secured.
4.

as

by calculation

of

advantages

be

Seeking to dominate other people.

The

individual

not simply resists domination by other people, but he seeks to dominate them himself. Even the baby gives orders and

demands obedience. Get a number of children together, and you will see more than one of them attempt to be the leader in their play. Some must necessarily be followers just now,
but they will attempt to take the lead on another occasion. The " born leader " is perhaps one who has an exceptionally strong dose of masterfulness in his make-up, but he
more, one who has
abilities,
is, still

physical or mental, that give

him the advantage
ways
in

in the universal struggle for leadership.

Besides giving orders and taking the lead, there are other

which the child

finds
is

satisfaction for his instinct
is

to dominate.

Showing
one
;

ofF

one, bragging

one, doing all

the talking

is

and, though in growing older and mixing

with people the child becomes less naive in his

manner

of

bragging and showing

off,

he continues even

.as

an adult to

reach the same end in more subtle ways.

Going about to

win applause or social recognition
tion.

is

a seeking for domina-

Anything

in

which one can surpass another becomes

a means of self-assertion.

One may demonstrate

his supe-

riority in size, strength, beauty, skill, cleverness, virtue,

good
satis-

humor, cooperativeness, or even humility, and derive
faction from

any such demonstration.

The impulse

inate assumes literally a thousand disguises,

to dommore rather

than

less.

Rivalry and emulation, sometimes accorded a separate place in a list of the instincts, seem well enough provided They belong for under the general head of self-assertion.

on the social

side of assertive behavior,

i.e.,

they are re-

sponses to other people and aim at the domination of other

166

PSYCHOLOGY
But the strugform of a direct
in

people or against being dominated by them.
gle for mastery, in rivalry, does not take the

personal encounter.

Compare wrestling with a contest

throwing the hammer.
finds

In wrestling the mastery impulse

a direct outlet in subduing the opponent, while in throwing the hammer each contestant tries to beat the other indirectly, by surpassing him in a certain performance.
This you would
call rivalry,

but wrestling
is

is

scarcely rivalry,

because the struggle for mastery

so direct.'

Rivalry

may

seek to demonstrate superiority in some performance, or to

win the favor of some person or social group, as
of rivals in love.

fti

the case

When we
!

speak of " emulation

",

we have

in

of behavior observed

when one

child says, " See
!

mind the sort what I can
can do that,

do " and the other counters with, " Pooh
too
"-

I

Or, the

first child

wins applause by some performchild

ance, and

we then notice the second
is

attempting the
in

same.

It

a case of resisting the indirect domination of
letting

another,

by not

him surpass us

in

performance or

social recognition.

Thwarted

self-assertion deserves special mention, as the

basis for quite a

number of queer emotional

states.

Shame,
all

sulkiness, suUenness, peevishness, stubbornness, defiance,

go with wounded self-assertion under different conditions. Envy and jealousy belong here, too. Shyness and embarrass-

ment go with self-5issertion that is doubtful of winning recOpposed to all these are self-confidence, the cheerognition. ful state of mind of one who seeks to master some person or thing and fully expects to do so, and elation, the joyful
state of one

who has mastered.

Submission. Is there any counter-tendency that limits Inertia and fear of self-assertion and holds it in check.'' course have this efi'ect, but is there any specific instinct precisely opposite to self-assertion
.f"

A

difficult

question, not

INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS
yet to be answered with any assurance; but there
is

167

some

evidence of a native submissive or yielding tendency.

Two

forms

may

be distinguished: yielding to obstruction, and
certainly

yielding to the domination of other persons.

Giving up, in the face of obstacles,
enough, but at
first

is

common

thought we should say that the individual was passive in the matter, and simply forced to yield, as a stone is brought to a stop when it strikes a wall. In
reality, giving up is not quite so passive as this. There is no external force that can absolutely force us to give up,

by clubbing us on the head or somehow putting our mechanism out of commission. As long as our brain, nerves and muscles are able to act, no external force
unless

reactive

can absolutely compel us to cease struggling. Since, then, we do cease struggling before we are absolutely out of commission, our giving up is not a purely passive affair, but our own act, a kind of reaction and no doubt a native FuTther, when struggling against a stubborn obreaction. stacle, we sometimes feel an impulse to give up, and giving
;

up brings

relief.

The
in

ability to give
is

up

is

not a mere element of weakness

our nature, but

a valuable asset in adapting ourselves

to the environment. tion first

Adaptation is called for when the reacand most naturally made to a given situation does

not meet the requirements of the situation.
assertiveness

A

too stubborn

means persistence

in this unsuitable reaction,

and no progress towards a successful issue; whereas giving up the first plan of attack, and trying something else instead,
is

the

way towards

success.

Some people
believes

are too stub-

born to be adaptable.

The

docility of the child,
it

who

whatever

is is

told

him, has in

an element of submissiveness.

There

sub-

missiveness also in the receptive attitude appropriate in ob-

servation and forming opinions

the attitude of looking for

the facts and accepting

them as they are rather than seeking

. We certainly yield with good grace to one who so unwillingly. submission. impartiality is self-assertive. far outclasses us that competition with him is unthinkable. is Some behavior that tion in looks submissive really self-asserself-assertion disguise. agreeable to the one who submits. Thefe are persons who are " lost " without a hero. and the social group. some tell one to looks them what to do and even what to like the believe. There are two forms of likely that are specially to be taken is for one. This much " filial " or " infantile " instinct that was mentioned before as a possibility. Hero worship seems a good example of willing submission. An adult may arouse the submissive response in a child. Yielding to the domination of other persons often occurs and then comes under the head of " thwarted but the question is whether it ever occurs willingly and affords satisfaction to the individual who yields. that they involve an absence of self-confidence or self-assurance. Wounded envy are or thwarted self-assertion like Shame and submission in this respect. So far from being genuinely submissive. which looks like submission occurs when a person idention relief of tifies himself with a superior individual or with a social group. his school. they are states in which the self is making a violent and insistent demand for justiThe other form of self-asserfication or social recognition. and the dependent spirit in an adult possibly represents a continuation of the infantile attitude into adult life. but they do not aiford the satisfaction of willing submission. submissive to some degree. nor the giving up the struggle against obstacles. He will then boast of the prowess of his hero or of it the prestige of his group. by virtue of it its superior power and permanence. whether be his family. without some one to lean on. self-assertion " .168 PSYCHOLOG Bias is to confirm one's own prepossessions. may arouse in the individual adult.

finds in their greatness a means of asserting himself as against other individuals who have not the good fortune transferred self-assertion public spirit. affairs. having identified himself with his hero or his group. boasting cannot by any else. 01* his country.INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS his l69 town . This a strong element in loyalty and in public and plays a large and useful part . stretch of the imagination be regarded as a sign of submissiveness it is a sign of assertiveness. is to be so identified. Now. and nothing is What has happened here that the individual.

etc. (a) Fear. Get together a dozen jokes or funny stories. (f) 3. —(d) (g) Curiosity. which show for each instinct: (a) the natural stimulus. a physician. (e) Self-assertion. Love for dancing. 8. may be simply an unmodified be derived from instincts by combination. Mention some laughter-stimuli that do not lend support to the theory mentioned in Exercise 6. (c) c- A father's pride in his children. Try to identify each of the following as an instinct. a railroad engineer. if any. or it may two or more instincts: (a) Love for adventure. An adult tendency or propensity instinct.170 PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES 1. What instincts find outlet in (a) dress. (b) the native (c) the end-result that the instinct tends towards. (b) Anger. (f) Submission. (d) social conversation? . (c) Disgust. in the form of a table. a housekeeper. (d) Love for travel. and (d) the emotion. or to analyze it into 2. in adult as well as its native condition. shall Make an outline of the chapter. (c) athletics. THe tendency to protect or "mother" another. (b) Patriotism. (e) Insubordination. Which of the instincts are most concerned in making people work? Show how self-assertion finds gratification in the life-work of an actor. that goes with the activity of the instinct. (b) automobiling. its motor response. a teacher. 6. How 9. 4. and see how many of them can be placed with the practical jokes in this respect. do "practical jokes" lend support to the view that laughter is primarily aroused by a sense of one's own superiority? 7. Arrange the following impulses and emotions in the order of the frequency of their occurrence in your ordinary day's work and play: 5.

and in Chapter attempts to analyze many complex human emotions and propensities into their native elements. H. attempts a more precise analysis of stimulus and Watson's Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist. 1919. Warren. attempts in Chapter . Thorndike. fear. 1919. and in Chapter VII gives a critical re\iew of the work on human instincts. in his Educational Psychology. Briefer Course. 1914. an inventory of the instinctive equipment of mankind. II-V. in Chapter VI of his Human Psychology. rage and love. C. VI to shovr that there are only three primary emotions. gives tt brief survey of the reflexes and instincts.INVENTORY OF INSTINCTS AND EMOTIONS REFERENCES McDougall's Social Psychology gives. response. in 171 Chapters III and IV. V Chapters.

As soon as you be. even about your subjective condition it is simply " the way you feel ". some of them no doubt partly synonymous. All the emo- . or we might The foreground consists of what you taking notice of or thinking about. the foreground is cognitive or impulsive. but the feeling has evaporated for the instant. In passing over into definite knowledge of facts. while conscious. sometimes excited. Sometimes gloomy. or of what you are are intending to do that is to say. you know something about your .» as when we are background. and say. it is not "knowing something".subjective condition. or it may be both at once. not cognitive . gin to analyze it. " I feel 172 ". " I feel jadly here or there. in ". someof different times expectant. sometimes buoyant. . would be a contradiction in it is But. Feeling is call it a an undercurrent of consciousness. sometimes calm. The number great. intent on throwing this stone and hitting that tree. Behind facts observed and acts intended lies the state of the individual's feeling. feeling ways of would be no great task to find to complete the sentence. and different it must be very a hundred words. In the background "lies the conscious subjective condition.CHAPTEE IX THE FEELINGS PLEASANTNESS AND UNPLEASANTNESS. feeling " and unanalyzed. AND OTHER STATES OF PEELING. this way or in that it has ceased to be feeling. It is conscious. AND THEIE INFLUENCE UPON BEHAVIOR Feeling is subjective and an " unconscious terms.

means the elementary If elementary. warm. Now. or bitter. is warm and How. It seems more complex than such a sensation as red. and you reject that theory. as we shall see in the properly the name of a certain sensation. and feelings are to be distinguished from sensations. he usufeelings. Pleasantness and Unpleasantness Are Simple Feelings No one has ever been able to break up the feelings of and unpleasantness into anything simpler.'. does not make a satisfactory substitute for the long word " unpleasantness .THE FEELINGS tions. But when ally the psychologist speaks of the feelings. as " stirred-up states of -' 173 mind '. " Pleasure " and " displeasure " are not always so simple pleasantness they are names for whole states of mind which may be very complex. which are called elementary sensations because no one has ever succeeded in decomposing them into simpler sensations. sensations submit readily to be- In the first ing picked out and observed. Red. An emotion is far from you accept the James-Lange theory. then. including sensations and thoughts in addition to " Pain " the feelings of pleasantness and unpleasantness.". you would still probably agree that such an emotion as anger or fear seems a big. but pleasantness and unpleasantness are not sensations. are sensations. next chapter. while feelings grow vague and lose their character when thus singled . do the elementary feelings differ from sensaplace. the question is whether any feelings can be indicated that are as if think of an emotion as a blend of organic sensations elementary as these simple sensations. and in fact become more vivid when they are brought into the " foreground ". because " pain ". complex state of feeling.f* bitter. belong under the gen- eral head of the feelings. you . tions . along with many others.

simple touch . Pain usually un- pleasant. Bitter is intrinsically unpleasant. as well as tastes. Sensations of light. sweet pleasant. grating noises unpleasant. Of sounds. neither one nor the other. sensations of touch are localized on the skin (or sometimes outside). so that feeling-tone. sensations are " localized " you can . as there for warmth or Some . On the other hand. taste sensations are localized in the mouth. Feeling-tone of Sensations The sensations pleasantness or unpleasantness characteristic of many is called their " feeling-tone ". and sensations that are markedly pleasant or unpleasant are said to have a strong or pronounced feeling-tone. while unpleasant. moderate warmth and cold pleasant. dull shades are sometimes sometimes is merely indifferent or lacking in feeling7tone. or set of sense organs for the feeling of pleasantness or unis pleasantness. In the third place. smooth tones are pleasant. without being in any special part of us. sensa- tions are pleasant. sound and smell are localized outside the body. tell pretty well where they seem to come from. PSYCHOLOGY out for examination. In the second place. Bright colors are pleasant. when not too strong. the salty taste. is and some unpleasant but there no one kind of sense organ that has the monopoly of either sort of feeling. Attend to the noises in the street and they stand out clearly.174. pleasantness and unpleasantness are much less definitely localized . it has no definite Odors. organic and muscular sensations in some part of the body. to be sure. but attend to your pleasant state of feeling and it retreats out of sight. attend to the internal sensation of breathing and it stands out clearly. usually have a rather definite feeling-tone. There is no special sense organ cold. feelings differ from sensations in having no known sense organs. they seem to be " in us ".

and are subjective rather than objective. you can get him to is admit that. So you can make him realize that pleasantness and unpleasantness depend on the individual and his condition. state. people a bit of color. may be unpleasant to an- other person and he is will admit that a sweet substance. Pleasantness might represent a general organic state. Show a group of. and unpleasantness the contrary and making itself felt each state being an internal bodily response to pleasant or unpleasant stimuli. This theory of feeling is certainly attractive. The unpleasantness of a toothache seems to be in the tooth rather than simply " ifi us ". unpleasant when he has had too much of sweet things to eat. and would . Theories of Feeling 1. and you will find them agreeing much better as to what color that is than as to how pleasant it is. and that there is a " pleasant tang in the localized in the air ". Feeling-tone is subjective in the sense that people disagree about it. as if the pleasantness were an objective fact. as an unanalyzable compound of vague it internal sensations. pleasant to him.THE FEELINGS indifferent. 175 likely Very intense sensations of any kind are to be unpleasant. as to the subjectivity and non-localization of feeling do not apply altogether to the The pleasantness or unpleasantand seems ness of a sensation is localized with the sensation to belong to the object rather than to ourselves. We say that it is a " pleasant day ". and the tang By arguing with a person. while the day in the air pleasant to him. however. and we even think of the sweet substance as being objectively pleasant. The pleasantness of a sweet taste is mouth. The statements made above feeling-tone of sensations. ordi- narily pleasant. they .

slacken is it and see ' whether unpleasantness The fact that pleasantness can go with a wide range of organic states. for the sub- for its lack of localization. but thus far Arrange to re- cord the subject's breathing and heart beat. the facts so far stated. . so far as these are revealed by heart beat and breathing. and see whether there is any characteristic organic change that goes with pleasant stimuli.176 PSYCHOLOGVr all account very well for jectivity of feeling. so as to be sure that the " pleasant stimuli " actually etc. You should also obtain an introspective report from your subject. there is If any organic fact it is definitely characteristic of either state of feeling. But not it all in- and. Or. would be impossible to generalize to the extent of asserting that slow heart beat always gave a pleasant state of feeling. would bring the feelings into the real. anyway. and the same with unpleasantness. and rapid during joyful expectation. try this experiment: hasten your breathing and see whether a feeling of pleasantness results results. with unpleasantness quicker heart beat and slower breathing. for there is slow heart beat during a "morning grouch". . and an opposite change with unpleasant stimuli. vestigators have got these results . and for It the absence of specific sense organs for the feelings. test line with the emotions. in regard to breathing. apply pleasant and unpleasant stimuli to him. But of the theory lies just here: can we discover radically different organic states for the two opposite feel- ings ? Numerous experiments have been conducted for such radically different organic states^ in the search the search has been rather disappointing. gave a feeling of pleasantness. heart Certain experiments of this sort have indicated that with pleasantness goes slower beat and quicker breathing. a subtle fact that has hitherto eluded observation. and rapid heart beat an unpleasant .

The second objection lies in the difficulty of believing un- pleasant stimuli to give slow. The smoothest reactions. as a matter of fact. unpleasantness slow and impeded brain action. there are two big objections to The first objection found in the facts of practice. the impulse is to " stand pat " and let the is pleasant state continue. fits While this theory looks good in some ways. Feeling is impulsive. the impulse to end the state. pleasant but. and should therefore make it more and more it . and give no sign of impeded progress of nerve currents through the brain centers. makes it automatic and neither pleasant nor unpleasant. are simply devoid of all feeling. practising an unfamiliar it act of any sort makes after which continued practice more pleasant for a time only. and the impulse of unpleas- directed towards getting rid of the unpleasant. which should give the highest degree of pleasant feeling according to the theory. In pleasantness. and cases very well reaction. that may point the way to a better theory. is In indifference there no tendency either to keep or to be . while resistance encountered is at the brain synapses unpleasant.THE FEELINGS 2. and another stimulus is unit then. in unpleasantness. A stimulus is pleasant. 177 Pleasantness might represent smooth and easy brain action. where —as some the great unpleasantness of blocked to do is you cannot make up your mind what it. 3. antness The impulse is of pleasantness is directed to- wards keeping what is pleasant. There is one fact. impeded reactions. because the nerve currents started by find pleasant because it finds the going poor. smooth going through the brain centers. the instinctive defensive reactions to unpleasant stimuli are very quick. unimpeded progress of nerve currents through the brain is pleasant. Practising any reaction makes more and more smooth-running and free from inner obstruction. not yet taken into account. On the contrary. Ac- cording to this theory.

A very impor- tant fact immediately arrests our attention. The one kind is typified by sweet and bitter. yet they feeling. while unpleas- antness goes with an adjustment towards riddance. brought out as relating feeling to conduct. we seek to be rid of it is and that There is the same as saying unpleasant. See p. and a bitter taste unpleasant though we had desire no expectation of getting it. and two corresponding kinds for unpleasantness. it. There are two different kinds of stimuli for pleasantness. In plain language. we turn to the simpler question of the stimuli that arouse them. tion. the other by success and failure. Putting we say that pleasant- ness goes with a neural adjustment directed towards keeping. it and no awakened to avoid On is the other hand.^ Sources of Pleasantness and Unpleasantness Laying aside now the difficult question of the organic and cerebral nature of the feelings. while other things are pleas- any already awakened is ant (or unpleasant) only because of such a desire. Some to things are pleasant (or unpleasant) without regard desire. taste A sweeti it pleasant even though we were not desiring is at the moment. PSYCHOLOGY These facts are so obvious as scarcely to need menmay be the core of this whole matter of Certainly they are the most important facts yet this fact into neural terms. . Sweet is pleasant for a similar reason. some evidence that these adjustments occur in that part of the brain called the thalamus. as to make is the riddance adjustment on receiving this particular stimulus. the sight of our stone hitting the tree 1 pleasant only because we were aiming at the tree.178 rid of. and 66. towards letting things stay as they are. by native constitu- tion. is Bitter unpleasant because we are so organized.

THE FEELINGS the sight of the stone going to one side of the tree is 179 un- pleasant just for the same reason. a want for water. unless you are amused. is What true of thirst is true of hunger. like Because we them. gives at and to all the instincts. Because we want them. i. Some things we want. stinctive. and then the result at which the instinct is aimed causes pleasure. unless you are first angry with him. but the same result will cause no pleasure unless the instinct has been in- aroused. and when we are in this state. things We want candy.e. while the other half .. It gives you no pleasure to fondle the baby unless you love the baby. or to swear him. The same can be said of desires that are not exactly At a football game. satisfaction is The need must pleasant. Some we like. It you no pleasure to strike or kick a person. fondling a baby. when one of the players kicks the ball and it sails between the goal posts.that ing is pleasant. for example. Let any instinct be first aroused. laughing. and then drinkbe to say . It gives you no pleasure to go through the motions of laughing unless you " want to laugh ". How absurd it would we were thirsty because we liked to drink! is that we like to drink because we are thirsty. and then its This applies just as well to fight- ing. but we like a cold drink because and when we are thirsty and not otherwise. be aroused. a state of the organism that impels us to drink. we like a drink. because we Thirst is like the sweet taste. or of any orfirst ganic need. a drink is pleasant then. when the fact The desire to drink must first be aroused. half of the spectators yell with joy.

This is the pleasure of success. or olives. a primary pleasure or displeasjust for itself. but is sweets native. There are natural quired. therefore it is that the pleas- First arouse any desire. and unpleasant to others? This particular appearance is by itsailing between self neither pleasant nor unpleasant. or cheese. is Any sensation with a pronounced feeling-tone ure. but liking for subdued colors. are acquired. acquired. because they depend upon pre-aroused desires. and the desire that it should not happen in the partisans of the other. liking for fragrant odors liking for lemonade. Why should the appearance of a ball two posts be so pleasant to some. cial pleasure in color harmonies. but because the desire to see this happen has been previously aroused in the partisans of one team. unpleasantness of failure. and the antness or unpleasantness occurs. typified by sweet and bitter. Pleasures of this class may be named secondary. Liking for bright native. and not acquired colors is by everybody. tastes. displeasure by thwarting it. is Liking for native. Primary Likes and Dislikes Though many ures of life of the most intense pleasures and displeas- are of the secondary type. likes and dislikes isfaction of instincts — and —apart fron) the sat- there are others that are ac- In other words. and without regard to the gratification of any pre-aroused instinct or We like or dislike it desire. and is still more in their acquired tastes. there are native tastes and acIndividuals differ considerably in their native quired tastes. and the speSo we might . this fact must not blind us to the existence of the primary pleasures and dis- pleasures. and then you can give pleasure by gratifying it.180 PSYCHOLOGY in groan agony. or black coffee.

" The instinct psychologists have a strong case here. Some have a natural taste for people. and consequently his masable to ' show off ' tery impulse is specially gratified by this kind of activity. finding he can do things with numbers. laying special on the instincts of and self-assertion. Now dislikes. and thus the social form of self-assertion is brought into play. all his but he has no real direct liking for mathematics. respect to our " natural liking for mathematics ". and industry in this field is motivated by curiosity and especially by self-assertion. the question arises whether these native likes and for odors. observing their ways. Another has a nattaste for things of Some have a the mechanical sort. he is Later. machinery. are really independent of the instincts. these psychologists would argue as follows " First off. and win applause by his mathematical feats. is aroused by numbers. ural dislike for the same. chologists have insisted that all the interest Some psysatisfac- and tion of life were derived stress from the curiosiljg?^ instincts. others fight shy of such things. finding under each some sensations with native feeling-tone. tones. and the give and take of friendly intercourse. Some people have a native liking for numbers and other facts of a mathematical nature. gratifies his mastery impulse by playing with them. and people. and other sensations that acquire feeling-tone through experience. We say of such a one that he has a natural taste for mathematics. being sociable creatures which means more than being gregarious little — while others are interested in mixing with people.THE FEELINGS run through the list 181 of the senses. colors. curi- With : osity fact . He is encounters number problems. and his mastery impulse again aroused in the effort to solve the problems. This particular child may have good native ability for mathematics. as it may be by any novel then the child. numbers. as .

? had ceased to be a novelty. geometric forms. made a direct appeal Numbers. for he would testify that numbers. for then the color would no it longer be attractive after color liked simply for purposes of self -display. the mathematical individual would not be convinced. musical per- formance problem set a means of display to the performer. Take the color art. The same life animal could be said of the liking for plant or If the that appears in the " born biologist ". to his mind. There is that color liking is is liked for its own is no escape from the conclusion sake. then his interest and zeal in studyThe ing them are not wholly derived from the instincts. Music. objects of the world niake a direct appeal to the man whose mind is attuned to them.'' Is it due simply to curiosity. and add impetus to it. etc. but the primary motive is a direct liking for the kind of facts studied. instincts come into play.'' No. Can we explain the liking for color as derived from satisfaction of the instincts. simple color effects that appeal to most people. and the by a piece of music to the performer in the . Still. in the colors of nature.? problems that challenge the masThis might fit the case of intricate color designs. in all scientific work. No.182 PSYCHOLOGY they would have also in regard to the liking for machinery. to him. in the relationships that are discovered. There can be no manner of doubt that bright colors are natively pleasant. liking for tones and their combinations.. Novel is effects also appeal to curiosity. Is this would not explain our delight do color effects constitute Or tery impulse. in the same way. " Primary likes and dislikes " are still more clearly in evi- dence in the arts than in the sciences. and that this primary certainly based on a primary the foundation of color art. and there is something beautiful. truly enough. and algebraic transformations are fascinating to him. but not the strong. as well as for rhythm. for example.

gives plenty of play to the mastery impulse. and the parental probably instinct leads the adults to take a protective attitude to- wards children. is the of social The gregarious instinct brings individuals together into social groups. no one seeking to no one bowing to another as his superior nor chafing against an assumed superiority which he does not admit. derness. Also. Self-assertion has plenty of play in a group. What an uninteresting affair No instincts called into play except bare gregariousness dominate the rest. But none of these instincts accounts for the interest in per- sonality. or for the genuine liking that people may have for one another. . instincts. it is due to the parental instinct that any one spontaneously seeks to help the helpless. and probably also makes the individual crave participation in the doings of the group. Let a group of persons of the same age and sex get together. since without the primary taste for tone and rhythm there would be no music to start with. Besides.THE FEELINGS way of execution. an outlet in and in the and the submissive tendency admiring and following those who far of seeking to dominate self-assertion accounts for way surpass us. and to the listener in the 183 way of under- standing and appreciation. The sex instinct lends a special interest to those members of the group who are of the opposite the little sex. Thwarted many of the dislikes that develop between the members of ^ group. no one in a helpless or unfortunate condition that arouses the pity of the rest. ten- war and religion. in which native likes and field dislikes play their part alongside of the life. all equals for the time being. both in the way finds of resisting domination. music gets associated with love. but none of the impulses thus by music is tfe fundamental reason for music. gratified Still another field of human activity. and therefore no chance for these various impulses to find an outlet in this direction.

feeling could be described . one moment. there are other things that we " just naturally like " primary life. likes and the same with dislikes and that these and dislikes have considerable importance in — — Other Proposed Elementary Feelings Pleasantness and unpleasantness are the only feelings generally accepted as elementary. thclTotal number of shades of space. of feeling. tense. we like for satisfaction of our instinctive needs and cravings. and excitement and opposite. question enough states of feeling is whether they are — Excitement and the rest are no one doubts that but the — fit to be placed alongside of It pleasantness and unpleasantness as elementary feelings. Enough has perhaps been besides the things said to convince the reader that. such a group maximum of social pleasure. Thus there would be three dimensions of feeling. of feeling thus provided for would be very great. indeed. etc. which may be called numbness or subdued feeling. excited state another moment in a pleasant. Wundt's tri-dimensional theory pleasantness and unpleasantness release or relief. This author suggested that there were three pairs of feelings tension and its its opposite. . Though real this theory has awakened great interest. . which could be represented by the three dimensions and any given state of by locating it along each of the three dimensions. it has not won unqualified approval. we may be in a pleasant.184 PSYCHOLOGY affords almost or quite the On the contrary. Thus. reand another . also exist in various degrees. though several others have been suggested. As each feeling can pleasant. . which are based on a native liking for people.moment in an unlieved and subdued state tense and subdued state. and not on the instincts. It affords scope for comrade- ship and good fellowship.

185 appears rather more likely that they are blends of sensaIn the excited states that have been most carefully is studied. the feeling of strangeness or newness. a long time has elapsed since you saw him last. whether it be striking your opponent or going to sleep. Whether elementary or note. and of certainty or assurance. for tension occurs specially in expectancy. The feeling of familiarity. The first time you see a person. The feelings of doubt or hesitation. but fatigue and drowsiness (seeking for rest) are numb. that to say. after which he becomes so you the feeling much a matter of course as to arouse no definite feeling of this sort. indeed. It is not. there itself felt as is that big internal organic upstir. and self-assertion may be neutral in this respect. Reaching the goal may be excited or not all depends on the goal. making sensations. these feelings are worthy of interesting to examine the striving for a goal to each " dimen- and the attainment of the goal with respect sion " of feeling. a blend of many Tension may very probably be the feeling of tense muscles. while striving for a goal is is pleasant or unpleasant according as progress the goal. he seems strange. . the next few times he awakens in of familiarity. and its opposite. also have some claim to be con- sidered here. unless. attainment brings the often excited. . Striving Striving is is tense. or stiff being made towards obstruction en- countered.THE FEELINGS tions. On the other hand. and the muscles are tense then. also deserve mention as possibly elementary. as in " cool assumption ". in this case the feeling of familiarity is particularly strong. reaching the goal is practically always pleasant (weeping seems an exception here). in fear and anger. feeling of release.

. Titchener. (e) (f) Enjoying a warm bed. . see E. (c) Waiting for the dentist to (d) Just after he has pulled. "I feel '^not using synonyms). 7. pp. or " feeling bored ". What can be meant by speaking in psychology of only two feel-2.186 PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES 1. REFERENCES For a much fuller treatment of the subject. 22S-264. tense. not quite able as yet to decide to get up. " in 20 different ways Complete the sentence. what elements besides the feelings of pleasantness and unpleasantness may enter into the comings. are compound states. 3. " feeling sure ". Outline the chapter. Textbook of Psychology. 1909. B. complex state of mind. by your own introspection. and measure the time required to do this. Lying abed after waking. 4. and excited) Watching a rocket go up and waiting for pull. and a list of six dislikes that are dependent on the instincts.e. it to burst. a child just admitted to the presence of the Christmas tree would be in a state of mind that is (a) pleasant. Following Wundt's three-dimensional scheme of feeling. (b) Just after the rocket has burst. feeling''. (g) Seeing an automobile about to run down a child. Make a list of six primary dislikes. when common speech recognizes so many? If the states of mind designated by the worde. Attempt an analysis of the "worried i. pounds ? 5. analyze each of the following states of mind (for example. this try to discover elementary feelings and sensations in 6.

but It is is aroused in us by the stimulus. called the sensory centers. rience. where the baby gets only sensation. and he sees. sation ". the still list of native mental activities incomplete.CHAPTBE X SENSATION AN INVENTOEY OF THE ELEMENTARY SENSATIONS OF THE DIFFERENT SENSES With reflex action. though he learns the meaning of hears. of the sensory nerves. The senses are provided by nature. free in the very " Pure sen- of the from all recognition. With- out the brain response. our own aroused by the Sensation means the activity of the receiving cer- organ (or sense organ). and the fundamental use of the. and traces of it can be is seen in the behavior of babies only a few days old. for recognition is about the easiest learned accomplishments. instinct. is the stimulus that comes act. there is apparently no conscious sensation. lated. response of the brain to the external usually only the first in a series of brain 187 . but the time he doesn't see an orange. Sensation a response. The child does not learn to see or hear. and the sensation stimulus. is emotion and feeling. to us. it does not come to us. The adult sees an object. can scarcely occur except young baby. so that the activity of the sense organ and sensory Sensation nerve is preliminary to the sensation proper. and of tain parts of the brain. first may be called the It is stimulus. senses goes with them. what he sees and He gets sensation as soon as his senses are stimu- but recognition of objects and facts comes with expe- Hold an orange before first his open eyes.

goes back the protozoa. the nose to very minute quantities of energy in certain chemical forms. seen in These minute unicellular creatures. as we know it in our experience.188 PSYCHOLOGY responses. energy in the form of sound vibrations. and that the termination of a senisolated. ultraviolet light and we ourselves are insensitive to these agents. lus. being effect on the brain or muscles or any other . specialization has occurred. The eye responds to very minute amounts of energy in the form of light. since they arouse no response. to (heat cold). X-rays. The Sense Organs In the development of the metazoa. One sense organ is highly sensitive to one stimu- and another to another stimulus. though having no sense organs any more than they have muscles or digestive organs — respond to a variety of stimuli. some parts conductors (the nerves) and some parts becoming specialized receptors or sense organs. stimuli. to electrical There are some forces to which they do not respond magnetism. but not in other forms the ear responds to very minute amounts of . or multicellular animals. A sense organ is a portion of the body that has very high sensitivity to some particular kind of stimulus. stimuli. : . would have no Without that. iil the history of the race to the primitive sensitivity (or irritability) of living matter. as They or react to mechanical a touch or jar. the others consisting in the recognition of the object and the utilization of the information so acquired. which are not to be called stimuli. and to light. There is only one thing that a sense organ always and is necessarily contains. sory nerve. to chemical stimuli of certain thermal stimuli kinds. Sensation. some parts of the body. the sense organ. some parts becoming digestive organs. becoming muscles with the primitive motility much developed.

SENSATION 189 part of the body. and around the base of these cells are seen the terminations of two axons of tlie nerve of taste. most sense Surface of Tongue " Fig. nose and in very sheltered situations. 25. and would be entirely useless. assists in cells bringing the stimulus to the sense or sensory nerve ends. Within the " Taste bud are seen two sense cells. someFirst. Besides the sensory axons. cells mouth— always are located in Sense are present only in the eye. without being itself sensitive. there are special in times the other and sometimes both. — organs there is accessory apparatus which. one of the two. sense cells in a few sense organs and second. tongue. and the cell that is this slender tip of exposed to the chemical stimulus of the tast- . ear. and thus are more easily aroused by the stimulus. Diagram of the taste end-organ. The axons of the sensory nerve divide into fine branches in the sense organ. each containing a number of taste The taste cell has a slender prolongation that protrudes it is from the chamber into the pit. little The taste cells" pits opening upon the surface of the little flaskcells. In the sides of these pits can be found shaped chambers. two other things are often found in a sense organ — sometimes .

—The olfactory sense cells and their brain connections. The olfactory cell has also a long slender branch extending from skull cavity cells. is extra sensitive to chemical stimuli. located in a little recess in the upper and back part of the nose.190 'ing substance. stem and eventually to the cortex. in turn 'arouses the axon and so starts a nerve current to the brain or its its activity. in fact. an axon. its base through the bone into the and connecting there with dendrites of nerve This central branch of the olfactory it is cell is. and a sense cell. out of the direct Axon to air currents brain cortejc Dendrites Synapses in brain stem Axons of sense cells Sense cells in nose Fig. The olfactory cells. PSYCHOLOGY The stimulus arouses the taste cell. aroused by the chemical stimulus. They have fine tips reaching to the surface of the mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity and exposed to the chemical stimuli of odors. 26. going toward the lungs. are rather similar to the taste cells. cell at the back of the chamber. but in veris tebrates the sensory axon regularly an outgrowth of a . The vand tip. peculiar in being an axon growing from is This the rule in invertebrates. and this in turn arouses the ending of the sensory axon that twines about the base of the tkste cell.

Light. or. all being " hair cells ". The internal ear contains sense cells of three similar kinds. by the action of light. Both rods and cones connect at through rather their base with "neurones that pass the activity along the optic nerve to the brain. the sense retina. 191 find sense cells pro- viding their and only in the nose do we own sensory nerve. the axons of which extend by way of the optic nerve to the thalamus in the brain. Sense cells and nerve cells of the retina. may be. reaching the retina from the interior of the eyeball (as shown in Fig. to chemical or electrical stimuli generated in the pigment of Pigment Layer Bods Cones ^ Light Bipolar Cells fm^ — the retina Optic Fig. 28). are the rods and cones of the it These are highly sensitive to light. Instead of a single . The rods and cones pass the impulse along to the bipolar cells and these in turn to the optic nerve cells. and then and there arouses to activity the tips of the rods and cones. passes through the nearly transparent retina till stopped by the pigment layer. The rods are less highly developed than the cones.SENSATION nerve cell. 27. cells In the eye.

their hair-tips being matted together and so located as to be bent. the hairs are shaken by sound vibrations that have reached In the liquid in which the whole end-organ is immersed. so stimulating them and the same result occurs when a sudden motion up or down or in any direction is given to the head. Every sense except the The hairs of the skin are accessory to the sense of touch. " semicircular canals ". . which are excited by the activity of the sense the activity on to the brain. and " smelling " of anything being largely a series of little inspiratory movements that carry the odor-laden air to the olfactory part of the nasal cavity. on the bottom of a brook. the cochlea. the part of the inner ear concerned with hearing. the internal ear. like reeds growing the canals. we find hair cells again. sensitive. the central part of the in the inner ear. it is but really it is the skin that the sensory axon terminating around the root of the hair in the skin. or. and mat are imbedded little particles of stony matter. by currents of the liquid filling In the " vestibule ". the hair-tips of the sense cells are matted together. it is PSYCHOLOGY each cell has a number of fine hair-tips. and In these that first respond to the physical stimulus. in any of these parts of cells. are twined the fine endings of sensory axons. When the head inclined in any direction. A touch on a hair is we often think is of the hairs as sensitive. rather. " pain sense " has more or less of so easily felt that this. " tasting being largely a tongue movement that brings the substance to the taste cells. a part of the inner ear that is the concerned not with sound but with rotary movements of the head. Around the base of the sense cells. and the breathing apparatus as accessory to the sense of smell.192 sensitive tip. is called the " otoliths ". these heavy particles sag and bend the hairs. The tongue can be thought of as accessory apparatus serving the sense of taste. . and pass Accessory sense-apparatus.

the sensitive plate being the retina. it is a camera. — Horizontal is cross section tiirough the right eyeball. we see that . are accessory. Cornea Ciliary Muscle Retina Choroid Sclerotic Optic Nerve Fig. the outer tough coat an exposure so as to be ready for Comparing the eye with the camera. All of the eye except the retina.SENSATION But ment cells it is in 193 the eye and the ear that the highest develop- of accessory sense apparatus has taken place. which differs indeed from the ordinary photographic plate in recovering after another. the eyeball corresponds to the box. and all of the ear except the sense and the sensory axons. 28. In fact. like the camera. The eye an optical instrument.

where Semicircular Canal Pig. The iris phragm muscle. At the front of the eye." and points in the direction taken by the sound waves. See text for their further course. which also called by ". the action of a little the " ciliary muscle This muscle cor. and the deeply pigmented " choroid coat. 29. The eye really . Diagram to show the course of the sound waves through the outer and middle ear and into the inner ear. of the camera. is corresponds to the adjustable diaJust behind the pupil is the lens adjustable of the eye. The arrow is placed within the "meatus. corresponding to the coating of paint used to blacken the inside of the camera box and prevent stray light from getting in and blurring the picture. and the choroid into the contractile with the hole in its center that we call " the pupil of the eye".194 PSYCHOLOGY wood or metal of which the of the eyeball (the "sclerotic" coat) taking the place of the box is built. is transformed into the trans- parent " cornea " iris ". responds to the focussing mechanism of the camera by it the eye is focussed on near or far objects. — light is admitted. that lines the sclerotic. the sclerotic ".

for the cornea acts as a lens. The light. in such an animal as the horse. cludes the lids. while still. Other accessory apparatus of the eye inand the muscles that turn direction. The human off external ear seems to accomplish little . being transparent.SENSATION justable. of the eyeball. " middle " and " inner " ear. assembly of three little The sound waves throw is this mem- brane into vibratibn. way to the The retina is a thin coat. of the internal ear cavity. by an bones. across the air-filled cavity . catching the sound waves and concentrating them upon the ear drum. The most essential is the " meatus " or hole that allows the sound waves to pass through the skin to the tympanic membrane or drum head. Two views of the internal ear. 30. and the vibration transmitted. it can be cut part of the external ear without noticeably affecting hearing. but is not adThe " aqueous and vitreous humors " fill the eye- and keep it in shape. serves as a movable ear trumpet. The outer. strikes the retina from the inside Cochlea Cochlea Vestibule 3 Canals Vestibule 3 Canals Fig. Notice how the three semi-circular canals lie in three perpendicular — planes. and having the form of a hollow hemisphere. ball 195 has two lenses. These views show the shape The sense organs lie inside this cavity. coming through the pupil and trav- ersing the vitreous humor. they allow the light to pass through them on the retina. lying inside the choroid at the back of the eyeball. or middle ear. We speak of the " outer ". the eyeball in any The ear is about as complex a piece of mechanism as the eye. the tear glands.

bone. and pass the impulse back to the end-brushes of the auditory axons. Nerve Cells of Auditory Nerve Fig. the inner ear is closed little by a membrane bones is which one end of the assembly of is imbedded. small sample of the sense cells of the cochlea. The hairs of the sense cells are shaken by the vibration of the water. and have suggested the "piano theory of hearing. to be mentioned later in the chapter. and thus the vibra- tions are transmitted liquid of the inner ear. T^e tectorial membrane looks as if it might act as a damper.196 PSYCHOLOGY This opening from the middle to in of the middle ear to an opening leading to the water-filled cavity of the inner ear. as " accessory apparatus. but may be concerned. —A vibrations are propagated through it to the sense cells of the cochlea and stimulate them in the way already suggested. but the little that has been said will serve as an introdilction to the study of sensation. between the ledges of. from the tympanic membrane to the Once started in this liquid. these fibers are arranged somewhat after the manner of piano strings. the Water Space Auditory v\^\>>^ Axons to Brain ^v'^ ^ \ Stem ~ \ ». Further study of the accessory apparatus of the eye and ear can be recommended as very interesting. as the other end imbedded in the tympanic membrane. .31." in the stimulation of the hair The basilar membrane consists in part of fibers extending across cells.

for under ordinary circumstances what we get is a compound. Substitute a metal point a few . but at certain points a clear sensation of cold. stinging. Our task now will be to ask these questions reidentification of the stimuli that arouse them. and or compounds of these elements. at most points no sensation except that of contact arises. is many blends To identify the elements by no means a simple task. they will be found to give the same sensation every time. Within an area an inch on the back of the hand. The Skin Senses Rough and smooth. with weak stimuli of different kinds. and the cold spots marked. The most successful is way of isolating the elements out of these compounds to explore the skin. garding each of the senses. is passed slowly over the skin. If a blunt metal point. pricking. aching are skin sensations. and it is only by carefully controlling the stimulus that we are able to get the elements before us and even then the question whether these are really elementary sensations can scarcely be settled by . hot and cold. several of these cold spots square there is can be found.SENSATION Analysis of Sensations 197 sensation Prominent among the psychological problems regarding Probably each sense gives is that of analysis. and when the exploration is carefully made. Along with the search for elementary sensations goes and also a study of the sensations aroused by any combination of stimuli. point by point. itching. direct observation. a few degrees cooler than the skin. comparatively few elementary sensations. hard and soft. moist and dry. tickling. or the point of a lead pencil. but some of these are almost certainly com- pounds.

Use a sharp bristle. . accordingly. cold require more discussion. sation ". rather than hot and Hot and cold are painful. point. but a number of points are found where a definite sensation of touch or contact is felt these are the touch spots.198 PSYCHOLOGY degrees warmer than the skin. stinging and is aching seem to be the same as pain. Moist usually Hard and soft combine touch and the muscular sensation of resistance. Hot and cold. and a few spots will be found that give the sensation of warmth. Tickle touch. Smooth and is rough are successions of touch sensations. Finally. and you get at most points simply the sensation of contact. no sensation at all will be felt at most points. The elementary is sensations are warmth and coolness. and the fact that strong temperature stimuli arouse the pain spots as well as the warmth or cold spots. is a sensation compounded spot is of warmth and pain. Itch. a compound of smooth and cold. and the four sensations of touch. like that of a needle or of a it sharp pressing moderately against the skin. because the hair bends so readily when one end of it is pressed again&t the skin as not to exert sufficient force to arouse a sensation. cold and pain are believed to be the only elementary skin sensations. warmth. No other varieties of " spots " are found. usually light touch or a succession of light touches. along with those of warmth and . Hot. if the skin is explored with a hair of proper length and thickness. More than this. sharp pain sensation arises. and cold a sensation com- posed of coolness and pain. the curious fact is sensation of cold. when a cold touched with a point heated well above the skin temperature (best to a little over 100° Fahrenheit). these being the warmth spots. but at quite a number of points a small. noted that the cold spot responds with its normal This is called the " paradoxical cold sen- From this fact it is probable that a hot object excites the cold sensation. These are the pam spots.

consisting simply of a branched axon. an end-bulb. Z) is a free-branched nerve end. 199 is so that the sensation of heat is a blend of the three. The " coils " are really much more finely branched than the diagram shows. outside. evidently a touch on the hair." by a a touch corpuscle. is B C little is is probably a blend of the three elementary sensations of warmth. again. so that the sensation of great cold. Fig. cold and pain. presumably belonging to the temperature sense. The hair is a bit of " accessory ^ apparatu'S'.SENSATION pain . as well as in more interior parts of the body. B is a corpuscle of a type found in the subcutaneous tissue. skin. the sensory axons can be seen coiling around the root of the hair . —Diagram of various sorts of sensory end-organ found in the is a liair end-organ. It contains an axon-end surrounded by a layered capsule. a coiled axon-end surrounded by other tissue. The stimulus that arouses the touch sensation is a bendis ing of the skin. like that of heat. It is the pain-sense organ. would squeeze the coiled axon and stimulate it. 32. with no accessory apparatus. It has. Another curious fact that a very cold object produces a burning sensation indistinguishable from that of a hot object. That which arouses warmth or cold of . consisting of a coiled axon-end surrounded cone of other tissue.

of Several kinds skin. . will at the moment " adapted ". with a sensory axon ramifying There the hair end-organ. but. into which a There is the " spherical . there about the root of the hair this. Either it is a warming or cooling of the skin. sensitive. and apparently provided with different types of end-organs. the exact nature of the effective stimulus has not been agreed upon. and consisting. it has become customary to speak of four skin senses in place of the traditional " sense of touch ". and this is the pain receptor. and thus it to give warning of stimuli that threaten injury. consisting of a sensory axon coiled . or electrical. sensory axon penetrates it is believed to be the sense organ for cold.200 PSYCHOLOGY it course a temperature stimulus. in the skin. The or chemical (as the drop of acid). found in the skin of the palms inside is and soles. also. Now since we find. strange as may seem. become clearer when we later discuss adapta- stimulus that arouses the pain sensation may be mechanical (as a needle prick). There is the rather similar " cylindrical end-bulb " believed to be the sense organ for warmth. of a mass of accessory it this is an end-organ for the sense of touch. or thermal (heat or cold). but in any case it must be strong enough to injure or nearly to injure the skin. or it is the existence of a higher or lower temperature in the skin is than that to which the skin This matter tion. Perhaps the pain receptor requires no accessory apparatus because it does not need to be extremely sensitive. We . the pain sense organ is not highly but requires a fairly strong stimulus. cells like the end-bulbs. Finally. giving four quite different sensations. with no acces- sory apparatus whatever. consisting simply of the branching of a sensory axon. " spots " responsive to four quite different stimuli. is fitted In other words. is the " free-branched nerve end ". There is the " touch corpuscle ". sensory end-organ are found in the end-bulb ". is a touch receptor.

sour. which last is the sense of touch proper. also contributes. however. there still remain a few genuine tastes. coffee and quinine then taste alike. gummy. If the nose is held tightly so as to prevent all circulation of air through it. the warmth sense. Some . The papillae of the tongue. But when the nose is excluded. and apple juice cannot be distinguished from onion juice. a single sensation. The consistency of the food. by way of the muscle addition to all sense. A " biting taste " is a compound of pain with taste proper. most of the " tastes " of foods vanish . tastes are in part and many composed of touch. with this difference. warmth. the odor of the food reaching the olfactory organ by way of the throat and the rear passage to the nose. with their little " pits " already spoken of. The Sense op Taste Analysis has been as successful in the sense of taste as in cutaneous sensation. the only taste of each being bitter. and when cutaneous and muscular sensations are deducted. all others being compounds. correspond to the " spots " of the skin. four tastes of them give only two. brittle. that the papillae do not each give. to the total " taste ". every article of food having its own characteristic taste. and a " smooth taste " is partly touch. Now the interior of the mouth pos- sesses the four skin senses in addition to taste. the cold sense. the flavor of the food consists largely of odor. and the pressure sense. soft. These are sweet. But in these sensations from the mouth. bitter and salty and apparently no more.SENSATION 201 speak of the pain sense. some only three of the and the bitter taste is aroused principally from . tough. ited Ordinarily we speak of an unlim- number of tastes. cold or pain. These four are the elementary taste sensations. Food in the mouth i stimulates the sense of smell along with that of taste.

The also sour taste is aroused by most acids. pain. but by glycerine. smell. The numerous " tastes " of every-day lifc. sour. but not by and by some substances that are not chemically understood. what we mean by blending still that. and even "sugar of lead" (lead acetate). the sweet from the tip. they are not simply present together the component sensations are . all. for example. sac- charine. The taste of lemonade.202 PSYCHOLOGY sides. acids. temperature and muscle sensations. Thus the chemistry of taste stimuli involves something not as yet Though there is this uncertainty regarding the stimulus. while present and can be found by careful attention. and the question what there taste is is common to all these substances. It can be analyzed. has the of a single characteristic sensation. If the upper surface of the tongue is first dried. on the whole the sense of taste affords a fine example of success achieved by experimental methods in the analysis At the same time it affords a fine example of the fusion of different sensations into characteristic blends. a dry lump of sugar or salt laid on it gives no sensation of taste until a little saliva has accumulated and tion in order to penetrate the pits dissolved some of the substance. Many different is. indeed. touch. The sweet aroused not only by sugar. but it ordinarily appears as a unit. Exactly what taste sensation is is the chemical agent that produces a given a problem of some difficulty. the sour from the the salty from both tip and sides. The tasteable substances must be in solu- and get to the sensitive tips of the taste cells. the back of the tongue. of complex sensations. have the effect of units. is The stimulus to the sense of taste something of a chemical nature. comeffect pounded of sweet. substances give the sensation of bitter. cold and lemon odor. though found on analysis to be compounded of taste. This is true generallji is of blends.

neither the is sweet nor the sour and obtrusive as either is true of the lemon odor. to separate parts of as quainted with them. 2. and it is true generally of the odor components that enter into the " tastes " of food. found in hydrogen sulphide. Were the odor components in these tastes as clear and distinct as they are when the same substance is smelled outside the mouth. The odor 1 These being the elements. not as substances. oil. found in heliotrope. largely because the olfactory end- You cannot apply stimuli you can to the skin or tongue. Fruity. etc. By Henning. peppermint a compound of fruity and spicy. as follows 1. Resinojis. found in pepper. nutmeg. The same not the elementary sensations that are blended. orange vinegar. of roasted coffee is a compound of resinous and scorched. etc. Spipy. 203 Each ele- mentary sensation entering into the blend gives up some of its own quality. Foul. Flowery. But. good progress has been made. found in tarry substances. antl noting their likenesses and differences.^ by assembling almost all possible odors. 4. etc. 5. S. recently. found in apple. and becoming thoroughly acis so secluded in position. quite so distinct would be if present alone. The Sense of Smell The organ giseat variety of odors long resisted every attempt at psychological analysis. . found in turpentine. The obtrusive thing about a blend is the total effect. in the case of lemonade. Scorched. It seems possi- ble now to state that there are six elementary odors. it. 6. there are many compound odors. pine needles. but simply as odors. we could not fail to notice that the " tastes " were largely composed of odor. cloves. etc. as.SENSATION but are compounded into a characteristic total. etc.

in cutaneous sensation. Little has been done to determine the elementary sensa- tions in this is field. which scarcely occur blends. Hunger begins tions is a sensation aroused by the rubbing together of the stomach walls when the stomach. and bad food. Heat. though they are found. contributing to " euphoria " and also to disagreeable states of mind. the great Of the tremendous number and variety of visual sensamajority are certainly compounds. sense of smell is Each elementary odor corresponds istic in The air. cold and pain sensations. in the interior of the trunk. but there can be doubt that the sensations just listed really arise where they seem to arise. compounded of warmth. responding to very minute quantities of certain substances diffused in the It is extremely useful in warning us against bad air It has also considerable esthetic value. among sensations of taste and smell. suffocation and less definite bodily sensations that color the emotional tone of any moment.204. PSYCHOLOGY to a certain characterthe chemical constitution of the stimulus. extremely delicate. such as hunger. along with blends. Two sorts of compound sensation can be distinguished here: and patterns. Organic Sensation The term " organic of sensations sensation " is used to cover a variety from the internal organs. thirst. is an . probably the organic sensations that every one familiar with are blends rather than elements. its churning movements. The Sense of Sight tions. similar to those of taste or smell. Careful studies of sensalittle of from the internal organs reveal astonishingly little sensation arising there. being ready for food. nausea.

the visual sensation is aroused by some one's turning down the light a pure tem- poral pattern ing across the . fall They also are in constant change of and motion. if can be described as a whitish red. has the of a unit. — is to be classed as In a pattern. like the blend. while the compound sensation or a ring or square aroused by touching the skin simultaneously with two points —or three points. and thus into spatial patterns. is a spatial pattern . A rhythm or a tune is a good example of a temporal pattern. a pattern. effect Yet the pattern. Analyzing a visual blend whether this is quite a different job. and we see that it we are willing to is we conclude that pink a blend of the elementary sensations of white and red. Finding the elements of a visual pattern would mean finding the smallest possible bits of it.SENSATION excellent 205 example of a blend. and for that reason are more easily attended to separately than the ele- ments in a blend. shades . the component parts are spread out in space or time (or in both at once). let is be required to discover a simple sensation or a blend of two or more elementary sensations. let a young baby. A spatial pattern has a characteristic shape. by the light entering his eye from well. accept this analysis as Studying final. which would probably be the sensations due to the action of single rods and cones. Visual sensations are spread out spatially. and so which are spatial as us say in a fall into temporal patterns. many The visual sensation aroused. just as the smallest bit of a cutaneous sensation would be due to the exciting of a single touch spot. for example. warmth spot. while the sensation from a person seen mov- room is a pattern both spatial and temporal. Of the thousands and thousands of distinguishable hues. human face. and a temporal pattern a characteristic course or movement. cold spot or pain spot. it intently. it Given the color pink.

a pile of browns. but the piles would shade colors is oif one into another. and blends only a few are elements and the rest are color and our main problem now is to identify the ele- Notice that we are not seeking for the physical elements of light. astray. Our knowlments. in order to see what we could discover about visual sensations. we might first try to classify could sort out a pile of reds. indeed. edge of physics and painting. the physical and the psychological question what funda- mental responses we make to this class of stimuli. be arranged in any other sense as well as in sight. The intensity series runs series . we got together a collection of bits of color of every shade and tint. acthe gradual transition cording to brightness or intensity. We of blues. . stimulus.206 PSYCHOLOGY tints. of course. at whatever color series. every bit of but in a rough way. is likely to lead us Sensations are our responses to is. nor for the primary pigments of the painter's art.. according to color-tone. and according to saturation. a pile the bits of color. but for the elementary sensations. arrange such a any other one color from light to dark. The color-tone series is best arranged from a collection <"onsisting entirely of full or saturated colors. Suppose. would have its place in the single intensity An in- tensity series can. They can be serially arranged in three different ways. a pile of grays. of bits of color into a single light-dark It is not always easy to decide whether a given shade of one color is lighter or darker than a given shade of a different color least. We can arrange them in series better than we can classify them. of elements for the Leaving aside the question moment. Start the . without knowing anything of pigments or of the physics of light. The salient fact about from one to another. We can composed entirely of reds or blues or or we can arrange the whole collection series. etc.

yellow. The color circle. arrange our whole collection of bits of color in a single saturation series. a circular series. stand for the colors red. purple. purplish red. but our judgment would be The most significant saturation series confine themselves to a single color-tone. T. It is The color-tone series returns upon itself. bluish green. and the would run on to yellow and then to greenish yellow. theoretically. and so continue. B. we could. blue that it is less saturated than a vivid red. adding always the color that most resembles the one preceding. the next in order might be either a yellowish red or a bluish red. and so back to red.e.. The shaded portion corresponds to the spectrum or rainbow. . colors to pale or dull. O and B. If we took the yellowish red and placed it beside the red. A saturation series runs from full-toned or saturated Since we can certainly say of a pale etc. Complementary colors (see later) lie diametrically opposite to each other on the circumference. — next in order would be a series still more yellowish red. 33.SENSATION series 207 with any color and put next to this the color that it most resembles in color-tone. If we started with red. i. in specific color quality. violet.. then the Fig. blue. green and blue. very uncertain at many points. green.

208 PSYCHOLOGY also. For a greater brightness. it and for a smaller brightness. black and gray. we could brightness at the center of this circle. and extend from the most vivid color sensation obtainable with and this color-tone and less and brightness. around the circumference of a circle. White. ranging from the greatest brightness at the top to the least at the But. in the we can arrange the most saturated. which find no place in the colortone series. and also when it is much de- we should make the circles smaller and smaller toward either the top or the bottom of the pile. Taking all the colors of the same degree of brightness. A three-dimensional diagram of the whole system of visual sensations can be built up in the following way. below the and we could thus build up a pile of circles. and any gray in this series may be the zero point in a saturation series of any color-tone. as far as possible. which light or dark to match the rest of the particular satura- tion series. through a succession of less strongly colored sensations of the same tone and brightness. arrange a similar circle and place it above the first. much increased. This would be a two-dimensional diagram for colors having the same brightness. so that our three-dimensional diagram would finally take the form of a double cone. with the most intense white. give an intensity series of their own. at the upper point. put a gray of the same and then arrange a saturation series for each color-tone extending from the most saturated at the circumference to gray at the center. to a constant brightness. a similar circle and place first. running from white through light gray and darker and darker gray to black. order of their color-tone. like that of sunlight. as the colors is bottom. to a dead gray of the same brightness. . all lose saturation when their brightness creased. with dead black at the lower point. Any such saturation series terminates in is a neutral gray.

fairly com. red. —The sands of distinguishable colors. 34. the gets all these sensations. very There are two principal forms of color-blindness uncommon and red-green blindness. a four-sided pyramid is often used. instead of three. black.SENSATION where the greatest saturations can be obtained. Instead of a cone. green and blue. The axis of the double cone. would give the series of neutral grays. . which are then located at the corners of the base of the pyramid. described In the text. In color-blind- system is reduced to one or two dimensions. would find Simpler Forms of the Color Sense Not every one ness. Fig. yellow. 209 and with the greatest diameter near the middle brightness. shades and places in this scheme. so as to emphasize the four main colors. extending from brightest white to dead All the thou- White Black color cone. tints. total.

210 PSYCHOLOGY The is mon. totally color-blind individual sees only white. view. His color system can be represented two dimensions. and the various shades of gray. all between this and the central area of the retina that sees the colors. corresponding to the axis of our double cone. is color-blind — in cer- The outermost zone field of of the retina. along with white. Instead of the color he has from saturated yellow through duller yellows to gray and thence through dull blues to saturated blue. His color circle reduces to a straight line with yellow at one circle. and the other for the intensity series. or of the brain. in three or four percent of men. is corresponding to the margin of the color-blind (or very nearly so). end and blue at the other. reaching orange or grass green appears to him as more or less un- saturated yellow. Color-blindness. any other defect of the It is simply a native peculiarity of the color sense. takes on additional significance when we dis- cover the curious fact that every one tain parts of the retina. and what appears to the normal eye as greenish blue. along with white. sensations His system of visual reduced to one dimension. violet and purple appears to him as more or less in unsaturated blue. Red-green blindness. What appears to the normal eye as red. always interesting and not without some practical importance (since the confusions of the colorblind eye might lead to mistaking signals in navigation or railroading). Take . very uncommon in women. not corrected by training. not curable. is red-green blind. yellow-gray-blue. white-gray-black. black and gray. black and the grays. one for the double saturation series. totally and an intermediate zone. a double saturation series. and delivers only blue and yellow sensations. is present It is not a disease. and not associated with eye. Careful study shows that the only color sensations of the red-green blind person are blue and yellow. black.

with the request that each select those colors that seem to him elementary and not blends. F is the fovea. yellow and blue. a red or green spot moved in similarly.SENSATION 211 a spot of yellow or blue and move it in from the side of the head into the margin of the field of view and then on to- wards the center. without any referIf a collection of bits of color is ence to the stimulus. as approaches the center of the field of view. certain distance is it When it first appears it in the margin. . zones of the retina. but almost none for orange. — Color vision. purple. pre- a class of students who have not previously is studied this matter. the intermediate zone gets. then takes on a it faint tinge of yellow. Now as to the question of elements. let us see still how far we can go. it first appears gray. appears in its true color. in addition to these. keeping sented to to the sensations. or central area of clearest zone gets only black and white. . red. but when has come inwards for a If changes to yellow. it simply appears gray. and the central area adds red and green (and with them all the colors). The outer Fig. yellow and blue and there are some votes for green also. there practically unanimous agreement on three colors. 35. and finally. brown or any other colors. violet.

per sec- ond. tary -sensations made clear That white and black are elemenby the case of total colorno other visual blindness. Sunlight consists of a . from the crest is measured in millionths of a millimeter. appears like a blend of black and white. we have its said nothing of the stimulus that is arouses visual sensations. the stimulus. since in this condition there are sensations from which white and black could be compounded. light is ever taken towards a and incidentally towards a visual sensations. broken up into the colors of the rainbow or spectrum. and these two differ so completely from each other that it would be impossible to think of white as made up of black. yellow and blue are elementary sensations is therefore clear from the study of no other colors present in this visual sensations alone .000000 vibrations. on the other hand. physically a wave motion. since neither of to a blend of the other with white or black. and there are indications that red and green are also elements. them could be reduced and there are form of color vision to serve as possible elements out of which yellow and blue might be compounded. Gray. red-green blindness demonstrates the reality of yellow and blue as ele- mentary sensations. black. Visual Sensations as Related to the Stimulus Thus far. vibrations succeeding each other at the rate of 500. white light into the spectrum. of one The " wave-length ". or distance wave to the crest of the next following. or black of white. That white. The most important knowledge of knowledge of the physics of light. In the same way. more or less.212 PSYCHOLOGY is except white and black.000 miles per second.000000. and moving through space with a speed of 186. Light. was Newton's analysis of single step He found it is that when white all passed through a prism.

and in between are waves of every intermediate length. .SENSATION mixture of waves of various lengths. the energy of the stimulus. though at least much larger than seven. 21S At one end of the spectrum are the long waves (wave-length 760 millionths of a millimeter). tion — These are the general correspondences between the light stimulus and the visual sensation but the whole relationship Brightness depends. If now we ask what differences in the stimulus give rise to the three kinds of difference in visual sensation that were spoken of previously. is in the spectrum. green. incapable of arousing the though the very long waves. not only on is much more complex. since physically there are not seven but an unlimited number of wave-lengths included in the spectrum.e. the less saturation. red. but also on wave-length. there are quite a number of distinguishable orange-reds and reddish oranges. still longer and shorter. and saturaon the mixture of long and short wave-lengths in a complex light-stimulus the more mixture. do effect the photographic plate. and violet . for instance. beyond the violet. Newton is seven colors in the visible spectrum. and the very short distinguished waves. The longest waves give the sensation of red. arouse the sensation of warmth from the skin. on the amplitude of the vibration. Outside the limits of the visible spectrum. there are waves retina. arranged in order from the longest to the shortest. brightness on the energy of the i. though arousing none of the senses. Between red and orange. stimulus. yellow. however. beyond the red. The . indigo scientific orange. blue. we find that color-tone depends on the wave-length of the light.. varying continuously from the longest at the red end to the shortest at the violet. and the shortest that of violet. a slightly reddish blue. but there nothing specially about this list. while psychologically the number of distinguishable colors not unlimited. at the other end are the short waves (wave- length 390).

the orange color resulting from the isolated action of a wave-length of 650 is given also by the combined action of wave-lengths of 600 and 700. and decreases gradually towards the ends of the spectrum. since the physical condi- we do not mix . however homo- geneous. got without all its particular wave-length being present at is that is necessary that wave-lengths centering about this particular one shall be present. the whole truth. depending primarily on different wave-lengths. ceasing altogether. greatest for medium wave- lengths. painter's pigments. the one longer and the other shorter than the particular wave which when acting alone gives a certain color-tone. the red and blue of the spectrum are more saturated than the yellow and green . indeed. one of the most curious and significant facts about color vision. at wavelengths of 760 at the red end and of 390 at the violet end. and also on their amplitude. gives a less saturated sensation than a stimulus of medium Color Mixing Color-tone depends on the wave-length. depends also amount of mixture of on the particular wavelengths acting. Saturation. in amounts suitably pro- portioned to each other. as has been said. corresponding to the yellow. consist- ing of two wave-lengths. Wo have said that each color-tone is the response to a particular wave-length. light. and very bright or very dim strength. which arouse much brighter sensation than long or short waves of the same physical energy. will give that same color-tone. as has been said. A point of experimental technique : in mixing colored lights for the purpose of studying the resulting sensations. but this is is far from the whole truth .214 retina is PSYCHOLOGY tuned to waves of medium length. For example. the sensitivity of the retina is Otherwise put. A mixed light. So. But any color-tone can be all.

Red. To get all the color-tones. red and blue would give purple and violet. More surprising still. since it is a sensation which cannot be aroused by the action of any single wave-length. yellow By mixing we get all and by mixing green and blue Finally. two are enough.SENSATION tions then 215 lights would be far from simple. lights as if mix by rapidly alternating them. and what is left after this double absorpThis is absolutely different from tion mav be predominantly green. lights we get the bluish greens and greenish blues. the spectrum.lnrig- with three. the three just mentioned would be enough. orange and yellowish orange. . we need not employ all the wave-lengths. addition gives white. The sensation of white results all — ^to go back to Newton But the Four are enough. purple and purplish red. . if the lights used — are not strong. each absorbs part of the wave-lengths of white light. in varying propor- By mixing a . We can also. Mix from the combined action of the wave-lengths. then. but we mix the themselves. . a pure yellow light with a pure blue. stimulus need not contain all the wave-lengths. if chosen just right. by throwing them together either into the eye. not green. and you will find that you get the sensation of white or gray. all the color-tones between red and yellow can be got reddish orange. but can get along with only four. tions. on account of a cer- tain lag or hang-over in the response of the retina. green and blue_mLl-dolightsTcomBined. and green the greenish yellow and yellowish green color-tones . and get the same effect we had made them strike the retina simultaneously. In fact. would give the" the trick. in varying proportions. by mixing blue and red lights. lights.^ iWhen you mix blue and yellow figments. the addition of blue to yellow light. or upon a white screen. but only by the mixture of long and short waves. Red and gi"een yellows green and blue would give the greenish blues and we can get a. red light with a yellow. we Purple has no place in get violet.

the colors Speaking somewhat loosely. arouses the colorless sensation of white. are complementary. or wave-lengths. are said to be complementary. give two complementary is . is violet. Mixing the stimuli which. for when yellow and blue lights is are mixed. we need to be on our guard against physics. and that of typical green (grass green) it. no trace of orange or yellow or grass green gray. light is The complement of orange greenish yellow a greenish blue. What Are the Elementary which we laid aside Visual Sensations? Returning now to the question of elementary sensations. and if just the right wave-length of bluish green is used. times say that two colors are complementary to produce white. but the sensation of white in which there no trace of either blue or yellow. set out to find the complementary of still red. Suppose we Mixing red and yellow lights gives the color-tones intermediate between these two . or at least against being so much impressed . The has no single wave-length complementary to give white but it does when mixed with a compound of long and short waves. we somewhen they mix — —or at least the color are not mixed. Now mix red with bluish green. but white or Red and bluish green are thus complementary. colors. but the orange and yellow and yellowish green so got lack saturation. Blue and yellow. till we had examined the relationship of the sensations to the stimulus. which when acting together on the retina give the sensation of white or gray. then. the resulting sensation by no means a mixture of blue and yellow sensations.. so that we may speak of green and purple as complementary. which compound by itself gives the sensation of purple.216 PSYCHOLOGY Lights. mixing red and green gives the intermediate color- tones. being whitish or grayish. is obtained. acting separately. sensations Strictly. and this grayishness is accentuated.

Inside the heavy line are located the pale tints of each color. The numbers give the wave-lengths of diiferent parts of the spectrum. the colors located at the two points are complementary. and the purples along the heavy dotted line. O. and then to turn the eye upon the complementary color. under these conditions. Spectral colors are themselves not completely saturated. draw a straight line between these two points. The way to get color sensations of maximum saturation is first to stare at one color. For example. Suppose equal amounts of two spectral colors are mixed: to find from the diagram the color of the mixture. which.— (After Konig. and the middle of this line gives the color-tone and saturation of the mixture. mix red and yellow: then the resulting color is a saturated reddish yellow. appears fuller and richer than anything otherwise obtainable. merging from every side into white. 36. B. Mix red (760) and green" (505): the resulting yellow is non-saturated. denote colors of maximum saturation. The corners. a map of the laws of color mixture.) The color triangle. since the straight line between these two points lies inside the figure. . The spectral colors are arranged in order along the heavy solid line. which is located at the point W.SENSATION 217 520 ~ 589— 760 Fig. and the whole of the triangle outside of the heavy line is reserved for supersaturated color sensations. so as to fatigue or adapt the eye for that color. Locate the two colors on the heavy line. If the straight line joining two points passes through W. and B.

Much is impressed with the physical discovery that white light all a mixture of wave-lengths. and the fact of complementary colors shows that you cannot from the sensation of white. whether the stimulus consists of yellow and blue. there is no reason for considering any one color more elementary than any other. green. the response being the same to all these various combinations.218 PSYCHOLOGY with the physics of light as to forget that we are concerned with the response of the organism to physical light ter on which physics cannot speak the final word. of light . as positive as any. yellow. blue and violet —which simply not true. is apt to confuse the dent at this point and lead him astray. It is a. he is a mixed sensation. or red. too. and' nothing tell. Physics says. Every wave-length be an element. or all the wave-lengths. or. and if sensation tallied precisely with the stimulus. red and bluish green. every spectral color-tone would But there are obvious objections to such a view. but we are concerned with the re- sponse. colors ". tells —a matPhysics respects stu- us of the stimulus. The facts of color-blindness and color mixing show all very clearly that the response does not tally in with the stimulus. No one can pretend to get the sensations of red or blue in the sensation of white. From the point of view of physics. Physics. when we were discussing this matter before. ready to believe the sensation of white He says. green and blue. is elementary . black is the absence is but this must not be twisted to mean that black all the absence of tion is visual sensation. and black sensation. Absence of visual sensa- simply nothing. orange. that white was an elementary sensation. such as: (1) there are not nearly as many distinguish- . and undoubtedly elementary. Total colorblindness showed us. then. is far from that. Consider black. that has been said since changes that conclusion. " White is the sum of all the is meaning that the sensation of white is compounded of the sensations of red.

which has no single wave-length. These four are certainly elementary sensations. for White and black blend . would give the incolor-tones. a curious fact that some of these elementary sensa: tions blend with each other. and red blended with blue would give and purple but yellow and blue would only give white or gray. Brown. yellow and blue. (2) orange. and the green would probably be violet . blended with yellow. yellow and In is form of color vision (which. and There must be at least two more. orange with reddish and orange. we must remember. sensations It is We thus arrive at the conclusion that there are six elementary visual responses or white and black. We must admit green as another element. one response to the combination of long and short waves (the sensation of white). because of the fact that two of the sure elements. tervening yellowish namely. red and green. certainly appears to be a blend as we cannot get away from the this truly as purple. hav- ing a single wave-length. and either white or black or both together will blend with any of the four elementary colors or with any possible blend of these four. as red. which there are only two color-tones. in hliie.SENSATION 319 able color-tones as there are wave-lengths. to gray. if we follow the general vote. yellow mentary. The particular red selected would be that of the red end of the spectrum. and (the sensation of one response to the cessation of light black). one response to the shorter waves (the sensation of blue). while some refuse to blend. Then red. are comple- For suppose we try to get along with one more. normal in the intermediate zone of the retina). something very near grass green. and (3) fact of red-green blindness. there are probably only a few more. there are certainly not as many elementary responses as there are all wave-lengths. and blue. and there would be no way of getting green. but only one response to the longer waves all (the sensation of yellow).

the theory cannot do justice either its to total color-blindness. the stimuli for both acted together on the two antagonistic responses could occur. both of them disappear and we get the sensation of yellow. a blend of white. and blue with red. but just here . and white as a blend of all three elements. of this theory obvious. recognized only three elements. of the physiologist He did justice to white and black by accepting . the oldest. Yellow they regarded as a blend of red and green. Theories of Color Vision 'Of the most celebrated theories of color vision. red. is The unsatisfactory nature as a sensation is is. get yellow and blue to blend. and we get simply the colorless sensation of white or gray. Moreover. both colors disappear.220 example. When we try to get red and green to blend. and what did occur was simply the more generic response Proceeding along this line. but less . green and blue. he concluded that red of white. But we cannot When we try to get yellow and blue to blend. and green were also antagonistic responses. or to red-green blindness. White is certainly not a precisely. them as elements and to yellow and blue likewise. therefore. Red blends with yellow. yellow with green. neither of the retina when. propounded by the physicists Young and Helmholtz. is PSYCHOLOGY a grayish orange. nor red and green. The fact that yellow and blue would not blend he accounted for by supposing them to be antagonistic responses of the retina. that is. green with blue. red and yellow. with its yellow but no red or green. color- blend of these three color sensations. black. • The next prominent theory was that Hering. by combining their ap- propriate stimuli. with white and black but no col- ors. and no more the yellow sensation a blend of red and green.

and the intermediate zone the second. . green elementary color-tones two that would be complementary. just as with yellow and Accordingly. white. in assuming that red and green were antagonistic responses. A third theory. is based on keen criticism of the previous two. corresponding to the red. sponse divided into two. In red-green blind individuals. one aroused by the long waves and the other by the short. with the result that his " elementary " red and green appear to nearly every one as compounds and not elements. only the central area having reached the third. bluish) red. It vould really have been just as easy for Hering to suppose that the red and green responses. this single re- whatever wave-length. one response.. She supposes that the color sense of its is now in the third stage evolution. was made to light of In the second stage. the green. and in the totally color-blind the whole retina is still in the first stage. In the first stage the only elements were white and black the second stage added yellow and blue and the third stage red and green. and this meant a purplish (i. the yellow response divided into one for the longest wa\«es. retina is still The outer zone of the in in the first stage. the combination must give white.SENSATION if 221 he committed a wholly unnecessary error. and that to the short waves the sensation of blue. propounded by the psychologist. and then he could have selected that red and green which we have concluded above to have the best claim. antagonizing each other. all Christine Ladd-Franklin. In the third stage. corresponding to Now. and one for somewhat shorter waves. The response to the long waves was the sensation of yellow. left the sensation yellow.e. Dr. and a of their stimuli bluish green. and seems to be harmonious with the facts. he was forced to select as his red and blue. In the first stage. the central area remains in the second stage. when we try to get a blend of red and green .

nor white as a bluish yellow. and similarly when we try to get the yellow and blue responses together. since no one can pretend to see yellow as a reddish green. and of the Stage I White . we fail because the two and revert to the more primitive yelresponses simply unite low response. they revert to the more primitive white response out of which they developed. But. it is clear that the justspoken-of union of the red and green responses.222 PSYCHOLOGY by combining red and green lights.

that to But suppose chemically. The The —" mother substance time in the same cone.SENSATION light 223 vital response to upon the mother substance. the theory supposes that. chemically. W is In the second stage. they immediately unite into the resulting sensation is W. Y is spht off by the long waves vital response to of light. should be added that " for black. B+G=Y . and If R and G are split off at the same time. unite chemically into Y and : R. . and it does justice to the It facts of color vision. sense. the mother substance is capable of giving off three cleavage products. and B by the short waves. B the sensation of blue. as detailed in the preceding pages. according to the Ladd-Franklin theory. and the Y is the sensation of yellow. that. and and neither yellow nor blue. if But. if Y and B are both split off at the same cleavage products. 38. in the three stages of the color " is not represented in the diagram. and the the sensation of white. G and B and white. they give the sensation of yellow. R. are the direct stimuli for the color sensations. the mother substance giving off two smaller cleavage products. is capable of Y and B. therefore. Similarly. they unite chemically as follows R + G = Y. G and B are all split off at the saJme time. in the third stage. is and Y+B ^W . : Y+B=W then. green and blue. is in This theory of cleavage products good general agreeall ment with chemical principles. but only the cleavage products which. the sensations of red. . and therefore the resulting sensation that of white. Pig. there are three corresponding vital responses.

the sensation ceases or diminishes is — that Continued the most striking form of sensory adaptation. Ladd-Franklin. Quotation from Dr. is a change that occurs in other senses but it is so than elsewhere much more important in the sense of sight that it may best be considered here." ^ Adaptation Sensory adaptation also. objects reflect no light at all upon the retina have correlated with them a definite non-light sensation —that of black. into such a conaction of the same stimulus puts the sense dition that it responds differently from at first. . different odors. but ' all are familiar with th decline in sweet sensation that comes with continued eating c' ^weets. The temperature is usually adapted to the temperature of the skin. All of the cutaneous senses except that for pain are much subject to adaptation. The stimulus continues. Continued steady pressure gives a sense sensation that declines rapidly and after a time ceases altogether. more positive and beneficial is than fatigue. but it often is ally more weakly. this tem- perature at time it first gives the sensation of warmth. but after a all. The first sense of smell very subject to adaptation. If the temperature of the skin is raised from its usual level of about 70° Fahrenheit to 80 or 85. gives no temperature sensation at the warmth sense has become adapted to the temperature of 80 degrees and now a temperature 1 of 70 will give the sensation of cool.224 PSYCHOLOGY which in the interest of a continuous field of view. clearly sense an odor that On you This entering a room you can no longer get after staying there for some time. and usuIt is much like fatigue. which therefore feels neither warm nor cool. adaptation to one odor does not prevent your sensing quite Taste shows less adaptation than smell.

and color adaptation. but you quickly " get used " to the bright illumination and see objects much more distinctly than at first. There are limits to this power peratures. .SENSATION Hold one hand in water at 80 and the other and when both have become adapted to these in 225 water at 55. is equivalent to sensitizing the retina or less Photographic plates can be made of more sensitiveness for use with diff'erent illuminations but . to the sense of sight. sense seems to become adapted to any fixed position of a limb. respective tem. continues but here it is not the sense cells that become adapted. you have only to move the least bit. first all Go into a dark room. is seems black. after the limb has remained mo- some time. the retina automatically alters its sensitivity to fit the illu- mination to which it is exposed. The it sense of head rotation is is adaptable. go out into a bright place. and at first you are " blinded ". and by degrees the color sensation bleaches out so that the light appears nearly white. plunge them together into water at 70 of adaptation. and you will find this last to feel cool to the warm-adapted hand and warm to the cool-adapted. but the back flow that ceases. in that a rotation which to be felt as keenly sensed at the start ceases . you cannot tell in it what position it to find out. Dark adaptation for faint light. and at provided there begin to see. The muscle tionless for is . Remain for some time in a room illuminated by a colored light (as the yellowish light of most artificial illuminants). as will soon be explained. we have light adapta- dark adaptation. To come now tion. which will excite both the muscle sense and the cutaneous pres- sure sense. for your eye has now become light-adapted. so that. but by degrees the a little light filterirg into is room —you Now for your retina becoming dark-adapted.

These facts are taken to mean that dim-light vision. No its doubt. in the dark room. If you direct your eyes towards the lamp. and in adapting itself to much fainter light. and. started. or the. that while you see light and shade and the forms of objects. The main This fact here is is that the re- sponse outlasts the stimulus. The same is true out of doors at night. it takes a little time for it in to stop. that the rods and not the cones have the great The sensitiveness to faint light in the dark-adapted eye. occur in other senses than sight. remove the screen for an in- . or twilight vision as is it rod vision and not cone vision or. restill in the " first stage " in the development of color and consequently no colors are seen in faint light. sense organ. holding your hand or a book in front of them as a screen.226 PSYCHOLOGY Rod and Cone Vision You will notice. After-Images After-images. the kind of vision that we have when the eye is dark-adapted is totally color-blind. cones perhaps become somewhat dark-adapted. also. but the rods far outstrip them in this direction. Another significant fact is that the fovea is of little use in very dim light. in other words. and hence no maining vision. In other words. sometimes called. it is the rods that give to peripheral vision great sensitivity to moving objects. you do not see colors. once action. is . but nowhere else with such definiteness. and true of a sense organ. which might better be called after-sensations. It takes a little time to get it is the muscle. io of little use in very faint light. it is true of a muscle. Rod vision differs then from cone vision in having only one response to every wave-length. The fovea has no rods The rods have differential responsiveness to different wave-lengths.

at first as a positive after-image. . 39. sub- tracts that color (or some of it) from the gray at which the eyes are then directed . is the same Exposing the retina for some This phenomenon of the negative after-image as that of color adaptation. the sensation persists for a time. The visual response outlasts the stimulus. and. There is considerable in com- mon between the negative after-image and contrast. This " positive after-image " is like the main sensa- tion.SENSATION stant and then replace it. only weaker. indeed. strikingly in vision. time to light of a certain color adapts the retina to that color. bleaches that color sensation. best got by looking steadily at a black-and-white or colored figure for as long as fifteen or twenty seconds. The progress of time is supposed to be from left to right in the diagram. There is also a " negative after-image ". Sensory response o Pig. and gray (or white) minus a color gives the complementary color. as it were. while for each color in the complementary color now appears. a sort of back swing. and then as a negative after-image. directing the eyes and then upon a medium gray background. After the stimulus ceases. Contrast Contrast but most is still another effect that occurs in other senses. 227 a short time you will continue for to see the light after the external stimulus has been cut off. After a moment a sensation develops in which black takes the place Stimulus . — of white original sensation the and white of black.

100 feet a seconfl. " Simultaneous contrast " is something new. The Sound. the maximum of saturation in . examples of " successive contrast ". hundreds and thousands per second. evidently adaptation again. and grows less margin. though we usually do not notice them occur any more than we usua. vary among themselves in the same three But sound waves ways that we . is physically a wave motion. complementary The adjoining the background. most marked at the margin away from this Any two adjacent surfaces produce contrast efcontrast effect fects in each other. while this same medium brightness This is would seem bright after looking at a dark surface. and their vibration fre- quencies are counted in tens. and is exactly parallel to what was found in regard to the temperature sense. and place one on a black background and the other on white.000 miles a second. but gives the same effects as successive contrast. not covered by adaptation. instead of 186. . like SeStse op Hearing light.228 PSYCHOLOGY is the negative after-image effect trast ". you will find the piece on the black ground to look much brighter Spots of gray on are tinged with the is than the piece on the white ground. If you take two pieces of the same gray paper. though the sound vibrations are very different from those of light. the complementary color appears more saturated than usual in fact. this is the way to secure These are color sensation. After looking at any color steadily. also called " successive con- After looking at a bright surface.lly notice the after-images that many times in the course of the day. colored backgrounds colors. They travel 1. Their wave-length is measured in feet instead of in millionths of a millimeter. one of medium brightness appears dark. instead of in millions of millions.

and in degree of mixture of different wavelengths. which thus corre- sponds to color in visual sensation. Difference of wave-length of sound waves produces difference in the pitch of auditory sensation. the upper has twice the tion rate of about 260. Pitch ranges from the lowest notes. in wave-length (or vi- bration rate). which declines slowly from this age on. produced by the longest audible waves. Difference of amplitude (or energy) of sound waves pro- duces difference of loudness in auditory sensation. which thus corresponds to brightness in visual. the two quantities being in. and the highest one of about 30. Of any two notes that are an octave apart. Middle. both being examples of intensity series such as can be arranged in any kind of sensation. in the case of sound waves. The ear begins to lose sensitiveness as early as the age of thirty. to the highest. sensation.SENSATION 229 noticed in light waves: in amplitude. The lowest audible sound is one of about sixteen vibrations per second. while the waves to which the ear is most sensitive have a vibration rate of about 1. notes.000 per second. Sounds can be arranged in order of loudness.000 vibrations.000 per second. It is cus- tomary. of which music employs about eight octaves. to speak of vibration rate instead of wave-length. versely proportional to each other (in the same conducting medium). thus amounts to about eleven octaves. vibration rate of the lower. . finding little use for the upper and lower extremes of the . as visual sensations can be arranged in order of brightness.000 to 4. and this loss is most noticeable at the upper limit. The whole range of audible from 16 to 30. produced by the shortest audible waves. C of the piano (or any instrument) has a vibra- Go up an octave from this and you double the number of vibrations per second go down an octave and you halve the number of vibrations.

and in other smaller segments. ". We do not ordinarily analyze these complex blends. but we distinguish one from another perfectly well. The difference be- tween different instruments. vibrating as a whole. A piano string which. A be said in sound to cause dif" pure tone " is the sensation aroused may by a stimulus consisting wholly of waves of the same length. is PSYCHOLOGY The smallest step on the piano. also vibrates at the same time in halves. this is the smallest difference must not be that can be A large proportion of people difference of four vibrations. which we have spoken of as a . gives 260 vibrations per second (middle C). along with its fundamental waves. giving 780 per second. we can " hear out " the separate overtones from the total blend . and thus can tell whether a piano or a cornet is playing. is The whole stimulus thus a compound of fundamental and overtones this complex stimulus is and the sensation aroused by not a " pure tone " but a blend of fundamental tone and overtones. " semitone one-twelfth of an octave but it supposed that perceived. ference of purity. and that means a different quality of tone in our sensation. other waves shorter than the fundamental and arousing tone sensations of higher pitch. because every sounding body gives off. Such a stimulus is almost unobtainable. namely the will give piano quality. Another instrument a somewhat different combination of overtones in the stimulus. called the . whereas the semitone. thus giving 520 vibrations per second .230 pitch series. in thirds. less is can observe a and keen ears a difference of than one vibration. but ordinarily we take the blend as a unit (just as we take the taste of lemonade as a unit). Mixture of which in light causes difference of saturation. at middle C. and hear it simply as middle C of a particular quality. called " overtones ". By careful attention and training. given off by middle C of the piano . a step of about sixteen vibrations. different wave-lengths.

Akin to the timbre of an instrument duced by the human mouth in is the von&el proposition. and hearing have many curious and one of the most curious appears in mixing senses of sight different wave-lengths. whereas overtones move up or down along with their fundamental.SENSATION difference in quality or purity of tone. are excellent examples of blends. and the timbre of an instrument depends on the admixture of shorter waves with the fundamental vibration which gives the main pitch of a note. and sh. The vowels. Compare the effect of throwing two colored lights together into the eye with the effect of throw- . th. is Comparison of Sight and Hearing The two differences. may remain the same or vary in any way. of certain high notes produced by the resonance of the mouth cavity. the position for " ee " it gives a higher tone. n. What s has been said of the vowels applies also to the semi-vowels 1. r. The is vowel tones differ from overtones in remaining the same without regard to the pitch of the fundamental tone that being sung or spoken. in that. in the Meanwhile. determined by the vibration of the vocal cords. while the other tones present are often too brief or too unsteady to give a tonal effect. the cavity gives a certain tone . any particular Each In the vowel appears to consist. f. a noise is a blend of simple tones but the fundamental tone in a noise. they usually remain unanalyzed and are taken sations. and like the timbre of an instrument. and continuing consonants. as auditory sen- though compounds. is 231 technically known as timbre. physically. such as m. Other consonants are to be classed with the noises. pitch of the voice. position for " ah ". simply as units. blend not so preponderant as to give a clear pitch to the total sound. Like a vowel.

you get a tone that swells once a second. a tone blend is really not such a different sort of thing from a color blend. as greenish yellow or bluish . of a blend this in the In light. bination or blend of notes higher and lower than Homogeneous orange light gives the sensation of red and yellow. At the same time. in which the component notes blend while they can still. is now the discord peculiar to the auditory realm. and other waver lengths the effect of blends. in general. and the effect is rough and disagreeable. Nothing of the kind! Were music would be very different from what it is. D does not give the effect of a combination of C and E. as C and E. when combined. together may give either a harmonious blend or a discord. tune them ten vibrations apart and you get ten swellings or beats per second. But the real difference between the two senses at this point is better expressed by saying that single intermediate note it so. purple or bluish green. A chord. A discord of tones characterized by imperfect blending (something unknown in color mixing) and by roughness due to the presence of " beats (another thing unknown in the sense of sight).232 PSYCHOLOGY Two notes sounded ing two notes together into the ear. By analogy with color mixing. to give the same sensation as the D. some wave-lengths give the effect of simple colors. but there is nothing like auditory sphere. Aside from discord. there is a curious difference here. if indeed it were possible at all. you would expect two notes. be " heard out of the chord ". gous with such color blends as orange. mixed colors never clash. or. by attention and training. though colors seen side by is side may do so to a certain extent. is quite analo. If you tune two whistles one vibration apart and sound them together. as red and yellow. Beats are caused by the interference between sound waves of slightly different vibration rate. that no one note ever gives the effect of a comitself.

cone. Both sense sight and hearing are served by great armies of differ- cells. every wave-length gives a tone which nothing in auditory sensation to correspond to seems just as elementary as any other. 23S but in sound. the sense that each is ent principles. much more than visual sensation does with its and the main secret of this advantage of the sense of hearing is that it has a much larger number of elementary responses. closely that destroy each other instead of blending. would mean On the other hand. Such a combination gives noise. but still there would undoubtedly be hundreds of elements. in such a cells are spread out way affected by is light from one par- ticular direction.SENSATION green . the conclusion would this seem to be that each was an element. in the central area of the retina. and thousands of elements. From the fact that every distinguishable pitch gives a tone which seems as simple and unblended as any other. no simple sensation resulting from the combined ac- tion of all wave-lengths. There is noth- ing auditory to correspond with black. Against the six elementary visual sensations are to be to the set auditory elements number of hundreds or thousands. There is white. but nothing that seems particularly simple. and thus the retina gives excellent space information. but the two armies are organized on very In the retina. and gives all sensations so it is not strange that the number of visual . tallies with its stimulus . for silence seems plementary tones auditory sensation like There are no comthe complementary colors. by any light Every makes all the elethe possible color ele- mentary visual responses . the fact that tones close together in pitch sound almost alike may mean that they have elements in common and are thus themselves compounds . But each retinal cell its affected that happens to come from particular direction. no tones In a word. to be a genuine absence of sensation.

234 PSYCHOLOGY is ments lens. is the theory the fact that the sense cells of the cochlea stand on the " basilar membrane fibers ". as when you put on the " loud pedal " (remove the dampers from the strings) and then sing a note strings of a piano or into the piano. others by sound of one wavedifferent tones do not still all by other wave-lengths. a long. and com- posed partly of running crosswise. Theory op Hearing The most famous theory is of the action of the inner ear The foundation of the " piano theory " of Helmholtz. give the low tones. a piano string can be thrown into " symof notes. of a fabric and interwoven with crossing fibers. has On the other no way of keeping hand. having no sound separate the sounds from dif- ferent directions (and accordingly gives only meager indi- cations of the direction of sound) . You wiU find that the string of the pitch sung has been thrown into vibration by the action of the sound waves sung against it. pathetic vibration ". auditory cells Some of the medium tones. Now suppose the strings of the basilar membrane to be all different pitches. others the high tones and since there are thousands of cells. but its sense cells are so spread out as to be affected^ some length. except for the fact that the " strings " of the basilar membrane do not differ in length anywhere like as much as the strings of the piano must differ in order to produce the whole range Now. others the . the ear. you have a fair idea of the structure of the basilar membrane. narrow membrane stretched between bony attachments at either side. The come from the same sense cells. small. tuned to notes of within the range of . very much as the harp are stretched between two side If you imagine the strings of a piano to be the warp bars. there may be thousands of elementary responses.

conception. for while painting might dispute with music as to which were the more highly developed art^ painting depends on form as well as color. exposed to sound waves. it The theory is very attractive because would account so nicely for the great number of elementary tone sensations (there are over 20. it This probably points the way towards some truer. more complex. is seen to be thrown into vibra- and into different forms of vibration for waves of different length. did vibrate in this simple manner. the sense cells shaken and excited. but not by any means into the simple sort of vibration is demanded by the piano theory. (2) the strings do not differ in length a hundredth part of what they would need to differ in order to be tuned to all notes est. theory accordingly too simple. from the lowest to the high- and there is no sign of differences in stretch or in load- ing of the strings to make up for their lack of difference in length. and there is no art of pure color at all comparable with music. fiber by the fabric into which the strings of the membrane But (1) membrane are woven would prevent their vibrating as freely and independently as the theory requires. and (3) a little model of the basilar membrane.SENSATION sympathetic vibration whenever waves of rate reached it 235 audible vibrations: then each string would be thrown into its own vibration by way of the outer and middle ear and standing over the vibrating fibers would be .000 fibers or strings in the basilar membrane). tion. indeed. . but The hearing fact that there are is the chief reason many elementary sensations of why the art of tones is so much more elaborate than the art of color . which makes use simply of tones (and noises) with their combinations and sequences. as well as for various other facts of hearing — if we could only believe that the basilar fiber.

except the one fact whether comes from the right or left. but noise now appears to be a and its organ. They found that something very much like these compensatory movements could be elicited by direct stimulation of the end-organs in the canals or of the sensory nerves leading from them. pressed on the animal from without were no longer made when the canals were destroyed. which is given by the difference in the stimulation received ears. physiologists. And they found that little currents of the liquid filling the canals acted as a stimulus to these end-organs and so aroused the . for example. the horizontal canal in the left ear viates to the left destroyed. swim or fly in If. and besides the ear it is now known to give practically no information regarding the direction of sound.236 PSYCHOLOGY Senses of Bodily Movement a remarkable fact that some parts of the inner ear are not connected with hearing at all. is brought lack of equilibrum and inability to walk. It is The two groups organs of sense cells in the vestibule — —the otolith were formerly supposed to be the sense organ for noise. from their arrangement three planes at right angles to each other. The semicircular cochlea. the existence of which was formerly unsuspected. but no one could give anything but the vaguest idea of how they might do this. The semicircular canals have been much studied by the They found that injury to these structures a straight course. the animal continually deis asi he advances. therefore. in canals. the compound of tones. by the two and not by anything that exists in either ear taken alone. were once supposed to analyze the sound according to the direction from which it came. and so forced into a " circus movement They found that the compensatory movements normally made in reaction to a movement im". but with quite another sense.

blindfolded. he soon ceases to sense the movement. resultdirection. 237 led to accept a They were thus view that was originally suggested by the position of the Each " semicircular " canal. of the sense cells in the canal. him. he says you are starting to turn him in the opposite . canals in space. 40. and this current. produce a back flow of the fluid con- tents of the canal. head must. itself considerably more than a semicircular tube. in a chair it is found that him in either he can easily tell whenever you start to turn direction. If you keep on turning him at a constant speed. by bending the hairs would stimulate them and give a sensation of rotation. Therefore rotating the Fig. or at least a sensory nerve impulse excited by the head rotation.SENSATION compensatory movements. opens into the vestibule at each end and thus amounts to a complete circle. — How by a water current. but if then you stop that can be rotated without sound or jar. by inertia. This current is itself an ing from a turning of the head in the opposite the sense cells in a semicircular canal are stimulated inertia back-flow. When a human subject is placed.

Both are important in maintaining equilibrium give information regarding the position They and motor it efficiency. was the " sixth sense senses that were so bitterly fought in the mid- dle of the last century five by those who maintained that the enough for our fathers ought to be enough for us. Thus we see that there are conscious sensations of rotation from the canals. as the canals do of rotary head movements. again by inertia. Later. continues to move in the direction it had been moving just before when it was keeping pace with the canal. is The muscle sense another sense of bodily movement. not by rotary movements. too. and rectilinear movements of the head. and that these give information of the starting or stopping of a rotation. he ceases to sense the uniform movement because friction of the liquid in the slender canal soon abolishes the . The otolith organs in the vestibule are probably excited. and also by the pull of gravity when the head is held in any position. though not of its steady continuance. PSYCHOLOGY He senses the beginning of the rotary movement because this causes the back flow through his canals. It was shown that there must be something besides the skin sense. The question was whether the sense of touch did not account for all sensations of bodily movement. back flow by causing the liquid to move with the canal and he senses the stopping of this movement because the liquid.2S8 direction. the crucial fact was established . Excessive stimulation of the canals gives the sensation of dizziness. because weights were better distinguished when " hefted " in the hand than when simply laid in the motionless palm. and it was shown that loss of skin sensation in an arm or leg interfered much less with the coordinated movements of the limb than did the loss of all the sensory nerves to the limb. as in an elevator. but by sudden startings and stoppings of rectilinear motion. ".

and " c " its end-brush about the spindle.) A "tendon spindle. " a indicates the tendon. (From Cajal. — that sense organs (the " muscle spindles ") existed in the muscles and were connected with sensory nerve fibers. "b" is a sensory Let the tendon beaxon. 41.SENSATION 339 Fio. and "e" the muscle fibers. come taut in muscular contraction." very similar to the muscle spindle spoken of in the text. and that other sense organs existed in the tendons and about . and the fine branches of the sensory axon will be squeezed and so stimulated. but found at the tendinous end of a muscle instead of embedded in the muscle substance itself.

tendon and joint sense ". he has no information as to how far the it.240 PSYCHOLOGY the joints. This sense is Very important in the control of movement. ^in process of being executed. bids fair to stick. to stop movement has progressed and cannot tell when Thus it is less strange than it first appears to " locomotor ataxia ". as well as of resistance encoun- N^sensed by any movement. Without it. is sometimes used as an equivalent. but the shorter term. and the corresponding adjective. if a movement is . The Greek derivative. a person lacks information of where a limb is to start with. both reflex and voluntary movement. Muscular fatigue and soreness are through the same general system of sense organs. The muscle and tered sense informs us of movements of the joints of positions of the limbs. " kinesthesis ". is common. and naturally cannot know what movement to make or. " muscle sense ". primarily a disease affecting not the motor nerves but the sensory nerves that take care of the muscle sense. This sense accordingly might better be called the " muscle. a disease is learn that which shows itself in poor control of movement. . " kinesthetic ". meaning " sense of movement ".

out a little movement of the finger can be seen. take a bit of color in the hand and bring it slowly in from the side. Classify the senses according as they respond to stimuli (a) in- ternal to the body. Compare the taste of foods when the nostrils are held closed with the taste of the same food when the nostrils are opened. 9. Sum up what you have learned of the diff'erences between central and peripheral vision. While your eyes are looking rigidly straight ahead. for cold spots. (c) (b) directly alFecting the surface of the body. (d) what are the elementary 1. noticing it when it as how far out they can be read. Peripheral vision. . (a) Color sense. fit it for its use? Separation of taste and smell. and to describe the diiference in terms of the elementary skin sensations. (e) peculiar blends occurring within the sense or between this sense and another. Outline the chapter. (c) what stimuli arouse the sense. if any. Notice how far (c) Sense of motion. Make a complete cream in the analysis of the sensations obtained from choco- late ice mouth. 5. as on the back of the hand. are present in the sense organ. rearranging the material somewhat. coming from a distance. (b) what accessory apparatus is present in the sense organ. 4.1 EXERCISES state. Go from a dimly lighted place into bright sunlight. Try to analyze the smooth sensation obtained by laying the finger tip on a sheet of paper. noticing what color sensation you get from it can first be seen at all. (a) what sense cells. (f) what can be said regarding adaptation of the sense. and immediately try for an instant to read with the sun shining directly upon the page. What the use of peripheral vision? Light and dark adaptation. and for pain spots. under each responses of the sense. (b) Form sense. and what changes in color appear moves from the extreme periphery to the center of the field of view. 3. distinctive itse* are rnade of each sense? Explore a small portion of the skin. 8. and (g) what can be said regarding after- images of the 2. to judge from its sense organ? Is it highly specialized? highly sensitive? How does its What peculiarity in these respects 7. 6. Is the pain sense a highly developed sense.SENSATION 24. and the rough sensation obtained by laying the finger tip on the surface of a brush. Remaining in the sunlight. so as to sense. is 10. sense. Use printed letters in the same way.

What These can be quite easily heard in the sound of a use does the sense of hearing make of overtones? REFERENCES For a somewhat ren's Human fuller discussion of the topic of sensation. and then turn the eyes upon a gray background. and then turn the eyes upon a plain gray surface. Color adaptation. and try to reach a general statement as to the color of the negative after-image. State the result in terms of adaptation. What is the effect of making slight movements of the fingers. Tactile adaptation. Repeat with a different color. Support two fingers on the edge of a table. and immediately screen the eyes so that again. and so causing the stimulus to affect fresh parts of the skin? Temperature sense adaptation. and for a much fuller dis- cussion. Withdraw the hand for a second. go back into a dimly lighted room. 151-214. black cross upon a white surface. . 13. eyes. pp. and notice whether the tactile sensation remains steady or dies out. Look steadily for half a minute at a 12. and to the eye that has been shielded. and notice whether the sensation ends as soon as thfe stimulus is removed. holding the hand as a screen before the you do not see the light. motionless. After holding one hand in the warm water and the other in the cold. Let this stimulus remain there. and notice whether the saturation appears the same to the eye that has been exposed to the color. see Titchener's Textbook of Psychology. and describe what you see. transfer both simultaneously to the medium water and compare the temperature sensations got by each hand from this water. 11. such as an electric light. 16. adaptation takes more or less time than light-adaptation.242 PSYCHOLOGY repeat the attempt every 10 seconds. 46-224. and note the color of the afterimage of the spot. pp. Touch the skin lightly for an instant. one warm. large bell. Have three bowls of water. and noTry looking tice whether the color fades as the exposure continues. at the color with one eye only. 1909. Having become lightadapted. Overtones. (b) Look steadily for half a minute at a colored spot upon a white or gray background. one medium. and lay on them a match or some other light object. Negative after-images. one cold. see WarPsychology. exposing the eyes to the light. and notice how long it takes for the eye to become adapted to the bright light. Positive visual after-images. 1919. Tactile after-images. is it positive or negative? 15. and after a minute look at the color with each eye separately. quite 17. and see whether dark- . Look steadily at a colored surface. 14. Look in the direction of a bright light. and notice whether the sensation of the light outlasts the stimulus. If there is any after-image.

in Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology. see Der Oeruch. see the article on " Vision ". For a full account of taste. 1921. 1902. For a recent study that has revolutionized the psychology of the sense of smell. pp. . Watt. 1916. An Introduetion to the Study of Colour Vision. 1917.SENSATION For a really thorough consideration of the facts 243 and theories of color vision. by Hans Henning. see J. or a review of the same by Professor Gamble in the American Jomrnal of Psychology. 1917. For an extensive discussion of the " Psychology of Sound ". Herbert Parsons. 32. Vol. 290-295. 1915. For a more complete statement of the Ladd-Franklin theory. see Hollingworth and Poflfenberger's Sense of Taste. see the book with this title by Henry J.

exploratory. In all these ways " attention " in the military sense. or " readiness " in the athletic sense. Both commands are designed to put the hearer in an attitude of readiness for what is coming next. in a word. TO WHAT. explore. it is to respond to that to expect some- thing and disregard other things. They make the hearer clearly conscious of They arouse in the hearer a condition of keen more than a few sec- alertness that cannot be maintained for onds unless some further command comes from the officer. Attention is. They nullify the effect of miscel- laneous stimuli that are always competing for the hearer's attention. seis highly conscious. officer. Attention is preparatory. and the athletic starter calls out " Ready " for the same purpose. or to start to explore. To attend is to Primitive attention amounts Its natural stimuto the same as the instinct of exploration. affords a good picture of the psychology of attention. novel or sudden.CHAPTER XI ATTENTION HOW WE more ATTEND. and its instinctive reaction consists 244 . To attend to a thing to be keenly conscious of that thing. mobile. and it is thing more from that thing. They put a stop to miscellaneous doings and clear the way for the specific reaction that is ! next to be called for. AND WITH ! WHAT BESULTS " Attention " shouts the officer as a preliminary to some specific command. and make him responsive only to stimuli coming from the the officer. its " emotional state " is lus is anything curiosity or expectancy. lective.

The is a good example as long as it keeps : uniformly on. or What Attracts Attention We can attend to anything whatever. The the stimulus must not be too gradual if it is to be it effective. as in tone." though he must learn to attend to many things that do not naturally get his attention. or . it must have a certain degree of suddenness. in As stimuli for much more effective than others. subject of attention. some objects are and the question is. attention. Change in is the greatest factor of advantage. we shall in part be dealing with native responses. several " facwe may call them. or may be change in quality. tors of advantage ". it is unnoticed. then. which will come to light in the course of the chapter. and in part with responses that are acquired.ATTENTION of exploratory movements. a becoming suddenly stronger or weaker. examine. A it steady noise ceases after a while to be noticed. or even should stop altogether. but are more likely to attend to some things than to others. or await. attention. The Stimulus. change in would " wake us up " with a start. Some stimuli naturally attract and others attract attention only because of preIn considering the whole vious experience and training. But the great laws of attention. The child does not have to learn to attend. what way one object has the advan- tage over another. plore. and belong under the head of native characteristics. but if it should suddenly beat if it faster or louder or in a different key. it It may be a change in intensity. are at the same time general laws of reaction. but let change ticking of the clock any respect and immediately it arrests attention. There are several ways. Its inherent impulse is 245 to ex- Attention belongs fundamentally among the native forms of behavior.

or odor. " motive " in the decoration of a building. on the whole. The value " of an advertisement has been found by Strong to .'^ Another similar factor is repetition. portant factor of advantage. of his " ad " will not. The " summation of stimuli " has much the. it Repeat a is more Repeat a cry or call several times. that gets our attention without motion. Cover a billboard it with several copies of the same picture. visible objects. The advertiser uses large eff^ort type. In the case of as intensity. or the number of readers whose attention amount of attention he will catch. though not at first. and pays for big space in the newspaper. or high intensity of a stimulus. double the gets. a moveis ment it in space. is another ima weak one. and likely to be noticed.246 color. is repeated or continued for a long probably cease to hold attention. not as fast as the increase in space. but about as the square root of the space occupied. size efi^ect The large features of the landscape are no- ticed before the little details. fail. is a change of quality . If. when we step from the bank into the water. because of its 1 Often he pays more than the space is worth . and attracts more attention than a single one of the pictures would. or it PSYCHOLOGY may be a change in position. in the to attract the attention of the reader. and somean thing crawling on the skin attracts attention by virtue of its Anything moving in the field of view is also unfailing stimulus to attention. the sudden change from warmth to cold. and after a while it may be noticed. Strength. and a has about the same bright flash of light over a faint twinkle. same effect as increasing the intensity of a single stimulus. however. that a change of intensity. Other things being equal. a stimulus it will time. a strong stimulus will attract attention before A loud noise has the advantage over a low murmur. When one who holding our arm gives is a sudden squeeze to attract our attention. at least doubling the size he " attention increase.

some kinds of stimulus get attention 5^^ " Striking " cannot be defined in physical terms. and pain get attention in preference to smooth touch. The factors of advantage so far mentioned are native. while anything that you do nothing . any one forms the habit railroad. such as occur in the jingles that catch the little child's ear. a natural atten- But the is individual also learns noticing. acquires the power to attract your attention. and what not. attracts the eye more than a broad. 247 or. of not noticing repeated stimuli that have no importance for him. sharply defined object. in other words. The automobile driver forms the habit of attending to the sound of his motor. quite apart from the Saturated colors. form has the advantage over what is vague. but after a few days the trains little. In the realm of sound. what is worth and thus forms habits of atten- tion. of change. the botanist forms the habit of noticing such inconspicuous objects as the lichens on the tree trunks. as well as habits of inattention. are stronger stimulj^k for attention. is The general rule covering attention habits to this : anything that you have work with. tickle High notes are more striking than low. dreaming that some first and at monster is pursuing you. Itch. A from its background. indefinite exDefinite small. or like to play with. disturb you very night or day. Move into a house next the you notice every train that passes even at night you awake with a start. " form " is represented by rhythm or tune. and is a stimulus possessing one or more of them tion-stimulus. but simply refers to the fact that better than others. On the other hand. because it lacks the element Striking quality is an advantage. and by other definite sequences of sound. though no stronger matter of intensity. in intensity of light than pale colors. that stands out panse of light such as the sky.ATTENTION monotony.

Besides these permanent habits of attention. and any aroused desire adjusts or " sets " attenThe desire or interest of the motion in a similar way. intensity. ask yourself are getting from the skin. Stimuli relevant to the momentary interest have an unwonted hold upon attention. striking quality. even though the same things would ordinarily be noticed. When you tage. themselves. dependent on past experience. etc. consisting of change. while things out of line with this interest may escape attention altogether. and definite form there is the factor of habit. jump out and what pressure sensations you and immediately several obtrude attention A question sets towards whatever may furnish an answer. To sum up. you notice bad points about him that you usually overlook. What you shall notice in the store window is governed by what by the prominence of the are angry with a person. The tion.248 PSYCHOLOGY it with loses whatever hold on your attention sessed by virtue of its intensity. attention. we may say that three general factors of advantage determine the power of any stimulus to attract There is the native factor. and immediately various red spots strike the eye. ment facilitates attention to certain stimuli and inhibits attention to others. may have pos- quality. and there is . The Motor Reaction Attention is in Attention obviously a reaction of the individual . there are temporary adjustments determined by the momentary itir terest or desire. the factor of present interest and desire. interest of the moment is often represented by a quesAsk yourself what spots of red there are in the field of view. and is thus an important factor of advanyou are looking for as as much object in the total display. toth« stimulus that gets his attention and it is in part a motbl" .

to a sound by cocking the The most head and turning the eyes towards the source of sound. on some convenient object as a mere resting place. arouses attention. Attention to an object in the hand is shown by " feeling of it ". and at the tensest moments even the breath attitude of attention is checked. attending to an it. it such as to bring the sense or- gans to bear on as efficiently as possible.ATTENTION reaction. the object of attention something not present but thought somewhat similar rigid atti- tude is assumed to be held to be fixed the body is apt to lean forward. the lens being accommodated for its dis- tance by the action of the little ciliary muscle inside the . 249 in The movements that occur it. We may distinguish two sorts of motor reaction that oc: cur in attention the general attentive attitude. and the special adjustments of the sense organs. object are such as to afford a better view of or a better hearing of or. is while attention fixed outside the visual field altogether. to an odor by movements. An audience ab- sorbed in a speech or musical performance gives a good picture of the general attentive attitude. But we spoke strange reaction. which amount to exploratory reactions.e. The mobility. and that many of them lean forward All were important to get just as close as possible.. i. You notice that if most people look as if it fixedly towards the speaker. the little restless movements cease. body of. the neck and the eyes to " stare at vacancy ". so that you could " hear one of tense im- a pin drop is ". if of attention as mobile. as listen- ing with their eyes. stiff. to a substance in the sniffing mouth by tasting movements. aijd it would be its mobility did not show itself in the motor in It does fact show itself in the sense organ adjustments. a o/iented towards the object is When . instructive of this type of attention-reactions are The eye is focused on the object that those of the eyes. with the whole of attention. in general.

fixate it for a few seconds and then jump elsewhere unless the object found to be specially significant. It cannot be done. to receive the light down from the object upon the fovea. is Watch the eyes of one sort. But without the moving object as stimulus. again. " sweeping the glance " is a myth. so as. retina. and that at. Let a bright or moving object appear somewhere in the field of view —immediately is the eyes turn towards it with a quick jump. the two eyes are converged that the light from it strikes the fovea or best part of each or sidewise. and he will confidently try to follow your instructions. and the eyes are also turned up. but if you watch his eyes you will find them still jumping. tory eye movement: the " jump " in passing from one object to another. and the eyes can and keep pace with it pretty accurately. moderate speed across the left to right In reading. there is only one and you will see his eyes as his attention shifts case in which it can be done. so eyeball. from one part of the scene to another. Ask him to abstain from this jumpy movement and let his eyes " sweep over " the scene.250 PSYCHOLOGY upon the object. and the " pursuit movement " in examining a moving object. To appreciate the value of this jerky movement. we need to understand that each short jump occupies but a thirtieth to a fiftieth jumps along that line. At least. makes a long jump back to the beginning of the second of short line and another series and so on. the eye moves by a series of short jumps from along the first line of print. In fact. the eyes can only execute There are thus two types of explorathe jump movement. moving object to look follow it is when there is a Given an object moving at a field of view. . This last class of eye movements is specially instructive and shows specially well the mobility of attention. who looking at a picture or scene of any jumping hither and thither.

brightness. the eye governed by a definite interest. motionless. therefore. the eye may still be able to see it distinctly which a sort of by means of the pursuit movement. The Shifting of Attention Eye movement attention. and that the real seeing takes place only during the fixations. with the result that over ninety per cent. is simply a means of passing from one fixation to another with the least possible loss of time. The jump movement. definite form. to see the eye must be it distinctly. unchanging object. or habit of attenis other object which next has the advantage' on account of movement. can hold the eye for some time. A But moving object. of the line of time spent on a ten per cent. . When simply explor- it shifts about in what seems an indiscriminate way. In reading. though really following the principle of deserting each object as soon as it has been examined.ATTENTION of a second. The eye still sees an object distinctly only when at rest with If the object is still. while the " fixation pauses " between 251 jumps less last much longer. respect to the object. or even a complex object that presents a number of parts to be examined in turn. however. of view to another. instead of shifting irregularly about the page. is print is fixation time. and than occupied in jumping from one fixation to it the next. and moves consecutively along the is series of words. or an object that doing something. moving fixation. and to is see its different parts must fixate one after the other. and jumping to that color. it is almost impossible to hold the eye fixed for any length of time on a simple. is has been found that nothing of any consequence seen during the eye jumps. But is if the object in motion. jumping from one part to an- other. affords a good picture of the mobility of Ordinarily the eye shifts frequently from onefield part of the ing a scene. Now. tion.

it contin- ually seeks something fresh for examination. and look steadily at the collection. and some shift situation to another. A few simple experiments will serve to throw the shifting relief. the usually occurs as often as once a second. Or. from Sanford. eyes closed. letter written on a blank sheet of paper. 42. since thoughts obtrude themselves at intervals. more dots arrariged either regularly or irregularly. it tends to shift every second or two from one part of the Even if you are lying in bed with your movement of attention still appears in the rapid succession of thoughts and images.252 Attention is PSYCHOLOGY mobile because it is exploratory. the dots as way is is much as another. and that the group- ing changes frequently. capable of arousing several group- ing reactions on your part. of attention into clearer Look fixedly at a single Pig. make a " dot figure ". and notice how one part after another of the letter stands out notice also that attention does not stick absolutely to the letter. are grouped in one Objectively. composed of six or eight or . so that any particular grouping your own doing. in other words.—a dot o o o o o o o o o o o o o figure. Probably you will find that the dots seem to fall into figures and groups. The objective stim- ulus. of course. In the pres- ence of a complex of sights and sounds and touch stimuli. Look steadily at it. and does arouse different reactions one after another Shifting also appears in looking at an " ambiguous fig- .

ATTENTION in either of 253 ure ". The transparent cube. between these two positions. 43. . instead of the upper. and Fig. Numerous such figures can be constructed. if you keep on looking steadily. the most celebrated is the ambiguous staircase. showing near and far edges alike. shifts bacK^and forth A still of " binocular rivalry ". 44. and the cube will appear to Fig. drawn so as to represent equally well a solid object two different positions. —The ambiguous it iTirre. shift its position from time to time. and suddenly you see the under side of a flight of stairs. Look steadily at it. more striking case of shifting goes by the name and occurs when colors or figures that we cannot combine into a single picture are presented. —The ambiguous cube figure. is a good example. Look steadily at such a drawing.

the time and blue part of the time. and you and blue before the other. The stereoscope is a great convenience in applying incon- sistent stimuli to the two eyes. if of experiments can be made. A different kind of shifting appears in what is tuation of attention ". —Another ambiguous figure. and the other to the corresponding part of the other retina. and a bright has the advantage over a darker one. of a different color.254 PSYCHOLOGY one to one eye. Anything moving field in one field has a similar advantage. and by aid of is this instru- ment a great variety thus found that. which can be seen in three ways. called " fluc- Make a light gray smudge on a white sheet of paper. and look through both at once will see red part of Fig. little figure while the other. any on this figure has a great advantage over the rival plain color and stays in sight most of the time. Hold red glass close in front of one eye towards a bright background. Thus the same factors of advantage hold good in binocular rivalry as in native attention generally. the two alternating as in the case of ambiguous figures. field It is the before one eye a plain color. and place this at such a distance that the gray will be barely distinguishable from the white back- . 45. has it.

if at all. by the factor of momentary desire or interest. to the background. you turn from one object to another. during a rivalry or so. In rivalry. place your watch at such a distance that its ticking is barely audible. pearance of an ambiguous figure (2) Rivalry persists. . since the grouping or appearance that gives way to another vanishes itself for the time being. tigue and recovery at the brain synapses concerned in observing the faint stimulus. In fact. you to disappear and reappear periodically. whereas the more typical shift of attention occurs every second or fluctuation experiment. But when. or of the rivalry type either. Rivalry and fluctuation diff^er from this typical shifting of attention in several ways is (1) The typical movement of attention quicker than the oscillation in rivalry or fluctuation. and in looking at a dot figure or ambiguous figure you "get the same effect. shifts are influenced very little. and you will find the sound to go out and come back at inThe fluctuation p^bably represents periodic fatervals. in exploring a scene with the eyes. are not to be regarded as quite the same sort of thing as the ordinary shiftings of attention. each appearance may last for many seconds before giving way to the other. Shiftings of the fluctuation type. 255 will find it Looking steadily at the smudge. and at a more rapid rate than Attention does not really hold steady during the whole time that a single ap- the changes in the object looked at. without disappearing altogether and. (3) In rivalry. you may observe thoughts coming and going at the same time. Or. or by the sequence of ideas and images in thinking or dreaming. and are very little subject to control. the object left behind simply retires .ATTENTION ground. cal in The more typi- movement of attention is illustrated by the eye movements examining a scene. the color that disappears goes out entirely.

and. from loses its reflex action to rational thinking. only one (2) is made at the t^ame time. Or when. but remains still vaguely present for a few moments. The mobility of attention obeys these same laws. in thinking of of people. . provided the situation remains the same. in Laws of Attention and Laws of Reaction Shifting occurs also in reflex action. more mobile and less bound to rigid rules. and an alternative made. in fact. the one calling for one reflex and the other for the opposed reflex (as flexion and extension of the same limb). only. PSYCHOLOGY when attention shifts from one noise to a number another. pro- vided the two stimuli continue to act.256 in the same way. These three laws hold good of reactions at all levels. (1) Three fundamental laws The lazif of selection: of two or more inconsistent responses to the same situation (or complex of stimuli). due to such factors in the stimulus. the first one does not go out of mind altogether when attention moves to the next. and the will result is that only one of these reactions in- occur at the same time. The law of advantage : one of the alternative responses has an tion. one after another comes to mind. the two reactions may alternate in a way that reminds us of binocu- lar rivalry or ambiguous figures. is attention livelier and freer in its movements than Attention is reflex action or than the shifting in rivalry. the first noise does not lapse altogether but re- mains vaguely heard. but the inhibited reflex gets its turn shortly. the other being completely hibited. of reaction here come to light. or to habits of reac- as intensity and change (3) The law of is shifting: the response that has the initial advantage response advantage shortly. General stimuli Let two be acting at once. initial advantage over the others.

aroused to activity by some stimu- lus or other.? Evidently it the factor of present desire or interest. Eye movement. he may generate the necessary motive force by taking the lesson as a " stunt ". an interest in the matter presented. Sustained attention is not tained here. Every second Just it shifts. moving forward in the story we are The more absorbed we are reading. within which as lively as ever. instance. to certain stimuli. attention keeps to a given object or theme.e.. but is simply confined so. lected. the ideal attention-sustainer If. for of attention. while inhibiting others. then. When we speak. fear was often the motive force in the schoolroom. and still it moves. as something to be mastered. Attention is susin the story. affords also a picture of sus- Remember how the eye moves but still it in reading. that sustains attention. which we employed tained attention. of a student as having good powers we are not thinking of mobility but rather of the opposite. already mentioned. keeps to the line of print. response. glued to one point. i. but sticks to the story. by any means. relied In the old days. unable to reach its goal instantly. but persisting in activity for a while and facilitating responses that are in its line. a spur to his selfassertion. before as a picture of the movement of attention. however. tion to others. attention. its motion may be What is is it. the more rapidly we read. Such a tendency facilitates and inhibits attenthus causing them to be overlooked and negis For the student. is It a reaction-tendency. he cannot get up any absorbing interest in the subject-matter at once. upon and the switch hanging be- .ATTENTION Sustained Attention 257 The mobility of attention is only half the story.

The mastery impulse is certainly is superior to fear for the purpose. Attention to a subject thus passes through three stages in its development. driven by extrane- . he feels the glow of success is and of applause. being put on our mettle. In order to get up a genuine interest in a subject objective or inherent interest — —an The it is usually necessary to little penetrate into the subject for some subject distance. but too to carry us far. without extraneous motives. after which his interest in what he is reading is sufficient. when he reads correctly. The little child. Fear of punishment or disapproval. favored by the native factors of advantage. attractive in may itself.258 PSYCHOLOGY efficient hind the tion teacher's desk was the stimulus to sustained if attention. First comes the instinctive exploratory sort of attention. keep us going till we find the subject So. perhaps. because other children make fun of his blunders. scolded when his mind wanders from those marks. the printed /characters have so naturally turns little attractiveness in themselves that he But. or realizing the necessity of this subject for our fu- ture success. than is good for him. but better than either a genuine interest in the subject studied. till to keep his nose between the covers of the story book more. is There must be some tendency aroused atten- to be sustained. when the little child is learning to read. may not appeal to any of our native impulses. hope of reward or praise. because he away from them after a brief exploration. and how then its is we to hold attention satisfied to it long enough to discover inherent interest? e'asily Curiosity will give us a start. is the type of the successful student. here. he does hold himself to the printed page he is able to read a little. Next comes the stage of forced attention. or to any are interest that has been previously acquired. because.

with the curidistraction this effort ous result that the subject. but. after A bell rings. The and by has acted as a stimulus to greater effort.^ S^ in an important topic for consideration attention. There are always competing stimand the various factors of advantage. is Distraction ratory. being free from efFort. only momentarily distracted. all interest in what he has you pull out your watch while he is talking. He commences to to say. the stage of objective interest. He seems to have no impulse There are persistent enough to hold his thoughts steady. in the middle stage forced. may be called A^-^X>^^ inyoluntary. is The middle stage effort first often called that of voluntary attention. while the last stages. a phonograph record is let played. determine which stimulus shall get attention at any moment. the patient is excessively distractible. such as fear or self-assertion.ATTENTION ous motives. especially desire or interest. 259 Finally arrives In the first and last stages attention is spontaneous. accomplishes more work rather than less. so much is he absorbed in his own troubles. In the excited insane condition known as " mania " or the " manic state ". story in the middle of a sentence and shifts to tell some remark about the watcli. a favorite topic for experiment in the labois The subject put to work adding or typewriting. since and has to be exerted to sustain attention. Distraction Distraction is . which disturbances are is and works for a time introduced. in quiet. uli. ^^ m-*m-^. connection with sustained A distraction is a to stimulus that attracts attention away from the thing which we mean to attend. contrary insane conditions in which it is almost impossible to distract the patient from his own inner broodings. if he drops his you something. perhaps a perfect bedlam of noise loose . .

An example is seen in piano The beginner at the piano likes to play with the hand alone. right is to couple the distraction to the main task. and similar muscular activity which. helps by keeping the main stream of energy directed into the task instead of towards the disis necessary when the main task when the distraction is specially attractive. after practice. and that playing. But one may grow accustomed or " adapted " to an oft-recurring distraction. reading or speaking aloud. to overcome a disit or else couple it to your main task. or even when the distraction is something new and strange and likely to arouse curiosity. he couples the two hands. quite different way of overcoming a disit traction. so as to deal with both together. Effort is uninteresting. which works very well where can be employed. because striking a note with the left hand him from striking the proper note with the right. First. tracting stimuli. " "ihis things at once ? " In but one answer. greater energy There are several ways of overcoming a distraction. or so as to sidetrack it without effort .260 is it PSYCHOLOGY This does not always happen so in real life. while entirely unnecessary for executing the task in hand. and much prefers two- handed to one-handed playing. overcome. Doing Two Things at Once The is subject of distraction brings to mind the question that often asked. for we form. the question admits of Can any one do two . traction. strikes the bass note of a chord with the left hand while his right strikes the other notes of the same chord. distracts But. you either sidetrack In short. a habit of inattention to the distracting stimulus may be formed. may be thrown into the task one is trying to perform. There is another. but shows the possibilities of sustained attention. The extra effort is apt to show itself in gritting the teeth. in other words.

however. provided we We have no trouble in breathing and walking at the same time. and so on. but wrote in long- hand. But in all this there is no doing of two things. and give undivided attention to compound act. at the same instant of time. walking. and so on.ATTENTION are doing anything else besides breathing. Now. Quite an intellectual feat. then. What he did. nor even in thinking at the same time. to combine two acts into a single coordinated act. 261 are always doing at least two things at once. and seeing are so The more important whether we can do two things at once. In a small way. then turn to the second and give him a start on the second letter. when each demands careful The redoubtable Cassar's copyists Julius Cffisar. is said to have been able to dictate at once to several copyists. of happy memory. The Span form more than a op Attention Similar to the question whether we can attentively persingle act at a time is the question of . were not stenographers. attention. in the way just described under the this head of distraction. You may be able. automatic as to require no attention. attentively. accordingly. certainly ! a feat requiring absolutely simultaneous attention to several different matters. was undoubtedly to give first letter the first copyist a start on the he wished to send. getting back to the first in time to keep But not him busy. is But breathing. any one can do someIt is thing of the same kind. switch back to the poem and then back to the adding. of numbers while reciting a familiar it poem you get the poem run on automatically for a few words while you add a few numbers. started and then let not impossible to add columns . question. so that he could speak much faster than they could write. nor in seeing while breathing and walking.

at a single glance. Measbox. in a single instant of time. He can tell and beyond that makes many mistakes. little Expose a number of colors.262 PSYCHOLOGY how many The different objects we can attend to at once. displaying a card for a fifth of a second or time for a single glance. If the he can read three or four words at a glance. But if the letters make familiar words. as revealed by sustained attention and work under distraction. words make a familiar phrase. one of the oldest experiments little Place a number of marbles in a if take a single peek into the box and see you know how many single glance. by the span of attention and by trying to do two things at once. Summary op the Laws op Attention Bringing together now what we have learned regarding the higher and more difficult forms of attention. urement of this " span " in psychology. on sight. letters Expose not making any word and he can read about four at a glance. less. In the laboratory we have " exposure apparatus " for marbles are there. and a well-trained subject will report correctly as many as five though he cannot reach this number every time. Four or five you can get in a but with more there you become uncertain. just enough Make four or a number of dots or strokes on the card and see whether the subject knows the number five. and a couple of new laws making their appearstill ance. " span of attention " for objects of any given kind is measured by discovering how many is such objects can be clearly seen. we find the previously stated three laws of attention further illustrated. he gets a phrase of several words. squares of different colors. (1) The law of selection holds good in these more . or heard. containing as many as twenty letters. or felt.

or even four such attenbe made at the same time. in . so that the making of one excludes the other. more than Even though. then. not inconsistent close together. of reading four disconHere. when aroused to activity. has come to light. or. What shall we say.seem to be inconsistent with each other. but any two attentive responses made at the same instant of time. a single response may be made to two : or more stimuli. A tendency. . and it limits the shifting of attention. of shifting holds good. (3) The law and by the alternation between two activities when we are trying to carry them both along simultaneously. The several things are and the responses required are Such responses. only one attentive response is made at the same time. several things are separately attended to at once. two or more stimuli may arouse a single accordance with the law of selection. the law of combination. even when it is " sustained ". similar. so that two. A of advantage. and with each other. facilitates responses that are in its line tendency is thus a strong factor and inhibits others. (4) The law of sustained attention. under such very all simple and much alike.ATTENTION difficult 263 is performances. advantage holds good. or of tendency in attention. favorable conditions. or of seeing clearly four colors at the same time? would seem. it nected letters at the same time. in accordance with the general law of selection. as illustrated by f (2) of the fact that some distractions are harder to resist than tive responses may The law others. itself is the same old law of tendency that has shown repeatedly in earlier chapters. as illustrated by the constant movement of attention. v„^(5) A new law which reads as follows joint response. three. are perhaps. however. since only one attentive response Automatic activities may be simultaneously going on.

much a unit when they do not when they do. will be found later to have extreme importance in learned reactions. as much a unit as a row of four. is a unit. a words are grasped as our own dots is Notice that these units are not external units. but row of six we grasp the four as a unit in a Physically. as when we of strike a chord of several still notes on the piano. except to see them and recognize them. and executed here. from its name. if possible misconception. PSYCHOLOGY may be dealt with by this single attentive re- Groups units. The response rate stimuli. grasped as units. " higher motor units ". The law combination holds good movements of the two hands are coordinated into a single act.264 one stimulus sponse. we might more accurately name sion were not so this law that of " unitary response to a plurality of stimuli ". The combination is someIf the expresthing that happens in us. since the as Such coordinated movements may be called a unit. we do make an actual motor response to two or more stimuli. cumbersome. it is our response. indeed. attended to as a unit. though aroused by a number of sepa- is open to a we reached out and grasped and combined the stimuli. come across a sixth law to add to our . Sometimes. as some such way respond to them. which is thought of as a unit (" striking a chord"). of four dots are units. familiar Physically. or in The law of combination. we shall immediately list. Passing now to another side of the study of attention. six letters are as form a word as way that we cannot apply to the six. all in all. The law of combination. whereas ordinarily we do nothingto the stimuli. and we shall Snd much to say regarding them when we come to the subject of learned reactions. but we can make a unitary response to the six in the one case and not in the other.

lar object outside. etc. Consciousness shades off from high light to dim background. to the effect that we are more conscious of that else. One of the surest of all introspective observations belongs right here. desires active but not clearly formulated. we are the more conscious of that one which catches our attention. Your eyes are focused on some particu- and you are more conscious of than of othor objects seen in indirect vision. of tension. It includes objects. of your thoughts.' /'- 265 Attention and Degree op Consciousness Up to this point. " includes the field of attention and much of consciousness of consciousness it besides. Suppose. Apparently the field of consciousness shades ofi' gradually into the field of unconscious activity.. but conscious to a degree of what you this see out of the window.. for example. to which we are attending than of anything 'Of two stimuli acting at once upon us. that one tively. feelings of pleas- antness or unpleasantness. The " field of attention " . and very habitual movements may be almost or entirely unconscious. Some physiological processes go on unconsciously. We may be dimly There are degrees of consciousness. you are looking out of the window while " lost in thought ". last though even of these you are not altogether unconscious. is the maximum or high light comprises the object under attentive The " field observation. of which we are vaguely aware. The boundary be- . excitement. You are most conscious of the matter stimulus to which conscious of it. confidence. is we perform is simul- more conscious that performed atten- We need not be entirely unconscious of the act or the we are not attending. the reaction attentively performed. the introspective side of the psychology of attention has not been considered.ATTENTION /. of two acts that taneously.

because they re- quire mental work to keep them going straight. rather. in- You may be more conscious of a slight but significant sound than of muc^ louder noises occurring at the same time. but the probability field of is that the broader than we usually suspect. such as spite or pride often seem to be. emerging is from this introspec- tive study. of consciousness. It is. naturally of a different style from the relist. We shall return to the fascinating topic of the unconscious at the close of the book. not always most efficient processes that require attention. while the big muscles may It be doing thair accustomed work automatically. but inside that conscious motives ". The delicate finger movement aims at some thfe difficult result. because we do not observe them at the time nor remember them later. yet it . activity. practising an act makes it both more efficient and less conscious. Our sixth law of attention. the less . mainder of the which were objectively observed .266 tween what scious is is PSYCHOLOGY is vaguely conscious and what consciousness is entirely uncon- necessarily very vague itself. You may be more conscious of a delicate finger movement than of a strong contraction of big muscles occurring at the same time. of the field lie really near the field. is efficient mental process that is most conscious indeed. time —and Degree of consciousness goes with degree of mental Of all the reactions we are making at the same usually there are several is —the mental way portance the most conscious. Degree of consciousness does not always tally with tensity of sensation or energy of muscular action. noticed instead of the loud noises of the street. are probably vaguely conscious rather than unconscious. and that many activities that we ordinarily think margin " Un- of as unconscious. it The slight most active in a sound arouses of im- intense mental response because — means something like the faint cry of the baby upstairs.

tentive study gives quicker learning than inattentive. and we cannot possibly give careful attention to is all the parts. more attentive and the more conscious. Shall we say. and the rule that holds for other observation holds also for reading. Attention not simply necessarily selective. and may be quicker as well. " Do everything attentively " ? is But that impossible. and thus stated: is An attentive response conscious to a higher degree than sarnie time. the it is. more trustworthy than inattenAttentive movement is more accurate than inattentive. any inattentive response made at the tentive response An inat- may be dimly conscious or. The Management of Attention Attentive observation tive. the higher it The less familiar the response. since the reader looking for what the author has to tell. and stands in the scale of mental performances. is and also gives more facts. We sense so many stimuli at once that we could not possibly attend to all of them. may be called: (6) The law of degrees of consciousness. We do several things at once.ATTENTION is 267 It no less certain and perhaps no less significant. A skilful performance consists of many parts. and the best advice to " be attentive". but to attend to the right things. In observation. That is to say that the reader finds the most when he knows just what he is looking for. We can learn some- . and then to focus attention on this precise point. is. and cannot give attention to them all. Atand at the same time fixes the facts more durably. That is the principle underlying the remarkably sure and keen observation of the scientist. the best plan is obviously to decide be- forehand exactly what needs to be observed. then. perhaps. alto- gether unconscious. Reading may be is called a kind of observation.

In skilled movement. and never got it because he wasn't looking for it. the best rule is to fix attention on the end-result or. who simply spends so The dawdling much time and covers so many retentive. to the goal or. The runner if does not attend to his legs. and focusing. The mobility of attention must mean that brain activities are in constant flux. press forward and find out with great certainty and loss of time. on the result that immediately needs tp be accomplished. just " Keep your eye on the ball " when the end is now to be achieved hitting the ball. which sort of reading. Such readers are both quick and reader. does not remember the point because he never got the point. but distant. and press on to find his answer. pages. or skilled action of any sort. is distracting and confusing after skill been acquired. in sense that is the most efficient you get the point of the story better than that of more serious reading matter. though necessary in learning a skilled movement. the reason being that attention in the story. if the process is long. in the vague hope that something will stick. The best readers of serious matter have a simi- lar eagerness to discover what the author has to say. to the runner just that is still ahead of him. they get the author's question.he thing here from story-reading. looking for is always pressing forward definite. something very You want and you little to know how the hero gets out~of the fix he is in.268 PSYCHOLOGY 1. Attention to has the details of the process. with nerve currents continually shoot- neurones ing hither and thither and arousing ever fresh groups o'f . but sustained attention means that a brain activ- . persistence in spite of mobility. Theory of Attention The chief facts to take account of in attempting to form a conception of the brain action in attention are mobility.

so putting a quietus on it. rest. But why should not two equally big brain activities sometimes occur at the same moment. or in greater extent that one brain activity bigger in some other occurring at the same time —bigger way than any either because the neurones in it it are working more energetically or because number of active neurones. On the whole. The is superiority might in greater intensity of neurone action. drains off the .energy from the other. by facilitating some of these and inhibiting others. and that the field of consciousness was no broader than the field of attention. we must admit that we do not know exactly what the focusing of attention can mean in brain terms. while several mental activities may go on at once. according to which one or the other of two neurone groups.'' includes a larger to explain the absence of divided attention is that of " neu- rone drainage ". only one occupies the focus of attention. and that would mean that only one thing could be done at a time. The fact to be translated that.ATTENTION 269 ity (representing the desire or interest or reaction-tendency dominant at the time) may persist and limit the range of the mobile activities. this hypothesis explains too much.. Unfortunately. simultaneously aroused to activity. This must mean that. one in superior lie some way to the is. and attention thus be diThe only promising hypothesis that has been offered vided. . is while several brain activities go on at once. for it would make it impossible for minor brain activities to go on at the same time as the major one. The " focusing " of mental activity is more difficult to is translate into neural terms.

Morgan's Overcoming of Distraction and Other Resistances. Classify the stimuli under the several " factors of advantage "4. See if you can verify. Pillsbury gives a full treatment of the subject in his book on Attention. Doing two things at once. probably differ from that a seeing person? 8. Kti Of How does attention. 9. by watching another person's eyes. putting under each law the chief facts that belong there. in a blind person. it. the statements made on page 250 regarding eye movements. Prepare several columns of oneplace numbers. and notice how you manage and how accurate your work is. stay there for five minutes and jot down the things that attract your attention. kinesthetic sensations. On the topic of distraction. and direct attention to the field of cutaneous Do sensations emerge of which you are ordinarily only dimly conscious? Does shifting occur? the several factors of advantage. in the form of a number of " laws ". B. 1916. Outline the chapter. Consider what would be the best way to secure sustained attention to some sort of work from which your mind is apt to wander. 3. 1920. ten digits in a column. Close the eyes. which would be most eifective in catching another person's attention. . at the same time reciting a familiar poem. and a condensed account of the matter in Chapter V of his Essentials of Psychology. 265-802. and 6. REFERENCES Walter B. 2nd edition. Another full treatment is that of Titchener. and which in holding his attention? 7. Mention some stimulus to which you have a habit of attention. and one to which you have a habit of inattention.270 PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES 1. 2. in his Textbook of Psychology. Try to add these columns. pp. 1909. see John J. 1908. 5. Choose a spot where there is a good deal going on.

AND EVIDENCE OF ITS BEING LARGELY A MATTEL OF HEEEDITY Before leaving the general topic of native traits and passing to the process of learning or acquiring traits. are these members of the same species due to heredThis question we can better approach ity or environment? after considering the methods by which psychologists undertake to measure intelligence. Now. differences between any more than in size or Some dogs are more intelligent than and the same is notably true of men. others. a dog than a rat. and an analysis of these methods may also serve to indicate what is included under the term " intelligence ". some species are more intelligent than others is due to the native constitution of each species. instinct. strength or vitality. WHAT IT CONSISTS IN. sensation and attention. as the fact that. But the are not different individuals belonging to the same species all equal in intelligence. ing. mals is The the most intelligent of ani- due to his native constitution. 271 . intelligence A rat has more than a frog. because of their native constitutions as members of their respective species. fact that he Man is is an intelligent animal by nature.CHAPTER XII INTELLIGENCE HOW INTELLIGENCE IS MEASUBED. emotion. among the lower animals. and a man than a monkey. we need feel- to complete our picture of the native mental constitution by adding intelligence to reflex action. a monkey than a dog.

Binet wisely decided not to seek for any single test for so broad a matter as intelligence. and three correct responses are required to pass the test. Eight-year test: Tell how wood and coal are alike. In devising these tests. . desiring to know whether ness of many. out the now famous Binet-Simon tests for intelligence. mischievousness and similar difficulties of a moral nature. first tests in existence by any means. These little tests were graded in difficulty brief tests many from the level of the three-year-old to that of the twelve- year-old. Four such pictures are shown. or one eve. notably by Terman in America. a leading psychologist of the day and within a few years thereafter he and a collaborator brought the city of Paris. These were not the but they were the telligence. but rather to employ and give the child plenty of chances to demonstrate what he had learned and what he could do.272 PSYCHOLOGY Intelligence Tests Not far from the year 1900 the school authorities of the backwardfrom inattention. put the problem into the hands of Alfred Binet. is left out. experience of Further.. From child the tests must name correctly are shown him. in- first attempt at a measure of general useful. two out of four correct responses are required to pass the test. etc. for three-year-olds: Naming familiar objects the at least three of five common objects that — Six-year test: Finding omissions in pictures of faces. Binet's plan was to leave school knowl- edge to one side. by the child and look for information and skill picked up from his elders and playmates in the ordinary life. from which the nose. and they proved extraordinarily They have been added to and revised by other psychologists. children in school resulted . and so with three other pairs of familiar things. or from genuine inability to learn. A few samples from Terman's re- vision will give an idea of the character of the Binet tests. who has extended the scale of tests up to the adult level. and the general plan was to determine how far up the scale the child could successfully pass the tests.

and succeeds here and there above his mental age. without. and six months is said to have a mental age of eight years and six months and any individual who does just as well as this is said to have this mental age. "Certainly no special training is necessary to give these tests. is an instrument of precision. It looks so simple that any student is apt to say. so that he comes out with a mental age equal to his chronological age. and not till. and three of the six tests for age nine. "Why. but Usually there is the failures below and the successes above balance each other in the average child. two out of four there. he was able to secure the child's confidence and get him to do his best. Vocabulary test rough definitions showing the understanding of forty words out of a standard list of one hundred. " Why such arbitrary stand- three out of required here. superior persons have looked down on the psychological examiner with his (or her) assortment of little tests. let us say. The question is not whether .^ 1 The Binet scale. not till he had standardized his ! — manner of conducting them to agree perfectly with the prescribed manner and till he knew how to score the varying answers given by different children according to the scoring system that goes with the tests. not to be handled except by one who has been thoroughly trained in its use. by experience in handling children in the test«. as he fails in a test here and there below his mental age. or passes an equivalent series. it must be understood. The average child of this age passes all the tests for eight years and below. and so standardized that the average child of a given age can just barely pass the tests of that age. and have said. I could give those tests " The point is that he couldn't not until he knew the tests practically by heart. You simply want to find out whether the child can do these stunts. howMany ever. child's — The question ards forty out of a hundred the next time? " five — may be raised." They miss the point altogether.INTELLIGENCE 273 Twelve-year test. The answer is that the tests have been standardized by actual trial on large numbers of children. number of tests from the total some " scatter " in the child's successes. no matter what his chronological age child of. eight years The average may be. giving the child any assistance beyond what is prescribed. I can find out as well as you. Intelligence is measured by Binet on a scale of mental age.

twenty per cent. He is. above 110. so many years advanced or retarded. The IQ of the bright child above 100 and of the dull child below 100. of any age. mentally. is The IQ of the exactly average child. he is bright much His degree of brightness or dullness can be measured by the number of years his mental age is above below. Brightness or dullness can also be measured by the intelligence quotient. . which is employed so frequently that ". The following table gives the distribution in somewhat greater detail IQ below 70. or 100 per cent. is 1. mental if age is much above his chronological. he is just average. About sixty per cent. of all children have an IQ between 90 and 110. and usually expressed in per cent. are below 90 and twenty per cent.274 PSYCHOLOGY is If a child's mental age the same as his chronological age. dull. it is customarily abbreviated to " IQ This is is the mental age divided by the chronological. or below his chronological age. neither bright nor dull. If his .

nor to the child with a speech defect. "average" (from 90 to 110). " very superior ". " exceedingly superior " is is . however. It furnishes a pretty good measure of the individual's intelligence. this task seems too simple . faster than the average individual that of — he has progressed as far in four years as the average child does in five. "superior ". " borderline". into corresponding holes is The " form board " a good example. Also. . While the mental age tells an individual's intellectual level at a given time. nor to the foreign in child. those with labeled " feeble-minded ". or as far in twelve as the average does in The IQ usually remains fairly constant as the child grows older. or as far in eight as the average does in ten. performance Language plays little part in a perform- ance is test. but this arbitrary and really unscientific. 275 IQ under 70 are sometimes and the others."low normal". the time of performance measured. but a continuous gradation zero. from one extreme to the other. some persons who are clumsy manar^ing the rather ab- stract ideas dealt with in the Binet tests show up better in managing concrete tests are useful. fifteen. For all such cases. and concrete objects are used. for what the facts show not a separation into classes. and thus represents his rate of mental growth. in order. the Binet tests depend greatly on the use of language. and the errors (consisting in try- ing to put a block into a differently shaped hole) are also counted. the IQ tells how fast he has progressed. An IQ skill 125 means that he has picked up knowledge and 25 per cent. The lower extreme is near and the upper extreme thus far found is about 180.INTELLIGENCE For convenience. fitted be Blocks of various simple shapes are to in a board. they are not fair to the deaf child. objects. To the normal adult. Performance Tests Since.

easily be conducted. a group test can though much preliminary labor is essary in selecting and standardizing the questions used. are mounted on little blocks. blocks with more or less The child must select These cut-out pieces and there are other similar irrelevant objects pictured on them. were these tests when supplemented. but the it difficult. because they have to be given to each subject individually. and tests are also needed which can be given to a whole group of people at once. holes according to shape.276 PSYCHOLOGY young child finds and the mentally deficient adult goes at it in the same haphazard way as a young child. A committee of the American Psychological Association prepared and standardized the tests. in doubtful cases. by that they were adopted in the receiving individual tests — — . Another good performance tion ". He does not pin himself down to the one essential thing. The first extensive use of group intelligence tests was made in the American Army during the Great War. require a great deal of time from the trained examiner. out of which several square holes have been cut. and difficult. Group Testing The tests so far described. which is to match blocks and to serve as a test for intelligence. young children more but has been accomplished. and persuaded the Army authoriSo successful ties to let them try them out in the camps. illiterates. from the whole collection of little blocks the one that belongs in each hole in the picture. the better his selection. trying to force the square block into the round hole. For nec- persons who can read printed directions. test is the " picture comple- A picture is placed before the child. The better his understanding of the picture. the directions being conveyed orally or by means of pantomime. Group is testing of foreigners.

. sometimes he has to cancel from the picture a part that is superfluous. and indicated on the paper as true or false. to which certain things were to be done in accordance with spoken commands. though none of them went into the more technical parts of arithmetic. information on matters of One page tested common knowledge the subject's . The problems him under each class range from very easy to fairly cult. as. The consisted of second page arithmetical problems. . each page presenting a different type of problem for solution. or " school horses all to go "). The subject had to attend carefully to what he was told to do. Many group tests are now in use. from high intelindividuals whose intelligence ligence. In the latter. used on recruits who could read. The " Alpha sisted of eight test ". con- pages of questions.'' Because good conductor — — Why in is copper used for it is mined Montana — it is a it is the cheapest metal. sometimes the subject has to complete the picture by drawing in a' missing part. squares. and another called for the selection of the best of three reasons offered for a given fact. On the first page were rows of circles. ranging from very simple at the top of the page to more difficult ones below. 277 and they proved very useful both in detecting those was too low to enable them to learn the duties of a soldier. and those who. pictures are often employed. and some of commands called for rather complicated reactions. could profitably be trained for officers. to be put straight mentally. or he may have to continue a series of marks which set diffi- starts off according to a definite plan.INTELLIGENCE camps . etc. and among them some performance tests. since he the was given each command only once. for example. " wet rain always Is "." Another page presented disarranged sentences (as. He may have to draw a pencil line indicating the shortest path through a maze. " electric wires.

measure of the individual's They have located the trouble in the case of many a backward school enable child. Some results obtained by the " Alpha test " are given in the following table. The maximum score was thus 212 points. tests high in intelligence. The intelligence are proving of great service in detecting boys and girls of superior intelligence who have been dragging along. Very seldom does even a very bright individual score over 200 points. On who school the other hand. whose intelligence was too low to him to (^rive much benefit from the regular school curriculum. of individuals scoring between certain limits . him is below his Such children do when given more advanced work. The table shows the approximate per cent. and not preparing for the kind of service that their intelligence should enable them to give. a mark which could only be obtained by a combination of perfect accuracy and very rapid work (since only a limited time was allowed for each page of the test). table in graphic form. and in the diagram which restates the facts of the. the trouble with him being that the work set mental better tests and therefore unstimulating. forming lazy habits of work. thus. The Alpha test in- cluded 212 questions in all.278 PSYCHOLOGY Some Results of the Intelligence Tests The principal fact discovered is by use of standardized in- telligence tests that the tests serve very well the purpose In expert hands they actuintel- for which they were intended. . His schooling needed to be adjusted to his intelligence so' as to prepare him to do what he was constitutionally able to do. ally give a fairly reliable ligence. and a correct answer to any question netted the subject one point. and whose work level is rather poor. is it sometimes happens that a child mischievous and inattentive in school.

per cent. below 75 points. Of 1 college freshmen. into the Army. men drafted etc. scored from 15 to 29 points. 12 per cent.INTELLIGENCE of 279 cent. score from 75 to 89 points. approximately 3 per scored below 15 points. practically none score etc. .

280

PSYCHOLOGY
for this reason that the

the camps, many, being illiterate, did not take the
It
is

Alpha test. graph for drafted men stops

rather short at the lower end; to picture fairly the distri-

30

60,

90 120 Score in points

150
150

210

Army median

Freshman median

Fig. 46. Distribution of the scores of drafted men, and also of college freshmen, in the Alpha test. The height of the broken line above the base line is made proportional to the percent of the group that made the score indicated just below along the base line.

bution of intelligence,
the zero of the

it

should taper off to the

left,

beyond

Alpha
in

test.

College freshmen evidently are, as they should be, a highly
selected

group

regard to intelligence.

The

results ob-

tained at different colleges differ somewhat, and the figures

here given represent an approximate average of results obtained at several colleges of high standing.

The median

^

1 The " median " is a statistical measure very similar to the average but, while the average score would be obtained by adding together the scores of all the individuals and dividing the sum by the number of individuals tested, the median is obtained by arranging all the individual scores in order, from the lowest to the highest, and then counting off from either end till the middle individual is reached; his score is the median. (If the number of individuals tested is an even number, there are two middle individuals, and the point midwav between them is taken as the median.) Just as many individuals are below the median The median is often preferred to the average in nsychoas above it.

logical work, not only because it is more easily computed, but because it is less affected by the eccentric or unusual performances of a few Individuals, and therefore more fairly represents the whole population.

INTELLIGENCE
to

281

score for freshmen has varied, at different colleges, from 140

160 points.
It will be noticed in the

graph that none of the

fresh-

men score as low as the median of the drafted men.
the freshmen, in fact,
eral population.
finds it
lie

All of

well above the

median for the gen-

A

freshman who scores below 100 points
to keep

very

difficult

up

in his college work.

Some-

timesj it

freshman who scores not much over 100 in the test does very well in his studies, and sometimes one who scores very high in the test has to be dropped

must be

said, a

for poor scholarship, but this last

is

probably due to

dis-

tracting interests.

No

such sampling of the adult female population has ever

been made as was afforded by the draft, and we are not in

a position to compare the average adult
in

man and woman Boys and girls under twelve average almost the same, year by year, according to the Binet
regard to intelligence.
In various other tests, calling for quick, accurate

tests.

work, girls have on the average slightly surpassed boys of

same age, but this may result from the fact that girls mature earlier than boys they reach adult height earlier, and perhaps also adult intelligence. Collep-e women, in the Alpha test, score on the average a few points below college men,
the
;

but

this,

Alpha
tions

on the other hand, may be due to the fact that the being prepared for men, includes a few questhat lie rather outside the usual range of women's intest,

terests.

On

the whole, tests have given very

little

evidence
in-

of

any

significant difference between the general

run of

telligence in the

two

sexes.

Limitations of the Intelligence Tests

Tests of the Binet or Alpha variety evidently do not cover They do not test the whole range of intelligent behavior.

28S
the ability to

PSYCHOLOGY
manage
carpenter's or plumber's tools or other

concrete things, they do not test the ability to
ple,

manage peo-

and they do not reach high enough to
ability to

test the ability

to solve really big problems.

Regarding the

manage concrete
tests,

things,

we have
a

already mentioned the performance

which provide

necessary supplement to the tests that deal in ideas ex'
pressed in words.
It
is is

an interesting fact that some men

whose mental age

below ten, according to the Binet tests, nevertheless have steady jobs, earn good wages, and get on

There are many others, right in a simple environment. with a mental age of ten or eleven, who cannot master the
all

school work of the upper grades, and yet become skilled workmen or even real artists. Now, it takes mentality to

perform

skilled or artistic

ferent from that

work; only, the mentality is difdemanded by what we call " intellectual
requires tact and leadership, which are
It
is sel-

work

".

Managing people

obviously mental traits, though not easily tested.

dom

that a real leader of

intelligence tests,

but

vidual

who

scores

men scores anything but high in the more often happens that an indivery high in the tests has little power of
it
is

leadership.

In part this

a matter of physique, or of temit
is

perament, rather than of intelligence, but in part
influenced

a

matter of understanding people and seeing how they can be

and

led.

Though

the intelligence tests deal with " ideas ", they do

not, as so far devised, reach

up

to the great ideas nor

make

much demand on
If

the superior powers of the great thinker.

we could assemble a group of the world's great authors, scientists and inventors, and put them throu';;h the Alpha
test, it is

probable that they would

all

score high, but not

higher than the upper ten per cent, of college freshmen.

Had

their IQ's been determined

when they were

children,

INTELLIGENCE
probably
all

283

as 200, but the tests

would have measured over 130 and some as high would not have distinguished these great

geniuses from the gifted child

who

is

simply one of a hun-

dred or one of a thousand.

The Correlation

of Abilities

as

There is no opposition between " general intelligence ", measured by the tests, and the abilities to deal with conRather, there
a considerable degree of correspondence.
scores high in the intelligence tests
is

crete things, with people, or with big ideas.
is

The

individual

who

litely,

but not

certain,

to

surpass in these respects the individual who

scores low in the tests. In technical language, there is a " positive correlation " between general intelligence and ability to deal with concrete things, people

and big

ideas, but the

correlation

is

not perfect.
is

Correlation

a statistical measure of the degree of corre-

spondence.

Suppose, for an example, we wish to find out
in single

how
tall-

closely people's weights correspond to their heights.
fifty

Stand

young men up

file

in

order of height, the

est in front, the shortest behind. shift

Then weigh each man, and
If

them into the order of their weights.

no shifting

whatever were needed, the correlation between height and
weight would be perfect.
shortest

Suppose the impossible, that the
then we

man was

the heaviest, the tallest the lightest, and
;

that the whole order needed to be exactly reversed

should say that the correlation was perfectly inverse or negative.

Suppose the

shift

from height order to weight order

mixed the men indiscriminately, so that you could not tell anything from a man's position in the height order as to what his position would be in the weight order then we
;

should have " zero correlation
ever,

".

The actual

result,

how-

would be that, while the height order would be some-

284

PSYCHOLOGY
in

what disturbed
not be entirely

shifting to the weight order,

it

would

lost,

much

less reversed.

That

is,

the correla-

tion between height
Statistics

and weight is positive but not perfect. furnishes a number of formulae for measuring
is

correlations, formulae which agree in this, that perfect positive

correlation

indicated

by the number

negative correlation by the number
tion

+

1,

perfect

1,

and zero correla-

by

0.

A

correlation of

+ .8
.6

indicates close positive

correspondence, though not perfect correspondence; a correlation of

+ .3 means

a rather low, but

still

positive, corre-

spondence

;

a correlation of

means a moderate tendintelligence tests, such
.8,

ency towards inverse relationship.

The

correlation between two

good

as the Binet and the Alpha, comes out at about +'

which

means that if a fair sample of the general population, ranging from low to high intelligence, is given both tests, the
order of the individuals as measured by the one test
test.

will

agree pretty closely with the order obtained with the other

The

correlation between

a general intelligence test
is

and a
still

test for

mechanical ability

considerably lower but

positive,

tive

coming to about .4. Few if any real negacorrelations are found between different abilities, but
fre-

+

low positive or approximately zero correlations are
quent between
different, rather special abilities.
is

In other words, there

no evidence of any antagonism beis

tween different sorts of ability, but there
dence that different special abilities
ing in common.^

plenty of evilittle

may have

or noth-

1 Possibly some readers would like to see a sample of the statistical formulae by which correlation is measured. Here is one of the simplest. Number the individuals tested in their order as given bv the first test, and again in their order a'? eiven by the second test, and find the difference between each individual's two rank numbers. If an individual who ranks rm. ^ in one test ranks no. ]3 in the other, the difference in his rank numbers is 7. Designate this difference bv the letter D. and the whole number of Individuals tested by n. Square each D, and get

INTELLIGENCE
Generai, Factors in Intelligence

S85

now we try to analyze intelligence and see in what it we can best proceed by reviewing the intelligence tests, and asking how it is that an individual succeeds in
If
consists,

them.

Passing the tests

is

a very

specific instance of intel-

the sum of all the squares, calling this correlation is given by the formula,
6

sum

"

sum

of

D^

".

Then the

X sum of D2 n(n2 1)

As an example
ing:
Individuals

in the use of this formula, take the follow-

286
ligent behavior,

PSYCHOLOGY
tests

and an analysis of the content of the should throw some light on the nature of intelligence.

The
tests
call
is

first

thing that strikes the eye in looking over the

that they call for so

many

different reactions.
tell

They

on you to name objects, to copy a square, to
is

whether
that

a given statement

true or false, to

tell

wherein' two objects
is

are alike or different.

The

first

impression, then,

intelligence consists simply in

doing a miscellaneous lot of

things and doing them right.

But can we not state in more general terms how the indiwho scores high in the tests differs from one who scores low? If you survey the test questions carefully, you begin to see that the person who passes them must posvidual
sess certain general characteristics,

and that lack of these

characteristics will lead to a low score.

We mav

STJeak of

these

characteristics

as

" general factors " in intelligent

behavior.
First, the tests evidently require the use of past experience.

They

call,

not for instinctive reactions, but for pre-

viously learned reactions.

Though

the Binet tests attempt

to steer clear of specific school knowledge, they do depend

upon knowledge and
learn
is

skill

picked up by the child in the course

of his ordinary experience.

They depend on

the ability to
in

and remember.

One general factor

intelligence

therefore retentiveness.

But the

tests do_fiot usually call for simple

memory

of

something previously learned.
less novel

Rather, what has been pre-

viously learned must be applied, in the test, to a

more or

problem.

The

subject

is

asked to do something

a

little different

from anything he has previously done, but

similar

enough so that he can make use of what he has

learned.

He

has to see the

pomt

of the problem

now

set

him, and to adapt what he has learned to this novel situation. Perhaps " seeing the point " and " adapting oneself to

INTELLIGENCE
general factors in intelligence, but on the whole
ness to relationships, and to set
it

287

a novel situation " are to be held apart as two separate
seems^

possible to include both under the general head, responsive-

up

this characteristic as

a

second general factor in intelligence.

In the form board and picture completion tests, this responsiveness to relationships comes out clearly.

To

suc-

ceed in the form board, the subject must respond to the
likeness of shape
holes.

between the blocks and their corresponding
see

In picture completion, he must
In telling

what addition

stands in the most significant relationship to the total picture situation.

how

certain things are alike or
;

different, he obviously in distinguishing

responds to relationships

and

so also

between good and poor reasons for a cer-

tain fact.

This element of response to relationships occurs

tests, though perhaps not in the naming familiar objects. Besides these two intellectual factors in intelligent behavior, there are certain moral or impulsive factors. One is persistence, which is probably the same thing as the mastery or self-assertive instinct. The individual who gives up

again and again in the
simplest, such as

easily,

or succumbs easily

to'

distraction or timidity,

is

at

a disadvantage in the tests or in any situation calling for
intelligent behavior.

But, as we said before, in discussing the instincts, excessive stubbornness
is

a handicap in meeting a novel situfirst

ation,

which often cannot be mastered by the
it.

mode of

response that one makes to

Some giving up, some subchild

missiveness in detail along with persistence in the main effort, is needed.

The too stubborn young
all his

may waste

a lot of time trying with
the test, than
tried

block into the round hole,
if

might to force the square and so make a poorer score in
first line

he had given up his
else.

of attack and

something

Intelligent

behavior must perforce

288

PSYCHOLOGY
trial

often have something of the character of " trial and error ",

and

and error requires both persistence

in the

main
evi-

enterprise and a giving

up here

in order to try

again there.
is

Finally, the instinct of curiosity or exploration

dently a factor in intelligence.
lated

The

individual

who

is

stimuwill

by novel things to explore and manipulate them
skill

amass knowledge and
tests, or in intelligent

that can later be utilized in the

behavior generally.

Special Aptitudes

We

distinguish between the general factors in intelligence,

just mentioned, and special aptitudes for dealing with colors, forms,

numbers, weights

etc.

A

special aptitude

is

a

specific responsiveness to a certain

kind of stimulus or ob-

ject.

The

special aptitudes are factors in intelligent be-

haviortests

— as

we may judge from the content of the

intelligence

only, the tests are so contrived as not to

depend too
Arith-

much on any one or any few
ligence, since they

of the special aptitudes.

metical problems alone would not

make a

fair test for intel-

would lay undue
;

stress

on the special

aptitude for number

enough to include them along with color naming, weight judging, form copying, and
but
it is

fair

word remembering, and
chance to figure in the

so to give
final score.

many

special aptitudes a

There are
ity,

tests in existence for

some special aptitudes
abil-

tests for color sense

and color matching, for musical
etc.
;

for ability in drawing,
list

but as yet we have no satis-

They come to light when we compare one individual with another, or one species
factory
of the special aptitudes.

with another.

Thus, while man

is is

far superior to the

dog

in dealing with colors, the

dog

superior in dealing with

odors.

Man

has more aptitude for form, but some animals

are fully his equal in sense of location and ability to find

INTELLIGENCE
their way,

239

Man

is

far superior in dealing with numbers and

alsa with tools and mechanical things.

He

is

superior in

speech, in sense of rhythm, in sense of humor, in sense of

pathos.

Individual

human

beings also differ markedly in

each of these respects. They differ in these special directions as well as in the " general factors " of intelligence.

Heredity of Intelligexce and of Special Aptitudes
Let us now return to the question raised at the very out.set

of the chapter, whether or not intelligence

is

a native
dif-

trait.

We

then said that the differing intelligence of

must be laid to their native constitutions, but left the question open whether the differing intelligence of human individuals was a matter of heredity
ferent species of animals

or of environment.
Intelligence
is

of course quite different from instinct, in

that

it

does not consist in ready-made native reactions.

intelligence of

an individual at

The any age depends on what he

has learned previously.
havior

But

the factors in intelligent be-

retentiveness, responsiveness to relationships, per-

sistence, etc.

—may very
is

well be native traits.

But what evidence
intelligence
is

there that the individual's degree of
like his height

a native characteristic,
evidence
is

or color

of

hair.''

The

pretty convincing to most psy-

chologists.

we have the fact that an individual's degree of inis an inherent characteristic, in the sense that it remains with him from childhood to old age. Bright child, That is the rule, and bright adult; dull child, dull adult. Many the exceptions are not numerous enough to shake it.
First,
telligence

a dull child of well-to-do parents, in spite of great pains

taken with his education,
herent limitations.

is

unable to escape from his in-

The

intelligence quotient remains fairly

290

PSYCHOLOGY

constant for the same child as he grows up, and stands for an
inherent characteristic of the individual, namely, the rate at
skill. Give two children the same environment, physical and social, and you will see one child progress faster than the other. Thus, among children who grow up in the same community, playing together and going to the same schools, the more rapid mental advance

which he acquires knowledge and

of some than of others
tution,

is

due to differences in native consti-

and the IQ gives a measure of the native constitution in this respect. There are exceptions, to be sure, depending on physical handicaps such as deafness or disease, or on very bad treatment at home, but in general the IQ can be accepted as representing a fact of native constitution.

Another

line of evidence for the

importance of native con-

stitution in determining degrees of intelligence

the study of mental resemblance
family.

among members

comes from of the same

Brothers or sisters test more alike than children-

taken at random from a community, and twins test more
alike

than ordinary brothers and

sisters.

Now,

as the physi-

and specially of twins, is accepted as due to native constitution, we must logically draw the same conclusion from their mental resemblance.

cal resemblance of brothers or sisters,

The way
point.
arises

feeble-mindedness runs in families

is

a case in

Though, in exceptional instances, mental defect from brain injury at the time of birth, or from disit

ease (such as cerebrospinal meningitis) during early child-

hood, in general
is

inherent in the individual.

cannot be traced to such accidents, but Usually mental defect or some
it
is

similar condition can be found elsewhere in the family of the

mentally defective child;

in the family stock.

When

both parents are of normal intelligence and come from families with no mental abnormality in any ancestral line, it is
practically

unknown that they should have a feeble-minded

possessing considerable ability in scholarship and literature. The sical special aptitudes also run in families. though their general intelligence is good enough. especially the fact that definitely feeble-minded and others normal. whom showed much early to be an organist and composer of church music while the younger. and other families where the children respond scarcely at all to music. he desired very much to be able to lead in singing. spite of the same re- constitution. Such obstinate differences. must depend on native spects. it is said that all the children are sure to be feeble-minded or at least dull. musical ability and came . These facts regarding the occurrence of feeble-mindedness cannot be accounted for by environmental influences. in physical traits such as hair color or eye color that are certainly determined by native constitution. persisting in home environment. but' he simply could not learn. in Native constitution determines mental ability two It fixes certain limits which the individual cannot . some children of the same family may be We must rethey are not always alike member that children of the same parents need not have precisely similar native constitutions . parent but normal and the other feeble-minded. 291 but if mental deficiency has occurred in some of the ancestral lines. You find mu- most of the children take readily to music. was never able to learn to sing or tell one tune from another. an occasional feeble-minded child may be born If one even of parents who are themselves both normal. some of the children are likely to be normal and others feeble-minded.INTELLIGENCE child . is if both parents are feeble-minded. You find a special liking and gift for mathematics families where cropping out here and there in diff^erent generations of the same family. In one family were two brothers. No less significant is the fact that children of the same family show ineradicable differences from one another in such the older of abilities. Being a clergyman.

on the positive side. v -ry also with bodily as illus- trated by the whale and elephant. It does less closely with the intelligence of size. in proportion to the size of his body. the gifted individual seems to have a large brain. But the monkey. with the motility of the species of animal. his environment. considerably surpassing the ordinary have also a much larger cerebrum. but Idiots. varies considerably in size from one human twice as large intel- individual to another. must enter. and so gives him a start towards the development of intelligence and of special aptitudes. In some adults arises it is and the quesfion whether greater it ligence goes with a larger brain. one factor being undoubtedly the fineness . how hard he trains himself and. . extremely small cerebrum spells idiocy small brains. has also a very large cerebrum for monkeys in intelligence. and many of these gifted men "have had a very large cerebrum. and the relationship between Other fac- brain size and tors intelligence cannot be very close. Intelligence and the Brain some connection between the brain and While the spinal cord and brain stem vary according to the size of the body. The cerebrum as in others. but there. and no matter it makes the individual responsive to certain stimuli.are exceptions. far surpasses that of the chimpanzee or gorilla. which have the largest cerebrum of all animals. . all appears that an not all idiots have men with extremely small brains are The brain weight of quite a number of highly gifted men has been measured in post-mortem examination. Now. his size of body and the chim- panzee and gorilla. the size of the cerebrum varies more or the species. including man. and the cerebellum There is certainly intelligent behavior. On the whole.292 pass. which shows more intelligence than most animals. no matter PSYCHOLOGY how good . The cerebrum of man.

What has been localized of the nature of special aptitudes. it is Now practically impossible that such a function as attention localized cortical center. local centers. While intelligence is related to the cerebrum as a whole. Examined microscopically. that each sense has its special cortical and that adjacent to these sensory areas are portions of the cortex intimately concerned in response to different classes of com- plex stimuli. for or memory should have any these are general functions. the cortex.INTELLIGENCE of the internal structure of the cortex. localizations of phrenology are all wrong. etc. . The pretended But we do know area. Near the auditory center the cortex it is is con- cerned in recognizing spoken words. there is some likelihood that the special aptitudes are related to special parts of the cortex. forming synapses in make on the total brain weight. the cortex shows differences and to the structural dif- ferences probably correspond differences of function. in recognizing seen objects. The is instincts are specialized lo- enough to have. though it must be admitted that few aptitudes have as yet been localized. and in following music near the visual center the sense of sight. rather than to any particular " intelligence center ". concerned in recognizing printed words. in finding one's way by These special aptitudes thus have a cortical localization. fairly definite also. and possibly others have of structure in different parts. but none have so far been calized. and such minute structures 293 Brain function Httle impression depends on dendrites and end-brushes.

(c) It has not been found possible to use any single performance" as a reliable index of intelligence. they (h) High could not be measures of native intelligence.294 PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES 1. 4r. Can it be that high intelligence is a disadvantage in any forih of industrial work. How would this fact very often have eminent brothers. list: (b) Intelligence depends on the development of the cerebellum. (g) If intelligence tests depended upon previous training. (i) The " general factors " in intelligence are the same as the are below instincts. aside from the matter of the number of nerve cells in the cortex? 8. why should we not accept the teacher's estimate of him with as a " fairly bright 7. Show how " general intelligence " and " special aptitudes " may work together to give success in some special line of work. fourth grade. How would this fact be How could it happen that a boy of 9. 3. should be mischievous and inattentive? should be done with him? If a boy of 12. boy " ? might the brain of an idiot be underdeveloped. if so. Pick out the true statements from the following (a) Man is the most intelligent of animals. and sisters is a fact that tends to indicate the importance of heredity in determining intelligence. in the third school grade. by industrious work. (d) Children of different mental ages may have the same IQ. and. be explained? It is also found that the wives of eminent explained? men often have eminent relatives. does pretty well in the 6. Outline the chapter. but none of those for the higher A ages. child with a mental age of 10 years can do all the tests (e) for 10 years and below. 5. 2. correlation between the iest scores of brother. who It is found that eminent men uncles and cousins. how? 9. (f) The intelligence tests depend wholly on accurate response and not at all on speed of reaction. What an IQ of 140. How . (j) Feeble-minded individuals include all those the average intelligence.

507. see Louis M. 1916. 732. Seashore's Psychology of Musical Talent. 537. 1919. see C. 1914. 815. 799. For a comprehensive survey of test methods and results. 15 of the Memoirs of the National Academy This large book deof Sciences. pp. Terman. Vol. 705. Hunter's General Psychology. 1920. pp. see an illustrated article by Rudolph Pintner. 829. 2nd edition. and also gives some results bearing on the intelligence of different sections of the population. see Walter S. 856 and 869. 522. B. E. The Measurement of Intelligence. Yerkes. 25.INTELLIGENCE REFERENCES' 295 For the Binet tests and some results obtained by their use. 1915. 819. 528. . Some of the interesting results appear on pp. 1919. 286-296. 2nd edition. 693. scribes the work of preparing and standardizing the tests. 36-53. For the poor results obtained in attempting to judge intelligence the Psychological from photographs. 743. see the two volumes of Whipple's Marmal of Mental and Physical Tests. 388-407. pp. Pillsbury's Essentials of Psychology. For briefer treatments of the subject. and W. 1921. 697. in Review for 1918. The group tests used in the American Army during the War are described in detail in Vol. edited by Robert M. For a study of one of the special aptitudes.

all in there are thousands on thousands of aclife quired reactions. knowledge is acquired. as well as in addition to the motor likes skill. and acquired and dislikes in addition to those that are native all. and now. a chapter on acquired mental reactions. but leaving the big generalizations to the close of the discussion. generalizing to some extent as we go. so that. Already. and a chapter devoted to the general laws that hold good in this whole field.CHAPTEE XIII LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION THE DEPENDENCE OE ACaUIRED REACTIONS UPON INSTINCT AND KEFLEX ACTION. a chapter on memory. and the daily of these of the adult is made up terri- much more than lies of strictly native reactions. in considering intelligence. or " laws of association " as they are traditionally called. . For there is much to say regarding acAll quired traits and regarding the process of acquisition. where we shall see all whether the whole process of acquiring reactions of sorts cannot be summed a few general laws of acquisition. we see ahead of us a long straight stretch of road. fairly around the corner. AND THE MODIFICATION OF NATIVE KEACTIONS BY EXPEKIENCE AND TRAINING. Our general plan is to proceed from the simple to the complex. a chapter on acquiring motor skill. and there are acquired motives native motive forces that we called instincts. we have partially rounded the corner from native to acquired traits. On reaching that up in 296 . the whole stock of ideas. It will take us several chapters to explore this new tory that now habits and before us.

Acquired Reactions Are Modified Native Reactions Though we have had left " turned a corner " in passing from na- tive traits to acquired. his crying louder. he would be entirely inactive at the outset. acquired reactions. it what is would be a mistake to suppose we native altogether behind. of a reaction through exercise is a fundamental But we should reactions. and would never make a use. 297 may how well come back. beginning with the observed facts and working up to the general laws. Without His native reactions. It would be a left be- mistake to suppose that the individual outgrew and hind his native reactions and acquired an entirely new outfit. with the general laws fit and see well they in detail all the instances of acquired responses that we are about to describe. as of his native reactions. but on the whole it will be better to proceed " inductively ". are his native reactions modified by The quires vast number of motor the . By his reflex his breathing and crying.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION goal. They are is modified the mere reflexes. Consider this : how is the individual ever going to learn a reaction? Only by reacting. then. The strengthening fact. the new-born baby exercises lungs and breathing muscles and the nerve centers that control them. the reader in mind. start towards any acquisition. with the result that his breathing becomes more vigorous.simplest acts that the individual ac- are based upon reflexes. The reactions that he acquires of acquisition in the sphere of reactions we speak —or —develop out learns. scarcely speak of " learning " if the only modification consisted in the simple strengthening of native and at first thought it is difficult to see how the . We might have begun by stating the general laws. The kind of modification strengthening of an act by exercise.

If grains are strewn before a chick one day old. new stimulus. and about 85 percent (which seems to be its limit) after about ten days of practice. only a of the grains pecked at. but allow of and then exercise may fix or stabilize them. by strengthening the accurate movement as against all the variations of the pecking movement that were made at the start. that who has accidentally been pricked with a pin. Exercise has here modified a native reaction in the definite way of making it more and precise. The seen does not naturally arouse child A pin is a substitute stimvulus that calls out the same response as the pin prick. or wink at will. at it first. will make this same reaction to the sight of a pin approaching his skin. and of course made the flexion reflex in response to this natural stimulus. not swallowing though the mouth is full holding the hand steady when it is being pricked. the fixation of definite habits. Voluntary control includes also the sponse even if the natural stimulus is present. breath. • PSYCHOLOGY rein- any reaction could modify it in any other But many reflexes are not perfectly fixed and some free play. and so towards A reflex may come to be attached to a it. and many . exercise tends towards constancy. or breathe deeply at will. fifth it actually gets. of control over the reflexes for when we pull the voluntarily.298 exercise of spect. but. This type of modification gives a measure . by exercise improves so as to get over half on the next day. it instinctively strikes at them. Holding the of saliva. Where a native response is variable. variable. hand back we are executing these movements without the natural stimulus ability to omit a re- being present. seizes them in its bill and swallows them. keeping the eyes wide open in spite of the tendency to wink. over three-fourths after another day or two. as is well illustrated in the case of the pecking response of the newly hatched chick. its aim being poor and uncertain.

Finally. fixing and combining movements. in which a number of simple in- movements become hitched together in a fixed/ order. Or. both hands grasp the object but ways. vtnptiise and emotion. writing a word. an important type of modification consists in the combination of reflex movements into larger coordinations. These is i cases illustrate simultaneous coordination. Not " starting " at a sudden sound to which we have grown used and not turning the eyes to look at a very familiar object. of the pen between the The two loose holding fingers takes I first the place of the child's full-fisted grasp. and there also | a serial coordination. natu- The muttered imprecation thumb and the of the adult takes the place of the child's scream of pain. The substitute response is another modification to be placed alongside of the substitute stimulus. by strengthening. Acquired Tendencies In the sphere of modification occur. Examples of this are seen in dancing. Here a natural its stimulus caUs out a motor response diff^erent from ral response. while the other One hand grasps an pushes or strikes in diff^erent it. object. as in handling an ax or shovel. In these ways. the same kinds of Detachment of an impulse or emotion is from its natural stimulus very much in evidence. and by new attachments and detachments between stimulus and response. and. hand pulls. most notably.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION similar 299 cases instances of control over reflexes are of detachment of a native reaction from its natural stimulus. the instinctive motor activity of the baby passes over into the skilled and habitual move- ment of the adult. are other instances of this detachment. in speaking a word or familiar stinctive phrase. since .

and another thing in the adult. instead of showing the instinctive signs of temper." " I'll throw it away! " (in a savage tone of voice. Not only in the child so. and with a gesture throwing the leaf away). she picked up a red autumn leaf and offered it to her mother. or plots re- The internal bodily changes in emotion are little modified as the individual grows stimuli fled. arouse them — of up —except is that different greatly modisubstitute ^but the overt behavior reactions instead the native we find reactions. a pretty leaf?" "Wouldn't you like to have that leaf?" "Yes. to the age of four. Angry behavior child kicks is one thing in the child. The emotions which is of th e ith the exception of sex attraction. Here we have an early form of substitute reaction. usually very weak in the child are the emotions of the child. very sweetly spoken. But this stimulus no longer worked when he had advanced . with the words. but the emotions express themselves differently and the adult. The emotions get attached to substitute stimuli." said her mother. while out wialking in the woods with her family. or vituperates.300 PSYCHOLOGY what frightens or angers or amuses the little child may have no such power with the adult. A little girl of three years. t hey are aroused by different stimnli. The and screams. acquiescently. fist. " Isn't that "Yes. New objects arouse fear. biLL. rivalry adult — or curiosity. anger. was piqued by some correction from her mother. Amusement can be aroused in an older child by situations that were not at all amusing to the baby. where the adult strikes with his venge. and can glimpse how such re- . One little boy of two could be thrown into gales of laughter by letting a spoon drop with a. but. so far as concerns external motor action. indeed.bang to the floor and you could repeat this a dozen times in quick succession and get the response every time.

we can well imagine that it would become attached to the angry state and be used again in a Thus. at other times amaze you bv his masterly grasp on affairs. so that eventually. Well. we similar case. train. this is one of the most fascinating topics in psychology—how we learn. Religion and patriotism furnish good examples of compound emotions. let for the child's 301 out- The natural anger was blocked. . respond by a blend of the two emotions. since if we wish to educate. terrify you on some occasions. emotional behavior that is socially unaccept- bined. and again win your affectioi^ by his care for your own welfare so that your attitude toward " the boss " comes to be a blend of fear. mold. Emotions are also combined. little is child shows these several types of but it is not all we wish want to know how the modification comes about that is.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION actions become attached to the emotions. it is just as important. wel Your chief may) sion. then. We by experience and practically. behavior of the modification. satisfaction to the child. for the instant. and modified — . it is the process of modification that we must control. so that the anger was dammed up. improve ourselves or others. To understand it we must watch the process itself. probably because pre- vious outbursts of rage had not had satisfactory conse- quences. how we are molded or This interesting. till the child found some act that would give Now supposing that the substitute reaction gave it vent. and to control it we must understand it. much as reflexes are comThe same object which on one occasion arouses in us one emotion may arouse another emotion on another occawhenever we see that object. Scientifically. admiration and gratitude. to know. may outgrow able. without outgrowing the emotions. or " bottled up ". adult behavior compared with the instinctive . we want to get an insight into the process of learning.

Mere anec- dotes of intelligent behavior in animals are of little value. in which the animal's progress is followed. It climbed back to its web.302 PSYCHOLOGY learning-. like the " sensory chapter on sensation. since makes the learning process easier to follow. for what rest. from the time when he is confronted with a perfectly novel situation trick. at first the animal makes some instinctive exploring or defensive reacless The tion . but experimental studies. is remains after an interval of illustrated is common. the fork was sounded In higher animals. but after several repeti- . permanent adaptation again. and the spider made the defensive reaction of dropping to the ground. therefore we turn to studies that trace the course of events in human and animal Animal Learning Animals do learn. of the invertebrates. Nothing has been learned. but this it is an advantage for our present purpose. The instinctive reaction has been detached from one of its natural stimuli. While the spider was in its web. adaptation " described in the Stop learned the stimulus and the original responsiveness returns after a short time. but with continued repetition of the stimulus. a tuning fork was sounded. Apply a harmand meaningless stimulus time after time. at least. Even in unicellular animals. step by step. but in them adaptation can be only temporary. negative is observed. he ceases after a while to respond. all the vertebrates. the spider dropped again. negative adaptation experinient. as by a famous experiment on a spider. and a few typical experiments will serve as a good introduction to the whole subject of learning. till he has mastered the have now been made in great numbers. and often learn many They more slowly than men.

He may observe that the dinner bell means dinner. and the saliva flows in response to the bell. The conditioned reflex experiment. A tion. does not definitely observe the connection of the bell and the tasting substance.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION tions In quick succession. who quickly withdrew his hand with . Then ring the bell alone. even the name of a savory dish will do the same. this stimulus. but do we not know of similar facts in every-day experience. 303 Next ceased day. but after the same it performance had been repeated on several days. whereas the dog. accustomed to his surroundings. At first thought. the learning process by which the substitute stimulus becomes attached to the salivary reaction is more complex in man's case. the spider ceased to respond. we suppose. it responded as at first. Quite possibly. Man grows and to numerous unimpor- tant sights and sounds. showed no but on the contrary reached out his hand to take the A young fear. What the Experiment shows is that a substitute stimulus can become attached to a reaction under very simple conditions. Put into a dog's mouth a tasting substance that arouses the flow of saliva. this very weird. which has become attached to the salivary. and at the same instant ring a bell. The bell is a substitute stimulus. At this instant a loud rasping noise was produced just behind the child. response by dint is of having been often given along with the natural stimulus that arouses this response. conditioned reflex experiment on a child deserves menchild. sight of food does the same. and the dog to the presence of a cat in the house. as horse " gets used " to the harness. and repeat this combination of stimuli many times. permanently to respond to Negative adaptation well as in men. confronted with a rabbit.? The dinner bell makes the mouth water the . rabbit. The is common in domestic animals. to be sure.

If he enters the door with the yellow sign. passage which leads to a box of food if he enters the other door he gets into a blind alley. electric current into the blind alley. for he learns simple locations very quickly. Vi^ith the food box. After this first trial is him back at the starting point. and closed off' the other passage for the yellow disc in this experiment always marks the way to the food. keeping count of the number of correct responses. The rat has learned the trick. coming out. The little signed experiment. and finds the number to increase little by little. is in this way that many fears. he gives the rat twenty trials a day. the from the rabbit and was evidently afraid of it. connected the passage behind the marked door .304 signs of fear. he comes out and enters the other door. the experimenter is ito the yellow signal. likes and disPlace a white rat before two it Probably it likes of children originate. he finds himself in a . patient. and the other door always leads to a blind alley. and he is very apt to go straight to the door that previously led to the food. thus completed. place continues his explorations is till he reaches the food box and rewarded. But meanwhile the experimenter may have shifted the yellow sign to the other door. both just alike except that one has on circle. behind . Whenever the rat finds himself in a blind alley. He learns the trick for incorrect responses sponses. The sign is shifted irregularly from one door to the other. till after some thirty days every response is correct and unhesitating. But for a long time he seems incapable of responding However. child shrank PSYCHOLOGY After this had been repeated a few times. which he explores. so finally getting his reward on every i trial. and then. somewhat more rapidly if punishment is added to reward for correct re- and switch an Place wires along the floor of the two passages. doors. a yel- low The rat begins to explore.

and in fact to learn the way to a goal is probably possible for any species that has any power of learning whatever. spond to a stimulus. and in the course of these explorations . The rat. An animal is placed in an enclosure from which it can reach food by following a more or less complicated path. enters every passage. The response : of attending to the surface of the door ing. and actually covers every square inch of the maze at least once. without reference to the sign. of trials he learns to follow the sign. he avoids' the place where he got in the shock. since when. maze. placed in a He sniffs about. the yellow disk. but a very adaptable type of Fishes and experiment and can be tried on any animal. The maze experiment. goes back and forth. sign. rather. since the rat learns to re- unmoved. 305 When the rat enters the blind alley and gets a shock. explores. not to look at its surface. The natural reaction of a rat to a door is to enter it. avoids the door that led to the shock and therefore enters the other door. The it is rat is the favorite subject for this experiment. on the next the sign is moved. even crabs have mastered simple mazes. scampering back to the starting point and cowering there for some time.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION the door that has no yellow circle on it. that at first left him But more careful consideration shows this to be. but the experiment forces him to make the preliminary response of attending to the appearance of the door before entering it. is substituted for the instinctive response of enter- Otherwise put the response of finding the marked door and entering that is substituted for the response of entering any door at random. a case of substitute response. But a series Learning to respond to a signal might be classified under the head of substitute stimulus. though apparently without paying any attention to the yellow trial. he makes a prompt avoiding reaction. eventually he makes a fresh start.

47. Entrance Fig. Thus eliminating the '*— — ' r'--' .r. At to first thought. The is in experiments The dotted line shows the path taken by a rat on 4 minutes and 2 seconds. On successive trials he goes less and less deeply into a blind alley. on the rat. he proceeds as before. When the rat approaches a turning point in the maze. Replaced at the starting point. his course bends so as to prepare for the turn. which occupied blind alleys one after another.) Ground plan maze used — (Fromcentral square enclosureof athe food box. he does not simply advance to the turning point and then make the turn. till finally he passes the entrance to it without even turning his head. but careful study of his behavior reveals another factor. though with more speed and less dallying in the blind alleys. its fourth trial. but several steps before he reaches that point are organized or coordinated into a sort of unit.SD6 hits PSYCHOLOGY upon the food box.'--i: i. Hicks. he comes at length to run by a fixed route from start to finish. the elimination of useless moves seems tell the whole story of the rat's learning process. ..

indicates the number of minutes consumed in that trial in passing through the maze and reaching the food box. Fig.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION The combination by certain the rat makes little 307 of steps into larger units It is is shown also variations of the experiment. Another variation of the experiment is to place a rat that has learned a maze down in the midst of it. The height of the heavy line above the base line. derived from the records of four animals. 48. guiding himself mostly by the muscle sense. the rat runs full tilt against the new end of the passage. after being well learned. Now if I J a 4 9 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 Jt 13 lb J7 IS19 2aZI2Z23ZiZlU ZTZBSV 3Z3'> TRIALS 'Jl (From Watson. known that use of the sense of sight in learning the maze. altered — is by shortening one of the straight passages. instead of at . This is a composite or average. but by runs of some length.) Learning curve for the rat in the maze. not step by step. the maze. The gradual descent of the curve indicates the gradual decrease in time required. for any trial. and thus pictures the progress of the animals in learning the maze. showing clearly that he was proceeding.

spring then gently opens the door. with a bit of fish lying just outside. The animal must here Fig. shakes anything loose. he bites the slats. Now his cue could not have been any single .) A puzzle box. In short.308 PSYCHOLOGY At first the usual starting point. for these would all be too much alike his cue must have been a familiar sequence of movements. and begins speed exploring. step or turn. L. the rat learns the path by elvmnation of false (From Watson. but. he pushes his nose between the slats but cannot get through. reach his paw out between the bars and raise the latch. — A reactions and by combination of single steps and turns into larger reaction-units. he gets his cue from the " feel " of it. he is lost. and The cat extends his paw between the slats but cannot reach the fish. and that sequence functions as a unit in calling out the rest of the habitual movement. ' The puzzle-box experiment. Place a hungry young cat in a strange cage. and races off at full to the food box. hitting on a section of the right path. and tries every part of the cage. 49. you are sure to get action. claws at anything small. Coming to the button that fastens .

The by " learning process has been gradual. unerring response. but perhaps somewhat quicker escape. and eats the fish. on being placed in the cage. with ups and downs.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION button. which can be defined as varied reaction with gradual elimination of the unsuccessful responses and fixation of the successful one. give gradually decreasing times of escape. More perhaps on a series of days. business. The cat in this experiment is evidently trying to get out of the cage and reach the food. is dammed up. When the successful re- energy is and the door opened. nated. hit upon. ing noted the time occupied in this cat. Perhaps 15 of 20 is trials have been required to reach this stage of prompt. till The useless reactions are gradually elimi- finally the cat. by repetition. havfirst trial. but its this tendency. Same trials. shift but with no sudden first trial from the varied reaction of the to the fixed reaction of the last. turns the button. goes out and starts to eat. and remains as an inner directive force. At first. This is the typical instance of learning trial and error ". goal. he attacks that also. goes instantly to the door. . and sooner or later turns the The experimenter. requiring but a second or two for the whole complex reaction. It is also a case of the substitute response. the cat responds to the situation by reaching or it pushing straight towards the food. but learns to substi- tute for this most instinctive response the less direct re- sponse of going to another part of the cage and turning a button. facilitating reactions that are in the line of escape and inhibiting other sponse is reactions. and. 309 the door. still replaces the hungry. of improvement The course rather irregular. the dammed-up discharged into this response. and another bit of fish outside. in the cage. confined in a cage while The situation of being hungry arouses an impulse or tendunable at once to reach ency to get out. gets out.

to observed in animals of the process of learning. and attempt to generalize what we have (1) Elimination of a response. Elimination of a response also occurs. to (b) Elimination occurs more gradually when the response. through negative adaptation to a stimulus that is harmless and also useless. (c) till the blind alley neglected altogether. not by seeing how to get out. without resulting in actual pain. is . The cat learns to get out by getting out. Trial and error learning is learning by doing. made a clean-cut observation of the manner of escape. so as to occur promptly whenever the tend- ency is aroused. instead of falling off gradually and irregularly from trial to trial. and not by reasoning or observing. . as it does fall off. which means detachment of a response from the stimulus that originally aroused it. The positive response of entering and exploring a blind alley grows is weaker and weaker. There not even any evidence that -the cat clearly observes If he how he gets out. before passing human learning. and thus the positive reaction this place is eliminated. the animal makes the avoiding reaction to the pain and quickly comes to make this response to the place where the pain occurred. not deliberative.310 the successful PSYCHOLOGY response becomes closely attached to the escape-tendency. There the cage. is no evidence that the cat reasons his way out of His behavior is impulsive. Summary of Animal Learning Let us take account of stock at this point. occurs in three main cases (a) Elimination occurs most quickly when the response brings actual pain. his time for escaping should thereupon take a sudden drop. slowly. brings failure or delay in reaching a goal towards which the animal is tending.

" linkage of stimulus and response ". giving higher motor Human Learning To compare human and animal learning. cannot but throw light on the whole problem of the process of learning. and then blocked by the failure of the original response to lead to the goal. which are called " substitute stimulus " and " substitute response ". . till some one of the trial responses leads to the goal. and doing so repeatedly.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION 311 (2) New attachments or Imkages ^ of stimulus and response occur in two forms. and gives trial and error behavior. and becomes firmly attached to the situation and tendency. This new linkage can sometimes be established by simply giving the stimulus original and the substitute stimulus at the same time. (b) Substitute response refers to the case where. all mean exactly the same. combinations of responses occur. a to it in place of the original response. " Attachment of stimulus and response ". 1 It is obvious eral The writer hopes that no confusion will be caused by his use of sevwords to express this same meaning. (3) New units. but sometimes one and sometimes another seems to bring the meaning more vividly to mind. " connection between stimulus and response ". and " bond between stimulus and response ". the stimulus remaining as it originally was. but becomes attached to another originally than the one that aroused it. more complex than those that give tendency towards some goal must first be aroused. and A this successful response is gradually substituted for the original response. " (a) Substitute stimulus refers to the case where the natural response stimulus is not itself modified. The dammed-up tendency then facilitates other responses. and notice in what ways the human is superior. as in the conditioned reflex ex- periment. this takes place are new reaction is attached The conditions under which the substitute stimulus.

He assumes that a bright often disappointed. Why does the adult feel disgust at the mere sight of the garbage pail or the mere name of cod liver oil? Because these inoffensive visual and auditory stimuli have been associated. compelled to attend to everything that aroused the child's curiosity. Man learns signs more readily than such an animal as the rat. quires of reactions but the important question is how he does this. the adult would be shrink from everything that frightened child. and the conditioned reflex gested. and how his learning process is superior. We must first notice that all the forms of learning displayed by the animal are present also in the human being. Yet the human being often has trouble in learning to read the signs aright. but finds that this quite unaccountably brings ridicule on him at times. so that gradually he may come to say the one or the . till. with odors and tastes that naturally aroused disgust. he learns to ing of signs recognize important facts by aid of signs that are of themWe shall have much to say on this selves unimportant. and a much greater variety . He learns the meanand slight indications that is. to the laugh at everything that amused the The conditioned reflex type of learning accounts for a host of acquired likes and dislikes. or paired. human . morning means good weather all day. he learns to take account of less obviou^ signs of the weather. he adopts the plan of always saying " you and I ". " You and me did it ".312 that PSYCHOLOGY man learns more quickly than the animals. matter in a later chapter on perception. Negative adaptation is important in human life. The signal experiment is duplicated thousands of times in the education of every being. Corrected for saying. that he acmore numerous reactions. in part because the human being is naturally more responsive to visual and auditory stimuli. is important. to child. as has already been sug- Without negative adaptation.

you can". the human in subject has an initial advantage from knowing he while the rat knows no a maza and has to master is more than that he able. responds to this element. Trial and error learning. The process of learning to rething goes wrong. to be explored with cauit tion on the odd chance that may contain something eat- or something dangerous. it. without ever clearly seeing what are the conditions acteristically " animal ". In the maze. cover less distance.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION 313 other according to obscure signs furnished by the structure of the particular sentence. getting into trouble. as in driving a nail. He would be at a decided disadvantage if he could not learn by trial and error. since often the thing he has to manage is very difficult of rational analysis Much motor skill. after once reaching the food box. and so series of trials —comes —perhaps after a long finally to govern his action by what seemed at first utterly insignificant. in a strange place. they make less speed. But. and within a few trials . varying your procedure. though not so fast as a child. gets good results. Human Compared With Animal Learning Fairly direct comparisons have been made between human is and animal learning of^ mazes and puzzles. the rat begins to put on speed in his moveis racing through the maze fast^ than the adult man. Man learns of success. by rational analysis in others. Adults are more circumspect and dignified. though often spoken of as charis common enough in human beings. by impulsively doing in some instances. but also make fewer false moves ments. and gradually " getting the hang of the thing ". the individual spond to obscure signs seems to be about as follows someis brought to a halt by the : bad results of his action. he then sees some element in the situation that he had previously overlooked. is acquired by " doing the best.

It in the first trial that the superiority of the adults clearly. can be seen most is in the adjacent table. shows They get a better start. AVERAGE NUMBER OF ERRORS MADE. (2) more plan. the child The adult has more . BY RATS. and adapt them- selves to the situation more promptly.e. but the child's activity enables him to catch up shortly in so simple a problem as this little maze. less Their better start off due to (1) better understanding of the situation at the outset.314 PSYCHOLOGY finish in less time. to respond impulsively to every opening. with- out considering or looking ahead. adults do not hold their advantage long. The is chief point of superiority of adults to human children. IN EACH TRIAL LEARNING A MAZE. since children and even rats also reach complete mastery of a simple maze in ten or fifteen trials. and of these to animals. i. and That is in the early trials. CHILDREN AND ADULT MEN (From Hicks and Carr) Trial No. more activity and responsiveness the adult's inhibition stands him in good stead at the outset. (3) tendency to " go on a tangent ". inhibition. IN ..

The subjects test^ consisted of 23 rats. The human maze vJ^Ssmuch larger than those used for the Since rats are known rats. \ The puzzle boxes used in experiments on animal learning are too simple for human adults. five. as well as animals. pears that locations are about the easiest facts to learn for men the less.. In addition to taking the time. and the subject endeavors at the end of each trial to record what he has himself observed of the course of events. After a time he may " see into " the puzzle more or while less clearly. and his final success. '. The human puzzle is subject's behavior in his first trial with a often quite of the trial and error sort. and notes the time required by the subject to take it apart. In the course of a few trials. human subject notices that some lines of attack are use- and therefore eliminates them. he may still be at a loss. also. and (four graduate students of psychology. children varying in age from 8 to 13 ye^s. He manipu- lates impulsively it. He is most likely to have noticed where he was in the puzzle when his accidental success occurred. the human subjects were blindfolded.LEARNING AND pAfilT FORMATION 315 the course. seeing a possible opening he responds to and meeting a check he backs off. and proceedas before but usually he has noticed one or two facts that help him. the others simply by the satisfaction of success. On the second trial. the experimenter observes the subject's way of reacting.and tries something Often he tries the same line of attack time and timeagain. always failing. and this is repeated in a series of trials till mastery is complete. to make little use of their eyes inQeapi-trfg a maze. though sometimes he gets a practical mastery of the handling of the puzzle. still obliged to confess that he does not understand it at all. is often accidental and mystifying to himself. for it apelse. present problems of sufficient The experimenter hands the subject a totally unfaipiliar puzzle. but mechanical puzzles difficulty. The rats were rewarded by food. . . but roughly about' the same jin complexity. in the first trial. .

followed by an a prolonged stretch of no abrupt change to quicker work. is of great value. drop in the curve denotes a decrease in time. volving the same principle in way when the handed another ina changed form. The value of insight appears in another is subject. 50. the successive trials being arranged in order from left to right. If he has is seen the principle of the first puzzle.—*V'yv(vv/v^. PSYCHOLOGY when it does occur. At X. and master this readily. The human "learning curve" (see Figure 50) often shows improvement. but bringing the time down thereafter to a new — A and steady level. and thus an improvement. puzzle.316 Insight. or more of these sudden im- provements followed immediately after some fresh insight into the puzzle. so increasing his time for this one trial. . he likely to carry over this knowledge to the second. spections show that 75 per cent. Insight into the general principle of the puzzle leads to a better general plan of attack. after mastering one puzzle. Distance above the base line represents the time occupied in each trial.) Curve for human learning of a mechanical Fig. the subject saw something about the puzzle that he had not noticed before and studied it out with some care.^V"ijv (From Ruger. and the subject's intro- •v^AvJ^. and insight into the detailed difficulties of manipulation leads to smoother and defter handling.

arises from seeing at once the key to the situation. The enormous human superiority in learning a simple puzzle. To be observation needs to be followed by manipulation in is order to give practical mastery of a thing. in the sense that we acquire a reaction by making just that reaction. of Learning by observation is typically superiority in tackling a maze may be — — the sort used in experiments on animals. human. we must do we strength". if S17 first he has simply acquired motor skill with the puzas without any insight into its principle. he if may have hard a time with the second as he had never seen the first. but manipulation without observation means slow learning and often yields nothing that can be carried over to a different situation.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION but zle. For human beings. The adult's summed up by saying that he observes more than the child much more than the animal and governs his behavior by his observations. banana was put into The chim- . A chimpanzee one of the most intelligent of animals was tested with a simple puzzle box. still further and said " We learn only by doing ened it observing. " To learn. We must make a reaction in order to get it really in hand. But we should make it false if fact —often some relationship as well as —and the value of insight in hastening the process of learning by observation sure. A the box and the door fastened with the button. a proof that we learn by actual manipulation. learn also by The " insight " just spoken of consists in observing some ". Learning by Observation " We learn by doing " is a true proverb. The device was so simple that you would expect the animal to see into it — at once. to be opened from outside by turning a button that prevented the door from opening. at least. so that the proverb might be strengthened to read.

he had the button turned and the door open. the other not. but only that the button was the thing to work with in opening the door. kept on turning the it button. attention to this second button. and places one do the untrained cat where it can watch the trained its trick. but he still went had been and fingered about there. he had a practical mastery of the thus considerable superiority over the cat. but as he had left the first one It was a closed. but most of their learning is by doing and not by observing. in order to force him to deal with the first it one was removed. a second button was put on a few inches from the both being just alike and operating in the same way. the to the place where cats. and quickly found the button. and when the door failed to first open. But now first. but The chimpanzee paid no turned the first one as before. Here is another experiment designed to test the ability of animals to learn by observation.318 PSYCHOLOGY panzee quickly found the door. At one time. rectly. But he has derived no benefit from what has gone on before his eyes. indeed. What he had observed was chiefly the place to work at in order to open the door. opening it and closing and always tugging at the door. hard job for him to learn to operate both buttons corand the experiment proved that he did not observe how the button kept the door from opening. then taken away and the untrained cat put into the puzzle box. he did shift to the second button. The and is trained cat performs repeatedly for the other's benefit. his manipulation of the second was futile. one having mastered a certain puzzle box. trials. showing who would more have required twelve or fifteen trials to learn the trick. likely After about three puzzle. Withoxit much delay. long. which he proceeded to pull about with one hand while pulling the door with the other. The experimenter takes two second button. We must grant that animals observe locations. After a time. and must learn by trial .

Such behavior. He has not acquired the word by direct imitation. 319 and error. tempts the learning process tion ". on previous occasions. is common In human children. " learning by observation foland error ". first however. then. since in . without. who are very observant of what older people do. is. which consists in observation at the time followed later by attempts to do what has been observed. but now he brings it out of himself. imitating the action of the animal exactly. Observation does not alto- gether relieve the child of the necessity of learning by trial and error. evidently. but the chimpanzee shows some signs of learning by One chimpanzee having learned to extract a observation. but observation gives him a good start and hastens " Learning by imitaconsiderably. This has been called learning by imitation. another chimpanzee was placed where he could watch the Then the first one's performance and did watch it closely. Learning hy thinking depends on observation. first He promptly animal was taken away and the second given a chance. took the stick and got the banana. banana from a long tube by pushing it out of the further end with a stick which the experimenter had kindly left close by. and imitate them on the first opportunity. but by what has been called " delayed imitation ". for often his first imitations are pretty poor at. he has heard this word. but might better be described as learning by observation. and the reason so little of it is appears in animals their lack of observation. he has not attempted to copy it. but pulling the banana towards him till he could reach it.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION . is The first time a child speaks it. The same negative results are obtained even with monkeys. a new word usually not right after he has heard When. trial lowed by more properly. the same as any other cat he does not even learn any more quickly than he otherwise would have done. quite rare among animals. though often this comes after an interval.

and maps out plans of action. without gard to his better methods of learning.320 PSYCHOLOGY thought we make use of facts previously observed. Man is a better observer. 2. He is able to work mentally wilh. he remembers things he has seen. 4). or waiting. however. some manipulation of the trial and error sort is needed before the thought-out solution will work perfectly. anyway. and this is the great secret of his quick learning. menthrough the motions of starting the engine and then the car. do we see an animal that appears to be thinking. we 1. Seldom. He has more control over his impulses. thinks over problems that are not actually confronting him at the moment. human over may note that reis Man is perhaps a quicker learner. He is especially strong in observing relationships. and finds that this " absent treatment " makes the car easier to manage the next day. open to doubt. puts together facts observed at different times. . we often call them. while lying in bed after his tally goes first day's experience. or " principles " as 3. or sleeping. In summing up the points of superiority of animal learning. and so finds time and energy for observing and thinking. in view of the very rapid learning by animals of such reactions as the avoidance of a place where they have been hurt. The animal is always doing. however. Sometimes mental rehearsal of a performance assists in learning it. This. who. unless in the chimpanzee and other manlike apes. Usually. as we see in the beginner at automobile driving. But a man may observe something in the present problem that calls previous observations to mind. and by mentally combining observations made at pulsive to stop different times may figure out the solution before beginning motor manipulation. He seems too im- and think.things that are not present .

The number of letters sent or received per minute was taken as the measure of his proficiency. A how student of telegraphy was tested once a week to see rapidly he could send a message. This number increased rapidly in the first few .LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION The Learning of Complex Practical Performances 321 A ment great deal of light has been thrown on the learning in mastering such trades as telegraphy process by psychological studies of the course of improve- and typewriting. by listening to the clicking of the sounder. and also how rapidly he could " receive a message off the wire ".

muscular strength and quickness of nerve centers. The simple reaction gives another good example. may A . and any given Individual's limit be considerably worse than this. and the subsequent rise to a higher level may result from improved methods of work. times due to mere discouragement. showing ther improvement for the next two months. He At acquires methods the start. he must learn the alphabet of dots and dashes. often has a different cause. This was a if discouraging time for the student. fol- called a " plateau ". for it seemed as he could never come up to the commercial standard. after the long period of little improvement. But this student per- and. In fact. that he must learn the rhythmical .^ The telegrapher acquires skill by improving his methods. the neuromuscular system simply will not work any faster. that he didn't dream of at first. This means. and flattened out after about four months of practice. pattern of finger movements that stands for each letter and. and when off into a level. followed little is by a Some- —such a period of lowed by rapid improvement — it or no improvement. beyond which no amount of training will lower his reaction time. 1 plateau of this sort is present in the learning curve for mastery of a puzzle. or to the inattention that naturally supervenes when an act becomes easy to perform. that he must learn the rhythmical Ithe record much helow ten seconds. he was well above the minimum stand- once more ard for regular employment. represent a true physiological limit for the act as it is being performed. according to his build. It was gratified to find his curve going up rapidly again. many sisted. It may. given on p. every one has his limit. for little purposes of sending. for purposes of receiving. 316. it tapered went up rapidly for several months. rather than by simply speeding up. in fact. Such a second rise flat stretch in a practice curve.322 PSYCHOLOGY little fur- curve rose more slowly than the sending curve. That was probably the case with the telegrapher. learners drop out at this stage.

The rhyth- mical pattern of the whole word becomes a familiar unit. but acquires a similar control over familiar phrases. and Higher Units and Overlapping The acquisition of skill in telegraphy consists mostly in It is learning these higher vmts of reactions. in its elements. motor units for sending purposes. all! But not at " letter habits its ". at this early. writing each letter as a separate act. and. he supposes he has learned the trade. the letters become so familiar that he goes through this spelling process easily . the same in . By degrees. Short. you ". doing now so much better than at the outset. stage. out as a connected unit . He has acquired but a small part of the necessary stock-in-trade of the telegrapher. to the letter habit method which he formerly assumed to be the whole art of telegraphy. auditory units for receiving. he finds the new method far superior. he In sending. When he has learned the alphabet. more and more words. and needs only to put on more speed. recognize the characteristic pattern of this whole series of When the telegrapher has reached this word habit stage. nor laboriously dug out letter by letter receiving .LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION pattern of clicks from the sounder that stands for a 323 letter. He has his but knows nothing as yet of " word hab- practice. out the words. in and your receiving. he must pick out each separate letter from the con- tinuous series of clicks that ho hears from the sounder. ". These gradually come to him as he continues his He comes to know words as units. he spells is able to send and receive slowly. He does not even stop with word habits. much used words are first dealt with as units. in both speed sureness. then habits. In receiving. or. in you simply think the word " train it fin^r taps clicks. till he has a large vocabulary of word A word that has become a habit need not be spelled out in sending.

by a coordinated series of finger movements word units. consisting of eye. and thus was reacting to about four words at the same time: one word was just being read from the copy. solute beginner at the typewriter. of the reaction to the second letter commences before the motor part of reacting to the first letter is finished and this overlap does away with pauses between letters and makes the writing smoother and more rapid. motor nerves and muscles. The human typewritmg mechanism. Along with remarkable. ab- and pauses after each "letter to get his bearings before starting on the next. in writing " The ". overlap goes to much greater lengths. one word was being written. . in part. this increase in the size of the reaction-units skill employed goes another factor of This is that is really very the " overlapping " of different reac- tions. . The trated at an early stage in learning to typewrite. only simplest sort of overlap can be illus- that the two or more reactions are really parts of the same total activity. and later. and the two words between were being organized and prepared for actual writing. and are then in the letterhabit stage. With further practice in typewriting. After a time. still Thus the sensory part . when word habits and phrase habits are acquired. optic nerve. a species of doing two or more things at once. works somewhat like one of .S24 learning to typewrite. parts of the brSiin and cord. by phrase units and these of letter-striking movements. PSYCHOLOGY First you must learn your alphabet by degrees you reduce these finger movements to firm habits. higher units give you speed and accuracy. in which you spell out each word as you write it. One expert kept her eyes on the copy about four words ahead of her fingers on the keyboard.~ but after a small amount of practice he will locate is the second letter on the keyboard while his finger in the act of striking the first letter. you write a familiar word without spelling you write by it.

In reading aloud. almost inevitable that the learner should start with the alphabet and proceed to But in learning to talk. the process goes the other way.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION ily at S25 those elaborate machines which receive raw material stead- one end perform a series of operations upon it. With improvement. ing.) — (Frompoint on Each seeing. gradually larger units. number Practice curve of a young man learning to the " curve " represents a daily record in of strokes per minute. the eyes keep well ahead of the voice. All this is very remarkable. but the same sort of overwitii large units lapping and working can be duplicated in many linguistic performances that every one makes. typewrite. understanding and pronouncing are all applied simul- taneously to different words of the passage read. and keep turning out finished product at the other end. 52. In telegraphy and typewriting. or even with whole . Book. to read by beginning with whole words. or to read. the curve rises. and 100 Days of Fractice Fio. The child understands spoken words and phrases before breaking them up into their elementary vocal sounds and he can better be taught . the ideas keep developing In talk- and the spoken words tag along it is behind.

In short. This is very true of the manual worker. it and have no such perfect For " practice to make it must be strongly motivated. Typesetters of ten or more years' experience were once selected as subjects for an experiment on the effects of alcohol. because it was assumed that they must have already reached their maximum skill. Moderate Skill Acquired in the Ordinary Day's Work Merely repeating a performance many times does not give the high degree of skill that rapher or typist. gree of skill. than PSYCHOLOGY by first learning the alphabet and laboriously spelling out the words. and do not acquire the methods of the real expert. so that he can see his progress. we practise much less asless zealous. the result was that this drug caused a falling off in speed and accuracy of work but that is another story. Whfet we are interested in here is the — fact that. and their work measured. perfect ". and If the success of a must be sharply checked up by some index or measure of success or failure. and reaches the smaller elements only for the purpose of more precise control. we have no clear indication of exactly how well we are doing. they ' all began to in\prove and in the course of a couple of weeks . much measure of the success of our work. and are satisfied if we get through our job easily and without too much criticism and ridicule from people around. and chalked up before the of a practice curve.326 sentences. as soon as these long-practised operators found themselves under observation. are we see in the expert telegOrdinarily. Consequently we reach only a moderate denowhere near the physiological limit. siduously. In regard to alcohol. the learning process often takes its start with the higher units. Ordinarily. this acts as a strong incentive to rapid improvement. performance can be measlearner's eyes in the form ured.

students who know just how to put in two hours of study on a lesson with the maximum of effect. too. There is evidently no law of learning to the effect i that continued repetition of a performance necessarily makes it perfect in speed. had and special proach their limit. a practice curve before us to indicate where we stand at the present moment with respect to our past and our possible future. There are brilliant exceptions bookkeepers who add columns of figures with great speed and precision. The brain worker manual worker. we need a clear and — measure of success or failure. but not at all the maximum of skill. been reasonably satisfactory under incentive was needed to workaday conmake them apby " mo- A similar condition of affairs has been disclosed tion studies " in many kinds of manual work . ease. Their former ditions. we need. and analyzed to determine whether there are any superfluous movements that could be elimi- nated. visible We ^but the great majority of us are only need strong incentive. the movementsi of the operative have been photographed or closely examined' by the efficiency expert. only moderately in doing his particular job. Usually. if such a thing were possible. writers who always say just what they wish to say and hit the nail on the head every time passable. . superfluous motion has been found and considerable economy seen to be possible. ' What the manual worker attains as the result of prolonged is experience a passable performance. or adaptation to the task in hand. and whether a different method of work would be economical of time and effort. has little is to brag of as against the efficient He.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION reached quite a new level level 327 of performance.

the habit is easy and often pnly half-conscious. But is if the habit simply must be broken? Breaking a habit forming a counter-habit. fairly The new response is variable.328 PSYCHOLOGY Habit A habit is contrasted with a reflex. while habit fixed regular. no half-hearted acquiescence in some- body else's injunction to get rid of the habit. The new response is is exploratory and tentative. the habit The new response is slow and uncertain. For example. (by eifort and strained attention. ' To break a habit most uncomfortable. if we come to realize that we have a bad habit of grouchiness with our best friends. is native. left to form itself. Strong motivation is necessary. and to practise the art of being good company. we need to aim at being a positive addition to the company whenever we are present. while habit is comfortable one is and a source of satisfaction. the habit acquired but both are alike in being prompt and automatic reactions. We must adopt the counter-habit as ours. where neither nature nor previous experience gives him a ready response. and the more positive the counterThis counter-habit must not be habit the better for us. and the slipping back into the rut which is almost sure to occur in moments of inadvertence Result is hu- miliating. it IS of little use merely"to attempt to deaden this habit. " which is least that " second nature habit — Nature — at calls aloud for the customary performance. the habit quick and accurate. but must be practised diligently. and work for a high standard of skill in it. checking up our eff'orts to be sure we are hitting . is The best antithesis to a habit the response of a person to a novel situation. Strenuous eff'ort is required to get out of the rut. The new response is attended and definite. isfying to the The new response is apt to be unsatwho makes it. in that the reflex . — usually the habit sticks.

.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION 329 the right vein. for the grouchiness is part and parcel of himself and he hates to be anything but himself. and persisting in our self-training till we become real artists. He must conceive a new and inspiring ideal of himself. It takes some determination for a grouchy individual to make such a revolution in his conduct his self-assertion resists violently. and start climbing up the practice curve towards the new ideal.

of your method of work" and changes with practice. etc. and so on for 12 sections. Which of the acts performed in eating breakfast are instinctive. 6. 9. A practice experiment. the other? 3. Outline the chapter. same thing with the next section. is apt to grow worse rather than better. Write brief explanations of the following terms: practice habit higher' unit overlapping plateau physiological insight trial limit and error negative adaptation substitute stimulus substitute response conditioned reflex . which are matters of habit. Take your time for marking every word in one section that contains both e and r. or in a stage of rapid improvement? Take several pages of uniform printed 8. attitude in approaching an unfamiliar and a familiar 4. construct a child's learning to practice curve. while on the contrary our spelling is apt to improve? Is it near your 7. do the in the word. Why is it that our handwriting. introspectively. diflfer does the performance of the expert in swimming or dancfrom the performance of the beginner? Analyze out that the element of trial the points of superiority. The two letters need not be adjacent. but must both be present somewhere Having recorded your time for this first section. and error is present in (a) the pronounce a word. on a plateau. How would you rate your efficiency in study? physiological limit. How Show ing.330 PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES 1. Compare your mental task. From the objective observations.. and (b) learning " how to take " a person so as to get on well with him. 5. though exercised so much. matter. and mark it oflF into sections of 15 lines. and which are partly the one and partly 2. What were you able to observe.

1914. 1-14. Briefer Course. 184-250. is Experimental 1920. ". nal " Conditioned Emotional Reactions ". 1911. in own pioneer this field. Vol. also Starch's Educational Psychology. 2nd edition. a classic which every one should read. Experimental Studies.LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION REFERENCES Thorndike's ports his 331 Animal Intelligence. pp. For an experiment showing the acquisition of fears by a child. 1919. 1917. For human learning and practice. . Briefer Course. see Watson's Behavior. in the Jour- Psychology James's chapter on " Habit of I. 1890. Vol. pp. 3. Chapters XIV and XV. 1914. see Watson and Raynor. For other reviews of the work on animal learning. also Washburn's Animal Mind. worls. 257-312. 1914. reSee also Chapter X in the same author's Educational Psychology. in his Principles of Psychology. see Thorndike's Educational Psychology. Chapter XI. pp.

into four subordinate questions how we commit to memory. AND B. we are not thinking of it. and what assures us that we have called up the right name. how do we carry it around with us when been committed to memory. on analysis. how we get want it. (2) Retention (3) Recall (4) Recognition 332 .'' The four problems may be named those of (1) Memorizing^ or learning. how do we call it up when needed. and the general in the question.CHAPTEE XIV MEMORY HOW WE MEMOEIZE AND EEMEMBEB. : way problem may be which expressed This large problem breaks up. how we retain what has it back when we and how we know that what we now get back is really what we formerly committed to memory.ESPECTS IN WHAT MEMORY CAN BE MANAGED AND IMPROVED So much depends on a good memory in all walks of life. The approach to a. In the case of a person's name which we wish to remember. this very practical problem in evi- dently through careful study of the memory works. how we learn and remember. and especially in brain work of any sort. that perhaps it is no wonder that many students and business and professional men become worried about their memories and resort to " memory scientific lies training courses " in the hope of improvement. how do we " fix it in mind ".

what we have found the preceding chapter regarding the learning process should throw light on our present problem. Learning by rote. Usually the learner goes to work in quite a dif- ferent way. because the process can be better observed here. so that learning is al- ways active. Observation we found to be of great assist- ance. a fact and observ. ant study is also a fact. He may group the digits into two-place or three-place numbers. Any familiar combinations that . is to be studied it can be by and The learner may go at it simply " doing ". He what numbers occur at the beginning and end. and notice the characteristics of these. in the hope that it wiU finally stick. and man by doing and also by observation or observation combined with doing. and perhaps in other definite positions. as indicated by The psychologist experiments a great deal with the Tnemorizmg of nonsense material. Our previous studies of learning thus lead us to in- quire whether committing to in rehearsing memory may not consist partly what we wish to learn. a mental reaction as distinguished from a purely passive or receptive state. which means here by reading the list again again. but inefficient.MEMORY The As memorizing in is 333 Process of Memorizing one sort of learning. and partly in observing it. than when sensible material is learned. to learn We found animals by doing. from the beginning. Let us see how learning laboratory experiments. both by way of hastening the learning process. is actually done. and bj' way of making what is learned more available for future use. indeed. notices He observes various facts about the list. it is This pure slow and rote learning will perhaps do the job. Observation is itself a form of doing. or by merely repeating a performance over and over again. Suppose a till list of twenty one-place numbers recited straight through. is.

1. 9. in and the observed characteristics stuck mind and held the rest together. such devices assist memorizing. such as wok pam zut bip sag ron taz vis lub mar koj yad are apt to be learned largely by observation of similarities and contrasts. 62. 286-. " higher unit s ". he these. 73. These observed facts transformed the list from a shapeless mass into something having definite characteristics.334 PSYCHOLOGY occur. and by grouping into pairs and reading rhythmically. 74. 5140. he is likely to spy and remember. Grouping reduces the twelve syllables to six two-syllabled nonsense words. and have much the same value as the higher units of telegraphy or typewriting. such as 1492. lists in One who learns many the course of a laboratory experiment develops a regu- . 380. way partly indicated by the com- mas and 5. first sight 1. and memorized easily. and a pause haps the first introduced after each pair . some of which may suggest meaningful words or at Perleast have a swing that makes them easy to remember. the list 5740627351409286380 which at teristic. can at least find similar and contrasting may Lacking number-groups For example. by reading meanings into the syllables. Lists of nonsense syllables. 0. seemed rather bare of anything characin a was analyzed semicolons. syllable of every pair is accented. The rhythmical and other groups that are found or made by the learner in memorizing nonsense lists are. in effect.

groups of two. make a rhythmical story out of it. he both explores the it as it stands and manipulates to be rememberable. He notices positions. He also notices the interrelations of different groups. being " odd tion or nickname. into some shape that promises His that is line of attack differs according to the particular test later to be made of his memory. or that resemble words. it is much more active. He proceeds by a sort of trial and error observation he keeps looking for something about list the that will help to fix it. three or four items. Suppose he is shown a number of pictures. list. meanvngs. He sees it something that sees promises well for a moment. numbers. All this is quite different from a mere droning along through the items of the list. he notices the items in each group and . " fuzzy ". noticing each group as a whole later. more or less far-fetched. something better. or disconnected words. connects items with their position in the He finds syllables that ". He also finds groups that resemhe imports ble each other. stand out as peculiar in some way. Very interesting are the various ways in which the learner attacks a list of nonsense syllables. smooth. line of verse out of he He may may make a list In short. with the understanding that later those now shown are to be mixed with others.e.MEMORY lar system of grouping. . and much more observant.. then gives up because he i. Besides what he actually finds in the list. abbrevia- He notes resemblances and contrasts be- tween different syllables. and that he must then pick out those now shown then he simply exam- — ines each picture for something characteristic. or resembling some word. into the it . But sup- . agreeable. disagreeable. in 335 First he reads the list through. He goes to work something like the cat trying to escape from a strange cage. and the position of each group in the total series. how they are related to each other. list.

His process of memorizing.. and he once more. such as soprano grassy nothing emblem concise ginger kettle faraway shadow mercy hilltop recite next scrub internal shoestring narrative . suppose an experiment is conducted by the method of " paired associates ". and try to find something in the pair that shall make it a firm unit.. always observant. exploratory and manipulatory. differs in detail according to the memory task that he expects later to per- form. in learning this lesson. and he is told that they will later be mixed be required to rearrange them in the same order in which they are now shown —then he seeks for relationships between the several pictures. thunder seldom jury windy squirm balloon necktie supple harbor eagle occupy hobby multiply unlikely westbound inch relish . The subject is handed a list of pairs of words. and he must later tell —then he seeks for something in the picits made to suggest name.ferment expect He must learn to respond with the second word of each pair when the first word of the pair is given.. It may be simply the peculiar sound or it look of a pair that he notes. desert . For another example. Or suppose.336 pose each picture the name of each ture that can be is PSYCHOLOGY given a name. is to take each pair of words as a unit. obey broken spellbound. or may be some connection . What he does. that the pictures are spread out before him in a row.

surprise. for take this would be throwing away the best possible aid in memorizing. but full you will find students who fail to sively. the meanings of the parts and their places in the general scheme. he has pretty well committed to memory. so that a connected passage can be learned in a fraction of the time needed to memorize an equally long list of unrelated words..MEMORY of meaning. to recite the pairs after completing one pair. story. he would have noticed the relationship of successive pairs. SS7 little Perhaps the pair suggests an image or a After a few readings. and protests that the test is not " paid no attention to the order of the pairs. and perhaps woven them into a sort of continued story. in if tested immediately. The subject can do very fair. because. at this. Memorizing here is the same general sort of observant procedure as with nonsense material. the grammatical structure of the sentences and phrases. by asking the subject. . lines. advantage of the sense. with absolute clearness. In memorizing connected passages of prose or poetry. the essenIf the student gets the point it tial thing to see the sense. as far as possible. No one in his senses would under- take to memorize an intelligible passage by the pure rote method. what was the little word of the next pair. the " facts observed " are the general sense and drift of the passage. greatly assisted by the familiar sequences of words and by the connected meaning of the passage. but concen- since he trated wholly on each pair separately to recite the whole list ". But now suppose the experimenter springs a in order. he has the pairs so well hand that he can score almost one hundred per cent. reading along pasthey are not on the alert for general trends and out- For is fixing in mind the sense of a passage. and the author's choice of particular words. or to first tell. Had he expected of pairs in order.

become directly bound together as mere words. Economy Memorizing is in Memorizing is a form of mental work that susceptible of management. to meaning. and the two syllables seem simply to belong together in their own right. and several principles of scientific manage- ment have been worked out that may greatly assist in the learning of a long and difficult lesson. indirect attach- ments giving way to direct.338 Short-circuiting. like " seldom —harbor ". may have first been associated by turning them into " love 'sarly stages of — mother ". Suppose a certain amount of time is allowed for the study of a lesson. A who has learned his little speech deliver it with any consciousness of its real familiar act flattens out and tends to become automatic and mechanical.'' The first principle of economy has already been is sufficiently emphasized: observant study. first A pair of words. how can this time be best utilized. tend to drop out of mind as the material becomes familiar. PSYCHOLOGY The peculiarities of words or syllables in a list or passage that is being memorized. though very useful in the memorizing. directed towards the finding of relationships and significant facts. " lub mer ". much more efficient than mere dull repetition. Even the outline and general purpose of a connected passage impossible for a schoolboy. A short-circuiting occurs. the relationships observed among the parts. when it the passage becomes well learned. and the meanings suggested or imported into the material. . The problem has been approached from the angle of economy or efficiency. that were linked together by the intermediary thought of a boat that seldom came into the harbor. may fade out of mind. so that may be almost by heart. but later this meaning fa des out . A pair of syllables.

instead of continuing simply to read it. much depends on the kind of ma- and on peculiarities of the individual learner. as to The only outstanding question recite. The results of one series of experiments on this matter are summarized in the adjoining table. after the filling in first probably best to recite. his lesson once or twice. Where the sense rather than the exact wording of a lesson it is has to be learned. so terial studied. in outline. and whether or not is not economical it fixes the lesson durably in memory. and verifying his recitation by reference to the paper. and to utilize the next reading for the outline. and the answer tempting to unequivocally in favor of recitation. he SS9 " Recitation " After the learner has read may. attempt to recite it.MEMORY The value of recitation in memorizing. TflE VALUE OF RECITATION IN MEMORIZING (from Gates) Material studied . reading. how soon to single start at- and probably no answer can be given to this question. The question is is whether this active reciting of time in method of study is or memorizing. prompting himself without much delay when he is stuck. here means reciting to oneself. The matter has been thoroughly is tested.

peculiarities. though it is marked in both cases. adult subjects gave % % the same general results. after which the subject recited the lesson to himself as well as he could. remembered four hours after the study period. is time after time. is always a falling from the immediate to the later test there is bound to be some forgetting when the lesson has been studied for so short a time as here but the forgetting proceeds more slowly after . 35 per cent. The reason is that meaningful material can better be read observantly. were remembered when all the study time had been devoted to reading.340 we find that PSYCHOLOGY when nonsense syllables were studied and the test was conducted immediately after the close of the study period. Whence comes fold advantage: the advantage of recitation? it is It has a two- more stimulating. there . Continued reading of nonsense material degenerates into a mere droning. and he simply read it till the experimenter gave a signal to recite. Each subject in these experiments had before him a sheet of paper containing the lesson to be studied. 50 . Three facts stand out from the table: (1) Reading down the columns. The subjects in these particular experiments were eighth grade children. ter Recitation fixes the mat- more durably. and it is more satWhen you know you are going to attempt reciisfying. (3) The advantage of recitation is less marked in the meaningful material than in case of nonsense syllables. tation at once.per cent. and thus your study . (2) The advantage was more marked in the test conducted four hours after study than in the test immediately following the study. we see that recitation was always an advantage. and proceeded thus till the end of the study period. off To be sure. and meanings. recitation than after all reading. so that his reading becomes half recitation. 54 per cent. and so on. while rial the learner in repeatedly is reading meaningful mate- who keenly interested in mastering the passage is sure to keep his mind ahead of his eyes to some extent. you are stimulated to observe positions. when the last of the study time had been devoted to recitation. prompting himself from the paper as often as necessary. after all. when the last of the time had been devoted to recitation. relationships. The next column shows the per cents. than possible with nonsense material.

failing It shows you exactly where you are and so stimulates to extra attention to those parts lation. manipuand mastery much more effectively than continued The latter becomes re-reading of the same lesson can do. and then exercises you in performing that act. with assistance. Perhaps. with many readings still to come. Another question on the economical management of memorizing: Is it better to keep steadily going through the lesson to go through it at intervals? If till you have it. This question also has received a very . you are doing something different. and if it were altogether different. to learn to do. nov/. it probably would not help you at all towards But since intelligent reading consists success in the test. and no more. or you were allowed a cer- tain time. very uninteresting. On the side of satisfaction. the greatest advantage of reciting is makes you do.'' definite answer. monotonous and fatiguing. it is a sort of half recitation. in which to prepare for examination on a certain mempry lesson. and recitation first stimulates you to fashion the act conformably to the object in view. Spaced and unspaced repetition. You are also stimulated to manipulate the material. by way of grouping and rhythm.MEMORY edge is still 341 goes on at a higher level than when the test of your knowlfar away. that you later wish to perform without assistance. in learning. recitation shows you what parts of the lesson you have mastered and gives you the glow of increasing success. it is halfway doing what you are trying Memorizing consists in performing an act. the book. the very act that you have later to perform in the test for what you have finally to do . partly in anticipating and 'outlining as you go. of the lesson. after that it all. how could the study time be best distributed. It taps the instincts of exploration. When reading. is to recite the lesson without.

widest distribution gave the best score. and remained the same for longer intervals up to two days. EFFECT OF SPACED STUDY ON ECONOMY OF MEMORIZING (From Distribution of the 24 readings 8 readings a day for 3 days " " " " " 4. lists of nonsense syllables were studied either two. was mastered in six readings and the number of readings went down to five with an interval of ten minutes. But a similar list. Spaced study also fixes the matter more durably. a total of twenty-four readings had been given then. you would time spent if you read it once or twice value for to memorize a if at a time. In an experiment of Pieron. to give the greatest economy of time spent in actual study. a practised subject went through a list of twenty numbers with an interval of only thirty seconds between readings. Every student knows that continuous " cramming " just before an . one list day after the last reading of each the subjects were tested as to their memory of it. Undoubtedly.S42 PSYCHOLOGY Spaced repetitions are more effective than unspaced. than you attempted to learn it at one continuous sitting. and this was repeated each day to each list. . with intervals of perhaps a day. In a somewhat different experiment in another laboratory. or eight times in immediate succession. till . What exact spacing would give the very greatest economy would depend on the length and character of the lesson. then. and two days not too long. ten minutes was a long enough interval. The result appears in the adjoining table. four. and needed eleven readings to master the list. g Jost) Total score The then. if you had get better poem or speech. with five-minute intervals. With this particular sort of lesson.

versus part learning. required Total number of minutes required 30 12 431 10 348 . young man took two passages same poem. His results appear in the table. What we have been saying here it is simply that repetition of the scune material fixes better in memory. but experimental results have usually been in favor of study of the whole. little for permanent knowledge. you would certainly be inclined to learn a part at a time. it one way or the other on that question. The since most students take a certain time to get well " warmed up " to study. and study each part by itself till mastered. that fairly long periods of consecutive study divided into would yield larger returns than the same amount of tinie many short periods. In memorizing a long lesmore economical to divide it into parts. interval) elapses between the repetitions.. while accomplishes it 343 its may accomplish immediate purpose.. of this length. and studied one by the whole method. the other by the part method. When we say that spaced repetitions give best results in says nothing probability is. BY WHOLE AND PART METHODS (Pyle and Snyder) Method of study lines memorized per day. If you had to memorize 240 lines of a poem. or to keep the lesson entire and always go through the whole thing? Most of us would probably guess that study part by part would be is it Whole better.MEMORY examination. when an interval (not necessarily an empty son. Number of days. then whole reviewed till it could be recited 3 readings of whole per day till it could be recited . memorizing. both from the A LEARNING PASSAGES OF 240 LINES. that does not mean that study generally should be in short periods with intervals of rest . but notice the following experiment. in sittings of about thirty-five minutes each day.

Squad learned the whole thing at one sitting. which shows the average time required to master the maze by each of the four methods. by using the whole method against the part method. and.. IN THE PENCIL MAZE (From Pechstein) Spaced trials Whole learning Part learning A C Unspaced trials 641 seconds " 1220 B 1250 seconds D 538 " When the trials were spaced. Squads A B and C learned by spaced all. PSYCHOLOGY as Here there was an economy of eighty-three minutes. the results tend the other way.344. consisting of passages or grooves to be traced out could be di- with a pencil. but when the. Thus the result stands in apparent contradiction with two accepted laws: that of the advantage of spaced learning. the unspaced part learning was the best of all. SPACED AND UNSPACED. two trials per day. sider a very different test. the part method was much the better. The results appear in the adjoining table. on the whole. the whole method was much the better . type of learning as. This contradiction warns us not to accept the " laws " . Squads A and B learned the maze as a whole. Pour squads of learners were used. Let us con- A " pencil maze ". the matter is not quite so simple. trials were bunched. and that of the advantage of whole learning. while the whole thing was concealed from the subject by a screen. PART AND WHOLE LEARNING. was so arranged that vided into four parts it and each part learned separately. larly given the Similar experiments have regu- same general result. under cer- tain conditions. while squad D. squads C and D part by part. or nearly twenty per cent. However. and on the fifth day learned to put the parts together. trials. which came off best of learned one part a day for four days.

the recency value of what you have just now accomplished will have evaporated. it factor of recency. This is — on the soon side of part learning. and when for have a very getting ahead. To task that you can hope to accomplish at once. and is lose hope of ever learning on the side of it in this way. he would rather keep right on than wait for another day to finish. when the part studied is of moderate length when there are recitations to keep the learner sees he up the interest . been observed This factor it is is on the side of unspaced learning. . if experienced learners dealing with meaningful material. 345 but rather to analyze out the factors of ad- vantage in each method. This factor also largely unspaced as against spaced is learning. and see the connections of the many several parts is and their places in the whole. especially with beginners. you would be wise to begin by a careful survey of the whole. and to at- tack it with the intention of mastering it at once. (2) is The ". and also on the side of part learning. of " striking while the iron hot When an it act has just been successfully per- formed clearly can easily be repeated. Among the factors involved are the following four (1) The factor of interest. who feel out of their depth when wading into a long lesson. since by the time you have gone through the whole long lesson and got back to where you are now. confidence and visible accomplishment the emotional factor. for it is when you are going through the whole that you catch its general (3) ships. and govern ourselves accordingly. outlining is This drift. especially with Even you should prefer the part method. and when a fact has just can readily be put to use. This factor so important as to outweigh the preceding two in cases. and broad relationon the side of whole learning. is stimulating. The factor of meaning.MEMORY too blindlj'. we might call it.

and it is on the side of spaced learning. could recite it from memory but not . he had made almost no progress towards learning He had been observing the separate syllables. and no ath- " physiological would think for a moment of training for a contest of strength by " cramming " for it. when a foreign student 'was sup- posed to be memorizing a the list list of nonsense syllables. After the subjects had been through this test over two hundred times. There is a famous incident that occurred in a Swiss psychological laboratory. will to learn " strongly in the game. for it has an important bearing on the whole question of the process of learning. you would think they. . and it was found that. the experimenter remarked that he seemed to be having trouble " Oh ! in memorizing the syllables. he said. in fact. We must look into this matter. no effort to connect them into a series. which consisted of five colors re- peated in irregular order. and for that reason spaced learning gives more durable results than unspaced. with the list. This is something of permanency. The muscles profit more by exercise with intervals of rest than by a large amount of continuous exercise. Apparently the neurones lete obey the same law as the muscles. the object being to name the one hundred bits of color as rapidly as possible. After had been passed before him many times without his giving the expected signal that he was ready to recite. I I didn't understand that was to learn them ". Unintentional Learning What we with the " have been examining is^ intentional memorizing. The is asser- tion has sometimes been made that the will to learn neces- sary if any learning is to be accomplished.346 (4) PSYCHOLOGY The factor ". Another incident: subjects were put repeatedly through a " color naming test ".

and gradually come to be able to sing it ourselves.MEMORY at all! 347 of the order of the They had very little memory bits of color. with the object of measuring the reliability of the testiof eye-witnesses is . few years of all that the child learns in the first he learns without any " will to learn ". not with any intention of remembering them later. and it has been found that testispecifi- very unreliable except for facts that were cally noted at the time. Or. . Their efforts had been wholly concentrated the bits as seen. In both cases we remember what we have definitely observed. and in the other case we observe the facts without any such intention. Practically his life. The subjects memo- rized the pairs. or positively false. later. Enact a little scene before a class of students affair is later to be tested. but simply because they arouse our interest. These facts learn. and not in connecting upon naming them into a series that could be remembered. we recall such facts with great clearness and certainty. we hear a tune time after time. What to learn is is the difference between the case where the will necessary. and we do notice certain facts about it.!* The difference that in the one case we observe facts for the purpose of committing them to memory. The experiment associates " is described a few pages back on " paired another case in point. and the case where is it is unnecessary. but made no effort to connect the pairs in order. absent. and consequently were not able later to remember the order of the pairs. emphasize the importance of the will to erf But let us consider another line facts. Many somewhat mony mony similar experiments have been performed. without ever having attempted to memorize it. who do not suspect that their memory of the and you will find that their facts that were before their eyes is memory for many all hazy. An event occurs before our eyes.

then. not so much observation as doing that is make a certain reaction with the object make it later. or of a poem. but the doing and observing. Not only do we learn hy doing and observing. The will to learn is sometimes impor- tant. not the reaction. as a directive tendency. Sometimesi it is to be sure. to keep doing the time in order to retain He may keep himself in better form by reviewing the performance occasionally. in which a learned reac- tion remams until the stimulus arrives that can arouse it again. The answer is. it consists of re- actions that also occur without any view to future remembering.S48 PSYCHOLOGY fail to and remember what we have not observed. and ask how we retain. Retention is a resting state. for example. The machinery that retained consists very largely in brain connections. We carry around with us. What is essential. memory task that we But committing to memory seems not . Consider. he retains the skill even while eating and sleeping. is not the will to learn. but doing and observing are leaxning. to steer doing and observing into channels relevant to the particular need to perform. the retention of motor boj' skill. but the machinery for making the reaction. The same can be is said of the retention of the multiplication table. to be any special form of activity rather. Retention We come now to the second of our four main problems. or c arry around inside of us. or we may make the reaction for some other reason. but in either case we learn of learning it We may so as to it. not by any process or activity. what we have learned. or of knowledge of any kind. operative. A who has learned it all to turn a handspring does not have it. Connections formed in the process of . but.

brought by exercise into the pink of condition. so it is with the brain connections formed in learning. But the machinery developed in the process of learning is subject to the wasting effects of time. all. grows weak and small. that all the stories you ever heard you still retained. that he could not get at in the waking state. but so long disused as to be completely inaccessible in the normal state. being strongly impressed by cases of recovery of memories that were thought to be altogether But is gone. that all the scenes still you ever noand happenings if that ever got your attention could evidence for any such extreme view. It is subject to the law of " atrophy through disuse Just as a muscle. scientific study of this matter began with . ". if only the right stimulus could be found to arouse them. It would mean still that all the lessons you had ever learned could be re- cited. condition of rest. Persons in a fever have been known to speak a language heard in childhood. till With prolongation is less of the and less able to func- finally all retention of a once-learned reaction may be lost. it would mean that still all the lectures (and attended to) are ever read are ticed are still retained.MEMORY learning remain behind in a resting condition till 349 again aroused to activity by some appropriate stimulus. anything once learned ever completely forgotten and lost? Some say no. the machinery tion. and then left long inactive. that all the faces . and that could not at first be recalled at have sometimes been recovered after a long and devious Sometimes a hypnotized person remembers facts search. There no The modern. Such facts have been generalized into the is extravagant statement that nothing once known gotten. ever for- For it is an extravagant statement. Childhood experiences that were supposed to be com- pletely forgotten. be revived only is the right means were taken to revive them. retained.

you relearn it. consider — Now if no time at all were needed for relearning. cause the list could be recited easily without. would be one hundred per on the contrary. your retention cent. sinks at first rapidly. here meaning perfect retention. it took you just as long now to relearn the retention would be zero. 53. and with the invention of methods of measuring retention. line towards the zero line. to zero.) The curve of forgetting. and probably find that ing the list your time for relearning time is less — than the original learning unless the lapse of time has run into months. takes you now two-thirds originally took to learn. findagain. pose you have memorized a list Sup- of twenty numbers some time ago. you make no headway and are you have entirely forgotten it. ranging all the way from one hundred per cent. On ' at- 100^ line 12 — tempting now to recite inclined to think Zero 3 line^ 4 in 5 6 Lapsed time days (From Ebbinghaus. But. then one- . from the 100 per cent.S50 PSYCHOLOGY recognizing the fact that there are degrees of retention. and kept a record of the time you then took to learn it. since ' when you have not thought of \ it again. and then slowly. and no retention. beIf. 100 per cent. it. If as long to relearn as it as it it did originally to learn. The curve Fig.

MEMORY third of the work originally done on the list S51 does not have to be done over. or curve it is of forgettiiig. It a curve that first goes down steeply. first till it approximates to zero . By is the use of this method. OF WORDS RECOGNIZED AT DIFFERENT TERVALS AFTER BEING SEEN (From Strong) val between expo- IN- . PER CENT. — are given in the adjoining tables. the curve of retention. and thi s saving is the measure of retention. Few of the experiments have been con- tinued long enough to bring the curve actually to the zero line. different It will be seen that the falls methods agree first in showing a curve that later. off more rapidly at hour than than More is lost in the first in the second hour. but it has come very close to that line in tests con- ducted after an interval of two to four months. and then more and more gradually. as also called. has been determined. which means that the loss of what has been learned proceeds rapidly at and then more and more slowly. curve of forgetting can be determined by other meth^by the recall method or by and data obtained by these methods The ods besides the saving method the recognition method . and more in the first week than in the second week.

since the test after five days would revive the subject's memory of the picture and slacken the progress of forgetting. and he examined it for one minute. as depend- . the subjects in this experiment realized at the time that they were to be examined later. of error in answering Immediately after exposure After 5 days " " 15 " " 10 14 18 questions regarding the picture 14 18 20 45 22 22 The' picture was placed in the subject's hands. The experiment corresponds more closely to the conditions of ordinary life. and in all 15 lists were used with each interval. OF ERROR IN RECALLING DETAILS OF A PICTURE AFTER DIFFERENT INTERVALS OF TIME (Jiirom Dallenbach) Time of test Per cent. However. and then answered a set of sixty questions covering all the features of the picture. and the further course of the curve of forgetting has not been perhaps two hundred hours typist who had spent and then dropped typewriting for a year. the per cents. A in drill. etc. when we do recall a scene at intervals. and had to pick out those he surely recognized as having been shown before. It must be understood that this classical curve of for- getting only holds good. Five adult subjects took part in the experiment. and again after fifteen days. Many lists were used. After five days he was retested in the same way. who must testify regarding it. for material that has barely been learned. time after time. THE PER CENT. for testing after the different intervals. strictly. at the end of which time he wrote down as complete a description of the picture as possible. Reactions that have been drilled in fall off thoroughly and repeatedly very slowly at first. accurately followed in their case. so that the retention.352 PSYCHOLOGY twenty words mixed with twenty otliers. of error was smaller here than can be expected in the courtroom. or it corresponds to the conditions surrounding the eyewitness of a crime. as measured by the saving method. Somewhat getting is different from the matter of the curve of forthe question of the rate of forgetting. before police. of error Per in spontaneous recall cent. recovered the lost ground in less than an hour of fresh practice. and studied the picture more carefully than the eye-witness of a crime would study the event occurring before his eyes. was over ninety-nine per cent. In one respect this is not a typical memory experiment. lawyers and juries. given in the table are the averages for the 15 lists. so that the per cent.

though both have been learned equally well. studious but easy-going person. and does not simply generate fear and worry and a rattle-brained frenzy of rote learning.MEMORY ent on various conditions. so often tempted to admonish a certain type of his lessons ". who is slow from lack of such The wider awake is the learner. the quicker will be his learning that one and the slower his subsequent forgetting. rial is than when the learning has been by rote. More gas it is ! High pressure gives the biggest results. as we have just seen. being very much slower for meaningful than for nonsense material. A lesson that is learned quickly because is it is clearly understood better retained than one which imperfectly understood and there- fore slowly learned. provided only directed into high-level observation. slower after spaced than after unspaced study. Forgetting Forgetting slower after active recitation than when the more passive. . on the thoroughness of the learning. Very fortunately. first. It depends on the kind of material learned. but stanzas of poetry. and a learner who learns quickly be- cause he is on the alert for significant facts and connections retains better than a learner alertness. and slower after whole learning than after part learning. it that quick learning means quick and that quick learners are quick forgetters. 353 The rate of forgetting depends. just barely learned. receptive is method of study has been employed. Barely learned nonsense material is almost entirely gone by the end of four months. have shown a perceptible retention after twenty years. ' Forgetting is slower when relationships and connections have been found in the mate-. Experiment does not wholly bear is this out. the principles of economy of memorizing hold good also for retention. An old saying has forgetting. " for goodness' sake not to dawdle over with any idea that the more time he spends with them the longer he will remember them.

The learn- ing process has attached this reaction to this stimulus. or. As you advance into the list. How. and with the first items of the list. with the thought of the list. all that is necessary is the response. with words signifying this particular list. the list became linked. therefore. shall we get the cat to turn i. the door-button. the first acts as a stimulus and the second is a re- .e.. how do we get back when we want it? To judge from such simple cases a stimulus previously linked with as the animal's performance of a previously learned reaction. reciting it. serves if you have memorized Hamlet's soliloqu}^ this title as the stimulus to make you recall the beginning of the speech and that in turn calls on . you can recite it on thinking of it. on hearing words that identify it in your mind. these stimuli can now arouse the reaction of reciting the list. or on being given the The act of reciting first few items in the list as a start. the up the outline and the outline acts as the stimulus the several parts that were attached to the out- to call up line in the process of memorization. if title calls up the next part and so you have analyzed the speech into an outline. Now can we say the same regarding material committed to Is recall a species of learned memory by the human subject? If reaction that needs only the linked stimulus to arouse it? you have learned and still retain a list of numbers or syllables.354 PSYCHOLOGY Recall it Having committed something to memory. this being an act that the cat has previously learned? Why. and trust to to give the same reaction again. during the learning. we put it the cat into the same cage. we supply the stimulus that has previously given the reaction. for example. In the same way. the parts already recited act as stimuli to keep you going forward. When one idea calls up another.

where This form of recall seems to occur without any stimulus. you will sometimes hear a speaker hesitate and become confused from having two ways . of interference is emotional. Possibly there is some vague stimulus which cannot itself be detected. since it keeps the stimulus from exerting is its full effect. or stage fright. has prevented the recall of many a well-learned speech. It appears as if the sights or sounds came up of themselves and without any stimulus. and in- terfered with the skilful performance of act. Sometimes the stimulus that as present has been linked with two or more responses. sort of inhibition or interference blocks recall.MEMORY sponse previously attached to this stimulus. vo«^gVlj3 «» l 365 In general. of perseveration. and these get in each other's way . There is an exceptional case. because these recent and vivid experiences are so easily aroused. Sometimes recall fails to matewhen we wish it and have good reason for expecting We know this person's name. Some One type lyze recall. but in the heat of the examination we give the wrong answer. but frequently with facts that are moderately well known. recall goes by the name and a good instance of it is the " running of a tune in the head ". shortly after it has been heard. This seldom happens with thoroughly learned facts. Fear may para- Anxious self-consciousness. then. rialize it up. Only a slight stimulus would be needed. Another instance is the vivid flashing of scenes of the day before the " mind's eye " as one lies in bed before going to sleep. though afterwards the right answer comes to mind. that we later recall it. but at the moment we cannot bring Difficulties in recall. many a well-trained Distraction is an interference. Ipgmpr rpspnnse to a stimulus. We know the answer to this examination question. as is proved by the fact it.

avoid worry and self-consciousness. any sort of problem. (2) Drop the matter for a while. rest up. is to back off. in general. avoiding doubt it .356 PSYCHOLOGY him at almost the instant. ahead confidently. your subject.not at once recall a name. these intricate interferences and. but this temporary advantage fades out rapidly with rest and leaves the advantage with the track most used in the past. and. and fresh. hour later you get it without the least trouble. Sometimes. go used this person's name. you find yourself in a rut. and thus gave this wrong track the " recency " adence and the dying out of interference. and make an entirely . One or two suggestions have some value. about the The rule to take it up again when only escape fresh start. we do not have anything like the same mass of practical information less regarding however. of expressing the same thought occur to same Helps in recall. when you cai. recall being a much manageable process than memorizing. There are no sure rules for avoiding . you simply got on the wrong track. it does no good to keep doggedly hunting. is The ex- planation of this curious phenomenon found in interfer- At your first atname. and come back to it afresh. tempt to recall the vantage over the right track . for doubt is itself a distrac- Put yourself back into the time when you formerly In extemporaneous speaking. Look squarely name you wish to recall. as to your ability to recall tion. can be used in more complex When. while half an full of as needed. in trying to solve cases than hunting for a name. (1) Give the stimulus at the person whose a good chance. it. drop a matter when baffled and confused. a speaker may surprise himself by his own fluency. trust to your ideas to recall the words Once carried away with his subject.

the most rudimentary form of memory. it is simply a " feeling of familiarity " with the obexperience has time to occur. etc. ject.At its minimum. touched. and names that we could not In short. but also facts not recalled but presented a second time to the senses. recognition recall is recall. We recognize faces that we could not recall. for direct recognition commonly takes place before recall of the past You see a person. at its maximum it is your autobiography. " He looks . What we recognize includes not only facts recalled. easier than recall. is part of the larger question of how we recog- nize.MEMORY Recognition 357 The fourth question propounded at the beginning of the chapter. though it may require some moments before you can recall where and when you have seen him before. and know him at once. Recognition may be more or less complete. heard. but such " indirect recognition " is not the usual thing. but cannot be identified. You locating the object precisely in see a man. The baby shows signs of recognizing persons and things before he shows signs of recall. and say. is One such theory its held that an object recognized by recalling . much and everybody's vocabulary of recognized words remains greater than his speaking vocabulary. calls up a past experience and thus is fully recognized.. A little later. Now sometimes it does happen that an odor which seems familiar. it Consequently any theory of recognition that makes de- pend on can scarcely be correct. is Recognition of objects seen.. original setting in past experience an odor would be recognized by virtue of recalling the circumstances under which it was formerlj'^ experienced. he recognizes and understands words before he begins to speak (recall) them. as to how we can know that the fact now recalled is what we formerly committed to memory and now wish to recall.

and then it dawns on you. These impressions resemble the . or as a salesman in a store . . is At least. or and often these when you succeed in fully . we make the same response as before. Consequently we have an unis easy feeling of responding to a situation that not present. long time ago. . our response to the object was colored by its setWhen we now recognize the object. we make the same ting. and shrinks from one who has dissigns of recognition in the baby's behavior pleased him. " Oh yes. this a diiferent time and perhaps a different place. or at the seashore. the response we made to the object in its original was a response to the whole situation. setting Now. and the In circumstances are bound to be more or less different. or a long. spite of this difference in the situation. its setting is different. This man seems to be some one seen . — cept for the feeling of familiarity. the response originally called out by the* object pliis its setting is now aroused by the object alone. or as some one felt hostility towards. To recognize an object is to respond to it as we responded before exsponse. is But it notice this: though the object the same identical object was before." he is the man who Between these extremes lie various degrees of recognition. Recognition described in terms of stimvdus and reRecognition is a form of learned response. object plus setting. you looked up to. I must have seen him somewhere ". first you say that the baby remembers people because he smiles at one who has pleased him before. recently.358 PSYCHOLOGY ! familiar. depending on previous reaction to the object recognized. recognizing the person. which could not occur the first time we saw the object. now I know exactly who he is . it may have changed somewhat. response to the object in a different setting. or were amused at ~ impressions turn out to be correct.

and by searching our memory we is finally locate him as an individual we saw at such and such a resort. the reason being that we are always responding to him in the same setting.MEMORY This uneasy feeling is 359 its the feeling of familiarity in more haunting and " intriguing " form. seems to put us back into the atmosphere of a vacation at the seashore. or start to make. We by rest tile see hostile attitude in us that his some one who seems familiar and who arouses a is not accounted for in the least present actions. At other times. and cannot we have identified the person and justified our hos- attitude. the same response to the person that we made to is him plus his setting. same person time after time in the same setting. the feeling of familiarity rather colorless. and this response to something that not there gives the feeling of familiarity. Or. as when we go into the same store every morning and buy a paper from the same man. We have this uneasy feeling of is responding to a situation that till not present. and consequently have no feeling of responding to something that is not there. But if we see this same individual in a totally different place. we see some one in the city streets who . he may give us a queer feeling of familiarity. we see some one who makes us feel as if we had had dealings with him before in a store or postoffice where he must have served us we find ourselves taking the attitude towards him that is appropriate towards such a functionary. because the original situation in which the person was en- countered was colorless . we cease to have any see the When we strong feeling of familiarity at sight of him. When we see the same person time after time . but we is still have the feeling cf re- sponding to something that originally not present. We make. Or. though there is nothing in his present setting to arouse such an attitude.

certain hints were given above as to the efficient management of this process. and probably practice checked up by results. in the light of our previous analysis. On the other hand. whether recall can be improved. and whether recognition can be improved. involves something more than these feelings and rudimentary reactions. would lead to improvement. and a Memory Training The important question whether memory can be improved by any form of training breaks up. the process of committing to memory. possibly go is. exceed- . \ It involves the recall of a context or fitting of the object into the scheme. or " placing " the object. that practice in recognizing a certain class of objects improves one's stand- ards of judgment as to whether a feeling of familiarity reliable or not . and the vaguer feel- As to recall. PSYCHOLOGY we end by separating him from his sur- roundings and responding to hira alone. and therefore the familiarity feeling disappears. however. since this is not a performance but a resting state. but that seems a native not to be altered by training. whether memorizing can be improved. is it enables one to distinguish between feel- ings that have given correct recognitions ings that often lead one astray.360 in various settings. As to retention. it is diiB- how to train the process is so elusive and so direct. in recalling a certain sort of facts. cult to imagine As it . into the four questions. how could we One another's . is being a straightforward and controllable activity. whether the power of retention can be improved. It has been found. to recognition. about to effect an improvement. Complete recognition.'' retentive than individual's brain to be sure. more trait. scheme of events.

Most persons who complain of poor memory would be con- . Usually the amount of transfer small compared with the improvement gained in handling the first material. and part. practice in memorizing brings great improve- ment in memorizing that particular material. instead. or carried over to a second kind quite another question. He so it gets used to Spenser's and range of ideas. that it is 361 there. With practice in learning this sort of material. and may come to enjoy the work. perhaps tries to learn by pure rote or else attempts to use devices that are ill-adapted to the material. will result skill is from specific training What transferred consists partly of the habit of looking for groupings and relationships. This im- provement style is due to the subject's finding out ways of tackling this particular sort of material. he im- proves in that. He is emotionally wrought' up and uncertain of himself. And it is with any kind of material. Certainly he improves greatly in speed of memorizing nonsense syllables. and has a slow and tedious job of it. Whether practice with one sort of material brings that-can be " transferred of material.MEMORY ingly susceptible to training. and twelve-line stanza may from cut down his time for memorizing a fifteen minutes to five. for the most memory training should be concentrated in order to yield results. In the labo- ratory. just to know what you can accomplish after a little training. he practises on Spenser's " Faery Queen ". It does yield marked lists results. really worth while taking part in a memory experiment. goes to work in a random way (like any beginner). and partly It in is the confidence in one's own ability as a memorizer. If. becomes sure of himself and free even from the distraction of emotional disturbance. he learns to observe suitable groupings and relationships. is is skill ". or compared with the improvewith the second ment that kind. the beginner in learning of nonsense syllables makes poor work of it.

or engagements. Undoubtedly retentive his an unusually memory. in both skill in memorizing certain kinds of material so as to pass certain forms of memory test. besides fatherly advice. How did he do it. It is the same with . after he had once met the man. but depended largely on was possessed of for names method of committing them to his memory Contrast this with the casual procedure of most of us on being introduced to a person. one the personality. ways of fixing the facts and to make It was said of a certain college presicall dent of the older day that he never failed to a student or alumnus by name. memory for errands it can be Perhaps the best general hint here is to connect the errand beforehand in your mind with the ter. terested in the man in- He was man. is keeping tab on himself to see whether he improves. Perhaps we scarcely notice the name. memory.? He had the custom of calling each man in the freshman class into his office for a private interview. probably going to work right in committing the facts to memory. cases. . needs to give attention and practice to this specific mat- specifically trained.S62 PSYCHOLOGY memory was fun- vinced by such an experiment that their damentally sound. But these laboratory exercises do not pretend to develop any general " power of memory "„ and the much advertised systems more justified in such a claim. as suffers from poor memory for any special is manot names. he asked the personal questions and studied him intently. and if he gives special attention to this particular matter. and to that personality he carefully attached the name. he formed a clear impression of this able scholar his personality. errands. he likely to find better great improvement. One who terial. and make no effort to attach the name to To have a good memory for names. during which. is of memory training is are no What developed.

the best rule is to systematize and interrelate the facts into a coherent whole. but such devices have only a limited field of application general power of memory. is the best suggestion that psychology has to make towards memory improve- ment. In training the memory for the significant facts that constitute the individual's knowledge of his business in life. in planning out a speech.MEMORY errand. locate each successive " point " in a corner of the hall. is Thus a bigger and stronger stimulus provided for the recall of any item. . It would seem that a well-ordered discourse should supply logical cues so that such artificial aids its own would be unneces- sary. This. to do the Often some little mnemonic system will help in remem- bering disconnected facts. along with the principles of " economy " in memorizing. or think of the next room. look into the next corner. and when they have finished one point. and find the following point there. during the day. and do not in the least improve the Some speakers. or in a room of their own house. 363 place where you should think.

take the first card and look at both fully How . Prepare several lists of 20 digits. what questions would you ask regarding his method of study. and which passes The " away 3. (d) The loss of memory which sometimes occurs after a physical or emotional shock. Prepare 20 pairs of words as follows: take 20 cards or slips of paper. of recall and of recognition. though he bers experiences of his youth. still he failed on it. retention. of retention. Repeat with a second list. 2. though you may know what words you have written. (b) follovping? where. is through brain reduced. injury. The training and management of memory. after . and said that though he put hours and hours on a lesson and read it over many times. (c) who cannot remember still remem- feeling of having been there before ". you do not know. regroup the material so as to separate from the description of memory processes. vifould Where subject's you place each of the (a) Aphasia. An experiment in memorizing word-pairs. If a student came to you for advice. and see whether you get back more than at first seemed possible. Try the same with an experience of five years ago. and B.364. in which you have a weird impression that what is happening now has happened in just the same way before. Thus. 4. Write an introspective account of the process. draw out one and take your time for learning it to the point of perfect recitation. Note starting time. shuffle.. and what suggestions would you offer? 5. PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES 1. Each of these main heads the practical applications should be divided into four sub-heads: Memorizing. and write a different word on each.time. This gives you two main heads: A. and shuffle them. the vocabulary very much The condition of the very old person. 6. In outlining the chapter. what has happened during the day. or after a fever. Disorders of memory can be classified under the four heads of disorders of learning. etc. as if events were simply repeating themselves. and the information contained in the chapter grouped under these sub-heads. An experiment on memorizing lists of numbers. can you recall what happened on some interesting occasion when you were a child of 5-8 years? Dwell on the experience. complaining of poor memory. and write another word on the back of each. how they are paired. Then turn them over. and now your job is to learn the pairs. Memory processes.

translated This is the pioneer experimental study of by Ruger and Bussenius. For the psychology of testimony. pp. might begin like this: house. see G. 15. . roof. Vol. for No. Your list. 1890. Explain the results obtained. memory. 1913. 7. after 1 day 79% after 2 days 67% after 6 days 42% after 14 days 30% after 30 days 24% REFERENCES Ebbinghaus. and list report on process of memorizing. then write any word for No. fire. and how long it takes you to complete the memorizing. cent. chimney. pp. shuffle again. is still one of the best references. which give the per cent. and so on through the pack. Whipple's article on "The Obtaining of Information: Psychology of Observation and Report". arbitration. on pp.MEMORY sides. in the Psychological Bulletin for 1918. and is not specially hard reading. 1. coal. take the top card and give yourself about 5 seconds to recall the word on till the reverse. M. See also a popularly written account of the matter by MUnsterberg. for No. 65-104. strike. gives a valuable account of the various devices used by one who is memorizing. 1 Prepare a of 40 words. 15-69. first write the numbers to 40 in a column. 1917. as follows. and is still worth reading. and repeat. Recitation as u Factor in Memorizing. 1. to No. Memorizing a of related words. 1885. 365 and study the pair of words on this card for about 5 seconds. passing then to the second card. 8. 2. 233-248. On Memory. especially pp. James's chapter on Memory. and so on. Having finished soot. etc. cover it and see how much of it you can recite without further study. you score 100 per series Note total and reading it. 3 2. mine. Plot the curve of forgetting from the following data. then turning the card over Proceed in tinue thus this way through the pack. 217-248. write some word closely related some word closely related to No. writing your list. 1908. of retention of stanzas of a poem at different intervals after the end of memorizing. Shuffle the pack. for example. in "Vol. Gates. I of his Principles of Psychology. mention may be made of that by Arthur I. Of the numerous special studies on memory. which. in On the Witness Stand. Contime required. miner. and contains some important remarks on the improvement of memory.

we recall places and routes. we are recalling what we have previously learned. we recall the sums of the In cooking a meal. and the location of the vari- ous materials and utensils required for our purpose. and we recall the meanings of the words we hear. and any work of the imagination consists of materials recalled from past experience and now built into a new composition.CHAPTER XV ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY SOMETHING ABOUT THINKING AS KELATED TO MEMORY Memory all plays a part. In planning a trip. Any sort of problem in a is solved by means of recalled facts put together new way. depends on the recall of previously learned reactions. and for our present recall utilizing the recalled material in conversation purposes. we words to express our meaning. whether be manual or mental. and in not only in remembering particular past experiences. not only in " memory work ". A writer in constructing a story puts to- gether facts that he has previously noted. we recall the ingredients of we wish to prepare. though we are not exactly trying to remember facts committed to memory. it A large any one's daily work. What Can Be Recalled If recall is so important in thinking and acting. it is worth while to make a survey of the materials that recall . Recall furnishes the raw material share of for thought. Most of the time. numbers. the dish In adding a column of figures. Por example. but sorts of thinking.

called into activity at the mention of that person or task. The typist does not by any means called when we " Higher units recall the experience of learning a higher unit. recalled. The acquired interest in architecture that we may have formed by reading or travel is revived by the sight of an ambitious group of buildings. In animals. because we have certainly noticed that dark. While the original obis recalled . and this is the typically human form encies of recall. and the dark eyes fit best into this total imsay that a fact pression. Writing movements may be said to be write. we see the recall of tend- and of learned movements. we are in a position to testify that his eyes are brown. using the term " recall " rather broadly^ we say that any previously learned reaction may re- be recalled. tendencies to reaction can be recalled. are in a broad sense recalled whenever they are used. whenever we Besides these motor reactions. otherwise. but he calls into action again the response that he has learned to make.ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY furnishes. We out its when we think of it withbeing present to the senses. If we have definitely noted the color of a person's eyes. A slumbering purpose stimulus. or towards a certain task.. but no clear evidence of the recall of observed facts. 367 In general.e. for example. like the word habits and phrase habits of the telegrapher and typist. and speech movements when we speak. speak. a fact must have been definitely noted when it was before us. The is attitude of hostility that may have become habitual in us towards a certain J)erson. In the same way. To be recalled with certainty. may be recalled into activity by some relevant Observed facts can be recalled. ". the word habits and phrase habits of vocal speech are called into action. his eyes are he is we may say that we think probably brown. i.

in than in any other respect.368 PSYCHOLOGY servation of the fact was a response to a sensory stimulus. or in response to the question as to what is the color of John's eyes. or the feel of a lump of ice held in the hand. and later I get this idea simply in response to the word " square " in conversation or reading. A sensation or complex of sensations recalled by a sub- stitute stimulus is called a " mental image " or a " memory image their ". but I later recall this fact in response simply to the name " John ". When John is before me. can sensations be recalled.'' most every one will reply " Yes " to some at least of questions. and another a realistic sound in the the " mind's ear ". how complete. I see ^hat a square is by seeing squares and handling them. can they be aroused except by their natural sensory stimuli. and to compare had sat . or the sound of a bugle. some " substitute stimulus ". Althese One may have a vivid picture of a scene before " mind's eye ". it is a response to some other stimulus. I ob- the recall of serve that his eyes are brown in response to a visual stimulus . and they may report that the recalled experience seems essentially the same as the original sensation. and to observe how lifelike the image was. sensory reactions are no exception to the rule of recall by a substitute stimulus. taking a sort of census of mental imagery. how adequate in respect to color. or the odor of camphor. Memory Images Now. how steady and lasting.'' Can you recall the color blue. Therefore. Individuals seem to differ in the vividness or realism of memory images sensation —more call —the likeness of the image to an actual Galton. asked persons to as they many up the appearance of their breakfast table down to it that morning.

like one hundred per cent. and others who have little of either visual or auditory imagery call up . Some individuals reported that the image was " in all respects the same as an original sensation ". and therefore we are exposed to all the unreliabihty of the unchecked introspective method. when you cross-question an individual whose testimony regarding his imagery is very different from yours. spoken of by the poets was a myth or mere figure of speech who were accustomed to vivid images could not understand what the Others could possibly mean by " remembering facts about the breakfast table without having any while those image of and were strongly tempted to accuse them of poor introspection. if not worse. You are forced to conclude that the power of recalling sensations varies from something zero. down to practically Individuals may also differ in the kind of sensation that they can vividly recall. we have to depend altogether on introspection. Some who are poor at recalling visual sensations do have vivid auditory images. Individuals differ so much in this respect that they scarcely Some who had practically zero imagery held that the " picture before the mind's eye " credit each other's testimony. though they could perfectly well recall definite facts that had observed regarding the breakfast table. But at the same time. since no one can objectively observe another person's memory image. that you are forced to conclude to a very real difference between him and yourself. you find him so consistent in his testimony and so sure he is right. It is true that in atit ". while others denied that all in they got anything at they the way of recalled sensation. tempting to study images. The majority of people gave testimony intermediate between these extremes.ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY 369 the image in these respects with the sensory experience aroused by the actual presence of the scene.

in their imagery. real type. According to the type theory. that a " mixed type " must also be admitted. etc. or he might. or he was an its " audile". to provide for individuals who easily called up images now known of two or more different senses. According to the facts. 54. Nearly every one gets visual images more easily and freit is common. '''•'k-' According to the facts differences in mental imagery. and form a single large group. or olfactory. being excep- tional and not typical. and. though some few are extremely visual. the majority of individuals cluster in the middle space. tactile. kinesthetic. a very pretty theory of " imagery types was built upon it.870 kinesthetic PSYCHOLOGY sensations* without difficulty. etc. In fact. auditory. first.. tactile and So that the " mixed type " is the only olfactory images. the extreme visualist or audile. every individual has a place in one or another of the distinct groups. auditory. but nearly every one has. dealing wholly in kinesthetic y. quently than those of any other sense. kinesthetic. from time to time.. that the mixed type was the most to be very unusual for an individual to be confined to images of a single sense. But the progress of investigation showed. thinking : of everything as it appears to the eyes. sound. thinking of everything according to or he was a " motor type ". so it was held. later on. in rare cases. visual. A Y:^:i::. Any individual. . or auditory. When this was " first discovered. belonged to one or another type either he was a " visualist ".':^4 "k According to the type theory Fig. —Individual imagery. belong to the olfactory or gustatory or tactile type.

both in the enjoyment they afford and in the use that can be made of them. —than a sensation aroused ^less by While you may be good image of your absent friend's able to call up a fairly face. eral respects. (2) Images are apt to be sketchy and lacking in detail. and also narrow and lacking in background. images are Inferior to the actual presence of an object. (4) On the more practical side. any more than in giving is body and In all these re- spects. There is something lacking in these recalled sensations. keeps the sensation going. continuing. just as a sensory experience. Where the peripheral stimulus. and the trouble seems to be that they are not sensations enough sea they lack sensory body. fact&ry.ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY 371 Limitations op Imagery Recalled sensations are commonly inferior to their ori^nals. is in your head and if your audi- strong you may even run over an orchestral and get the tone quality of the various instruments but. You may ". be able to run over a piece of music " tory imagery piece. in that we cannot utilize! the image as a source of new information. such a mental concert is an imperfect substitute for a real orchestra. after all. detail. (3) Images are apt to be unsteady and fleeting. the substitute stimulus that recalls a sensation is not so effective in this respect. an image less enjoyable and satisfying than an actual sensation. the actual presence of your friend would be more satisits appropriate peripheral stimulus. They are likely to be inferior in sev- (1) An image has usually less color. realism and full sensory quality or tone— body. as compared with actual sensations. You enjoy a real whiff of the more than the best olfactory image you can summon. We cannot observe .

how complete and how vivid. now arouses original But the substitute stimulus by no means the equivalent peripheral stimulus in making possible a the image is variety of new reactions. and to have them state how clear their image is." the correct number. there a beautiful library building. But at this point the students begin to object. Its only linkage is with reactions actually made by you in response to the real object. you can that of the recall these details. the general appearance is all you can recall. substitute stimulus. and cannot be expected to know the number now. At one of the universities. It has long been a favorite experiment in the psychology call up an image of the library. not with reis sponses that you simply might have made. only recalls responses which you made when the real object was the stimulus. The substitute now recalls the image. such as the linked with responses actually The name of a building. If you noted the color of the object. and the students pass this building every day and enjoy looking at it. you can probably recall the color. and those In fact. few of them give clear and who have reported vivid images are little better off in this respect than those whose images are dim and vague. This important fact closely related to the . stimulus. became made by you. The image.372 PSYCHOLOGY we have not observed is facts in the image of a thing that in the actual presence of the thing. If you noted such details as the number of pillars. and to tell what kind of capitals the pillars have. which then. and whether the shafts are plain or fluted. with a row of fine pillars across the front. does not give you facts that you did not observe in the presence of the object. when the object was present. " We have never counted those pillars. Then they are asked classes at that university to have the students to count the pillars from their image. If you looked at the object simply to get its general appear^ ance.

^ Facts recalled are It is true. that your attention is caught by the bright green new leaves at the tips of the branches of an evergreen tree in summer. while still further in they have all fallen off. for an example. The Question of Non-Sensory Recall Many observed facts are not strictly facts of sensation. .be- it has required mental work tree.8. We may recall how John looks. that they look alike. since constructed would scarcely . as a hollow cone of foliage sup- ported by an interior framework of branches.ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY unreliability of testimony that 373 the head of " unintentional facts previously observed. find leaves that are dead and brown. and how James looks. and the " seeing " of how the tree be called a sensation. without recalling at the same time the primary See pp. A is great deal can be inferred in this in his way by a person who sitting this room far from the objects thought about. that recalled facts can be compared and new facts be observed by the comparison. 346-34. from observing what is But is noting of the relationships of different objects different matter a very there. . All this has final meant a lot of different reactions is on your part. not previously observed. yond that of simply seeing the It is a response addi- tional to the strictly sensory response of seeing the tree. reaching back to the trunk the tree is so that you leaving bare branches finally " see " how constructed. in a single object or scene. Let us suppose. and that you notice also the darker green of the older leaves further back along the branches. Now 1 the question is whether this additional response can be recalled. and note the fact. and. of course. though observed by means of the senses. memory was mentioned before under ". exploring deeper. What is there can only be observed when you are there.

testify that while I have been writing and thinking about that tree I have not seen it before my mind's eye. and observing the way responses. that vague and fleeting images. But many authorities have held that the non-sensory fact could not be recalled alone . that I time —auditory have had images during this images of words expressing the facts menkinesthetic there tioned. first. are often present without being detected except introspection. some image being pretty sure by very to fine every few seconds when we are engag'ed in silent come up thought or . Another individual might have had images instead of either visual or auditory. are two different seems quite conceivable that either fact should be recalled without the other. " imageless thought ". especially of the kinesthetic sort.374 PSYCHOLOGY Can we recall the fact observed response of seeing the tree. But the best indications are to the effect. so that a generally accepted conclusion cannot be stated. who write these words. they have held that every recalled fact comes as a sensory image. It is true. Persons with ready visual imagery are of course likely to get But persons whose a visual image with any fact they may recall. it it is constructed. being such a person. visual imagery is hard to arouse say that I they recall facts without any visual image. however. or with a sensory image. But can be a recall of fact without any sensory image? On this question. about the tree without at the same time seeing the tree " in the mind's eye"? Must we necessarily have an image of the tree when we recall the way the tree is constructed? Since getting the general sensory appearance of the tree. which has been called the question of though it might better be called that of " imageless recall ". and no one doubts that the sensory appearance of the tree can be recalled without the other observed fact coming up along with it. in other words. controversy has raged and is not yet at rest.

weakened by and he hears his absorption in his own smells and reviling voices and suspicious . But if it does or if the objective situation is lost track of. Or you and then the images that come are dreams real. till. as a matter of fact. the question arises how. and STnell into the objective situation you notice that the shop door is shut and the window glass impervious to odors. then. from which you conclude that the odor must have been your image.image may be taken for a sensation. the image does not usually fit into the objective situation present to the senses. You are half asleep. of the is and that at the instant when a non-sensory fact apt to be alone. since and seem entirely contact with the objective situa- tion has been broken. You you very see some beautiful roses them. till You are lost in thought of an absent person. you seem to see him entering the door . according to the testimony is of some people. then. Well. well. for- getting where you are.ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY recall . but then the present situation forces its itself upon you and the image takes proper place. he " fits " well enough for an instant. 375 but. almost lost to the world. recalled it is Hallucinations Since a vivid mental image may be " in all respects the same as an actual sensation ". fit. fact is real things are common in some forms desires Here the subject's hold on objective fears. are fully asleep. the odor fits in the florist's window. and some scene comes before you so vividly as to seem real till its oddity wakens you to the reality of your bedroom. an image distinguished from a sensation. second. the . Images taken for of mental disorder. that images are not present every second timej.

Quite a large number of people are so conif stituted as to hear sounds as colored. without the subject's noticing that it is its lar peripheral stimulus.376 PSYCHOLOGY odors or sees visions that are in line with his desires and fears. It is a sensory thus aroused instead of by regu- response. seeming dark blue. When some definite interest or purpose steers the associative processes. Rever. Synesthesia. etc. . contrasting this with the " free association " that occurs in an idle mood. though the that the extra sensations are images that have become firmly attached to their substitute stimuli during early childhood. hearing is consists in commonest form of " synesthesia responding to a stimulus acting on one which sense. This colored ". aroused by a substitute stimulus. sons so constituted as to respond in this Whether the perway are constituted thus by nature or by experience best guess is is uncertain. Free Association Mental processes that depend on ciative processes ". calls up another with no object in when one thought simply view and no more than I fleeting desires to give direction to the sequence of thoughts. a recalled fact taken for a present objective fact. the sound of a trumpet a vivid Each vowel and for a word. a deep tone perhaps red.y affords the best example of free association. since they recall are called " asso- make use of associations or linkages previously formed. we speak of " controlled association ". which combine to give a its own complex color scheme may have Numbers the also may be colored. Such false sensations are called " hallucinations ". by sensations belonging to a different sense. even each consonant special color. is An hallucination an image taken for a sensation.

but some are rather abstract. But suppose. This is rather a drab. concrete or abstract. next of the stranger with whom I had and of the stranger's business address . they are connections pre- viously observed by the subject. yet always the linkage has this character. The linkages belong in the category of " facts previously observed had previously observed the ownership of this dog by my neighbor. Most of the linkages in this revery are quite concrete. next of my neighbor's advice with respect to an automobile collision in neighbor's coming back and which I was concerned collided. One fact recalls another when the two have been previously observed as belonging together. Sometimes the linkage keeps the thoughts within the sphere of the same original experience. case. and life youth might show more and color. that the item that now acts as stimulus has been formerly combined in observation with the other item that now follows as the response. on the card which he gave me next comes a query as to this stranger's line of business and whether he was well-to-do and from there my thoughts switch naturally to the high cost of living. . middle-aged type of revery.ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY see 377 my neighbor's dog out of my window. but. and am reminded of one time when I took charge of that dog while my neigh- bor was away. such as the connec- tion between being well-to-do (or not) and the high cost of living. that the fact in different now past experi- . I to my mind. present in my as is commonly the mind has been linked. but the linkages be- tween one thought and the next are typical of any revery. or even from one past exaway from any specific past ficperience to general considerations'. and then of my taking the dog from the cellar where I had shut him up. and sometimes switches them perience to another. and this observation linked the dog and the neighbor and enabled the dog to recall the neighbor ".

if — much as dwelling on any fact. though several may be aroused in succession. and so on. noticed at a time and here we say that of all the ob- jects that might be recalled to is mind by association only one recalled at a time. with several different facts. and those two not simultaneously but one after the other. The fact first present in mind does not call up all the associated facts. — only one of the several facts associated with the recalled at once. The answer to the first question is plain. calls up in succession quite a tr^nBOT^ of associated facts. having been linked with each of up any one of sevthem in past ex- . as to The fact first in mind might have called eral facts. We see a law here that very similar to a law stated under the head of attention. if whether all these facts are recalled not. that of all the responses.378 PSYCHOLOGY Then two questions deattention : ences. and that to one that recalls in turn. My neighbor. but usually only one of them. or at least only one at a time. without we do dwell on any fact upon the thoughf of a certain person then this stimucontinuing to act. provided the stimulus continues. If. linked to (or complex of stimuli) only one actually aroused at the same instant. mand our and. then. lus. itself. the stimulus usually does not continue. though previously asso- ciated with a dozen other facts. our second question presents stimulus is what are the factors of advantage that cause one rather than another of the possible responses to occur. first The fact thought of gives it way But to the fact that it recalls. the one general " law of reaction " which Both statements can be combined into was mentioned bea given stimulus is fore. in the example given. now is calls up but two of these facts. all There. In revery. what gives the advantage to the fact actually recalled over the others that are not recalled. we said that of the objects before us that might be noticed only one was .

ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY perience . lie outside of his habitual " James ". the linkage between them is strong. also. there is. way. but if the three factors pull diiferent ways. and all know in a practical . your brother or friend but after the lecturer has been talking about the psychologist James. the linkage between them is strong the " recency value " dies away . Naturally enough. predict which of the possible responses would actually be made. have to figure we should out the balance of advantage before we could is. indeed. and that the . • was a vivid experience. the linkage bejween them is If these three factors of advantage work together is in favor of the same response. then. means . and which it has occurred. even the skilful psychologist of us often unable to strike the balance between the three factors. repetition of this name infallibly recalls the psychologist to mind. and if my observation of the connection of the two facts or intense reaction. strong. even though they line of interest. is another factor to be taken into account. determine the strength of linkage between two facts and they are: the frequency with. then that response sure to occur . recency and intensity. which the linkage has occurred. the recency with which the intensity with it has occurred . If I have frequently observed the connection of two facts. by virtue of frequency. The factors of advantage in recall are the factors that . 379 and we want to know why it recalls one of these facts rather than the rest. if I have recently ob- till served their connection. He does know. Besides frequency. that strong recency value offsets a lot of frequency so that a mere vague allusion to a very recent topic of conversation can be depended on to recall the right facts to the hearer's mind. however.

and the result very different from revery. in which the subject given a series of words as stimuli. called depends What particular word shall be on the frequency. and is asked to respond to each word by speaking some other word. Though be this test seems so simple as almost to silly. an additional directive factor. etc. No special kind of word need be given in response. Though this is called free association. facts related to that matter have the advantage. Words are so often recalls re- linked one with another that it is no wonder that one another automatically. but simply the first word recalled. If you give the subject the stimulus word. these are called — while other persons run to connections that are imper- . we speak of directed or con- Before we pass to the topic of controlled association. unhappy. Instead of the recall of concrete facts from past experience. his response is " chair " or " dinner ". recency and intensity form of of past linkage. Frequency. There is an experiment. recency and intensity summarize the history of associations. and measure on their history but the present state of mind is has much to do with trolled association. it is controlled to the extent that the is response must be a word. is if pleasant associations have the advantage ant. however. it is of use in several ways.. their strength as dependent . quite different from revery. " table ". the first that is recalled by the stimulus. to be examined. but simply of the word. there is another form of free association. and the responses some persons are found to favor linkages that have a personal significance —" egocentric responses ". is called the free association test. of stimulus words are used. there is recall of words. If unhappy.-380 PSYCHOLOGY If he . and often he does not think of any par- ticular table. and when it recall. When a large number classified. pleas- he is absorbed in a given matter. present state of the subject's mind.

One person who consulted a doctor peculiar responses to stimulus words for nervousness made relating to the family.ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY sonal and objective. If the subject shows hesitation and embarrassment in responding to words referring to money. and thus to will lead him to recall the make responses that betray he checks them and so arouses suspicion by him. The free association test useful rather as giving the experienced psychologist hints to be followed up than as furnishing sure proof of the contents of the subject's mind. spond by saying their opposites by mentioning a part of each object named. you may be able by it whether an individual has recently had a certain matter in mind. unless Another use of the test is for unearthing a emotional " complexes ". which of course possess a person's his hesitation. based upon the great efficacy of the factor of recency. high intensity value. being often observed. many tests of this sort. To one series of words he must re. to another of names of countries. S81 Thus the test throws some light on the test has also a " de- individual's habits of attention. the indication is that he is emotionally disturbed over the state of his finances. and was discovered to be much is dis- turbed over his family's opposition to his projected marriage. The to tell tective " use. he must respond by as possible the capital of each country series. consisting naming as quickly named and there are . properly selected stimulus words scene of the crime. except that the subject to respond to each stimulus specified relation to it. each dealing with some class of re- lationships which. Controlled Association There is a controlled association test conducted like this is one in free association. are easily handled . required in a word by a word standing to another. If he happens to be an individual who has recently committed some crime.

while inhibiting other responses that would readily occur in the absence of any directive tendency. a factor of advantage. It is a good example of a " reaction tend- ency "- On being told you are to give opposites. recency and intensity might favor any stimulus word . But when the subject is set for opposites. your mental machinery for making this The mental set thus thrown into action . it often works much too quickly for that. and then pick out the one that fills the bill? No. and responds in very quick time. Indeed. since all of these combinations have been frequently used in the past and the balance of frequency. but also to facilitate it. It doe^ not supersede the previously formed associations. Does from among them it get in its work after recall has done its part. in If the word " good " came as a a free association test. than in the free association test which shows that the " control " acts not simply to limit the response. but selects the present task. The mental set for opposites favors old ". The intelligent subject makes few errors in such a test. " good night ". The " control " here is often called by the name of " mental set". or before. " good the revival of such combinations as " new — bad ". giving the right response instantly. and many besides. one of these responses. or work independently the one which fits of them.? Does it wait till recall has brought up a number of responses. the remarkable fact is that he takes less time to respond in an easy controlled association test . " good arouse boy ". " good day ". Mental a selective factor. the balance of these factors has little force as against the mental set. you some- how set or adjust type of response. and introspection is often perfectly clear that none but the right . and such others of set is this class as have been noted and used in the subject's past experience. " good better ". it might easily the responses. facilitates responses of the required type.382 PSYCHOLOGY by a person of normal intelligence.

It who is new to this type may take the form of mentally running over examples of opposites to be called for —or — or whatever kind of responses are it may take the form of calling up some image or diagram or gesture that symbolizes the task. recency and intensity of past linkage determine which of the many possible facts trolled association the shall be recalled. may have a very strong linkage with the The mental set is itself a response to a stimulus. It is an inner response thrown into activity by some stimulus. and nothing remains except a general " feeling of readiness " or of " knowing what you are . and gesturing to the right and then to the left may symbolize the relationship of opposites.ASSOCIATION response is AND MENTAL IMAGERY all. because the mental set for opposites gives this response a great advantage over " good night " and other fact shall responses which stimulus word. A visual image of the nose on the face may serve as a symbol of the part-whole relationship. 383 recalled at The selective influence of the mental recall set is exerted before recall. it facilitates the right and inhibits recall of any but the right response. only one of the facts previously linked with the stimulus recalled at a time. This inner response of getting ready for the task can be introspectively observed by a person of test. is In controlled association. such as the stimulus of being asked to give the opposites of a series of words that are presently to be shown or spoken. as in free association. in an opposites test. the be recalled. but while in free association the factors of fre- quency. But as the subject grows accustomed to a given task. in conis additional factor of mental set present and has a controlling influence in determining which Thus. a small circle inside a larger one may symbolize the relation of an object to a class of first objects. these conscious symbols fade away. word " good " promptly calls up the pair " good stimulus bad ".

384 PSYCHOLOGY ". while the mental set for adding does the reverse. and only that response occurs. means 5. mental set is Thus in arithmetic. and enters very largely into all forms of mental work. and controls the motor behavior to . The mental set experience with several responses. for multiplying facilitates the responses of the multiplication table and inhibits those of the addition table. such as 8 and 3. The trols objective situation arouses a mental set that con- both thought and action. a word may call up any of its meanings. it means 24. conversation. has been linked in past it means 83. This is true in arithmetical work. it . determines the meanings that are got from the words heard. it means 11. etc. and is no less efficient for becoming almost unconscious. however. mental an inner response to the In reading. But if you are adding. The same is true of several well-known meanings called to . it means 11. for example. as in the tests. but in context it usually brings to mind just the one meaning that fits the context. for example. Examples of Controlled Association Dwelling so long on the test for controlled association may ficial have created the impression that this is a rather arti. Rapid adding or efficient multiplying would be impossible without an set. Presented alone. about The mental set remains in force. and which determines which of the of a word shall actually be mind when the word is read. and it means 24. and unusual type of mental performance is but in reality controlled association a very representative mental process. there is a mental set which is an inner re- sponse to the context. The situation of being in church. A pair of numbers. the tasTc. according to frequency. and no other response occurs if you are multiplying.

ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY
fit

385

the occasion.

The
it,

subject, observing the situation, ad-

justs himself to

and his motor reactions,

perhaps without any conscious effort, adjustment facilitates appropriate mental and
while inhibiting others.

problem arouses a mental set directed towards solution of the problem. A difficult problem, however, differs from a context or familiar task or situation in this important
respect, that the appropriate response has not been previ-

A

ously linked with the present stimulus, so that, in spite of
ever so good a mental set, the right response cannot immediately be recalled.
Still,

One must search for the right response.
is

the mental set

useful here, in directing the search,

and keeping it from degenerating into an aimless running hither and thither. Problem solution is so different a process from smooth-running controlled association that it
deserves separate treatment, which will be given
it

a few

chapters further on, under the caption of reasoning.

386

PSYCHOLOGY

EXERCISES
1.

Outline, the chapter.

2.

call

The rating of images belonging under different senses. Try to up the images prescribed below, and rate each image according to
S.
.
.
.

the following scale:

The image

is

practically

the

same as a

sensation, as

bright, full, incisive, and, in short, possessed of genuine

sensory quality.
2.
1.
0.
. .
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

The image has a moderate degree of sensory quality. The image has only faint traces of sensory quality. No sensory image is called up, though there was a
a sun flower, a white

recall of the fact mentionedCall up visual images of: a friend's face,

house among trees, your own signature written in ink. Call up auditory images of: the sound of your friend's voice, a familiar song, an automobile horn, the mewing of a cat. Call up olfactory images of: the odor of coffee, of new-mown
hay, of tar, of cheese.

up gustatory images of: sugar, salt, bitter, acid. up cutaneous images of: the feel of velvet, a lump of ice, a pencil held against the tip of your nose, a pin pricking your finger. Call up kinesthetic imagery of: lifting a heavy weight, reaching up to a high shelf, opening your mouth wide, kicking
Call

Call

a
Call

ball.

up organic imagery of:

feeling hungry,

feeling thirsty,

feeling nausea, feeling buoyant.

In case of which sense do you get the most lifelike imagery, and in case of which sense the least. By finding the average
rating given to the images of each sense, you can arrange the

which your imagery rates It may be best to try more cases before reaching a final decision on this
senses in order,
in

from the one
it

highest to the one in which

rates lowest.

matter.
3.

"Verbal imagery.

visual, auditory, or kinesthetic
4.

think of a word, do you have a image of it or how does it come? In reading, notice how much imagery of objects, persons, scenes,

When you

sounds,
5.

etc., occurs spontaneously. Analysis of a revery. Take any object as your starting point, and let your mind wander from that wherever it will for a minute.

ASSOCIATION AND MENTAL IMAGERY
Then review and record the
linkages between them.
6.
.

887

series

of thoughts, and try to discover the

Free association experiment.
list:

disconnected words by saying the
following
tree, roof.
city,

first

Respond to each one of a list of word suggested by it. Use the

war, bird, potato, day, ocean, insect, mountain,
(a)

Use the same list of stimulus words by a word meaning the opposite or at (b) Repeat, naming a part of the object least something contrasting, designated by each of these same words, (c) Repeat again, naming an instance or variety of each of the objects named. Did you find wrong responses coming up, or did the mental set exclude them altogether? 8. Write on a sheet of paper ten pairs of one-place numbers, each pair in a little column with a line drawn below, as in addition or multiplication examples. See how long it takes you to add, and again how long it takes to multiply all ten. Which task took the longer, and why? Did you notice any interference, such as thinking of a sum when you were "set" for products? 9. Free association test for students of psychology. Respond to each of the following stimulus words by the first word suggested by it
7.

Controlled association,

as above, but respond to each

of a psychological character:
conditioned

PSYCHOLOGY
REFERENCES
On imagery, synesthesia, etc., see Galton's Inquiries into Human. Faculty and Its Development, 1883, pp. 57-112; and for more recent studies of imagery see G. H. Betts on The Distribution and Function of Mental Imagery, 1909, and Mabel R. Fernald on The Diagnosis of Mental Imagery, 1912. On the diagnostic use of the association test, an extensive work is that of C. G. Jung, Studies in Word-Association, translated by Eder,
1919.

CHAPTER XVI

THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION
AN ATTEMPT TO HEDUCE THE
ITS

LEAB.NING PROCESS TO

ELEMENTS

This
fore us

is is

a very serious occasion.

What we now

have be-

one of the great outstanding problems of psy-

chology, a problem that has come down through the ages,

with succeeding generations of psychological thinkers contributing of their best to
its

solution

;

and our task

is

to

attack this problem afresh in the light of modern knowledge
of the facts of learning and memory.

We

wish to gather

up

the threads from the three preceding chapters, which
all

have detailed many facts regarding learned reactions of
sorts,

and see whether we cannot summarize our accumulated knowledge in the form of a few great laws. We wish also to relate our laws to what is known of the brain macbinery.

The Law
Of one law
of learning,

op Exercise
sure.

we are perfectly

There

is

no

doubt that the exercise of a reaction strengthens it, makes it more precise and more smooth-running, and gives it an
exercised.

advantage over alternative reactions which have not been Evidence for these statements began to appear
soon as we turned the corner into this part of our

as

and has accumulated ever since. This law is sometimes called the " law of habit ", but might better be called the " law of improvement of a reaction through exercise ",
subject,
or,

more

briefly, the

" law of exercise
389

".

390

PSYCHOLOGY
of exercise
is

The law
good of
cise of
life

vei'y

broad

in its scope, holding
life.

generally and not alone of mental

Exer-

a muscle develops the muscle, exercise of a gland

develops the gland; and, in the same way, exercise of a

mental reaction strengthens the machinery used in making
that reaction.

Let us restate the law

in

terms of stimulus and response.
the

When

a given stimulus arouses a certain response,
is

linkage between that stimulus and that response

vmproved

hy the exercise so obtained, and thereafter the stimulus arouses the response more surely, more promptly, more
strongly than before.

Under
1.

the law of exercise belong several sub-laws already

familiar to us.

The law

of frequency refers to the cumulative effect of

repeated exercise.
this sub-law,
cise of

The
is

practice curve gives a picture of

showing how improvement with repeated exerrapid at
first

a performance

and tapers

off into

the physiological limit, beyond which level more repetition

cannot further improve the performance. The superiority of " spaced study " over unspaced means that exercise is

more

effective

when
;

rest periods intervene between the peis

riods of exercise
cise, it is

as this

notoriously true of muscular exerit

not surprising to find

true of mental perform-

ances as well.
2.

The law
;

of recency refers to the gradual weakening of

the machinery for executing a reaction
cised
it is

when no longer exerthe general biological law of " atrophy through

disuse " applied to the special case of learned reactions.

As
law

exercise improves the linkage between stimulus and re-

sponse, so disuse allows the linkage to deteriorate.
is

This

pictured more completely and quantitatively in the

curve of forgetting.
Really, there are two laws of recency, the one being a

THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION
up through
is

391

law of retention, the other a law of momentary warming The law of retention, or of forgetting, exercise.
the same as atrophy through disuse.

The warming-up
bit of exer-

effect, well seen in the

muscle which

is

sluggish after a long

rest but becomes lively
cise,'^

and responsive after a

appears also

in the fact

that a skilled act needs to

be done a few times in quick succession before it reaches its highest efficiency, and in the fact of " primary memory ",
the lingering
o*f

a sensation or thought for a few moments
it

after the stimulus that aroused

has ceased.
it

Primary

memory

is

not strictly memory, since

does not involve the

recall of facts that

have dropped out of mind, but just a

new emphasis on
out.
is

facts that have not yet completely
is

dropped
it

Warming up

not a phenomenon of learning, but

a form of recency, and is responsible for the very strong " recency value " that is sometimes a help in learning,^ and

sometimes a hindrance in
3.

recall.''

The law

of intensity simply means that vigorous exer-

cise strengthens a reaction

more than weak
is,

exercise.

This

is

to be expected, but the question

in the case of

mental per-

formances,

how

to secure vigorous exercise.

Well, by active
close at-

recitation as

compared with passive reception, by

tention, by high level observation. In active recitation, the memorizer strongly exercises the performance that he is

trying to master, while in reading the lesson over and over

he

is

giving less intense exercise to the same performance.

The Law

of Effect

come now to a law which has not so accepted a standmay perhaps be another sub-law under that general law. The " law of effect " may,
ing as the law of exercise, and which

We

however, be regarded simply as a generalized statement of
I

See p. 73.

2

See p. 345.

s

See p. 356.

392

PSYCHOLOGY
The
cat, in learn-

the facts of learning by trial and error.

ing the trick of escaping from a cage by turning the doorbutton, makes and therefore exercises a variety of reactions

and you might expect, then,

in

accordance with the law of

exercise, that all of these reactions

would be more and more

firmly linked to the cage-situation, instead of the successful

reaction gradually getting the advantage and the unsuccessful being eliminated.

The law

of effect, stated as ob-

jectively as possible,

is

simply that the successful or un-

successful outcome. or effect of a reaction determines whether
it

shall become firmly linked with the stimulus, or detached from the stimulus and thus eliminated. The linkage of a

response to a stimulus

is

strengthened when the response
is

is

a success, and weakened when the response
desire or reaction-tendency,

a failure.

Success here means reaching the goal of an awakened

and failure means being stopped
Since success
is
is

or hindered from reaching the goal.

satis-

fying and failure unpleasant, the law of effect
in another

often stated

form: a response that brings satisfaction is more and more' firmly attached to the situation and reactiontendency, while a response that brings pain or dissatisfaction
is

detached.
of effect
it is
is

The law
is

a statement of fact, but the question
fact, or

whether

an ultimate

whether

it

can be ex-

plained as a special case of the law of exercise.
suggefsted that
it is

Some have
fre-

but a special case of the sub-law of
trial, since

quency; they
tinues

call attention to the fact

that the successful
the trial con-

response must be made at every
till

success

is

attained, whereas no one unsuccessful

response need be

made

at every trial; therefore in the long

run the successful response must gain the frequency advantage. But there is a very ready and serious objection to
this

argument; for

it is

may and

does happen that an un-

successful response

repeated several times during a single

THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION
trial, while the successful

393

response

is

never

made more than

once in a single
close
;

trial, since

success brings the trial to a
fact, frequency often favors

and thus, as a matter of

the unsuccessful response

—which,
is

nevertheless, loses out in

competition with the successful response.

Can

the law of effect be interpreted as an instance of the

sub-law of recency?

The

successful reaction always occurs

at the end of a trial,

and
if

the most recent reaction at

the beginning of the next trial.

This recency might have

considerable importance

the next trial began instantly

(as in unspaced learning), but can have no importance
so long
ecfi

when
is

interval as a

day

is left

between, trials

;

for evi-

dently the recency of twenty-four hours plus ten seconds

not effectively different from that of an even twenty-four
hours.

Recency, then, does not explain the law of
it

effect.

Can
is

be explained as an instance of the sub-law of in-

tensity?

An animal, or man, who sees success coming as he making the reaction that leads directly to success, throws

himself unreservedly into this reaction, in contrast with his

somewhat hesitant and exploratory behavior up. to that The dammed-up energy of the reaction-tendency finds a complete outlet into the successful reaction, and therefore the successful reaction is more intensely exercised than the
time.

This seems like a pretty good explanation, though perhaps not a complete explanation.
unsuccessful.

Limitations op the

Law

of Exercise
is

The law

of exercise, with all its sub-laws,
it is

certainly

fundamental and universal;
ever anything
is

always

in

operation whengoes only

learned; and yet, just

by

itself, it

halfway towards accounting for learned reactions.
reaction to be exercised,
exercise presupposes that
to account for its being
it
it

For a

must be made, and the law of is made, and does not attempt
in the first place.

made

394

PSYCHOLOGY
of exercise does not cover the formation of

The law

new

linkages, but only the strengthening of linkages that are

already working.

It does not explain the
its

attachment of a

response to some other than

natural stimulus, nor the

combination of responses into a higher unit, nor the associaWe tion of two facts so that one later recalls the other.
learn by doing, but
start to learn?
facts, but

how can we do anything new

so as to

We

learn by observing combinations of

how

in the first place

do we combine the facts

in

our minds?

How,

for example, can we learn to respond to the sight

of the person

by saying

this linkage of stimulus

Evidently, by exercising his name? and response. But how did we ever
is

make a

start in responding thus, since there

nothing about

the person's looks to suggest his name? The name came to us through the ear, and the face by way of the eye; and if we repeated the name, that was a response to the auditory How has it come about, stimulus and not to the visual. then, that we later respond to the visual stimulus by saying the name? In short, the more' seriously we take the law of exercise, the more we feel the need of a supplementary law to provide for the first making of a reaction that then, by virtue of
exercise,
is

strengthened.
the problem that occupied the older writers on
;

This

is

psychology when they dealt with " association "
of association
explain
".

and

their

solution of the problem was formulated in the famous " laws

The laws

of association were attempts to

how

facts got associated, so that later one could

recall another.

ancient Greek

These laws have a long history. From Aristotle, the who first wrote books on psychology, there
association.

came down to modern times four laws of

Facts

become associated, according to Aristotle, when they are

THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION

395

contiguous (or close together) in space, or when they are
contiguous in time, or when they resemble each other, or

when they contrast with each other. The psychologists of the earlier modern period, in the eighteenth and first part of the nineteenth centuries, labored with very good success
to reduce these four laws to one comprehensive law of association.

Contiguity in space and in time were combined into

a law of association

by contiguity

in experience, since evi-

dently mere physical contiguity between two objects could
establish

no association between them in any one's mind ex-

cept as he experienced them together.

Association by Similarity

Continuing their simplification of the laws of association,
these older psychologists showed that resemblance trast belonged together, since to be similar things

something in common, and to be contrasted also must have something in common. You contrast north with south, a circle and a square, an automobile and a wheel' barrow; but no one thinks of contrasting north with a circle, south with an automobile, or a square and a wheelbarrow, though these pairs are more incongruous than the others. Things that are actually associated as contrasting

and conmust have two things

common and therefore by contrast could be included under association by similarity. Thus the four laws had been reduced to two, association by contiguity and association by similarity.
with each other have something in
association
;

The
ciation

final step in this

reduction was to show that assospecial
,

by

similarity

was a
be

case

of

association

by

contiguity.

To

similar
this

two

things

must have

something in common, and
lishes

common

part, being con-

tiguous with the remainder of each of the two things, estab-

an indirect contiguity between the two things, a

there. Association by Contiguijso This reduction of all the laws of association to one great law was no mean achievement. it has been contiguous with this contiguity. is but the common characteristic sciously isolated. and I should be like an inexperienced child in the presence of each new problem. with which they are parts or characteristics. and the law of association by contiguity calls in experience holds good. you can be sure that the two . If one thing re- another to your mind. the whole present object that arouses recall of the similar object. but some part of the present object. contiguous in the first thing. the novel situation has been met with before. of This kind it association is important in thinking. but. If every new object or situation could only be taken as a whole. has friend. A in stranger reminds me of my friend because something in the stranger's face or manner has been met with before my friend. and thus assembles data that may me be applied to a new problem. and the similar thing has the parts or characteristics. when seen in the second thing. my friend. A B X Y. call up A B. it could not remind of anything previously met. C D X Y and thus X Y. as a whole individual. Exactly what there is in faces or other objects cannot always be clearly common between two similar made out. but never been contiguous with my not some characteristic of the stranger has been In association by similarity. taken part by part. it is thus contiguous. since brings together facts from different past experiences. and can be handled in the light of past experience. . even if not con- and acts as an effective stimulus to recall. and recalls him by virtue of The stranger.396 PSYCHOLOGY One thing has the sort of contiguity bridge between them.

sec- ond word of any pair when the read the he list first word is given him and through three or four times. it they are contiguous would no longer be a true law.THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION 397 have been contiguous in your experience. he has to observe the order specifically. must quite truly.his is last task.. and says nothing about the response. not Or. To accomplish it . The memory and testimony experiments have brought exceptions to light. The law of association by contiguity is unsatisfactory from a modern standpoint because it treats only of the stimulus.they must be experienced together. For two things to become associated. read to a person twenty pairs of words. Yes. that stimuli . that he can later recognize every one of them will and still he not have the adjacent pictures so associated that each call one can up the next in order. being something in us. and let him examine each one turn so closely . in effect. Many similar experiments have in yielded the same general result —contiguity and still no association. that two things do not become associated v/nless they are contiguous in experience. enough that he simply experiences pictures together. to notice the pairs so that later he can respond again. but it neglects to state that the association. asking him by the . If it were turned about to read if that two things do become associated in experience. so that he shall be able to make almost a perfect score in the expected test still will have formed few associations between the con- tiguous pairs. for the exceptions would then be extremely numerous. must be contiguous in order that an association between them may be formed. the law holds good. when thus stated that the statement is — ^but notice virtually negative. either as wholes or piecemeal. many Show a person twenty pictures in in a row. It says. and will make a very low score if you ask him experience to recite the pairs in order. It states.

and as a supplement to the law of exercise. as an improvement on the old }aw of by contiguity. In a very general. seen. as we have just is not always made and the association. is In a word. the law of combination read that " two or more stimuli may arouse a single joint response "again and put it in liorizon 1 Let us add a single word. have such a law. the time-honored law of association satisfactory because it no longer does not fit into a stimulus-response psychology. because it is not applicable to the association of two motor acts into a coordinated higher unit. can the associating response be aroused. the response especially necessary to consider the response because. Now we already. and see whether it is adequate for the job that we now have on hand. then. The law of contiguity is incomplete. also. .398 PSYCHOLOGY It is be formed by our reaction to the stimuli. or of the combination of two pri- mary emotions into a higher emotional unit. is some law governing the response to two or more contiguous stimuli. which had not risen above the when we formulated the law before. We had better fetch that law out good repair. therefore. and say that See pp.^ and called What we association the law of " combination ". 263-261. and when the individual was pictured as being passively " impressed " with the combinations of facts that were presented to his senses. The Law op Combination need. not always formed. abstract form. It comes down from a time when the motor side of mental performances was largely overlooked by psy- chology. but they do not infallibly arouse it even if they are contiguous. Only if the stimuli are con- tiguous. or of " unitary response to a plurality of stimuli ". which we put to some use in studying attention.

In saying that two or more stimuli arouse a single response. Let us. and then apply it to the explanation of the chief varieties of learned reaction that have come to our attention. and the law states that this occurs only when the originally ineffective stimulus is combined with others which can and do arouse the respqnse. The assumption of pre-existing loose linkage is between almost any stimulus and almost any response justified by the facts of playful behavior and trial and error . of exercise. This linkage may however by be extremely loose and feeble. then. later. can we possibly go far with let us see. 399 may arouse a single joint That seems very little to say . or exercise. so simple a statement? Well. and that this linkage is used in arousing the response.THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION two or more contiguous . we imply that there is already some rudimentary linkage between each stimulus and their common response. The law of combination attempts to show how it comes about that a stimulus. The ineffective stimulus.stimuli response. Does that promise any better? Probably it requires further discussion and exemplification before its value can be appreciated. underlying the law of combination. a single one of the stimuli may arouse the response which was originally aroused by the whole collection of stimuli. and wholly incapable itself of arousing the response. participates to some slight degree in arousing that response and may thus become effectively linked with the response. Evidently a stimulus could not take part in arousing a response unless there were some pre-existing linkage between it and the response. acquires the power of arousing it. first discuss it a bit. being one of a com- bination of stimuli which collectively arouse the response. of such a it linkage may strengthen to such an extent that. originally unable to arouse a certain response. Now bring in our trusty law and we see that the use. Notice an assumption.

all of learned reactions. PSYCHOLOGY In addition to the close reflex connections pro- vided in the native constitution. singly. combination (or association) of stimuli. there are at and especially in childhood and youth. and thus been individually strengthened.400 behavior. (c) When any stimulus. like distinguishing between " inside out " and To sponse " . while the combination of movements into a higher unit 1 is a complicated case of substitute response. and in addition also to the formed in previous training. as substitute stimulus. of combination. since the asso- recalls the other. stated let and reiterated the law of us turn to concrete instances the law takes care of them. in strict logic. (b) This is possible because of pre-existing loose linkage between the separate stimuli and the response. substitute response. may be able singly to produce the response. then. as applied to learning. and combination of responses. working together with others. helps to arouse a response. its linkage with that response is strength- ened by exercise. Having now abundantly combination in the abstract. ciation of We shall presently find it possible to reduce these four classes to two. by virtue of which one of them later is a rather complicated case of substitute stimulus. and see how We have already classified a large share of the concrete instances under a few main heads. a vast numThese are too weak to operate ber of loose connections. two objects.^ distinguish between " substitute stimulus " and " substitute reis. (d) The linkage may be sufficiently strengthened so that a single stimulus can arouse the response without help from the other stimuli that were originally necessary. until they have cooperated in producing a response. after which they close connections any time. in- The law cludes four points (a) A collection of stimuli may work together and arouse a single response.

since this stimulus. in being substituted for another. In the one case.^ reflex is The explanation of all instances of conditioned i.. the same. the distinction between the two main cases of learning is of some importance. and sometimes the changed response. The effective stimulus determines what response shall be made. sponded to the . and unnecessary for arousing the response. Conditioned reflex." Whenever there is a substitute stimulus there is also a substitute response. 401 SUBSTITUTE STIMULUS EXPLAINED BY THE LAW OF COMBINATION Here the response. 1 See p. while in the other case it was originally necessary as part of a team of stimuli that aroused the response. without being itself essentially changed. since sometimes the changed stimulus. is the interesting fact. a response gets that otiier's stimulus in place of its own original stimulus. after the bell plus a tasting substance had acted together on him timS after time. For all that. the rabbit. A. and in the same way. bell This is the yery simplest case The dog that reby a flow of saliva.e. for.THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION I. and another good instance is that of is the typical instance the little child who was " taught " to shrink from a rabbit by the sounding of a harsh noise along with the showing of belonging under the law of combination. a stimulus strongly linked with the response. and the other stimulus finds an outlet "outside in. . of course. becomes attached to a new stimulus. which gets drawn into the same reaction. gets that other's response in place of its own original response. 303. and we also have acting an ineffective stimulus. We distinguish two cases under the general head of substitute stimulus. you can always find substitute stimulus in any instance of substitute response. We have an effective stimulus acting. in being substituted for another. Substitute Stimulus Originally Unnecessary for Arousing the Response I. the substitute stimulus was originally extraneous.

But A arouses and R. the shrinking response. the rabbit being before his eyes. Fio. He shrinks from the whole col- He makes a unitary response to the whole lection of contiguous stimuli. A is the original effective stimulus (the rasp- ing noise in the instance of the child and the rabbit). This sort of thing line in the is best presented in a diagram. which has several other A B *"<:. so that the rabbit brings the shrinking response even in the At first. After this has ocbeen so curred a number of times. -^E Later: —Attachment R of the substitute stimulus in the case of the conditioned reflex. the child shrinks from the noise. the noise. activated response. it B-R has can operate alone. In the diagram for con- ditioned reflex..402 PSYCHOLOGY it into that response. but. Letters stand for stimuli and responses. being. and B is is the ineffective stimulus (the sight of the rabbit). being thus activated. attracted towards the it. He really shrinks in response to all the stimuli acting on him at that moment. A fuU diagram denotes a linkage strong enough to work alone. the response . the linkage strengthened by repeated exercise that absence of A. aa seems. 55. later enables this stimulus to arouse the re- sponse single-handed. while a dotted line denotes a weak linkage. The . linkages fully as good as the linkage B-R. draws on B and brings the linkage B-R into use. situation. and thus exercises the linkage between each stimulus and their joint response. sucked into The weak linkage from the ineffective stimulus to the response. linked strongly to the stimulus R A and only weakly to the stimulus B. being thus used and strengthened. he incidentally shrinks from the rabbit as well.

had no strong linkage with this particular vocal response. To this combination of stimuli he responds by saying the word. But the auditory stimulus determined the response. 2. and even some vocal response from the child. A child who can imitate simple words that he hears is shown a penny and the word " penny " is spoken to him. since the sight of the penny. The acquiring of mental images seems to be essentially the same process as the acquiring of conditioned reflexes. The linkage from the sight of the penny to the saying of ^^^^ Object seen ) Various possible <~ ^--^ f ' responses Nam^ spoken Name heard Later. though it might probably have aroused some response. . Learning the names of things. —Linkage this word being thus strengthened by exercise. The diagram is arranged to illustrate the formation of a linkage from the sight of the object to saying its name. This is primarily a later strong response to the auditory stimulus. Object seen Name Fig. It is a clear case of the law of combination. without penny any auditory stimulus to assist. A very similar diagram would illustrate the linkage from the name to the thought or image of the object. S6.THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION linkage between rabbit and shrinking to is 403 enough work alone. spoken of a name to an object. and of names. the seen later gives the right vocal response. and attracted the visual stimulus into this particular channel of saying " penny ".

and could not originally The same be aroused by any one of the stimuli alone. PSYCHOLOGY Substitute Stimulus Originally an Essential Member Team op Stimuli That Aroused the Eesponse OP a I. that is.404 B. or the inally group. originally. it arouses the response origstimuli. The formation of an association between two objects by observing their grouping or relatioriship. In spite of this. the observation is a two things taken together. is true of observing a relationship . Observed grouping or relationship. which of the process of memorizing. are usually relations or groups. in learning pairs of words in a " paired . without assistance. Its linkage with the response has been so strengthened by exercise as to operate effectively For example. we found many evidences of its importance in our study and The facts observed. to either of the two things taken alone. and not. assist memory so greatly. observation " Response of observing R— • ' the Group A£ Later: • Thought of Group AB Fig. made to the pair or group of The single stimulus has been substituted for the team that originally aroused the response. — Evidently the observation of a group of things is a re- sponse to a collection of stimuli. 57. " Learning by is a very important human accomplishment. a single one of the things may later call to mind the relaresponse to tionship.

See p. the relation is Somerecalled pair. this indirect linkage between stimulus and motor response is frequently exercised. and so leads to the word " cheek ". by windy perch up in the ropes.THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION associates experiment ". When he has thus recall the learned the pair. it. In a controlled association quired. where opposites are re- word " mythical " arouses the previously made observation of the antithesis of mythical and historical. 338). One subject fixed the a sailor occuping a — one object reminds us of another that was formerly experi- enced together with just described. when thinking of — the other word. either of the words in it will observed relation and the other word of the pair. on being given the word " windy ". 380. That is. and so leads to the motor response of saying the latter word. In the free association test.^ the stimulus word " dimple " calls up the previously made response of seeing a dimple in a cheek. the law of combination comes in as The two objects were observed to be grouped or related in some way. even though they are supposed to be " unrelated words ". Some weeks later. but did not get the response comto " windy pletely enough to give the second word. short-circuiting takes place (see p. without " windy occupy ". he recalled the sailor on the perch. and the stimulus word arouses the motor response directly. he made the same response to " windy " that he had originally made occupy ". In the typical cases of association hy contiguity. and this response became so linked to each of the objects that later a single one of them arouses this unitary response and recalls the other object. times.^ See p. after a long interval especially. Short1 2 .^ the subject is 405 apt to find some rela- tion between the words forming a pair. or some such unitary response was made to the two objects taken together. the stimulus test. s When. but could not get the word " occupy ". however. 336.

that is response by analogy. When we respond to a picture by recognizing the objects depicted.406 2. But undoubtedly there is a weak pre-existing linkage directly across from S to M. By dint of being exercised in this way. for it is the more complex re- involves response to the points of newness in the present object. I had This was response by analogy. that would have been association by similarity. Once. my home town. But response by analogy is not always so childish or comic as the above examples might seem to imply. Let a stimulus S arouse an idea I and this in turn a motor act M. extending enthusiastic. that is practically association is by similarity. while the word " kitty " is a response to the points of resemblance. that is association by similarity. Really. as when they call all men " papa ". then my reaction is called " response by analI ogy ". I saw a man whom took to be an acquaintance from up to him. PSYCHOLOGY When an Response by analogy and association by similarity. If they call it a " funny kitty ". and stepped my hand. strictly according to the conditioned reflex diagram. since the pictured object is only circuiting follows the law of combination very nicely. Response by analogy often appears in little children. whereas response by analogy consists simply in responding to the points of resemblance. with I playing the part of the effective stimulus in arousing M. object reminds me of a similar object. becomes strong enough to arouse the motor response the linkage directly. association by similarity sponse. or as when they call the squirrel a " kitty " when first seen. But suppose I actually take the it object to be the similar object. since the word " funny " squirrel is a response to the points in which a different from a cat. but if I to myself that that man looked like my acquaintance. and this gets used to a slight degree. — —M S— M . in his opinion. had simply said and informed me that. S I represents the linkages used. He did not appear very made a mistake. and behave towards ac- cordingly . and S the part of the originally ineffective stimulus. and I is then very likely to be left out altogether. when far from home. as well as to the points of resemblance to the familiar object.

„ Y Later: -====^i?i Fig. and each of them becomes well linked with their common response (seeing the object. in the next chapter. and arouses the old response. X. Association by similarity. 59. Other instances of response by analogy will come to light "^^--^ \ Y ~-r. and each of the parts or characteristics of the object participates in arousing the response. The letters. Y — — X -. appears. and perhaps naming it). while at the same time it recalls the old object to mind. presenting a number of parts and characteristics. When the linkage between "and Y and the response has become strong.r:-^ j^ it. Y. and so the new object is seen to be nevi'.>i2 YLater: "-I^R ^ Fig. a bare outline drawing may be enough to arouse the response of " seeing " the object. — X X X when. arouses the response of seeing and perhaps is naming the object. a similar object. the the response is thus strengthened. 58. C and(. A. by virtue of the now-eflfective linkage from and Y to this response. we come to the study of perception. is whole identical object not required to arouse this same .D. Everything here as in the previous diagram. except that G and Z) get a response in addition to that aroused by and Y. B.THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION 407 partially like the real object. This a unitary response to a collection of stimuli. A complex object. therefore. The machinery of response by analogy is easily under- stood by aid of the law of combination. presenting and Y along with other new stimuli. Response by analogy. represent the several stimuli that make up the original object. and the linkage of each part with Later.

408 PSYCHOLOGY may do this even when they are pres- response. SUBSTITUTE RESPONSE EXPLAINED BY THE LAW OF COMBINATION substitute response machinery is it The more complicated includes the latter than that of the substitute stimulus. with the original response it . would continue to be made. to the individual. and there would be no room for a substitute. playing the part of the originally ineffective stimulus in the conditioned reflex. (b) new stimulus found which (c) substitute response. Thus the original stimulus becomes strongly linked with the substitute response. sponse to the original stimulus. consisting in a search for some ex- tra stimulus that shall give a satisfactory response. inal stimulus. called out by the characteristics of the present object. The how original response being unsatisfactory is he to find a substitute? it. Suppose now that the extra stimulus has been found which arouses a satisfactory wbstitute response. and they ent in an object that has other and unfamiliar parts and characteristics. as and something more. What that something more is will be clear if we ask ourselves why a substitute response should Evidently because there is something wrong ever be made. or the reaCTion-tendency aroused The by it. of association by similarity is the same. The machinery new II. Only by is finding some stimulus that will arouse trial This where and error come in. participates in arousing the substitute response. but some of its parts or characteristics will give the response. if that were entirely satisfactory. The process of reaching a substitute response thus (a) in- cludes three stages: original response found unsatisgives a satisfactory attachment of the substitute re- factory. . with the addition of a second response. origstill continuing.

How the cat learns the trick of escaping from the cage by unlatching the door.THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION stitute response. but may simply be illustrated by a diagram. 8 is the situation of being shut up in a cage. the door-latch. Our much-discussed instance cat in the cage need not be described again. Responses are then made to various particular stimuli about the cage. comes to give the correct response without hesitation. end-result. but simply substituted. Now the response iJj was in part aroused by T. gives the response R. 60. 409 There are two main cases under the general head of subIn one case. and T is the tendency to get out. as indicated just above. or we may say 8. but not in Itself a I. X. R^ is the primary response aroused by this tendency. — . which leads to the. and one of these stimuli. the substitute response is essentially an old response. and its pre-existing weak linkage with T is so strengthened by exercise that T. resents the common case is The second to be built unit. New Response of the Trial and error. Substitute Response. not acquired during the process This rep- of substitution. which response meets with failure. and error learning of animals. — End-result Later: End-result Fig. Block T- 'R~ -^--iJ. that where the substitute response has trial up by combination of old responses into a higher C. not leading to the end-result of the tendency. for the original response to the situation.

since the two movements which are combined into a higher unit are execuflftl simultaneously. to his surprise and gratification. and. and so permits the car to be stopped without stopping the engine. may •coordination. and even by turning the wheel to the right. because the necessity for stopping the car fectly clear and definite stimulus. he finds the tipping overcome. PSYCHOLOGY Learning to balance on a bicycle. and his balance well maintained. feels When the be- ginner the bicycle tipping to the left. which amounts to a response to the ground on the left as a good base of support. beis cause he has no effective clutch-stimulus. ungears the car from the engine. Substitute Response. operated by the right foot. The diagram of this process would be the same as D. is comparatively easy to a perthe beginner master. originally made to the ground on the tipping left (but in part to the tipping). The is foot brake. when gets a brake-stimulus. becomes so linked with the tipping as to be the prompt reaction whenever is felt. Result unsatisfactory —strained posiis tion and further tipping to the left. The begin- ner an automorole often has considerable trouble In learning to release the " clutch ". operated by the in driving left foot. but neglects to employ his left foot promptly with his right on the clutch. he naturally responds by leaning to the right. there nothing . Now let him some- time respond to the ground on his left by turning his wheel that way. which. As the bicyclist about to fall. he extends his foot to the left. he responds foot. The brake and This clutch combination in driving an serve as an instance of simultaneous automobile. The re- sponse of turning to the left. for the preceding instance.410 2. the Response Being a Higher Motor Unit I. Now. he saves himself by a response which he has previously learned in balancing on his feet.

THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION in the situation that reminds 411 Result. ridicule for the driver. « movement on the clutch has become effectively linked with the brake-stimulus. perhaps. 61. a coordinated higher motor 2. so that any occasion that arouses the brake-response simultaneously arouses the clutch response. along with the brakeFig. After doing this a number of times. Next time. —Combining clutcii-response with brake-response. for the left foot Brake stimulus _ Brake response ^v •s.^ The beginner has to spell out . attaulus ^ Clutch response Later: 5''*'^® "^^ stimulus ^ Brake response Clutch response At first. unit. the brake-stimulus has only a weak linkage with the clutch-response. being itself a clutch-stimulus. and this thought. the weak linkage between these two is exercised. he thmks " clutch " when he gets the brake-stimulus. engine stalled. The combination of two responses . and an extra stimulus has to be found to secure the clutch-response. "X. is effected by linking both to the same stimulus thus the two become united into unit. the uniting of a sequence of move- ments into a higher iSee p. 324. The word-habit in typewriting furnishes an example of successive coordination. the driver no longer needs the thought of the clutch as a stimulus. response. arouses the with the clutch-response simultaneously brake-response. till finally the brakestimulus is sufScient to give the clutch-response. But whenever the clutch-response is made while the brake-stimulus is acting. him of the clutch.

to arouse the whole series of writing movements. At first.412 the word he PSYCHOLOGY is writing. first. —Learning . it happens . Many the same way. and its weak linkages with the writing movements are used and strengthened. of the till he anticipates the series of still letters forming a short word while at the beginning of the The letter movements are thus linked to the thought word as a whole. and make a separate response to but when he has well mastiered the letter-habits. is trying for more speed. so that finally it is sufBcient. In effect. besides tlie stimulus of the word." it is necessary also to have the " a " in order to arouse the response of writing a. and the word becomes an effective olXer instances of learning can be worked out in stimulus for arousing the series of letter movements. each letter and. by itself. he commences reacting to the second letter while Stimulus still writing the Response "a n d'S-~ ^V ' . This goes further. and the stimulus " d " in order to arouse the writing of d. still that he thinks ahead while writing the first letter of a word. the stimulus stimulus " n " in order to arouse the writing of n. " and. Yet the stimulus " and " is present all this time. and there seems to be no difficulty in inter- . 62. unsatisfied.^ "a" ^^==- a struck "n" "d"- N^- ^ Later: d and a struck n d Fig. and prepares for the second letter. " a word-habit in typewriting. word.

The mental set. may be a sub-law under the law of exercise. The clearest ". in explaining substitute response. Even " negative adaptation '* can possibly be interpreted as an instance of substitute response. converge or combine to arouse one particular response. set for The mental 1 adding has previously exercised link- See p. or three laws. and the other from the mental set for pairs of opposite words. by the " mental of influence. these reactions being rather a nuisance when they are unnecessary. always brings in the law of ex- ercise as an ally.THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION 41S preting any of them by the law of combination.^ afforded by " controlled association In an opposites " long " is test. These two. set for opposites tends to arouse any pair of opposites the word " long " tends to arouse any previously observed group of *ords of which " long " is a part. . " long short " — : word " short " may be spoken) one line from the stimulus word " long ". The Law of Combination in Recall is Unitary response to multiple stimuli call important in case of this reis as well as in learning. give an adequate analysis of the whole process of learning. taken together. the law of combination seems It explains It the bill very well. brings in the law of effect. 381. what the law of exerit cise left unexplained. an internal stimulus. and the stimulus word coming from outside. and. The mental . as we saw before. to fill On the whole. some slight and easy re- sponse may be substituted for the avoiding reaction or the attentive reaction that an unimportant stimulus at first arouses. converging (of which only the There are two lines upon the response. which however. and partly set " for opposites. the response to the stimulus word aroused partly by this stimulus word.

and thus make better conduction paths between one part of the cortex and another. for adding is When set. it causes them to grow and it prob- ably also improves their internal condition so that they act tex. The law of exercise has thus a very definite meaning when . The growth. occurring early life. the when the multiplying same pair of the response. seen or heard. in results in occipital lobe. arouses together with this internal stimulus of the mental the response that gives the sum. and also between the cortex and the lower sensory and motor centers. drites few an under-development of the cortex in the The nerve cells remain small and their dentheir and meager. but set is active. Loss of some of the cortex through injury often brings loss of learned reactions. then. The Laws of Learning in Terms of the Neurone is We have good evidence that the brain concerned in learning and retention. and the kind of reactions lost differs with the part of the cortex affected. Injury to the retina or optic nerve.414 PSYCHOLOGY ages with the responses composing the addition table. the set active. must improve the synapses between lace one neurone and another. Injury in the occipital lobe brings loss of visual knowledge. of dendrites more readily and more strongly. has the same general effect on neurones that it has on muscles . while the mental set for multiplication has linkages with the re- sponses composing the multiplication table. because they have not received normal amount of exercise through stimulation from the eye. Exercise. a pair of numbers. All thinking towards numbers gives the product as any goal is a similar instance of the law of combination. in the corand of the end-brushes of axons that interwith the dendrites. in the and injury neighborhood of the auditory sense-center brings loss of auditory knowledge.

also. state. and it is there through dislets it relapse Exercise makes a synapse closer. when traversed by nerve currents in the making of a reaction. Repeated exercise may probably bring a synapse from a very loose condition to a state of close interweaving and excellent power of transmitting the nerve current. and the better linkage stimulus and some response. law of exercise in terms of synapse. linkages are provides between some is The cortex the place where made in the process of learning. disuse into a loose and poorly conducting of combination. the better synapse it r G> xi> Repeated exercise Interval of disuse © Fig. or atrophy. that nerve currents can get across them more easily the next time. it exercises the end-brush and dendrites at the synapse (for the " passage of a nerve current " really means activity on the part of the neurones through which it passes).THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION translated into neural terms. The more a synapse is used. A nerve current is supposed to pass along tills pair of neurones in the direction of the arrow. also that forgetting. 63. and consequent improvement of the synapse as a linkage between one neurone and the other. It 415 means that the synapses between stimulus and response are so improved. —The kX^ it and the after-effect of this exercise is growth of the exercised parts. becomes. The law is readily translated into . takes place use. Every time it passes.

Object seen ^ Name ^^^'^ Name Z=^L_<©_^»:<©—^2^ 'P°^^'* Auditory center Speech center Fig. They may be compared to telephone wires laid cables through the streets Visual center down in the and extending into the houses. 64. it — takes up current also from the axon that reaches it from the visual center. Diagram for the learning of the name of an object. the visual and the speech centers.416 neural terms. for brain activities are carried on by companies and regiments of neurones. Well. will be curious to know now nuch is of this neural interpretation of our psychological laws observed and how much speculation. to be sure. we cannot as yet . The vocal movement of saying the name is made in response to the auditory stimulus of hearing the name. is left in an improved condiEach neurone in the diagram represents hundreds in the brain. The diagrams illustrating different cases of combination can easily be perfected into neural diagrams. tion. PSYCHOLOGY The " pre-existing loose linkages " which it assumed to exist undoubtedly do exist in the form of " association fibers " extending in vast numbers from any one part of the cortex to many other parts. transformed into a neural diagram. though. any diagram is iltra-simple as compared with the great number of neurones that take part in even a simple reaction. This particular synapse between. but probably terminate rather loosely in the cortex until exercise has developed them. but still requiring a little fine work to attach them properly under the law to the telephone instruments. These fibers are provided by native constitution. The reader fact. but when the neurone in the " speech center " is thus made active. even though the synapse between this axon and the speech neurone is far from close. being thus exercised.

65. The cal study of reflex action. as required by the law of combination. and we have perfectly good ana- tomical evidence of the convergence and divergence of neural paths of connection. We We have good evidence. In short. But the mental set for adding being inactive at the moment. all the elements required for a neural law of combination are known It is facts. See p. the multiplying response is facilitated.^ is a fact. 56. and that itself means that a stimulus which could not response can cooperate with of arouse a another stimulus that has a direct connection with that response. and the only matter of doubt is whether we have built these elements not pure specu- together aright in our interpretation. as already outlined. lation. and their branches through have perfectly good evidence of the law of " unitary response to multiple stimuli " from the physiologiControls: "Add" (inactive) "Multiply" (active) Stimulus f Response 40" visual stimulus of two numbers in a little column. —Control. for growth of the neurones exercise. 1 by any means.THE LAWS OF ASSOCIATION observe the brain mechanism in actual operation 417 —not in any detail. . and that for multiplying active (because the subject means to multiply). and reinforce its effect. The association fibers extending from one part to Facilitation another of the cortex are an anatomical fact. in multiplying. . Fig. has preformed linkages both with the adding response and with that of multiplying.

and examine whether they are covered and sufficiently accounted for by 1. pp.. 3. and his conclusions are set forth In several passages in his Principles of Psychology. in the form of a list of laws and sub-laws. 2. that you have considered in question 2. REFERENCES William James devoted much thought to the problem of the mechanism of learning. for example. Draw diagrams. Chapter VI. A History of the Association Psythology. Show that response by analogy Is important In the development of language.418 PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES Outline the chapter. Chapters given by William VII and VIII. like those given in this chapter. see Howard C. the general laws given in the present chapter. 1905. Vol. habit. for the simpler cases. and slang. Review the Instances of learning cited In Chapters XIII-XV. 654-594. and the using of an old word in a new sense (as in the case of "rail-road"). I. See also Thorndlke's Educational Psychology. Warren. 1890. 104-112. and Vol. 578-592. II. 1921. 4. at least. Briefer Course. . pp. Another serious consideration of the matter is McDougall in his Physiological Psychology. Consider metaphor. etc. On the whole subject of association. association. 1914.

this vast stock of native but wish to keep him under observation for a while longer. and find/him. THE DISCOVEKY AND IN THE EE-DISCOVEBY OF FACTS PREVIOUSLY OBSERVED You will remember the case of John Doe. and acquired exigencies of vidual. in We ring a bell. as to how far it was native and how far acquired. and new combinations of responses. for once. We have since that time been occupied in hearing evidence on the case. We 41? . and meets the Such. have furnished him with such an assortment of habits and skilled acts of all sorts that we can scarcely identify any longer the native reactions out of which his whole behavior still is built. short. is the task we have still We before us. behaves life. He is. in brief. and utilizfine ing but a small fraction of his native reactions. in order to see what use he makes of reactions. acquired in the process of learning. and after mature consideration have reached a decision which we may formulate as follows: that this man's behavior instinctive or native. Accordingly. asleep. of his morning we enter our prisoner's making no use acquired reactions. we are not ready to turn the prisoner loose. wish to know how an indifrom day to day. and he stirs uneasily. That decision being reached. who was brought before us for judgment on his behavior. so equipped. one sleeping quarters. as far as we can see. but that is primarily new attachments of stimulus and response.CHAPTEK XVII PERCEPTION MENTAL LIFE CONSISTS LAEGELY IN OF FACTS NEW TO THE INDIVIDUAL.

" Well. He is constantly coming to know . " Oh unfavorable light at Well. behavior. and interpreted them in the In knowing the facts. spies us and sits bolt upright in bed. " By the use of his eyes perceives ". and he opens his eyes . Having now obtained sufficient data for quite a This It lengthy discussion. more fully aroused. evidently sees our intrusion in an but soon relaxes a little and " supSeeing our stenogposes he must be late for breakfast ". he knew the bell. . . he to the correct and precise.420 PSYCHOLOGY then ring again. rapher taking down his remarks. he takes a hand desires. when I thought I saw a lot of cannibals beating the tomtom ". We he makes use of the to facts. mistook the bell for a tom-tom. then. and manipulates them. what . we agree. ceived. we find a large share of his mental activity to consist find that in the perception of facts. then breaks into a loud laugh. then as cheerful friends who wished him no ill finally he saw us in our true character as investigators of his erate " The man — — . he is puzzled for a moment. he also got adjusted to them and governed his actions by But notice a curious thing how his perception of them. go as far as you like. adjusting himself to them and also shaping them His actions are governed by the facts persuit himself. and ears he discovered facts. Ourselves he first saw as mere wanton intruders. and cries out." He throws into action a part of his rather colorful vocabulary. He first. we retire to our staff room and delib- upon these manifestations. at the same time that they are governed by his own Ascertaining how the facts stand. sleepily upon the bell. the facts progressed by stages from the vague and erroneous Before he was fully awake. light of his previous experience. is some more psychology. must have been your bell I heard in my dream just now." Following our man through the day's work and recreation.

remain closely interlinked throughout. We may have before the eyes simply a sign of some We but perceive the fact which is the meaning of the sign. and these two tendencies. we speak of " sense perception ception. and it requires attention. Discovery and invention are applicable to everyday ! —high-sounding words. Discovery takes with the child's instinctive exploratory activity. and at the same time a His life is career of invention. 421 and constantly doing something new with them. is though wetness something to be felt rather than seen. but at least they have always to be verified afresh.PERCEPTION fresh facts. etc. All of our remaining chapters might. a voyage of discovery. The little invention may be very limited in scope. knowing the presented ". may be absolutely new. so as to escaipe from a fresh trap or pluck fruit from a newly discovered bough. amounts to finding the facts and perception then facts. its start little forcing. we do not necessarily mean that sented directly it is and completely presented . of auditory per- we But when we speak of a fact as being " pre" to the eye or ear. look out of the window and " see it is wet to-day ". which or getting them consists in effectively presented. if to the ear. . If they are presented to the eye. it may only be indi- cated. since action needs always to take account of present reality. with a be pigeonholed under these two great heads. Discovery usually requires exploration. The facts observed still they not life. speak of visual perception. but seldom does an hour pass that does not call for doing something a out of the ordinary. Some Definitions Perception is the culmination of the process of discovery. a search for facts. and invention with his manipulation. perhaps at bottom one. When the facts are presented to the senses. fact.

y^t the fact in question not recalled. recalled facts. Perception of this sort amounts and will be fully considered in another chapter. the stimulus. or that the bell of the car. " sounds cracked ". Perception that fact perceived is is not sense perception occurs when the fact not even indirectly presented to the senses at the moment. is not essentially a noise. The is is then presented by recall. then. we say that we street car. or that the jar of fruit " smells sour". Reading in the^ paper of preparations for another polar expedition. while here perception. What we hear.422 PSYCHOLOGY having previously observed how wet ground looks. to the office this morning in the rain. responding to a stimulus by know it ing some fact indicated by either directly or in direc tly. a noise. In the same way. and remembering that both poles have already been discovered. for fresh perception. " hear the street car is ". to " reasoning ". but may provide the data. Recall not only gives you facts previously perceived. you perceive that there is something more in polar exploration than the mere race for the pole. we shall focus our attention on sense . we now respond promptly to the visual appearance by knowing the indicated state of affairs. you perceive that you must have left it at the office. but we respond to the noise by perceiving the presence Responding to a stimulus presented to one sense by perceiving a fact which could only be directly presented to another sense is exemplified also by such common expressions as that the stone " looks heavy ". and that you certainly did not have the umbrella when you reached home. in strictness. Putting together two you may perceive a further fact not preRemembering that you took your umbrella viously known. is Sense perception. that it was fine when you left the ofiice. though a we must admit.

called the visual sensory area. while knowing the street car perception. The cortical regions adjacent . response of the sense is organ and sensory _. the response of the " sensory area " for the particular sense stimulated. lated. Without that is area there is no visual sensation. first cortical response which tical response sensation. nor not enough to the presence of the auditory sensory area enough to give auditory perception. . the indi- may still see. the difference is fairly obvious hearing the noise to be there is is is sensation. or in the parietal may still hear. following the sensation. but not know the objects seen.to the sensory areas are necessary for perception vidual if they are destroyed. is is But the presence of the visual sensory area give the visual perception of facts. Perception a second response. and without this area there is no auditory sensation. the conscious sensation the response of a small por- tion of the temporal lobe called the auditory sensory area. or is first response that conscious. second cor- which is perception. is When the ear stimu- lated. - nerve.PERCEPTION The Difference Between If sense perception is 423 Percejption and Sensation a response to a sensory stimulus. " hearing the street car ". and the question arises whether there any In the instance of genuine difference between these two. The chain of events is : stimulus. but not recognize the words or tunes that If the cortical area destroyed is he hears. . is Conscious sensation cortex that the response of the part of the first receives the nerve current from the sense organ stimulated. and being properly a direct response to the sensation and only an indirect response to the physical stimulus. Sensation at least the is the first response aroused by a stimulus. the nerve current first When the eye is stimu- reaches a small portion of the occipital lobe. is so is sensation.

424 PSYCHOLOGY may still lobe. or. a faint sound was first taken for a bird singing. Such trial if be observed very frequently and error perception can one is on the watch for psy- . it 'is is easily perceived. of events. is presented. then for a distant locomotive whistle. this the tinny poise of a piece of metal carried in the hand and brushing against the overcoat as the person walked series . or a folded newspaper from a tin pail. occupies only a fifth or even a tenth of a second in simple Gases. perception may though sensation occurs promptly. Sense perception. The whole chain from the time the stimulus is' reaches the sense organ to the time the fact perceived. he area for the cutaneous and " feel " objects. it and the two conscious responses are so blended that difficult or impossible for introspection to separate fact them. as and then. occupied not over five seconds. more often. In one instance. In another case. We may be baffled and confused for an instant. But when an unusual lag. till you may is feel it as one thing and another some response satisfies aroused that fits known situation and so you. somebody walking on the floor above. correctly. is a response of areas adjacent to is the sensory areas. and finally for what it was. then. Since the sensation usuoverlaps the perception in ally lasts for longer than this. we make a rapid series of trial and error perceptions. but with- out being able to distinguish an apple from a lump of coal. adjacent to the sensory kinesthetic senses. and this response aroused by nerve cur- rents coming along " association fibers " from the sensory areas which are first aroused from the sense organs. On the touching an ob- ject in the dark. a noise was first heard as distant thunder. and have sensation without any definite perception. and the interval between the beginning of the sensation is to the beginning of the perception not over a twentieth when the fact time.

as carpeted or varnished. when you " hear the street car ". Another sort of shifting perception is seen in looking steadily at the " ambiguous figures ". If that were so. well. you should. etc. Perception and Image The experiment with ambiguous addition of recalled figures also gives an answer to the question whether perception consists in the memory images to the sensations aroused by the present stimulus. and others and the " dot figures " belong here as well. should change as The usual report is that no such addition can be detected. with shadows on them such as appear on a real flight of stairs. the colors. shadows. but simply the tiare lines — a flight of stairs. to judge from the reports of people who have been asked. when the appearance changes to that of the under side of a flight of stairs. since the sensation remains virtu- unchanged while perception changes. and. the cube. and it justifies 425 the distinction between sensation and perception. see them as wooden stairs or stone stairs. staircase. but you simply know the car is there. which were considered in the chapter on attention.^ In these cases the stimulus arouses two or more different perceptions. 252. with a railing. You will quite pos1 See p. . get any visual or kinesthetic image of the car. alterally nately.PERCEPTION chological curiosities.. you do not ordinarily. of in of the picture. and that the subject sees no fiUing- only that they seem at one moment to be the bare outline of the upper side. when you see the upper side of the flight of stairs. So again. or with some other addition of a similar nature. and at another moment an equally bare outline of the lower side. while the sensation remains almost or quite un- changed.

just as fact. color images Perception does not essentially consist in the recall of It . have a visual image of the friend. however. There is no reason why such images should not be aroused. if you dwell on the fact of the some persons. with conforming to the perception. being aroused by that perception and not constituting it. when they do question occur. lighted only from the clouded sky. and the color light spots me and — —lamp vanished. shining towards I responded to the pair of stimuli around me ^by perceiving the spots as lighted by the lamp. Often they do not occur. add color and filling to the picture. I next saw the spots as snow. this instance is.4. way yellow was an image blending with the Colors tacked on to a seen object in this are sometimes called " memory colors ". The When does not considered carefully. blending with the present rather vague sensation. in talking to a friend over the telephone. it by any means indicate that the image produced the perception. and often. and the next instant saw that the light spots on the ground were small patches of snow. I was surprised that the lamp should carry so far. in Here is an instance of this which I once observed self. was a case of trial and error perception.26 PSYCHOLOGY some such image. they follow the perception of the fact. and seeing a lamp shining out of a window towards me. is whether they are essential to perception of the and whether they occur before or after the fact is perceived. Sometimes images are certainly aroused during the perception of a fact. in spite of the infrequency of my visual images. but the sibly get car's being there. and. seemed to see the yellowish light touching the high spots in the grass around. I must have read the yellow color into them to fit the lamplight. and at this the yellow tinge of the spots vanished. actual sensation. and the color followed suit. myApI proaching a house through a wide field one winter night.

To be sure.'' May it. or at least a readiness for a certain motor response. and made him ready to do something appropriate. When we say that reacting to a thing in a motor way is quite different from merely seeing the thing. not seeing an orange conpeel it. may it not be that perceiving an object amounts to getting ready to do something with it. and perceiving our enemy amount to the same thing as getting on our guard against him? According to this view. as the child more and more inhibits his motor response to many But may it not be that the motor response seen objects.ay be a hesitation between two motor responses . We it forget also silently reading a whisper word which or at least move his — how common is it is for a person. getting ready to take and eat it? May not perceiving our friend amount to the same thing as getting ready to behave in a friendly manner. in perceiving the word — to lips. completely executed or perhaps merely incipient. as perception may change while sensation remains the same. is simply reduced to a minimum. so there m. still better.'' sist in even no actual movement of May it. it is probably not the real essence of the matter. we forget how likely the child is to do something with any object as soon as he sees what it is. not seeing a word always if be a getting ready to say the vocal organs occurs.'' Or. This guess is not Possibly.PERCEPTION images. we have still to consider. persons who read a great deal usually get over this habit. perception is a motor response. Just In spite of the attractiveness of this theory of perception. perception would be a response that adjusted the perceiver to the fact perceived. Perception and Motor Reaction we may surmise. quite so wild as our customary sharp distinction between knowing and doing might lead us to think. but Is 427 a different sort of response —what sort.

and just as a block may occur between sensation and per- ception. It disabilities occur in respect to other move^ injury somewhere near may happen. and. the subject both perceives the object. through the motor area. only. This type of disturbance is called " motor apraxia ". Analogous ments. it proves that there is a preparation that follows perception and still pre- cedes actual movement. and he knows in an it. perception of a it. in understands a spoken word motor aphasia. and gets all ready to act occur. like motor aphasia. The first response is like receiving signals . the movement does not The truth seems to be that a ment dealing with a perceived tion for the act. perception of the object. series of four responses oc- curs in the brain. sensation. First. The brain injury has af- motor speech-coordinating machinery. execution of the act by the motor area arousing the lower motor centers and through them the muscles. that one who clearly perceives a seen object it. without any change In the perceived. coordinating prepara- and fourth. then. fact In other words. upon it. abstract way what to do with but how to go about it he cannot remember. third. in the process of making a skilled move- object. there need be no paralysis of the speech organs. though not precisely in that area. may not spell complete readiness to act upon is The best example of this afforded again by cases of localized brain injuries. and deprived the individual of the power to get ready for speaking a word. Paralysis of the motor area is dif- ferent. It happens.428 PSYCHOLOGY way it is to an dbject. is still quite incapable of handling He knows the object. sec- ond. so also may one occur between perception of a fact and the motor response. even though he perceives it. that the subject hears and fully perceives it and yet can- — — not pronounce fected the it himself. And at that.

^ check the actual movement. Blocking of response at different stages can be illustrated very well in the case of anger. where we itch to do someHere the preparation occurs. also. It But a block may occur at any one of may ".no block or inhibition. it is hard to draw a line between knowing the fact and beginning the act. the block occurs between sensation and perception. The irritating stimulus gives a prompt fighting reaction. the chain of responses has evidently gone as far as readiness for action. 76. On is the other hand. the chain of responses runs off with such speed as to seem a single response. when little my watch tells me the noon hour almost over. when we know a fact but find nothing to do about it or hesitate between two ways of acting. Where there is. the second deciphers the messages and state of affairs . but the execution is checked. When the check prevents me from actually striking the offending person. and the fourth sends out orders to the agents that perform the The action distinction between perception is and preparation for sometimes rather difficult to draw. ence here is Probably the inhibitory influ- bad consequences. Sometimes the block occurs between perception and preparation. and been blocked between that stage my and the stage of execution. several places. The block may occur one stage further back. The and twelve o'clock whistle means time to drop your tools. a sudden loud noise will sometimes throw a person into a momentary state of confusion during which he is unable to recognize the noise. as in the in cases " delayed reaction and thing yet check ourselves. Sometimes. when I say to myself that anticipation of 1 See p. the third plans action . . 429 or code messages. unless checked at some stage. but leaves me clenching my fist and gnashing teeth. some time may be required before I get into motion.PERCEPTION knows the action.

and is 1 one factor in determining that adjustment. In reading aloud. nor could we to perceive one fact while preparing the motor response another fact. and letting our ad- justment for action depend on the total situation instead of on the separate facts successively observed . Other elements on the in the situation get a chance to exert their influence reaction. I here get a substitute perception. ception of the object precedes the motor adjustment. is checked and a substitute response found. in trial and error.^ The response proving unsatisfactory. that perception of an object not absolutely the same thing as motor response to the object. I substitute a bored or contemptuous All this time I still attitude for the pugnacious attitude. we could not look over the situa- one fact after another. If perception of a fact were absolutely the same as preparing a tion. while one word being pronounced. perceiying motor act. here.430 PSYCHOLOGY up " since it I mustn't let myself get " all riled will spoil my morning's work fist . am conscious of the offense done me. . But suppose somebehavior a differ- thing leads from his me to try to look at the other person's own point of view then I perceive it in — ent light. nor even as transition motor readiness to respond. the next word still is being prepared for pronouncing. and many is other sorts of skilled action. reading aloud. is The ess process of blocking and substituting that we have seen. accordingly. although the from perception to motor readiness may be so In reality. and it may no longer appear a personal offense the same proc- to myself. typewriting. instead of substituting the clenched for actual fighting. or promising to be unsatisfactory. as is actually done in telegraphy. We is conclude. 4. the eyes on the page keep well ahead of the voice .08. See p. per- quick that the whole reaction seems a unit. and words further ahead are in process of being perceived.

for we should either note See pp. etc. but takes them as they are. What is the stimulus tion. or make a unitary response to the multiple stimuli coming from the face. at the same time a selection from the whole mass of sensory stimuli acting at any among moment on the individual. 431 Is Perception? We can say that perception is knowing the fact. or disregard the numerous other stimuli that are simultaneously acting upon us. as distinguished from readiness to act. it same time.^ Perception is at once a combiving response and an iso- lating response. in which case isolation would about reach its maximum. If we proceed to examine the face in detail. we isolate face.? This collection is in percep- It takes a collection of stimuli to arouse a perception. 263. 256. We can say that perception is an adjustment to facts is as. and what is the nature of the response.PERCEPTION What Sort of Response. We can say that perception comes satisfy motor preparation. We perceive a face —that means that we take the face as At the a unit. they are. We might isolate still further and perceive a freckle on the nose. . this. enough to in between sensation and But none of these statements is quite us. in perceiving the from its background. Even if we went so far as to observe' a single speck of dust on the skin. Perception does not alter the facts. movement alters the facts or produces new facts. Perception is thus a fine example both of the " law of selection " and of the " law of combination ". combi- nation would 1 still stay in the game. loca- depth of pigmentation. we may isolate the nose and perceive that as a whole. Then. while mo- tor adjustment a preparation for changing the facts. takits ing that as a whole. diameter. if we wish to know something of the machinery of perception. or even observing separately tion.

we seem to see the fact. but where does combination reflex come in? would not come into the mere of pulling the hand away. and very likely audi- tory and olfactory sensations as not enter into the view. combination is very much in evidence. eral effect of the view from a mountain top. It means locating the sensation. and so contrasting in it with other sensations or relating it to them some way. as may be the stimulus to recall of previously observed facts. To perceive one stimulus as related another is to respond to both together. are present but do isola- In the case of the pin prick. evident. or noticing its quality or duration or something of that sort. or hear etc. we perceive it as present to the .'' There is iso- lation. is the prick of a pin. since internal bodily sensations. to But in describing perception as a unitary response to an isolated assemblage of stimuli. being a direct response to a certain combination of sensations. or part it of the also stimulus. is Perception always a unitary response to an isolated assemblage of Consider these two opposite extremes: taking in the gen- stimuli. sensation. tion It is well. so that . What more can we say? In neural terms. we can only repeat what was said before. we have not too. or in some similar way take the single stimulus in relation with other present stimuli. and being in its turn the stimulus. we can say that sense perception is closely bound up with it. and perceiving In the first case. often aroused by a few (or many) stimuli acting together.432 PSYCHOLOGY the location of the speck some part of the face —which would relating —or we should contrast with involve it it to the color of the skin. that arouses a motor adjustment. is differentiated it from a motor response. In more psychological terms. that perception is the next response after sensation. for that. but perceiving the pin means something more than reflex action. but where the isolation.

the perception of familiar facts the most practised and the easiest of all responses. the and the more intensely a given fact has been permore readily is it perceived again. The laws and sub-laws of learning apply The more frequently. in order that it may be perceived. is is Motor readiness is perception for definitely objective. A is great deal of this inattentive perception of familiar facts always going on. you may respond to the sight of the flower in a vase on your table by knowing it to be there. you may respond to by knowing what that and you may respond to the contact of your foot with the leg of the chair by dimly knowing what that object is. fact is That is. adjustment to something already Practised Perception A fact perceived for the first time must needs be attended to. a highly conscious re- But the perception of a fact. becomes easy with practice ulus the linkage of stimfinally and response becomes stronger and stronger. like . cently. the stimulus arouses the perceptive response almost automatically. perfectly to the more re- ceived. anticipatory. If you are hunting for a lost knife. mental set of the moment^ the Sometimes it is so readily it perceived that we think we see when it isn't there.PERCEPTION senses. anything remotely resembling . an adjustment an something yet to be. attention. or even without receiving any is While your attention absorbed in reading or thinking. any other form till of response. the first and original perception of a sponse. The more a is given fact in line with the is more readily it perceived. practised perception. rather 433 than as thought of or as anticipated. Aside from sensation and from some is of the reflexes. Motor readiness while perception present. the noise of the passing street car is. close The familiar fact is perceived without receiving attention.

need only act on a single sense to be known. and still arouse the percepA child is making the acquaintance tion of the same fact. . but tially the it remains nearly enough the same to arouse essenin the child. time you perceive and expose your per- ceptive apparatus to the whole collection of stimuli that The next time you need not you make the same perceptive response to a part of the original collection of stimuli. and hears the noise. visually. The and stimulus. The response originally aroused by the whole collection of stimuli The stimuis later aroused by a fraction of this collection. but away across the room a very small object. lus may be reduced considerably. The principle of substitute stimulus applies remarkably well to practised perception. may be modifsd. but. The face ap- proaches and gradually becomes a larger visual object.434 PSYCHOLOGY a knife will catch your eye and for an instant be perceived as the missing object. you observe it attentively. still arouse the same perception as before. and. instead of being reduced. for original perception of sight is a unitary response to the combination Thereafter he does not require both and sound. a thousand objects which furnish stimuli to more than one of the senses are perceived stimuli at once. and hears the dog bark. formance. The dog barks. field A face ap- pears in the baby's so that it is of view. The first an object. He not only sees the dog. as units. and when he sees the dog he sees an object that can bark. and the child watches the perof the dog. he perceives the dog barking. but he sees the dog bark. later. In the same way. observe it so attentively. and the light and shadow upon it change from moment to mo- ment. This the object sends your way. same perception He comes to know the face at various distances and angles and under various lights. when he hears this noise.

the child holds a block in his hands. A large share of practised perceptions ". it is always perceived as the same thing. and yet. It is easy to follow the law of combination and respond to a whole collection of stimuli. 406. it would be a slow job getting acquainted thing is with the world. we see a in the field of view. He turns it slightly. as a col- lection of stimuli. but to break up the collection and isolate out of it a smaller collection to respond to not do unless forced to it. ferent perception. They do not work well because they are rough and ready. By dint of many such ex- book cover or a door as a rectangle. Corrected Perception Response by analogy. and looks square on. and we know a circle for a circle even though at most angles it is really an ellipse periences.^ since belong under the head of " response by ar?alogy consist in they making the same response to the present stimulus that has previously been made to a similar but not identical If every modified stimulus gave a new and difstimulus. no rtiatter at what angle we may view it. however. change it is not enough to abolish the perception he sees as the same object as before. and now first it is no longer vis- ually a rectangle. See p. in making us perceive a new object as essentially the same as something already familiar. taking the object in the lump. 1 When they occur. with scant not work attention to details which may prove to be important.PERCEPTION at it 435 Again. so that it is really a rectangle in his field of view. First impressions of a new object or acquaintance often need revision. but an oblique parallelogram. within wide limits. . —that it is is something we will Isolation and be- discrimination are uphill work. A never twice the same. because they do well. But the . often leads us astray.

we may say. learns to discriminate against caterpillars. hunit dreds of trials being required before the discriminating response was established. the process by which we isolate. learned to enter a door only It bore a yellow sign. substitutes response to this 1 See p. finally got linked up with the entering response. seeking. It is in the same way results that the human being is driven to discriminate and attend to details. door without the sign.436 PSYCHOLOGY cause the rough and ready response has proved unsatisfactory. analyze. the white rat. and responded to such. a stimulus to guide him incidentally. as substitute stimulus is in practised perception. isolates some detail and. . Whenever he entered a he got a shock. In a practical sense. though inconspicuous and feeble to a rat. like the rat. and before venturing again he looked all around. caterpillars included. finding response to this detail to de- bring satisfactory results. and this stimulus.^ was uphill work for him. At the as door was a door to the rat. When then in our first perception of an object gets us into to attend difficulties. scans the situation. and scurried back. which at first small objects. he looked . In the same pecks at all way the newly hatched chick. we are forced This nate. The response of first finding and then following the sign had been substituted for the original response of simply entering. Substitute response is the big factor in corrected percep- tion. 304. the chick. at the yellow disk. but he learned outset. a finally.learns to distinguish between stimuli that at first aroused the same response.. is more closely and find something the object that can serve as the stimulus to a better response. without regard to the sign. discrimi- Our if it old friend. He is brought to a halt by the poor of his first rough and ready perception.

more precisely. If . A car becomes to him a thing with a hundred well-known parts. we include hlovement. instead of just one big totality." object ". to be sure. look. He could not describe the difit well enough for his puryou ask an older person to describe this difference. a big total thing.. Tire trouble teaches him about wheels. Under " things " we here include persons and animals and everything that would ordinarily be Called an. ' The average non-mechanical mobile. but thus gets into trouble. Under facts perceived. but he sees poses. but most of the works remain a mystery Then something goes wrong. closer examination. sim- sit in and go. Sensory Data Serving as Signs of Various Sorts or Fact we may list things and events. ignition trouble may lead him to notice certain wires and binding-posts that were too inconspicuous at to attract his attention. He soon learns certain parts that he must deal with. on acquiring an auto- as a gift of the gods. The or at child at first treats gloves as alike. new stimulus lated that gives satisfactory response thfe^ iso- —such is. typically. and he gets out to to him. change and happenings of all sorts. process of analytic perception. and is driven to look them more sharply till he perceives the special characteristics of rights and lefts. Blocked response. "What do you suppose this thing is here? I never ply to noticed it before ". he is thus driven to lay them side by side and study out the difference still ference.PERCEPTION tail 437 for his first undiscriminating response to the wholfe object. and relations. takes it person. and rally him on his inability to do so. whether rights lefts. Among and their qualities . engine trouble leads him to know first the engine. Under "events".

but how he knows it he cannot tell. The " groups " that we " have several times spoken of as being observed would here be included under " things " classification is . we distinguish the tones of two musical instruments by aid of their overtones. Again. but . since there are no sense organs in the stick.'' that It is absurd. must be that we perceive the roughness by means of sensations arising in the hand and arm. consider our ability to perceive time intervals. but the strict logic of the whole not a matter of importance. but elaborate experiments were required to prove this. Once more. and under " relations " anything that can be discovered by comparing or contrasting two things or events. and let it go at that. and thus perceive their rough- but felt seems to us as if we how do we sense these facts It them with the end of the stick. For example. He knows the fact. tell and it is far from easy for the perceiver to on what signs the perception depends. as the only is object in view to call attention to the great variety of facts that are perceived. feeling of them with a stick held in the hand.438 PSYCHOLOGY qualities " we may include everything that can be discovered in a thing or event taken by itself. as we have seen. the precise stimuli to which the perceptions respond. by no means fully presented to the senses. we can examine objects by ness or smoothness . by what signs or indications these various facts are perceived. A large part of the very exof perception has been tensive experimental investigation concerned with this problem of ferreting out the signs on which the various perceptions are based. is Often. and could simply say that the instru- ments sounded diiferently. . Now the fact often the question arises. since ordinarily we do not distin- guish the overtones. but to identify these is sensations a much harder task than to discover the objec- tive fact of roughness.

though. thirst in the stomach. The Perception of Space Stimuli for the perception of location are provided all by the senses. the sign of duration terval. 439 and to distinguish an interval of a second from one of a How in the world can any one perceive time? Time is no force that could conceivably act It must be some change as a stimulus to a sense organ. for we can hold our breath and still dis- tinguish one short interval from another. and meanwhile using his feet on the pedals. When a singer is accompanying himself on the piano. or process that is the stimulus and that serves as the indiMost likely. from a minute to several hours. as in the throat. and the distance from which they come. We respond to sounds by knowing the direction from which they come. We perceive a taste as in the mouth. but none of the more precise suggesIt tions that have been offered square with all the facts. for we can beat time in a rhythm that cuts across the rate of the heart beat. we are pretty sure that change of one sort or another is With in- longer intervals. ternal bodily change. hunger pangs as To a familiar odor we stance to be may respond by knowing the close at hand. is probably the amount happening in the or else such progressive bodily changes as hunger and fatigue. .PERCEPTION second and a quarter. ception responds. It cannot be the heart beat. in a general way. cannot be the movements of breathing that give us our perception of time. it is some muscular or incation of duration. keeping good time in spite of the fact that the notes are uneven in length. what has he got left to beat time with ? No one has located the stimulus to which accurate time perthe datum. To stimulation odorous subof the semiin circular canals we respond by knowing the direction which we are being turned.

quite A cutaneous stimulus is located with fair exactness. the cutaneous and kinesthetic senses are stimulated together. hands or If you were asked how you felt different distinguished one point from another on the back of the hand. except that edge that it it was felt in a different place. The remaining senses. Science has done no better. and if you were further asked whether a pencil point applied to the two points of the skin did not feel the same. you could only answer that they . you would have to acknowldid feel the same. as also in walking and many other movements. though much less exactly on such regions as the back than on the lips. experiment has proved that we do little more than distinguish between right and left. In handling an object. and between them furnish data for the per- ception of many spatial facts. In other words. afford spatial facts. but has simply given the name of " local sign " to the unanalyzed sensory datum that gives a knowledge of the point stimulated. As to the direction of sound. much fuller data for the perception of accurately as Movements of the limbs are perceived to direction and extent.440 PSYCHOLOGY it but must be confessed that we are liable to gross errors here. Apparently the only datum we have to go by is the different stimulation given the two ears according as the sound comes from the right or left. the cutaneous. and our perception of distance is based on this knowledge. To perceive the distance of the sounding body we have to be familiar with the sound at various distances. such as the shape of an object examined by the hand. you would not be able to identify the exact data on which your perception of cu- taneous position is based. the kinesthetic and the visual. The spherical shape is certainly better perceived by this combination of tactile and kinesthetic . we are all at sea in attempting to distinguish front from back or up from down.

when you stop to think. the sense of vision comes to arouse almost all sorts of spatial per- ceptions. it seems impossible that the retina should afford any data for perceiving distance in the frontback dimension. The retina must of itself afford very complete stimuli as far as these are for the perception of location and size. In part by this route of the substitute stimulus. the retina could then be duplicated in the picture small in proportion to his distance man away . when we see a round ball. The retina is a screen. first. is. and the solidity and relief of objects. does it come about. that we perceive by aid of the eye the it distance of objects from us. and the stimulus that it gets from the world outside is like a picture cast upon a screen.PERCEPTION sensations than 44. since field we in can teU where in the of view a seen object us. many similar spatial facts. Of itself. ing this perception. then. How. the retina has " local sign ". what stimuli indicative of distance and relief could affect a single motionless eye. up-down and right-left. as certainly does. making a the two cases. the visual stimulus is a substitute for the tactile and cutaneous stimuli that originally had most to do with arous- by vision. by a painter on canand the signs of distance available would be the same in The painter uses foreshortening..'' This problem in visual perception has received much attention and been carried to a satisfactory solution. confined to the two dimensions. but no front-back dimension. But. i.1 and the same is probably true of That is. what direction location is it is from This visual perception of the cutaneous or kines- so it much more exact than thetic that cannot possibly be derived from them. The picture on vas. Consider. The picture has the right-left and up-down dimensions. and one of the most accurate forms of percep- the same is true of the visual perception of difference in is length.e. which tion.

both eyes are open. while the nearer objects slide in the opposite direction. we have a sign of distance that it is the painter does not use. and the left eye to the left. but as far away. from is to side: an index of the distance of objects thus obtained. relief of This parity between the two retinal images perception of the distance and It will be recalled 1 responded to by the object. it is believed not to be used all very much. the right eye seeing a further around the object to the right. it is the most delicate of it the signs The reason why is may not be much used by two-eyed people handier to use is that another index almost as delicate and afforded by binocular vision. with the head. not as diminished in size. his distant ones blue. for the distant objects in the field of view now seem to move made with the eye. we perceive the object. When slides. . 253-264. additional to all the painter has at his disposal. in the latter —" it. he calls this. and yet of distance. hills The painter colors his near all detail green. His shadows fall in a way to indicate the These signs of distance also affect the single resting eye and are responded to spatial perceptions. due to the different angles at which they view the object. and washes out aerial perspective ". and diminishes to is practidis- it is a few hundred feet away. being partially covered by relief of the landscape. by appropriate side Now let the single eye move.442 PSYCHOLOGY in the and same way. His dis- tant hill peeks from behind his nearer one. is greatest when the object cally zero when is close at hand. ^ that when two utterly inconsistent See pp. though used in stereoscope The right and left eyes get somewhat different views little of the same solid object. when any familiar object casts a small picture on the retina. The disparity between the two retinal images. How much this sign is ordinarily use of in per- ceiving distance is liot known .

only a weary climb in the loom- ing mountain. — ject. by nature and training. the visual apparatus (following the law of combina- tion) responds to the double stimulation by getting a single view of an object in three dimensions. though we might debate a long time over the question whether these characteristics are really objective. or merely our own feelings aroused by the objects." It would not be quite fair to describe such a one as lack- ing in feeling. the visual apparatus balks and refuses to see more than one at a time the binocular phenomenon. humor. on sufficient stimulus. Esthetic Perception Beauty. which are clearly per- Many a one sees only a sign of rain clouds. pathos and sublimity can be perceived by the senses. and then projected into them. " A A primrose by the river's brim yellow primrose was to him.PERCEPTION views are presented to the 443 a red field two eyes. there is is no doubt that the ability to make these responses to beauty something that can be trained. and would be more exact to say that he relations. However that may be. he probably has. the it same and feelings as another is man. lacking in perception of certain qualities He probably tends. and that some people are blind and deaf and humor that other people clearly perceive. or is unable to find any humor ceived by another. To see any . in a great bank of in the situation. But when the disparate views are such as are presented to the two eyes by the same solid ob. to practical rather than esthetic perception. as to one and a green rivalry field to the other. fails to see Many a one the point of a joke. it And was nothing more.

But it must be confessed that the -can be succinctly summarized. it has developed experimental methods for deresults offer little that termining the preferences of individuals and of social groups. idle in this field Psychology has not by any means been of esthetics . on being tested. a width about sixty-two per however much you suppose that zontal line. or to sense the in a new form of humorous writing. and yet will nearly every one.444 PSYCHOLOGY humor beauty in a new style of music or painting. is agree that the middle of sample the best point. of its may like symmetry. and which he shall perceive depends on his nature and training. Social Perception By other the senses we perceive the motives and intentions of people. Also. intelligence. a rectangle with length. and that the popular choice falls upon what the art theorists have long known as the " golden section ". that a mere rectangle could produce any esthetic effect. and . their sincerity. One curious result is that even the very simplest objects You would scarcely sup'Can produce an esthetic effect. you would scarcely difference where. or that it would make any difference what exact proportions the rectangle possessed. and yet it is found that some rectangles are preferred to others. to be trained in observing the precise qualities l-elations that are depended on for the esthetic eifect. no one perceives them all. results These are merely a couple from the numerous studies in this field. as well as on his attitude or mental set at the situation is moment when the presented. could little make much on a hori- a cross line should be erected. goodness. for example. you need to be and initiated. A complex situation presents almost an unlimited range of facts that may be perceived. it cent. pose.

and characteristics of other people by aid of little He learns to read the signs of the weather in the family circle. I once saw an instructive little incident. but very doubtful if this can Some persons who probably have themselves a etc. To experience the anger of another person is a complex experience. and held it out to the driver of a passing automobile. but a single element from this experience may come to serve as the sign of the whole condition. so as to reduce such perception to a science be done. if giv- ing it The man saw boy took it the joke. if psychology could succeed trait as intel- in analyzing out the signs by which such a it is ligence or " will is perceived. We and see them angry or bored. but the little and was quite worcap. To be sure. and are undoubtedly falla- . energy. as to him. ried for fear the child man would carry off his An older . A good share of the child's undirected education consists in learning to perceive the intentions signs. but fail in other hands. but that also with many characteristics of inanimate objects which. in much the same way that we perceive anger or sincerity moisture or smoothness by the eye. we perceive by aid of the senses. none of these human is characthe case teristics is directly fully sensed. They probably think they perceive the systems human traits according to their systems. We perceive nevertheless. based upon the shape of the face. would have " seen into " the situation readily he could not have been teased in that way. would be very valuable power " . Many social situations which are " all Greek " to a little child are understood readily It by an older person. keen perception of such traits have put forward systems. and drove on laughseriously ing.PERCEPTION many full of 445 other traits. amused. and he learns in some measure to be a judge of men. in which an older boy suddenly grabbed the cap from a little boy's head.

He sets her free. A young brought before the court for delinquency. we all use the senses in perceiving facts. PSYCHOLOGY No good judge of character really goes by the shape by little behavior signs which he has not analyzed out. who are reputed to be compared with the test woman is This sort of incident has happened. The grocer may creep into the process of measuring the length of a All of them. and there is no correspondence. This has now been pretty well tablished. ceive intelligence is to see a person in action. and their estimates ratings. preferably under standard conditions. Errors of Perception needs to be assured of the accuracy of his and the chemist of the high accuracy of his chemical balance. you are likely to commit great errors. Photographs of persons of various degrees of intelligence are placed before those good judges. and the psychologist intelligence. accurate perception of facts. and therefore cannot explain to another of the face. where his performance can be measured. the surveyor needs to know about the errors that scales. and " errors of sense " therefore concern us . using instruments to assist in line or angle. Now. he goes person. on which she promptly Apparently the only way to pergets into trouble again. are concerned about the accu- racy of their instruments. and so impresses the judge that he dismisses as " absurd " the notion of her being feeble-minded. in an intelligence test.446 cious. You might just as well look at the back of the photograph as at the front. Even with the person before you. who has tested her testifies that she is of low But the young woman is good-looking and graceful in her speech and manners. that is to say. You can from his tell very little regarding a person's intelligence es- photograph.

for the minute. sense sense. but some of the students have been consulting their watches for quite a long while. and thinks that cer- tainly the hour cannot be up . seems very long. due to adaptation of the temperature and of the retina. it is. In a court of law. Both constant and by the scatter of variable errors can be illustrated by a series of shots at a target.PERCEPTION all. it is best to use your watch to tell you when up. being sure the hour must be nearly over. These are scarcely errors of sense. is The professor shocked when the closing bell rings. the and if you come out of a latter seems warmer than it is dark room into a light room. Besides constant errors. are properly classed as errors of If you are taking a is child's temperature with a " minute thermometer the minute ". the latter seems brighter than If . But if you are " work- ing against time ". as in the examples just cited. you come out of a cold room into a warm room. and evidently the knowledge of such constant errors is of importance wherever the facts are of importance. psychology speaks of a " constant error ". Where we tend to err in one certain direction from the truth. 447 can Some of the errors committed in sense perception 'be laid at the door of the senses. a minute seems short. and a knowledge of the constant errors in time perception would therefore be of considerable legal importance. These errors. but they are errors of perception. The variable error illustrated . a witness often has to tes- by some event. when you are simply wait- ing fqr it to pass. They would need to be worked out in considerable detail. and some rather belong in the sphere of perception proper. there are accidental or variable errors. since tify regarding the length of time occupied they differ according to the desires and attitude of the witness at the time of the event. due to slight momentary is causes.

which was drawn in afterwards. The constant error could be stated by saying that the center of distribution was so far from the target. but the center of the actual distribution of the attempts lies at the cross. Fig.O Constant error and scatter in hitting at a target. and in such and such a direction.448 PSYCHOLOGY The conknow what it is. the hits. For example. you can delibleft. or to the right or stant error can be corrected. you take two objects that are alike in size and appearance but differing and endeavor to decide which is the heavier You try repeatedly and keep track just by lifting them. The scattering of the attempts can be measured also. small a difference of weight by the hand How small a difference in length can be perceived by the eye. using this number as a measure of Now. weighing 100 grams slightly in weight. and not gether even then. to measure the fineness with which weights can be perceived when " hefted " in the hand. The little was the target. or below. . if shoot too high. for example. But the variability of any performance . of the number of errors. if one weight were twice the accuracy of perception. as heavy as the other (one. circle — cannot be eliminated except by long practice. and the constant error by the excess of hits above the bull's-eye. 66. once you results show that you tend to erately aim lower. how — these are sample problems in this line. alto- Experimental psychology has taken great pains in measur- ing the accuracy of different sorts of perception.

from the preceding table we see that 28 per cent. but the discrepancy is not extremely great here. of errors would also be made in comparing 200 grams with 208. Weber's law is only approximately true for the perception of weights. the less perceptible and there is no sharp line between a difference that can be perceived and one that is is too small to be perceived. you would make an occasional error. Notice that the per cent of errors gradually increases as the difference becomes smaller. or any pair of weights that stood to each other in the ratio of 100 to 104. you would never make an error except through carelessness but if one were 100 and the other 120 grams.PERCEPTION . and the number of errors finally. 28 per cent. or 500 with 520. then. and each such pair was lifted and judged 1400 times. and in . 449 and the other 200). That the first great result from the study of the perception of is small differences. For example. according to Weber's law. each weight was compared with the 100-gram weight. The it is. of errors are made in comparing weights of 100 and 104 grams. which can In the same sort of perception. the it. equal (not absolute) differences are equally perceptible. more numerous the errors in perceiving or. since actually fewer errors are committed in com- paring 500 and 520 than in comparing 100 and 104 grams. you would get almost as many wrong as right. ERRORS IN PERCEIVING SMALL DIFFERENCES OF WEIGHT (From Warner Brown) Difference 20 1 Errors 16 2 12 6 8 13 4 28 3 31 2 39 1 44 grams per hmidred trials The weights were in the neighborhood of 100 grams. smaller the difference between two stimuli. or 1000 with 1040 grams. so that your perception of that small difference would be extremely unreliable. The second great be stated as follows relative : result called Weber's law. would increase as the difference was decreased comparing 100 and 101 grams.

in the least. of musical tones keener Weber's law way. But the perception is of small differences in the pitch still. as under favorable conditions a difference of one part in one hundred can here be perceived with very few errors. and we know that turning on a second light when only one is already lit gives a much more noticeable increase in the light than if we add one more light when twenty are already burning. Illusions An error of perception is often called an " illusion ". An illu- . we know that an inch would make a much more perceptible addition to the length of a man's nose than to his height.450 PSYCHOLOGY in some other kinds of perception. since Weber's law. it cannot be expressed in the same A person with a good ear for pitch can distinguish with very few errors between two tones that differ by only one vibration per second. perception of lifted weight for about one part in ten. 400. in ordinary life. A third great result of this line of study is that different sorts of perception are very unequal in their fineness and reliability. Visual perception of length of line is good for about one ^art in fifty. not following in three. Perception of brightness is about the keenest. though this term is commonly reserved for errors that are When one who is being awakened by a large and curious. bell perceives it as a tom-tom. with the general truth of We are familiar. or 80O vibrations per second. as especially comparing the brightness of lights or the length of seen lines. perception of loudness of sound for about one part only that. that is an illusion. whether the total vibration rate is 200. and can perceive this same absolute difference equally well. the law holds good over a wide range of stimuli and only breaks down near the upper and lower extremes.

supposed to depend upon some pecuAside from the use of this class of study of the different senses. Illusions may be classified under several headings accord- ing to the factors that are operative in causing the deception. sometimes reveals is its inner mech- anism more clearly than when everything running smoothly. I. and coming together again as they are drawn to the cheek at the distorted Here the stimulus may easily be taken as the sign of . by the sense organ and so an unreal fact. not only as showing how far a given kind of perception can be trusted. but also as throwing light on the process of perception. one point above it and the other below you will get the illusion of the points separating as they approach the middle of the mouth (where the sensory nerve supply is greatest). and not taken as the signs of constitute a genuine illusion facts. Illusion is but not the fact which false perception. taken to indicate. Illusions due to is peculiarities of the sense organs. The fact that a vertical line appears longer than is an equal horizontal liarity of the retina. and also double vision whenever for any reason the two eyes are not accurately converged upon an object. it When a process goes wrong. Under this same general head belong also after-images and contrast colors. and draw them across the mouth. the is illusions in the detailed chief thing to learn from them they so seldom are full- fledged illusions.PERCEPTION sion consists in responding to a sensory stimulus 451 something that is not really there. Separate the points of a pair of compasses by about threequarters of an inch. because they are ignored or allowed for. The study of illusions is of value. if it An after-image would were taken for some real . Errors of any kind are meat to the psychologist. other side. it is by perceiving The stimulus is there.

'' since he is projecting his own . imagines she hears him crying when the cat yowls or the next-door neighbors start their phonograph. similar illusions are often momentarily present in a any rate. auditory images and taking them for real sensations r.452 thing out there . often thinks them to be something unusual and lying outside of his own all experience. probably the commonest source of everyday is and the same principle. Illusions due to preoccupation or mental an insane person hears the creaking of a rockingchair as the voice of some one calling him bad names. seeing and burglar-hearing illusions belong here as The mental itself. PSYCHOLOGY occur very frequently eyes are turned — —they are ignored but as a matter of fact. gard mere sensation 2. In a milder form. when he reads about them. of correct perceptions. an extreme instance of illusion. how strong is the tendency to disreset. in the interest of getting objective facts. The ghostwell. or as when the mother. set facilitates responses that are congruous with This 3. This goes to show The same is true of double images. operative in a host Perceiving the obliquely presented is rectangle as a rectangle of this type.t it is. 37S. as we have seen. perfectly normal person. We might almost call this When an hallucination. is Illusions of the response-by-analogy type. . it is because he is preoccupied with suspicion. an example of correct perception fly as it Perceiving the buzzing of a plane is the same sort of response only that an aerohappens to be incorrect. illusions. as when he is searching for a lost object and thinks he sees it whenever anything remotely simi- lar to the desired object meets his eyes. though after-images shght ones practically every time the to such an extent that the student of psychology. 1 If the present stimulus has something in com- See p. with the baby upstairs very much on her mind.

. perhaps. for whom it is almost impossible to find every misspelled word and other typoAlmost every book graphical error in reading the proof. this center is about 5 inches from the figure. 67. The Ladd-Franklin illusion of monocular perspective. A good instance of is less this type is illu- sion ". prints have purposely been reader's benefit. in A couple of mis- the last few lines for the word as printed has enough reit arouses the same percept and enables the reader to get the sense and pass on satisfied. of course. because the professional proof- reader subj6et to it than any one else. The one most Fig.PERCEPTION mon tain perception. the present mantel set the " proofreader's favors this response. semblance to the right word. Close one eye/ and hold the book so that the other eye is at the comjnon center from which the lines radiate. so called. comes out with a few such errors. If the left. Hold the book horizontally. and just a little below the eye. — subject to it is the author of a book. in spite of having been scanned repeatedly by several people. we 453 with the stimulus which has in the past aroused a cer- did before — may make the same response if now as we espcially.

The projector shows the series of snap-shots in rapid succession. illusion of this general type dates away back to Cross two fingers. In the customary position of the fingers. they simply show the object in a series of motionless positions. third. the stimuli thus received would mean two . than as a flat figure.454 PSYCHOLOGY lines Before we began to pore over books and pictures. and touch a marble with the crossed part of both and it seems to be two marbles or. The same general type pictures do not actually show an object in motion. perhaps best the second and fingers. so as to avoid the blur that would occur if the picture were itself But the series of snap-shots has so moved before the eyes. the that we saw usually were the outlines of solid objects. like those of the cube An and staircase used to Fig. illustrate ambiguous perspective. caught by instan- taneous photography. objects. . and conceals them by a shutter while they are shifted. —Aristotle's illusion. and now it requires only a bare diagram of lines to arouse in us the perception of a solid object seen in perspective. outline drawing. 68. much in common with the visual stimulus got from an actually present moviftg object that we make the same perceptive response. is more readily seen as a solid object Another Aristotle. you can use the side of your pencil as the stimulus. A is much more modern illusion of the afforded by the moving pictures.

but it is hard to compare the corresponding sides hard to isolate from the total figure just the elements that you need to compare. most of the illusions the psychological laboratory by odd combina- The two pan-shaped outlines are pracFio. A figure cult to isolate the fact to drawn as to make it diffibe observed. The the Miiller-Lyer figure. The pan illusion. tically identical.PERCEPTION 455 The same illusion in a rudimentary form can be produced by holding the forefinger upright three or four inches in front of the nose. and looking at it while winking first the one eye and then the other. he falls into error. produced in Here belong. closed and the other simultaneously opened. when he is perceiving another. in which two equal lines are embellished with extra lines at their ends. and when the observer is so attempts to perceive best example it. Looked at with the right eye alone it appears to be more to one side and looked at with the left eye alone it appears to be more' to the other side is and when the one eye to the other. etc. 4. you are supposed to perceive the lengths of the two main lines. You do not succeed in isolating the precise fact you wish to observe. probably. is He thinks he is perceiving one fact. but you are very apt to take the whole figure in the rough and perceive the distances between its chief parts. . — tions of lines. 69. the finger seems actually to move from one position Illusions due to imperfect isolation of the fact to be perceived.

though. The same with illusion can be got letters as Ea squares.or in this Q O O(a) In the last the lengths to be compared extend from the right-hand rim of circle 1 to the left-hand rim of circle 2. as points are again to be compared. or even EorEfl is EorLa capital D where the distances between the main are to be compared. illusion. such as >• "^ > where the main lines are not drawn. but the distances . from point to point are to be compared or such as ^ ^^ D where the two distances between Angles. however. are not necessary to give the in this figure can be seen C D.456 PSYCHOLOGY The Miiller-Lyer Illusion this striking illusion is The most familiar form of made with arrow heads. they are equal. thus > one is < < > lines In attempting to compare the two horizontal confused so as to regard the line with outward- extending obliques longer than that with inward-extending obliques. and (b) from this last to the right- hand rim of with circle 3. vertical lines Here an another form of the same illusion the middle lines being affected by those above and below. . measured from point to point. The same illusion occurs in a variety of similar figures.

457 and far from every-day experience. or into a design of any sort. 70. A broad effect. they really do enter in some degree into almost every figure that is not perfectly square and simple. The Poggendorf same straight line? — illusion. any complication of any sort. is Fig. a skewed effect. Extra tion. into the front of a building. so that the designer needs to have a practical knowledge of this type of illusion. Any oblique line. Are the two obliques parts of the pretty sure to alter the apparent proportions and directions of the figure.PERCEPTION Though these illusions seem like curiosities. lines have an influence also upon esthetic percep- The altered effect of a given form may be quite by the introduction of apparently insignificant extra esthetic . lines suitably may easily be produced by extra introduced into a dress. a long effect.

and to the resulting difficulty of isolation. Which of the lines. around which runs a spiral. starting at a. 1. One of the most interesting not being visual. comes closest to being a continuation of a? — lines. 4. 3. Esthetic perception is very much subject to the law illusions. 2. 71. Tne barber-pole illusion. and 5. can . of combination. The rectangle represents a round column.458 PSYCHOLOGY Fio.

By aid of this simple figure.^ ii The Zoellner illusion. illusion is increased by holding the figure so that these main lines It is more difBcult to " deceive shall be neither vertical nor horizontal. — . Try to bisect the horizontal line in this figure. a pound's of feathers ? " . 73. while the oblique at the left tends to displace the left-hand end of the horizontal also to the right. The long lines are really parallel. the Poggendorf and barberpole illusions can be seen to be instances of the Miiller-Lyer illusion.PERCEPTION 459 only be described and not demonstrated here. since the elements employed in constructing the three figures are so much the same. i« — The in regard to the direction of oblique lines. If you treat this figure according to the directions given for Fig. The oblique line at the right tends to displace the right-hand end of the horizontal to the right. 72. you get an illusion of perspective. a pound of lead or a pound Of course. It is called the " size-weight illusion ". the old catch. than Fig. and may be said to be based on Fig. and sight along the obliques. we shrewdly answer. " Which is heavier. This illusion must be related in some way to the MuUer-Lyer and Poggendorf illusions-. 67. the eye " in regard to the direction of vertical and horizontal lines. Similar displacements account for the Poggendorf and barber-pole illusions.

you take two round wooden pillof lead feels very boxes. To reduce this illusion to a laboratory experiment. have no doubt that the smaller box the heavier it may seem two or three times as heavy. assimilating the weight to the visual ap- pearance. however. one several times as large as the other. get the opposite illusion. so that the big one comes up easily and seems light. as indicated by their visual appearance. but older persons switch over to the contrast effect. and load them so that they both weigh the same. then ask some one to lift them and at all tell which is the heavier. . is What seems to happen in the older person a motor ad- justment for the apparent weights. is He will . with the result that the weight of larger size is lifted more strongly than the weight of smaller size . Young children. the little one slowly and seemii heavy. PSYCHOLOGY ! But lift them and notice how they feel The pound much heavier.460 a pound. and perceive in opposition to the visual appearance.

and identify objects by touching them with the hands. 162-194. many Through which of the senses are spatial facts best perceived? " At first. but.PERCEPTION 461 EXERCISES 1. Binocular compared with monocular perception of " depth or distance away. General Introduction. the eyes closed. pencil in each hand. he comes to perceive it more objectively. about the room with closed eyes." Explain and illustrate this statement. pp. try to distinguish objects of different shapes (a) by letting them simply rest upon the skin. without regard to the total amount possessed? 7. H. pp. open the other eye. 5. 1917. and bring the points together a foot in front of the face. 2nd edition. Binocular parallax. . as an object related to other obj ects. and see whether the two Doints still seem to be close together. i. and notice carefully the view of it obtained by each eye separately. and (b) by handling them.. and not simply related to himself . and for 3. 1909. Show that the law of combination illusions. What becomes of the two monocular views when both eyes are open at once? 10. is very see much in evidence. pointing towards the face. Trial and error perception. Give an example from the field of auditory perceptions where 4. 1919. and in Warren's . any law analogous to. 2. What senses cooperate in furnishing data for "active touch"? 9. With 8. Notice whether your first impression gives place to corrected Impressions. When the points seem to be nearly touching. accounts both for many correct perceptions.Human Psychology. or the differing views of the same solid object Hold a small. Go. pp. while only one eye is open. A pencil. Repeat. through the medium of blocked response. Perception of form by " active " and " passive " touch. foot in front of the face. 303-373. 232-269. Judd's Psychology. Outline the chapter.e. in Titchener's Textbook of Psychology. gives very difi^erent views. " isolation " 6. Can you REFERENCES Discussions of perception that are in some respects fuller than the present chapter can be found in C. Weber's law in the field of financial profit and loss? Does a dollar gained or lost seem the same amount. three-dimensional object a obtained by the two eyes. the baby very likely perceives a ball simply as something for him to handle and throw. Take a.

Now if you simply proceed to look here and there. for facts.CHAPTEE XVIII REASONING THE PEOCESS OF MENTAL. that would be motor exploration. only to find it gone.'' Probably where I used it last " you may recall using it for a certain purpose. But if. in search for facts that will assist you. You have substituted mental exploration of the situation for purely motor exploration. " Where can that hammer be. finding this trial and error procedure to be laborious and almost hopeless. at least you ransack your memory. Suppose you need the hammer. in a certain place. In a way. you sit down and think. deed. AS DISTINGUISHED FUOM MOTOK EXPLORATION are still on the general topic of " discovery " Inwe are still on the topic of perception. If you don't ransack the house. . The process of reasoning It is is also illustrated very well in these simple cases. and the effort. ransacking the house without any plan. and go to the place where it is kept. and saved time and Such instances show the use of reasoning. ! We part it plays in behavior. we come now to that form of perception which' is different from sense The reasoner is an explorer. and the culmina. it is an exploratory process. tion of his explorations is the perception of some fact previously unknown to him. 462 You recall this fact . Reasoning might be described as mental exploration. a searching a trial and error process. go there and find it.perception. and distinguished from purely motor exploration of the trial and error variety.

firmly attached to the situation of being in that cage. his unsuccessful reactions were gradually eliminated and the successful reaction was . . Perhaps he reasoned it out. you placed a dog in a cage. was begun with this question in mind. however. the door of which could be opened by lifting a latch. some recalled that serves your need. is you turn this way and that. Animal and Human Explohation Is man the only reasoning animal.? The objection to this sort of evidence that the dog's manner of acquiring the was not observed. reviewed in one of our earlier chapters. No more in reason- ing than in motor exploration can you hope to go straight to the desired goal. The typica?. and lifted the latch in the course of his varied reactions and if he were placed back in the cage time after time. and was supposed to have seen men open the gate in this way. such as that of the dog that was found opening a gate by lifting the latch with his nose. keys. and even monperhaps he got — .'' The experimental work on animal learning. and to have reasoned that if a man trick could do that. so that he would finally lift the latch without aiiy hesitation. Previous evidence on this point had been limited' to anecdotes. then the dog went to work by trial and error. and motivated the dog strongly by having him hungry and placing food just outside. is why not a dog. and it by accident you cannot tell without watching the process of learning. by taking a dog that does not know the trick. mentally. For one thing.REASONING and fact 463 till that. and perhaps first " showing him " how to open the gate by lifting the latch but it was found that dogs and cats. could not learn the trick in this way. You must experiment. The behavior of the animal does not look like reasoning. If. it is too impulsive and motor.

usually the reasoner finds one clue after another. His exploration of the situation. (2) thinking. it differs still is from animal a tentative. sometimes differs very little from that of an animal. till finally he notices a sign that recalls a pertinent meaning. of The behavior Certainly it human cage. still resembles finding the [In short. typically with closed eyes or abstracted gaze. first The right clue is not necessarily hit upon at the try. though carried on by aid of recalled experience instead of by locomotion. reasoning in the sphere of way out of may be a maze with called a trial many blind alleys. human learning curves follow " seeing into " the is In short. Though reason these respects. in the effort to recall something that may bear on the prob- lem. and often the puzzle nothing but motor exploration the will so blind that bring the solution. animal's learning curve fails to show sudden improvements such as in problem. shows plenty of trial and error and random is motor exploration. though traces of them may perhaps be seen Further. only to get nowhere. there nothing to indicate that the anibearing mal recalls facts previously observed or sees their on the problem in hand.464 PSYCHOLOGY attitudes of the reasoner. instead of mental. placed figuratively in a He that may furnish a clue. does not search for " considerations " beings. and follows each one up by recall. and error process mental reactions^ . or even in the in monkey. He works by motor exploration. the the chimpanzee and other manlike apes. is What human behavior animal is does show that attentive mostly absent from the (1) studying over the problem. whether '' lost in thought " or " studying over things ". trial and error in try-and-try-again process. in the effort to find a clue. do not appear in the dog. scrutinizing it on various sides. and (3) sudden "insights". when the present problem is seen in the light of past experience.

his He not only ransacks memory for data bearing on his problem. You begin with a situation (what is "given") involving a problem (what is to be proved). ". is means picture the < living mental process of reasoning out a Solving an " original " is far from a straight- forward proces^. he " sees " is not presented to his senses at the moment. which gives the significance of the another clue. but such a demonstration proposition. It is true that the demonstrations are set down in the book in a thoroughly orderly manner. and. this recalls some previous proposition clue. The success- ful reasoner not only seeks. in the situation plus knowledge recalled by taken together. Reasoning Culminates in Inference When you exploration. but he " sees that What something must be so called inference. let us cite a few very simple cases. can readily verify this description. college. but he finally " sees " the solution clearly. by what error process. till but often turns out to have no bearing on the problem. but finds. which is 465 distinctly a reasoning science. have described reasoning as <» process of mental you have told only half th? story. in ? " What And . studying over this lay-out you notice a certain fact which looks like a clue. ask Two freshmen in about each other's fathers and find that class was your father both are ajumni of this same college. The whole exploratory process culminates in a perceptive reaction.REASONING The reader familiar with geometry. " " In the class of 1900. so that you shift to is certainly a trial and some some fact noted this fact. proceeding straight from only a dried specimen and does not by any the given assumption to the final conclusion. This kind of perception may be To bring out distinctly the perceptive reaction in reason- ing. and so on. reveal the truth of the proposition. getting acquainted.

enable both to perceive a third fact which neither of them knew is before. is But if they are not side by side. and thus I perceive that the second tree thicker than the first. Indirect comparison devices. typically. How many are there to be seated." " Oh but we can tell now by counting. then I see they must be unequal. two. yield an inferred fact. genuine diamonds are expensive and perceive that this . Have we ! set the table for the right number of people ? " " Well. but Mary's height given as so much and Kate's as an inch more. is a re- sponse to two facts. I can reach around it but not around is that. even though may not look so. then I see they must be equal to each other.. Our fathers were in they must know each other " Here two ! one contributed by one person and the other by another person. You will have to one make room for one more. and the infer- ence then consists in seeing how the general rule applies to a special case. do not infer what you can perceive direptly by the If Mary and Kate is are standing side by side. the same class in 1900. he was . may be accomplished by other similar this tree trunk. you can see which the taller. Now fourteen. yours? " " facts. chat Kate " is taller than Mary. if one is larger than my yardstick and the other smaller. one is often a general rule or principle. If two things are each found to be equal to a third thing. ring for five A dealer offers dollars. too.' You senses. the response consists in perceiving a third fact that bound up in the other two.by inference.466 PSYCHOLOGY Why. three count the places at table —only how — fifteen in all.? One." This reducing of the problem the numbers compare is to numbers and then seeing very simple and useful kind of inference. then from these two facts you know. and. you a fine-looking diamond but you recall the rule that " all ". Inference. Of the two facts which. we can see when the party comes to the table. taken together.

" is the mix-up of " taller " and " shorter " makes it difficult to get the relationships clearly before you. just as of the yardstick. and Jones Jones shorter than Smith. Perhaps it would suit this case a little better if. and also the relation of B to M. that is. but any genuine five diamond measures more than discrepancy is visible dollars. or infer. and you are likely . see it You by way the difference eye. and therefore a between this diamond and a genuine diamond. Clear writing stands in a certain relation to qualities . then Binet. When you have before your mind the relation of A to M. being one of their from which combination of relations we perceive is clear writing as a quality of Binet. resulting in failure to see the relationships clearly. If you read that " Smith is taller is than Brown . French writers are clear. One great cause of fallacies consists in the confused way in which facts are sometimes presented. who furnish the point A M ence to which A of reference . Just as an illusion inference is a false sense perception. Binet stands in a certain relation to " French writers ". he is one of them.REASONING diamond must be an imitation. you may be able to see. Here " French writers " furnish your yardstick. and B are related. writer. and therefore shorter than Brown. we spoke in terms of " relations ". the yardstick being the . a French must be clear. but you you discover between the heights of Mary and Kate by aid can't see the discrepancy by the of indirect comparison. French writers. instead of . a If all relation between is the common point of referand B.speaking of indirect comparison by aid of a mental yardstick. so a false called a " fallacy ". dollars this 467 is This also an instance of indirect comparison. sum of five ring measures five dollars.

" may cause some confusion from failure to notice that the relation between versible so that French writers and clear writing is not rewe could turn about and assert that all clear clear writers were French. other? Mary and Jane both first. otherwise the response case where will be partly aroused by irrelevant stimuli. called " infacts being ference ". The reasoner needs a head and a steady mental eye Dia- he needs to look squarely and steadily at his two given state- ments in order to perceive their exact relationship. and therefore James was not a clear writer. consists in perceiving a third fact that is To sum up: impli- cated in the two stimulus-facts. Winifred in one respect. and there Mary may resemble may resemble her in may be no resemblance between Mary and Jane. " All French writers are clear . and Jane another respect. can you infer that they resemble each You are likely to think so at is you notice that resemblance not a precise enough relation to serve for purposes of indirect comparison. and thus be liable to error. Varieties of Reasoning Reasoning as a whole culminating in inference. but James was not a French writer. Or. grams and symbols often sponse. again. and the response. is a process of mental exploration Now. without regard to possible . till re- semble Winifred. and so the process of reasoning culminates in two present as stimuli.468 PSYCHOLOGY Or again. and at the same time it is " isolation " is needed. assist in keeping the essential facts facilitate the right re- clear of extraneous matter. It is a good case of th? law a' of combination. if to make a mistake.

the traveller is very likely to go in a circle . partly by the use of our wits. Two climbed about clearing boys went into the woods for a day's outing. We explore the situation. Then they started for home. there are at least different varieties of the exploratory process lead- ing up to inference. There are several main types of reasoning. I. pushing forward eagerly. We cannot successfully respond by instinct or by previously acquired habit. Many of these clues we reject at once as of no use . when in the direction of home. recall a pertinent guiding principle. if some we may think through and thus find useless but finally. we observe a real clue. and ate their lunch in a little by the side of a brook. found themselves in the same their lunch! little clearing where they had eaten of the boys recalled that Reasoning process No. We observe facts in the situation that recall previous experi- ences or previously learned rules and principles. partly by the senses and actual movement. and apply these to the present case. as they thought. differs The situation that arouses reasoning this rather laborious from one case to another. We must find out what to do.EEASONING 469 variations of the perceptive response of inference. After quite a long tramp. considered as a process of mental exploration. they thought they should be about out of the woods. and. and see the way out of our problem. striking straight through the woods. is a situation for which we have no ready and successful response. inference. others we may try out and find useless . 1 now occurred: one when traversing the woods with- out any compass or landmark. our exploration is successful. " That is what we have done and . the motive for engaging in mental process differs. and the order of events in the process differs. A " problem " Reasoning out the solution of a practical problem. they saw clear space ahead. They all the morning.

" tually brings the boys out to a road where they can inquire lowing the clouds. While it is preceding case reasoning showed what to do. . in these 2. a desire aroused. We require a reasonable mo. for that you can't tell east from west." Mental exploration ensued. A is unaccountably polite and helpful to his mother it some day. another pertinent fact.? " as well sit down and think " it over. here upon to justify what has been done. " How about telling directions by the sun. and when asked about wants to help — replies that he simply while his real motive may have been to score against his brother or sister. what reason to assign foi the act we feel the need of meeting criticism. who is to some extent his rival. in any direction. it First. We may brook. The real motive for the act may be -unknown to ourselves." " Yes.'' " " But it has so clouded over flows ! " That won't do. or what is going to be done anyway. and two taken together the key to the problem found. How it about following the swamp down into a big that we couldn't get through ".'' If the way home. it may not be such as we care to confess. . or north from south. recalled. or rule. say ! ! we keep on going straight. we shall surely get out of This seems worth trying and acthe woods somewhere. if known. One pertinent fact is is is observed. find in this case is is What we and typical of problem solution. those old clouds How fast they are going They How about folseem to go straight enough." " Well. The question is. some acceptable general principle that explains our child action. either from other people or from ourselves. for a couple of hours. and facilitates the observation recall of facts relevant to itself. tive.470 PSYCHOLOGY shall we probably do the same thing again if we go ahead. in the called Rationalization or self-justification. as it often is unless we have made a careful study of motives or.

'' " "But us in a circle. then. am stale.'' " This form of reasoning. Thus." That is a pretty good clue. makes it snow. and the game ward. then." what. takes its start with something that raises the question. I am ". without a continued supply of heat. Explanation. ing animal justifications Man is a rationalizself- as well as a rational animal. even at noon. 3. tive Only. We search the situation for clues. "Why. just as in the attempt to solve a practical " Is it because there is so much snow in Januproblem. will freshen me up and make me work better after- Or. is mere " grind Or. but some fact of nature or of behavior.? This clue leads " Perhaps. in serious danger of degenerating into a fight against this evil tendency. and recall past information. like the pre- ceding. To explain a phenomenon is to deduce it from . a reasoning exercise of the same sort. cold inevitable. sphere! — Why—with it human apologies to the Southern Hemi- is so cold in January? The fact arouses our curiosity. and never gets high in the sky. it recalls the general is principle that. and must my presence at the game necessary in order to en- courage the team. ludicrous though they often are. it is because the sun shines so little of the time. aspects of the situation that are desire prir^ciples in line with our bob to the surface and suggest acceptable general that make the intended action seem good and even Finding excuses for acts already performed is necessary. I should certainly be lacking I could reasoning ability if not find something in the situation that made I my attendance at the game imperative.REASONING If I 471 have work requiring attention but want to go to the in game. are still a tribute to his very laudable appreciation of ra- tionality. our interest in the question It is is objec- rather than subjective. ary. and his and excuses. not our own actions that call for explanation.

ing because you doubt . and gives you a sense of power and as an instance of the general principle. clues. you search your memory for particular cases where the general law should apply. First. Reasoning may also take its start at the other end. in a general state- ment. may stimulate reason- and wish to find cases where it breaks down.472 PSYCHOLOGY an accepted general principle. insects. either for seeing what practical use you can make of it. Doubt. mastery. since it rids you of uncertainty and sometimes from fear. your understanding of the general proposition becomes more complete. Application. A general proposition it. drawn 5. and have been concerned in a search for the general principle that holds good of the given particular case. 4. Your exploration here takes a different form from that thus far described. The reasoning processes discussed up to this point have taken their start with the particular. there may be a need for application of the general principle. fully accept enunciates a general propo- and you wish to apply it to special cases. Perhaps somebody makes the general statement whose authority you do not accept perhaps he says it in an assertive way that makes you want to take him down . to understand it is to see it Such understanding is very satisfactory. But what can be the motive for this sort of reasoning? What is there about a general proposition to . then fish cold-blooded. and seek for particular cases belonging under this general rule. Instead of searching a concrete situation for and your memory for general principles. Somebody whose authority you sition. If all animals are cold-blooded. excepting only birds and mammals. spiders. or simply to make its meaning more real and concrete to yourself. these inferences.'' stimulate exploration Several motives may be in play. lobsters and frogs and lizards are and worms having .

thoroughly verified. fact. and you will have to take back that sweeping assertion. But he was not a grafter." This same general type of reasoning. This deduction was readily verified. and testing these out in the realm of observed fact. has much more serious uses. him. . which was at first only a hypothesis. when applied to them. it will be accepted as a true statement. If it is subject to verification. strated. according to you. and this discovery also was later verified.REASONING a peg. then the flow of blood in any particular artery must be away from the heart. 6. and a much-doubted one at the blood is driven by the heart through the and returns to the heart by way of the veins. when the invention of the microscope made observation of that. hope of finding one where the general statement leads to a result that is contrary to " You say that all politicians are grafters. therefore. Theodore Roosevelt was a politician. which takes its start with a general proposition. and explores particular instances in order to see whether the proposition.'' How shall its truth or falsity be its demon- By deducing consequences. the capillaries possible. You search your memory for instances belonging under the in the doubted general statement. so that every assertion he 473 Perhaps you are in the heat of an argument with may make is a challenge. but at the outset it is only a guess that may turn out to be either true or false. Further. Verification. for this is the method by which a hypothesis is tested in science. Other deductions also were verified. there should be little tubes leading from the smallest arteries over into the smallest veins. A hypothesis is a general proposition put forward as a guess. and in any particular vein towards the heart. gives a result in accordance with the f^cts. If arteries. An example from the history of science is afforded by Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood. a " law of nature ". he must have been a grafter.

whether these facts are true. where they. discovery of fresh facts. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning When you sition. his scientific colleagues are sure to come to the rescue. your hypothesis . if the hypothesis is true. order to see whether of the hypothesis is works or not and with if it the propounder he so much in love that fails to give it a thorough test. in to apply to as many it special cases as pos. to formulate a hypothesis that will fit the known facts. Such reasoning ". incumbent on any one who puts forward it a hypothesis sible. Then. Failing in that.. Next you go out and see and if they are. and need only to is your reasoning is said to be " deductive ". i. specially used in mathematics. since it is much "easier to make a guess that shall fit the few facts we already know than to make one that will apply perfectly to many other facts at present unknown. and the circulation of the blood became an accepted law. are sure at the outset of your general proposee its application to special cases. such its consequences . having found such a conjectural general law. fied Science does not like to have unveri- hypotheses lying around loose. It is may trip up the unwary. Most hypotheses are not so fortunate as this one most of them die by the wayside. said to But in natural science you are employ " inductive reasoning The process has already been described. the rivalry -motive plays a useful part in the progress and stabilizing of science. In this way. You start with particular facts demanding explanation or generalization. you are driven to guess at a general law. would be rather pleased to see the other fellow's hypothesis come to grief. A hypothesis is a great stimulus to the and .474 PSYCHOLOGY in short all deductions from the hypothesis were verified. for they. you proceed to deduce you see that.e. and such facts must be true. on the whole. and try to find some accepted law that explains them.

the subject-matter of logic as well. without any strenuous effort on his part. else had Third. Logic cares nothing about the exploratory process that culminates in inference. and sev- you have to begin all over again. in logical terminology. our would-be and. though it may If the deduced facts are not true. he scientific in- vestigator may lack the clear. Second. Psychology and Logic Psychology that is is not the only science that studies reasoning. high-grade how he went about all He would load up in the morning with the knowledge he could assemble on the given question. but limits itself to inference alone. and logic was in Psychology studies the the field long before psychology. of Helmholtz. when. seeing something that still requires explanation. is verified to that extent. arouse the percep- . The two premises are the " two facts " which. fourth. steady vision to see the con. hypotheses.. sequences of his hypothesis may lack the enterprise to go out and look for the facts that his hypothesis tells him should be found. may fail at any on^ of calls First. scientist The would-be natural eral points. and he concludes that science is complete. acting together. consists in drawing a conclusion from two given premises. while logic checks up the result and shows whether it is valid or not. an extremely describes fertile inventor it. he may lack fertility in guessing.REASONING is 475 be upset later. he may see no question that for investigation. process of reasoning. with nothing left for him to discover. Inference. or off may be a poor guesser and set on a wild-goose chase. the hypothesis false. Everything seems a matter-of-course. the various facts would get together in new combinations and suggest explanations that 'neither he nor any one ever thought of before. and go out in the afternoon for a leisurely ramble.

nor the Logic difficulty encountered. M responds to our " yardstick " or " point of reference ".e. syllogism includes three "terms ". . S is P i. the syllogism becomes: Major premise: M is P Minor premise: S is M Conclusion: Therefore. It is part of the business of logic to examine what relations are. Socrates mortal The " men (or. and still they may lead to a valid conclusion. the " object " or the " situation ") about is inferred. nor as to the time and effort required. are " Socrates ". nor as to the motive that led to the search for them.^ and the " third fatft " thua Logic cares nothing as to how the premises were found. a conclusion implicated in the assumed premises. S and P are both known to be related to M. bolize these three terms in general. as in the old stand-by Major premise: All men Minor premise: Socrates are mortal is a man is Conclusion: Therefore. or what inferred about S and is the " middle term " which cor. as we used those words at the beginning of the chapter. suitable for yielding a valid In symbols. and what are not. which in the above instance ". inference. iThe "two facts" or premises need not be true. S. Logic employs the letters. P. and therefore (when the relations are of the right sort) they are related to each other. or. perceived the conclusion. sets forth the premises and conclusion in the form of the " syllogism ". then. " mortal ". either or both maybe assumed or hypothetical. and " man " or to symand S is the "subject" M which something is we might say.476 PSYCHOLOGY is tive response called inference.. P is the " predicate ". S is compared with P through the medium of M. these matters all pertain to psychology.

we observe that S is M. and are saved. and see that S.. we be- explore S. As before. that January cold because gets little sunlight. If is M we is P. P cause it is M. that M P. is P.e. To do so may make these different processes stand out more distinctly. then our conclusion that the major premise is false. and you look further to see how all that money can be attached to S. should therefore be find P an S which is not P. In problem-solution. P. really. we start with S. we may take this symbolic syllogism as a sort of map. which means something that might prove useful prominent words on some future occasion. a situation unsolved. Now is M is recalls our previously acquired knowledge us the two premises. we know. tion of P. doubt or verification. find fore. that S is P. yourself on some future occasion. which. You soon learn that you have only to secure subscriptions for a certain magazine.REASONING 477 Without confounding logic and psychology in the least. we start with the according to our final major premise. . In rationalization or explanation. therethat S it is Our final conclusion is.e. without any P. being hypothesis. though they are scarcely as important as those already Reasoning sometimes starts with the observamentioned. indeed. and wish to know why this is so. Having then before we perceive that S P. and find in M . on which to trace out the different exploratory processes that we have already described under the head of " varieties of reasoning ". recall that M is is P. We explore the situation. " $100 a week " That ! might come in handy on some future occasion. Your attention is caught by these in an advertisement. M. i. and explore our memories for an S M. i.. when found. and there are. In application. to start with. Reference to our " map " indicates that there might be several other varieties of reasoning. it will be the solution.

we try to discover how he does see it. good minor premises. Talid conclusions therefrom. But if you hear it said that such a one " cannot be a real thinker. we try to how it if we do the same. in asking reasoner. we see some one come to happened. Sometimes. to perform We plan M so as to secure P. and Finally. To reason successfully on a given topic. or. siderably before finding you may have to explore about conacceptable major premises from which such conclusions can be deduced. (a) A good stock of major premises is necessary. you have only vague generalities to draw upon. if grief. while S really quite yourself supposedly entering on this occupation and earning the money. you need good major premises. Sometimes this is easy. and try to make out what the missing premise can be. we hear a person drawing a conclusion from only one expressed premise. we shall also be successful. what are the qualifications of a good we can help ourselves once more by reference to the syllogistic map.478 PSYCHOLOGY may be yours. More often. so as to avoid his mis- reasoning that take and so the bad consequences of that mistake. not so rarely. . a good stock of rules and principles acquired in previous experience. " I like him because he is always cheerful ". as when one says. Without some knowledge of a subject. or to avoid M in the hope of avoiding P. from which you see that the person speaking must like cheerful persons. or that another " is unfeeling and unsympathetic from lack of a touch of cruelty in his nature ". and that income P is the money. we have both premises handed out to us and have only to draw the conclusion. This type of reasoning is common. and your reasoning process will be slow and probably lead only to indefinite conclusions. he is so positive in his opinions ". and is M is the occupation that gives the money. If we see a person making a great success of anything.

the really useful major re- premise may lie dormant. and often the Finding the minor premise if minor premise the first to be found and in turn recalls the appropriate is major premise. in picking out the useful minor premises. success. The reasoner this. knowledge. . and you fail to observe the significant fact about the problem. The efficient reasoner must be a good (c) guesser. known and retained but not called. The " clear and steady mental eye ". Some persons with abundant knowledge are ineffective reasoners from lack of a sense for probability. in less figurative lan- guage. in is order to see the conclusion that implicated in the premises. '479 memory are important in reasoning. fails.REASONING Experience. or to extraneous features of the situation. amounts to the same as sagacity In problem solu- you have to find both of is your premises. false leads. a matter of observation. to get the conclusion. means the ability to check hasty responses to either premise alone. though they do not by any means guarantee (b) The ". so as to insure that " unitary response " to the combination of premises which constitutes the perceptive act of inference. needs a clear and steady mental eye. Without he falls into confusion and fallacy. while false clues suggest inapplicable major premises and give birth to plenty of reasoning but all to no purpose.detective instinct " for finding the right clues. and rejecting tion. or with the premises both before him.

Attempt to 6. but some bivalves are atherogenous. Outline the chapter. 325-371. (f) If no prunes are atherogenous. pp. . What causes tend to arouse belief. 1910. how much does the stamp cost? riddle: "Sisters and brothers have I none. How is it that superstitions such as that of Friday being an unlucky day persist? What would be the scientific way of testing such a belief? 5.480 PSYCHOLOGY EXERCISES 1. and what to arouse doubt? Introspective study of the process of thinking. no matter how hard it is thrown. II.00 more than the stamp. Vol. 1890. 4. How We Think. solve some of the following problems. Give a concrete instance of reasoning belonging under each of the types mentioned in the text. (a) What is it that has four fingers and a thumb. and the book costs $1. but no flesh or bone? (b) Why does the full moon rise about sunset? (c) If a book and a postage stamp together cost $1. and write down what you can observe of the process. Principles of Psychology.02. can you conclude that some prunes are (d) A not bivalves? (g) Deduce." (e) Prove that a ball thrown horizontally over level ground will strike tbe ground at the same time. yet this man's father is my father's son . REFERENCES William James. In what respects does the animal's solution of a problem fall short of reasoning? 3. the opinion of you held by some other person. as impersonally as possible. John Dewey. 2.

the designing of a work of engineering. turns it about and examines if it on sides. From discovery we now turn of from explora- tion to manipulation. while on the other hand manipulation of an object brings to light facts about it that could never be discovered by simple examinaInvention is based on science and also contributes to tion. which we have examined under the headings of perception and reasoning. must be known to be manipulated. Exploration seeks the facts as they exist. the invention of a new machine. Manipulation and exploration certainly go hand in the little child's behavior. The baby it picks all it up is hand new it toy. in his the advance of science. to the elaborate scientific procedure fol- lowed nature. 481 drops and pleased . as well as earlier under attention.CHAPTEK XIX IMAGINATION MENTAL AS DISTINGUISHED FROM MOTOE MANIPULATION to invention. since facts The two enterprises go hand in hand. in testing hypotheses and discovering the laws of Inventive or manipulative activity runs a similar gamut from the child's play with his toys to the creation of a work of art. while invention modifies or rearranges the facts. shakes and is pleased makes a noise. and manipula- tion changes to something else. however. The human enterprise exploration. or the organization of a new government. runs the gamut from simple exploratory movements of the sense organs in look- ing and listening. The distinction between the two lines of activity is that exploration seeks what it is there.

or he gives a fantastic ac- count of the doings of his acquaintances. assembling dolls and toy animals into " families " or " parties ". The child learns to manage A second line of development in the direction of conto- structiveness. Taking things apart and putting them gether. This might be spoken of as " manipulating things according to the meanings attached to them ". building blocks. The little boy puts together a row of blocks and pushes it along the floor. little later than make-believe to is make its ap- pearance in the child story-tellimg. The little girl lays her doll carefully in bed. This is manipulation. are examples of tion. turning. ject to manipulate according to the meaning attached to in story-telling he simply talks about persons in his story. certainly. pushing. to One is line of development leads his toys better. but way of exploring the properties of the toy. saying " My baby's sick that big dog did bite him " . Make-believe is a third direction followed in the development of manipulation. shaking and dropping of objects. For this he is sometimes accused of being a " little liar " as indeed he — .482 with its it is PSYCHOLOGY bang on the also a floor. and things and makes them perform less into He comes breath- the house with a harrowing tale of being pursued in the by a hippopotamus woods . and the doll as a sick baby. Beginnings of Imagination in the Child Beginning with grasping. asserting that it is its a train of cars. the fourth type of Where in make-believe he has an actual obit. pulling. the blocks being treated as cars. this style of manipulaseeing which in calls less for manual dexterity than for ways which objects can be rearranged. the child's manipulation develops in several directions. manual skill. Perhaps a manipulation. setting table or arranging toy chairs in a room.

In storytelling the objects manipulated are simply thought of. he can shoulder his toy gun and campaign all about the — . story-telling are a great conven- Both make-believe and ience to the child. mind in rangements. blocked by the opposition of other people. has her own " home work " cises. Unable to go hunting in the woods. or mental manipulation. in make-believe. the attached inecmings are the important and in construction there is apt to be a plam. and her own graduation exer- Preliminary Definition op Imagination In such ways as we have been describing.telling. though there is actual motor manipulation of present objects. in advance of the motor manipulation. The little girl of four years. hearing her older brothers and sisters talk of their school. he can play hunt in the yard unable to go to war with the real soldiers. and his story. which no one objects to. as when you look at the furniture in a room and consider possible rearmatter .IMAGINATION 483 probably is when circumstances demand and sometimes. neighborhood. he is described as being still unable to distinguish observation from imagination. but really what he has not yet grasped is the social difference between his makebelieve. the little child shows " imagination ". more charitably. He thus finds an outlet for tendencies that are blocked in sober reality ^blocked by the limitations of his environment. in " joggity ". which — may lead people astray. The materials manipulated in imagination are usually facts previously perceived. since he late big is able by their means to manipuand important objects that he could not manage in sober reality. and to be available for mental . blocked by his own weakness and lack of knowledge and skill.

. But the study of response breaks tions. " Imagination " and " invention " mean very much the same mental process. as the simpler. Controlled imagination seen in planning and designing. These are but rough distinctions do a little and definitions we shall try to better after we have examined a variety of imaginative performances. with no fixed aim. free imagination occurs in moments of relaxation. and imagination in putting facts into new relationships. but they are not merely recalled that —they are rearranged and give a new A is result may never have been perceived. like association and like attention. which is a product having some degree of novelty and originality. and what the response? These are the fundamental questions. posed of but man and is mermaid of woman and in being Imagination it differs like reasoning in being a mental reaction from reasoning . up into three subordinate quesis regarding the tendency that awakened. What is the stimulus. is some- Controlled imagina- tion is directed towards the accomplishment of some de- sired result. Our study will have more point if we first remind ourselves what are the psychological problems to be attacked in studying any mental activity. will be consid- first. regarding the . The free variety.484 PSYCHOLOGY manipulation they must now be recalled. manipulation rather than exploration reasoning consists in seeing relationships that exist between facts. while free imagination wanders this way and is that. times free. and " invention " more to the outcome of the process. and may be called " play of the imagination ered ". Imagination. though " imagination " looks rather to the mental process itself. and sometimes controlled. as a centaur comfish. typical product different is of imagination composed of parts perceived at horse. or a times and later recalled and combined.

free invention and ask our questions regarding What are the child's play-stimuli (toys). he has constantly to adapt himself to new conditions as or invention. The stimulus consists of the facts. the great question as to how any one can possibly escape from the beaten track of instinct the question and habit. and do anything new. what end-results does he reach. result is as to more precise question regarding the endwhat kind of combinations or new relation- ships are given to the facts —both pretty difBcult questions. to fit the materials he has to play with. and the end- result as the placing of facts into ' new combinations or re- lationships. as mental manipulation. a general way. and regarding the often complex or series of responses. This last question. 485 'process. Play Free imagination was spoken of a moment ago as a kind of play. how does he manipulate them. then. and what satisfaction does he derive from play- . the game-situation changes.IMAGINATION end-resvlt obtained. that leads to the end-result. The more prethat are now freshly related or combined. very simple ones of course. but even when he is playing a regular game. as the first We may take the child's play and simplest case of it. is In regard to process. usually if not always. as to what sort of facts tive make us respond the in an inventive or imagina- way and . contains an element of imagirration Sometimes the child makes up new games. as to why we imagine. and we might turn this about and say that play. cise question regarding the stimulus is. either perceived at the moment or recalled from past perception. and in regard to tendency is as to what motives are awakened in inventive activity and what satisfaction there is in the end-result. The response in in imagination we have already defined. is about the easiest to answer.

fire-cracker. for a plaything. sled. which shall actually arouse the play response? First. jumping. skipping. But the surest stimulus is a new toy. swing. rocking: horse. dancing. it is However. What is a toy? Anything to play with. that they have conceived of all play as a sort of rehearsal for the serious business of life. Noise-makers rattle. the element of novelty and variety being important in arousing manipulation as in arousing exploration. by adults. vaulting. and about the only way list progress further is of toys. and classify them from the psychological point of the following classes of play-stimuli: Little models of articles used Thus we get furniture. fails to to satisfy the spirit of inquiry. and almost anything that he can move serves. or that move you in unusual ways. one time or another. somersault. Things that increase your speed of locomotion. of their sports seem aimed at securing a it. skate. view. such as tools. drum. Here belong also such sports as hopping. merry-go-round. but it is not so sure that we can answer them. and we might include here dolls and toy animals. bell.486 ing? . to define a toy simply if as something moveable. whistle. The child's response to this class of toys is imiSome psychologists have been so much impressed illus- with the imitative play of children and animals (as trated by puppies playing fight). but this conception does not apply very weU to some of the other sorts of toy. and also new to make a long possible. skipping dizzy rope. whirling. horn. seesaw. as bicycle. dishes . But what characteristics of an object make it a real toy. The sensation resulting from stimulation of the semicircular canals is evidently pleasant to young children. leapfrog. tative. it must be such that the child can move it. and some good measure of . PSYCHOLOGY We can ask these questions.

tops that balance while they spin. balls to throw or bat. which nearly every one. Things that balancing. mechanical toys. prisoner's base. : Here we have a host kites. water taps to turn on or Plastic materials. what is the play response? It consists in manipulating or managing the plaything so as The hoop is made to to produce some interesting result. since the presence of a playmate often the strongest stimulus to arouse play. that balance while they arrows shot high into the sky climbing. mud.IMAGINATION 487 Things that increase your radius of action. damp sand. . bow and arrow. boats. the horn is sounded. the blocks are built into a tower or knocked down with a crash. the bicycle here as well as in the preceding class. the mud is made into a " pie ". Things that move in surprising ways or that are automatic: toy windmills. soaring. roll. a door to swing or to hook and unhook. and other ma- that can be worked in some way. escape) : tag. floating. rockets. mirror used to throw sunlight into a distant person's eyes and we might include . soap bubbles. hide-and-seek. walking on the fence. swinging. load or build. terials off^ (specially on). resist the force of gravity. playmates should really be included in a is list of playthings. the kite to fly. water to fire. snow. Things that can be opened and shut or readjusted in some similar way: a book to turn the leaves of. Many games are variations on pursuit and cap- Such being the stimulus. as paper to tear splash or pour. a bag or box to pack or unpack. blind . hoops roll. likes to manage. ascending. swimming. or that can be made balls to behave in this way. stones or blocks to pile. of toys and sports balloons. seesaw again. ture (oi. and we might add here or fold. Finally. child or adult. the arrow to hit something at a distance. that bounce. sling. instead of falling.

boxing. Another gen- . quoits. snowballing are variations on man's buif. In the "kissing games" that used to be common in dancing was frowned upon. In the games that imitate pursuit and escape. as in baseball The Play Motives Now. Mental acuteness appears as in chess and many games of Many games combine several of the elements men- we have action at a distance. and we might include chess and checkers here. cat's cradle. football.'' What is instincts or interests are thrown into activity ? stinct " that furnishes There all no one single " play in- the satisfaction. Many games dif- emphasize motor as skipping ropes. in adult games we find here golf. as well cards. some of the joy of hunting and some of the joy of escape are awakened. billiards. shooting. knife. what is the sense of games and toys. This element of manual all enters of in course into nearly games. tioned. of which instances have already been cited from children's toys skill. In fact.488 PSYCHOLOGY Wrestling. and a chance for " head work ". what satis- factions do they provide. some of the joy of fighting is experienced. even though no real anger develops. some grati- undoubtedly present . but dancing also gives a chance for muscular activity which is obviously one source of satisfaction in the more active games. A great many are variations on ac- tion at a distance. motor skill and activity. pursuit and escape. the guessing games. and fication of the sex instinct is young people's parties when in dancing itself. ing. attack and defense. croquet. bowling. skill usually however with competition in ferent between the skill players. joy in motor activity must be counted as one of the most general sources of play-satisfaction. . but conceivably is tapped In the games that imitate fight- every natural and acquired source of satisfaction in one play or another.

akin to the mere joy in motor activity. climbing. Probably the thrill itself would not be worth much.. with which we began deserves first this whole discussion. though you know that the danger is not very real. The joy of escape more than pays for The fear instinct the momentary unpleasantness of fear. yet a great fear. swimming. little The " escape motive " Though you would say at seek fear. many amusements are based on The " of the chutes ". having no positive contribution to make to human satisfaction. which we see dancing as well as in nearly all games and sports. to be sure.IMAGINATION eral element 489 is the love of social activity. is Competi- one form of self-assertion. The nation of gambling and of taking various risks probably comes from the satisfaction of the fear and escape motive. it is highly satisfactory. Nothing could be much further from the truth than to consider fear as a purely negative thing. and that is why the sport exciting and worth while.. He has his fear in check. of utilized in a tremendous number games and sports. Either the players compete . etc. is utilized also in coasting on the snow. Anin other. If he but the skilful player escapes by his own efforts. all or any adventurous sport. thought that no one could not possibly be util- and that this instinct could ized in play. it is the self-assertive or mas- terful tendency that comes in oftenest in play. " scenic railways ". lost control is he would get a tumble . . of all the " instincts ". but being quickly followed by escape. You get some of the thrill of danger. is the love of manipulation. in of which there is danger. Though we try to arrange the serious affairs of possible. But tion. in play life so as to avoid danger as much as we seek fasci- such dangers as we can escape by skilful work. " roller coasters ". amusement parks would have no attraction if they had no thriU and the thrill means fear. a more notice. but it is awakened enough to make the escape from danger interesting.

is he comes to ride a bicycle. in make-believe. and so being master of a larger environment. you have the satisfaction of having done is weU. ! pressing his feelings after each fresh advance in the mas- tery of his playthings. of those toys that enable you to act at a distance. and very pleased he is with himself when he can make " See what 1 can do " is the child's way of exit speak. . and it makes them feel important to do tant they what the grown-ups do you can observe how imporfeel by the way they strut and swagger. I remember. Children play at being grown-up. . and to see our apple go sailing over a tall tree or striking the ground All in the distance. whether by wearing long dresses or by smoking. minister to the mastery impulse. but wants to blow it himself. the mastery satisfaction in its non-competitiye When the baby gets a horn. the ap- thrown to extraordinary distances. is Great hanced any joy when. which form. " Though I did not win. for the game may have been worth while. gave a very satisfying sense of power.490 PSYCHOLOGY and compete as teams. is as Individuals. As boys. Imitative play does the same.. which was simply a a green apple. in that it enables the child to perform. he is not contented to have somebody else blow it for him. sharpened at one end to hold With one's arm thus lengthened. Yet it is not the whole thing. we used to take great delight in the " apple thrower ". himself. and the sense of power in this case en- by covering distance easily. is Great is the joy of the boy when fly. the like to important deeds of adults. can make his top spin or his kite one's and great the girl's joy when she gets the knack of skipping a rope. or to move rapidly. after his first floundering. Provided you can say. even if you lose. I played a good game ". or they " choose sides " No one can deny that the joy of winning the high light in the satisfaction of play. he. ple could be flexible stick.

either and usually there is a competitor . to be a kite. Perhaps the fire is empathy of a similar sort. As " sympathy " means " feeling with ". if it is our kite and we are flying it. a balloon or aeroplane. and similarly we like to watch a hawk. " empathy " means " feeling into".IMAGINATION All in all. We like also to watch things that balance or float or in other ways seem to be superior to the force of gravity. some of the sense of power and freedom that seems appropriate to the behavior of a nation of fire is kite. it slaves of the force of gravity. and all the time bound and limited by it — while the kite soars aloft in apparent defiance of course it all such laws and limitations. and . and the idea is that the observer projects himself into the object observed. kite flying? Why do we like a Of course. would it some of the satisfaction from watching an object that he Would it not be grand not be masterful? Here we stand. Of by emfasci- pathy. Why should such things fascinate us? Perhaps because of empathy. for power. there. sometimes toying with for a moment when we take a dive or a coast. the mastery impulse is directly aroused and gratified. the " feeling oneself into " the object contemplated. and gets would get from being that object. to beat. it fascinates us. a rocket. really or in make-believe manage often by doing something big. but we also like to watch a kite flown by some one else. at other times having to struggle against it for our very lives. Having thus found the mastery impulse here. 491 there are several different ways of gratifying the self-assertive or mastery impulse in play: always there is the toy or game-situation to master and is self-importance gratified . Empathy There is still another possible way in which play to may see gratify the mastery impulse. since watching gives us.

which we saw to be irreducible to instinctive tendencies likes and it may bring in acquired and interests developed out of these native likes. as is seen in the satisfaction the players derive from good team work. " Look you We have discovered the one and only play motive. himself with the team. for play may ^ bring in the native " likes and dislikes ". 180. he posing team an outlet for his mastery impulse. . and the importance of the mere joy in muscular and mental activity. is none other than the instinct of self-assertion Thus we its should be forgetting the importance in play of danger and the escape motive. which ". and of children's sing-song games can scarcely be traced to any of the instincts. interesting Play gives rise to situations that are and attractive to the players. stincts. it is Further. The rhythm of dancing. and at the same time petition it and not simply for goes beyond comIt is and self-assertion. very doubtful whether the whole satisfaction of play activity can be traced to the instincts. The sociability of games goes beyond mere gregariousness.492 PSYCHOLOGY almost everywhere in the realm of play. and the almost universal presence of the gre- garious and other social motives. . we are tempted to assume a masterful attitude ourselves and say. Play gratifies many in- not merely a single one. the importance of manipulation for own sake. and therefore the still See p. since it calls for acting together being together. rather. individual player does true that the not lay aside his self-assertion in identifies becoming a loyal member of a team. marching. the occasional presence of sex attraction. Also. and finds in competition with the op- But at the same time it is obvious that self-assertion would be fully gratified 1 more by man-to-man contests. anyway. though the attraction cannot be traced to any of the instincts. we should be overlooking the occasional presence of laughter.

— — child's play. — A A typically looks toward the future. . and just as a thoroughly frightened passenger spoils a trip down the rapids. but merely play of imagination. not facts are not simply recalled but are rearranged or built daydream together into a story or " castle " or scheme. but simply a passing from one recalled fact to another. Day Dreams Daydreaming tive is a sort of play. The fact seems to be that coordinated group activity is an independent source of satisfaction. where makes you think of B and B of C. If we ask the same questions here as we did regarding doing. we find again that it is easier to define the end- result it is and the source of satisfaction in daydreaming than to define the stimulus or the exact nature of the imagi- native process.IMAGINATION 493 usual preference of a group of people for " choosing sides " shows the workings of some other motive than self-assertion. In imaginative daydreaming. The but they must not be too active. and dependent on motives that cannot wholly be analyzed in terms of the instincts. just as an angry player spoils a friendly wrestling match or snowball fight. only. and so on this is exactly daydreaming. he spoils the game. as in the instances cited under free association. for human play is meant to be simply thrilling. as a plan for possible which it is not a serious plan for the future would be controlled imagination nor necessarily a plan which could work in real life. no castle in the air nor other construction. If the self-assertive impulse of an individual player is too strongly aroused. an activity carried on well above the in- stinctive level. since there is no " dream ". which was instincts are active in play. Simply letting the mind run. more distinctly imagina- than most other play.

" Her dream at this point became so absorbing as to get hold of the motor system and call out the actual toss of the head but we are not after the moral just now. is but some one closely identified with himself. and also be judged from the absorption of the dreamer in his dream. kind of imagination. Sometimes the hero is not the dreamer's self. and the desire gratified is very often some variety of self-assertion. cap. we care simply for the dream as a very true sample of many. and with the money buy a hen. Such dreams are a means of getting for the moment the satisfaction of some desire. that hero is from an examination of the end-results of this Daydreams usually have a hero. as misunderstood by his best ill-treated by his family. jilted by his best girl. so that the mastery motive is evidently finding satisfaction here as well as in other forms Probably the conquering hero dream is the commoner and healthier variety. without the trouble of real execution. of play. but I shall spurn them all with a toss of the head. Sometimes one is the conquering hero. for which I will buy me a dress and Then the young men will wish to dance with me. for why should any one picture himself as friends. what satisfaction can that .494 PSYCHOLOGY as can Daydreams have some motive force behind them. worth so much. having a bad time. but in both cases the recognized or unrecognized merit of oneself is the big fact in the story. and sometimes the suffering hero. and usually the dreamer's self. unsuc- cessful in his pet schemes? lieve Why should any one make be- to be worse off than he is. milk she had been given. A classical example is that of the milkmaid who was carrying on her head a pail of " I'll sell this milk for so much. The hen will lay so many eggs. many daydreams. The " suffering hero " daydream seems at first thought inexplicable. The mother and prone to make her son the hero of daydreams so to gratify her pride in him.

and he restores it by imag- ining himself a great. important sinner instead of a In adolescence. a veritable desperado. but so deeply wronged as to be an important person. and animated by the noblest intentions. It was a very little slight. with the apparent aim of enhancing their own importance. their own ailments. and thus importance and recognition is gratified by my demand my daydream. more important than you. Then I should not be ridiculous. and I should make myself ridiculous if I showed my resentment." My cut being more important than your scratch makes me. be so pig-headedly complacent when they know they won't have driven him to the bad. and he rebelliously plans He'll show them They quite a career of crime for himself. I've got a real deep cut. one would say. one to be talked about. growing demand for independence is often balked by the continued domination of his elders. Perhaps the same sort of motive underlies the suffering hero daydream. but someIt times he takes the other tack and pictures himself as wicked —but may little very. the individual's small and ridiculous one. I am smarting. big. 495 Certainly. the mastery motive And yet boasting of their misfortunes ? tle do we not hear children " Pooh That's only a lit! — scratch. ful state of affairs. from a slight administered by my friend my wounded self-assertion demands satisfaction. for Usually the suffering hero pictures himself as in the right. be his self-esteem has been wounded by blame for some meanness or disobedience. very wicked. in which my friend has treated me very badly indeed. You can tell by the looks of ! . and gives me a chance to boast Older people are known sometimes to magnify over you. though misunderstood. But in imagination I magnify the injury done me. for the moment.IMAGINATION be to him? could not be active here. and go on to picture a dread. let us suppose. and perhaps deserted me. and thus further enhances as his self-esteem .

in one way or another.496 PSYCHOLOGY is a person whose feelings are hurt that he thing. taking is the place of a fight or some other active self-assertion. our friend the milkmaid would not have been so ready to scorn the young men with a toss of the head if she had not been feeling her own actual inferiority and lack of fine clothes. for actual inability to get what we desire. She is very fond of a good laugh. etc. by making up music in his head. self- but when one is in love it is apt to belong under sort that head. and may amuse moments. he himself. in order of frequency. take mankind as a whole. etc. a music lover may mentally rehearse a piece when he has no actual music to enjoy. illustrated by the young person who suddenly breaks into a laugh and when you ask why replies that she was thinking how funny it would be if. usually he is imagining some- imagining himself either a martyr or a desperado. and cer- tainly involves wounded self-assertion along with the sexual impulse. is There the But there are many humor daydream. if he has some power of musical invention. or some other kind of suffering hero. Probably the self-asserting daydream is the commonest variety. The desire which is gratified in the play of imagination belongs very often indeed under the general head of assertion . Love dreams of the agreeable need no further motivation. The conquering hero daydream is often motivated in the same way. his self- esteem restored. jealous type of love dream is at the same time a suffering hero dream. The daydream makes good.. with the love dream next other sorts. The suffering hero daydream is a " substitute reaction ". he ready to be friends again. for example. when. just as one who has some ability in decorative design may fill his idle moments by concocting new designs on paper. So. in idle . and not having anything laughable actually at hand proceeds to imagine something. but the unpleasant. often working up into a conquering hero in the end.

IMAGINATION When 497 vacation time approaches. Well did not the worry perhaps conceal a So he would wish. as we have amusements utiland escape motive? Yes. young man. Yet. She goes on a railroad journey without him ^just an ordinary this extreme case. has a strong desire to break loose and be an independent unit in the world. to keep the thoughts from dweUing on the good times ahead. figuring out how he could an alibi or otherwise prove his innocence. student or professor. in spite of all appearance.? be set free without any painful effort on his part. and he away he is be wrecked. " tied to the apronand too domineering mother. — . and getting some advance satisfaction. it is hard for any one. Worry Do we izing the fear have fear daydreams. forced upon us and not indulged in as most daydreams are. being much attached to his mother. it cannot be said to be forced upon a person. sometimes we imag- ine ourselves in danger and plan out an escape. One is indi- vidual often amuses himself by imagining he arrested establish and accused of some crime. but must have some motive. But fear daydreams also include worry. and. but at the same time. Some abnormal cases of worry suggest the theory that Take the fear is but a cloak for unacknowledged desire. A strings " of a too affectionate journey with no special danger —but — all the time she is in an agony of suspense lest the train may Such an abnormal degree of worry calls for explanation. which seems at first to be an altogether unpleasant state of mind. Thus all kinds of desires are gratified in imagina- tion. as the worry is often entirely needless. he is horrified by this desire. There must be some satisfaction in it. a wish that the train might be wrecked.

A student worries unnecessarily about an examination therefore. Worry has done tion. we take such extreme cases as typical and all cynically apply this conception to worries. Thus. The psychopathologist who studied the case concluded that this was really the explanation of the worry.498 PSYCHOLOGY was a young man who shrank from all effort. for it it is is the child that loved that worried and the examination that the student specially wishes to pass that he fears he has flunked. except in imagina. he desires to fail. because her child late in getting she wants to be rid of that child. If. now there is nothing to do except wait. so that the rational course would be to dismiss the matter from his mind . however. by being too psyconclusions in everyis chopathological. if the mother really believed her child had fallen into the pond. Worry is fundamentally due to the necessity of do- ing something with any matter that occupies our mind. . tion. then the only thing he can do is to speculate and worry. all he can do he has prepared for the examinaand he has taken the examination. So also the mother. in is her uncertainty regarding her child. she remains at home. The student . it is an imaginative substitute for real action. but by conjuring up imaginary dangers she is getting ready to make his home-coming a great relief instead . we reach many absurd is day over. taking the place when no real action is possible. we shall make many ries mistakes. impelled to action. is A mother wor. but while she is worrying for fear he may have fallen in. but must do something. and if she knew of any real thing to do she would do it and not worry but there is nothing to do. home therefore. Really she expects to see him come home any minute. But worry may be something of an indoor sport Consider this — as well. life . she would rush to pull him out. if he cannot accomplish that. is of real action a sort of substitute reaction.

merely dreams of winning her. and all that sort of delicate and complex activity. good judgment. charm himself with imagining the good opportunities that may turn up. decorum. the scenes being shifted in the middle of a . getting the thrill of danger with escape fully expected. to worry over. consistency is thrown to the winds. like Micawber. can go on. beauty. He is conjures up imaginary dangers imagination. or at other times when sleep is light. All this abuse of Dbeams Let us turn now from daydreams to dreams of the night. Most of the dreams that are coherent enough to be recalled probably occur just after we have gone to sleep or just before we wake up. reasoning. In sleep the cortical brain functions sink to a low level. At such times the simpler and more practised functions. such as recall of images. Daytime standards of probability.from her and . may take In- refuge in daydreams as a substitute for real doing. do not occur. He substitutes imaginary life. he shyly keeps away. amusement of an idle moment and promptly forgets But one who is lacking in force. even freer from control and criticism than the daydream. especially the per- sonal force needed in dealing with other people. wit. The normal time is for a daydream is the time when there uses it no real act to be performed. situations for the real facts of his and gratifies his mastery motive by imaginary exploits. Instead of going and making love to the lady of his choice. stead of hustling for the money he needs he may. These also are play of imagination.IMAGINATION of a mere 499 humdrum matter. She is " shooting the chutes ". and perhaps cease altogether in the deepest sleep. He invents imag- inary ailments to excuse his lack of real deeds. though criticism. A strong man as the it. and excellence of any sort are in abeyance.

with blending of the recalled material. last. and thus things from different sources get together in the same dream scene. dream in relation This was a dream resembles a daybeing a train of thoughts and images without much to present sensory stimuli.m. like the alarm clock or a stomach ache and in this case the dream . and a character who In waking object reminds me of another person. hold our images apart. I know. speech. In sleep the same recall by association occurs. that the sun false perception. the A Day more grotesquely false than most illusions of the boy wakes up one June morning from a dream of of Judgement. ception.500 PSYCHOLOGY who starts in as one person mergelse.that the image is an image. is which the dream responds. is about —only shining in his trump pealing forth to find. What is the stimulus. and then the dream More often. Sometimes there comes under the definition of an illusion. in that materials recalled from different contexts are put together into combinations and rearrangements never before experienced. describes the process of dreaming. The combinations are often bizarre and incongruous. but the image is forthwith accepted as real. a . Perhaps the most striking characteristic of dreams is their seeming reality while they ity during sleep.'' an actual sensory stimulus. because of the absence of critical abillife. and I know I have thought of two different things. reminds us of another person forthwith becomes that other We are not mentally active enough in sleep to Associative recall. it is a false per- day. and with entire absence of to criti- cism. They seem real in spite of their incongruity. and a character ing presently into somebody Dreams follow the defi- nition of imagination or invention. with the last all and blinding radiance awake. when the sight of one and calls up an image of that other. when fully face and the brickyard whistle blowing the hour of four-thirty a.

A boy dreams repeatedly is of finding whole barrels of as- sorted jackknives. so that finally he questions the reality of the dream. They are " wish-fulfilling ". why to the is a dream? What satisfaction does it bring we say that it is merely a mechanical play of association. and then a quarter close by. . ess. otherwise not very emotional but distinctly interesting.IMAGINATION illusion. dreamer? shall Or sometimes angry. the dreamer. so that to have a then. many people hate dream broken up by awaking. but pinching himself (in the dream) concludes he must be awake this time. . An adult frequently dreams of finding money. in her dream this took the form of a messenger from her publisher. with no motivation behind it? Dreams are interesting while they last. Such dreams are obvitill he wakes up and spoils it all. was awakened from a feverish dream of the French Revolution by something falling on his neck this. Now. Maury. reciting some- thing about a contract which seemed a little disturbing but which she hoped (in the 4ream) would not interfere with her vacation. soon to be considered. and bitterly disappointed every time to awake and find the knives gone. 501 would come under the definition of hallucination instead of Sometimes a sensory stimulus breaks in upon a dream is in progress. was in the In one experiment. he took to be the guillotine. first a nickel in the dust. an early student of this topic. to borrow a term from Freud's theory of dreams. It seems likely. who was an authormidst of a dream in which she was discussing vacation plans with a party of friends. that dreams are like daydreams in affording gratifi- cation to desires. and is interpreted in the light of this that dream. and then more and more. when the experimenter disturbed her by declaiming a poem . under the circumstances. sometimes amorous. sometimes fearful.

The next night he dreamed of hand and reading the sign. car making off^ and who saw one day a street what seemed to him a queer direction. etc. as are also the sex dreams of sexually abstinent persons. left unsatisfied in the day. air. or the polar explorer's recurring fields. " What a man all hath. tion. why doth he yet dream about. In this uncomfortable situation he dropped asleep and dreamed that he had the seat next to the window. dream of warm. Desire for food. as in the case of an dividual. have been exemplified live in in dreams already in- Curiosity may be the motive. so it that he wondered where seeing the car near at could be going and tried unsuc- cessfully to read its sign. though really consisting of nonsense names. and this is . cited. having just come to in Boston. with the window closed and himself wedged in tightly far from the window. can be detected also in many sleep dreams. The mastery motive. may motivate a dream. satisfied his curiosity during the dream.502 PSYCHOLOGY ously wish-fulfilling. do not demand satisfaction in dreams that its is but any tendency in a dream. In these cases the wish gratified in the dream is one that has been left unsatisfied in the daytime.according to the famous passage. sex gratifica- money. warmth. slightly paraphrased. We seldom dream of our regular work. who. or the feasting dreams of starving persons. green An eminent psychologist has given a good account of a dream which he had while riding in an overcrowded compartment of a European train. had the window open and was looking out at a beautiful landscape. unless for some reason we are disturbed over it.. There are dreams in . which. aroused during the day without being able to reach is conclusion likely to come to the surface Any sort of desire or need. was much interested in its topography. The tendencies that are satisfied during the day .'' " The newly married couple do not dream of each other. so prominent in daydreams.

as one thing suggests another. which turn out when recalled next day to be utterly most beautiful music. being short on criticism. immediately he struck by lightning and knocked down in the street . fered and the wish involved was. The gliding or flying dream. looks is up and a thunderstorm impending. and certainly able. running to cover suggested a thunderstorm. has no firm hold on " may be " and " might be ". One dream which at first thought cannot be wish-fulfilling perhaps belongs under the mastery motive: The dreamer -sees sees people scurrying to cover. any man who could take lightning that way would be proud to wear the scar. but which probably amounted to nothing. as often. which many people have had. or step with ease from the street upon the second-story balcony. Now. flat.IMAGINATION which we do big things or improvise the recall 503 — tell excruciatingly funny jokes. in it gives you a sense of power and freedom to be a dream. the pulse. however. the best sort of baseball. and that suggested that " I might get struck ". self-assertive im- This last dream another moral. which we never can with any precision. for pointing need not suppose that the dreamer was aiming at the denouement from the beginning of the dream. So the dream was wish-fulfilling. as it would in the daytime. but he finds he can rise and walk home. or play. The thought of being struck So we do not need to being struck. in a dream. Now. Dreams have no plot in most instances . reminds one of the numerous toys and sports in which defiance of gravity is the motive . the dream mentality. to glide gracefully up a flight of stairs. suppose that the dreamer pictured himself as struck by is lightning in order to have the satisfaction of coming off . is a good one. they just drift We The sight of people along. but slides directly into the present indicative. and seems to have suf- no harm except for a black blotch around one eye.

There are fear dreams. holdsequences are realized.. i. or tigers. officer suffering The war strain. though not avowing this wish even to himself. all they would have also to hold that the child. dreams repeatedly of encountering a mass of snakes and is very much Another child dreams of wolves frightened in his sleep. who of people is the most subject to terrifying dreams. A person who has been guilty of an act from which bad consequences are possible dreams that those eon- from nervous had nightmares in which Since Freud he was attacked and worsted by the enemy. often ing that here. as well as pleasant. fit A large share of dreams does not any of the the classes already described. as well as wish dreams. facilitating certain outcomes others. the fear positive desire. and they would be worth going to see be reproduced and put on the stage. This would be pushing consistency rather far. as in worry. A child who is afraid of snakes and constantly on the alert against them when out in the fields during the day. they could Isn't that sufficient .e. but the mastery motive and other easily awakened desires act as a sort of bias. or " shell shock ". is but a cloak for a some of his followers have endeavored to interpret these shell-shock nightmares as meaning a desire to be killed and so escape from the strain. and it is better to admit that there are real fear dreams.S04 whole and bragging course of a dream PSYCHOLOGY o'f the exploit. favored by indigestion or nervous strain. has never admitted that dreams could be fear-motived. and inhibiting But there are unpleasant dreams. To be consistent. In large measure the is determined by free association. but sometimes occurring simply by the thing recall of a fear-stimulus in the same way that anyeasily into is recalled. through association. secretly desires death. They seem too fantastic to have any personal meaning. Yet they are interesting to if dreamer.

in the main. that are unconscious because they have been suppressed The Unconscious. and because of the vividness of dream imagery? Freud's Theory op Dreams Just at this point we part company with Freud. according to Freud. peaceably leave the system but presses a wish. The Freudian would shake in that dream. he may be brought to realize that his dream is the symbolic expression of wishes ". and say. who is a specialist -in all matters pertaining to the Unconscious. but under the guidance of the psychoanalyst. there is a bolisms. this point. control or tendency.IMAGINATION 505 excuse for them? May they not be simply a free play of imagination that gives interesting results because of its very freedom from any. dreams up to Not that Freud would O Far from it. which rep- resents the moral and social standards of the individual and When the Censor suphis critical judgment generally. dealing as it does with conscious wishes and with straightforward fulfilments. it We should have to analyze by letting the dreamer dwell on each item of and asking himself what of real personal significance the stroke of lightning or the scar around the eye suggested to him. whose ideas on dreams as wish-fulfilments we have been following. He would never be able by his unaided efforts to find the unconscious wishes fulfilled in the dream. sinks to . good deal more that dream. " Oh. K our account of It would seem to him on too superficial a level altogether. it does not an unconscious state in which it is still active and Censor beliable to make itself felt in ways that get by the An abnormal worry cause they are disguised and symbolic. It has left out of account the " Unconscious " and his its sym- head at our interpretation of the lightning dream. consists of forbid- den wishes —wishes forbidden by the " Censor ".

The lightning symbolizes your father and his authority over you. You resented this. but you soon came to see (how. and on analysis that some one is found to represent your father. That lightning may stand for something much more personal. too so this whole complex and troublesome business was suppressed to the Unconscious. and that your father stood in the way. without breaking down as I always had before on similar occasions. I last time my father whipped me and — . whom you regarded as yours. you hated your father. Your sex impulse was directed towards your mother. against whom you had a standing grudge because he had usurped your place as the pet of the family. while at the same time you may have loved him. —Well. whom as a child you secretly experience of childhood it calls up. now we are on the track of something. for then the Censor sleeps and " the mice can play ". You may dream of the death of some one. which as a child you resented. You were specially resentful at your father's hold on your mother. Freud has never clearly explained) that tliis was fo5rbidden. and ask yourself what I remember the came through defiant. Let your mind play about that " being knocked down by lightning and getting up again ". but more recently suppressed . Yes. way or that some one may stand for your younger brother. These childish wishes are the core of the Unconscious and wished out of the . when you were a mere baby. they dare not show themselves in their true shape and color.506 is PSYCHOLOGY person such a disguise. help to motivate all dreams. but guise dis- themselves in innocent-appearing symbolism. " hysterical " paralysis or blindness is held by Freud to another. whence it bobs up every night in disguise. your father being a rival with an unfair advantage. In normal individuals the dream life is be the chief outlet for the suppressed wishes . a queer idea that haunts the nervous is another. Even so.

with personal desires giving • Another objection them is that Freud overdoes the Unconscious suppressed wishes are usually not so unconscious as he describes . and false to the neighbor who is also his friend. Freud has claimed the dream as his special booty. unanalyzed. first. mechanism It isn't necessary to look for big. but all that. he idly playing. Further. that of self-preservation and that of reprosatisfied wish. that fails to see how easy-running the association or recall is. which the neighbor cannot run properly. unnamed. but this is forbidden. Another very serious objection to Freud is that he overHe says there are two does the sex motive or " libido ". when we know that and his A makes you think of B^ isn't labor- and B of C. images come largely by free steer. not allowed in the waking consciousness . suppressed. and insists that edl dreams are wish-fulfilments. driving forces. with the greatest ease. he holds. while the latter very much subject much under the . but it gratifies itself symbolically in a dream is the neighbor's wife not appearing at all in the dream. most if not all dreams are fulfilments of suppressed wishes. main tendencies. since. conscious for It is not so much the unconscious wish that finds outlet in dreams and daydreams.IMAGINATION wishes 507 may may also be gratified in dream symbolism. but the neighbor's automobile instead. un- A worthy. while the dreamer manages it beautifully. they are unavowed. but that the former is ordinarily not is to suppression. and these are either sex or spite wishes. man " covet his neighbor's wife ". The wish disavowed. as he sees it. he The objection to Freud's theory of dreams is. even those that seem mere fantastic play of imagination. no mental activity could occur except to gratify some wish. mysterious. association. duction. as the un- which may be perfectly conscious. the spite wishes growing out of the interference of other people with our sex wishes. is The dreamer some ing.

and not subjected to any criticism. very stimulating and provocative of further exploration. ". PSYCHOLOGY Consequently the Unconscious consists mostly Evidently. Daydreaming. and which undoubtedly has as Freud has given an " impressionistic " picture. through much to do with dreams. while living in the world about them. by " autistic thinking itself. as a matter of fact. as it has with daydreams. but by no means to be accepted as a true and complete map of the region. by every imaginative person moments of relaxation. Freud's analis of suppressed sex wishes. indulged in in tirely of conversation. is Autistic it. it serves its purpose.508 social ban. is free imagination. is carried to an absurd extreme by some types of insane individuals. an example of what which means thinking that is is is called sufficient unto itself. childhood all is subjected to much suppression from early life. transform it into a make-believe . breaking oi¥ a spiteful or amorous dream because he thinks it had better not be indulged. enimmersed in inner imaginings. ysis of human motives very incomplete. but in this he ceases to be simply a daydreamer. One type withdraws so completely from reality as to be inaccessible in the way Autistic thinking. whether awake or It does not have to check as in it is asleep. Autistic Thinking Dreaming. which. unresponsive to anything that happens. So long at the moment and gratifies the dreamer any way. thinking gratifies some desire and that enough for it It does not submit to criticism from other persons nor from other tendencies of the individual. Sometimes the daydreamer exercises some control. He does not clearly recognize the self-assertive tendency. however. nor does itself seek to square with the real world. interesting up with any standard. Others.

the most beautiful women in creation ". to see whether it is on the whole satisfactory criticized thinking. all out of fear of him. one idea by conflicting with another idea. may not take it kindly we don't want to break . no matter how flimsy. It is impossible to argue the patient out of his delusions by pointing out to him how clearly they conflict with reality. he evades any such test by some counter-argument. One tendency gets criticized by running afoul of another tendency. fined. " thousands of them. the nurses his wives. the invention on the scrap heap. and he is kept in a weak and helpless condition. his food is poisoned. the subject imagining himself a great man by the machinations of his eneand enemy agents. and it may which the individual scrutinizes what he has imagined. in which the subject is con- royal palace. which seeks to check up with real facts also with socialized thinking. and time it gave an account of Criticism evidently demands balancing off" one desire by another. is his 509 world by attaching meanings to things and persons as suits This institution. We concoct a fine to us that he joke to play on our friend. in to himself.IMAGINATION themselves. Invention and Criticism " Criticism " it is —the word has been used itself. with our friend. the doctors are his oflBcials. Or the delusion may take the line of the " sufFering hero ". or whether it simply gratified a single or momen- tary impulse that should be balanced off by other tendencies. and so we regretfully throw our promising That is self-criticism. it may be contrasted which submits to the criticism even be contrasted with self- of other people . and sticks to his dream or make-believe. and the nurses also act suspiciously. . the doctors are spies Autistic thinking is contrasted with realistic thinking. but then the thought comes. shut in this place up mies . . repeatedly.

will not work. and draw away. that two heads are better than one in planning any invention that needs to work. who from the day he first begins to tell his about learning what childish imaginings. are quite free with their objections. he more may exert himself to find some idea that will If he command the approval of other people. his plan does not suc- and he is involved in chagrin and even pain. or. so soon as he tries to act out what he has imagined. Criticism is directed upon the individual from the side of other people. and take refuge invention sets is but the stronger indi- vidual accepts the challenge of reality. this critical reception of his ideas. self-criticism in the is plenty of criticism directed hard school of experience. before deciding ". towards autistic thinking. in autistic thinking. again. and thus again learns self-criticism. He must perforce cast this point the away his plan and think up a new one. he soon finds that social criticism can be a great help. and work and what not. so accumulating observations that later enable him to criticize his own ideas. At " weak brother " is tempted to give up trying. forcefully. but he learns without.510 PSYCHOLOGY Self-criticism is balancing off of one impulse by another. lates He accumu- knowledge of what will pass muster when presented to other people. For upon the individual from facts of the real Criticism is directed upon him by the world. who prefers to follow out any tendency that has been aroused till it reaches its goal. to " drop the matter for it a time and come back to and see whether it still looks . He sees that an not satisfactory unless will it will really work. can take rebuffs goodnaturedly. obnoxious to the natural man. the indi- Humiliated by vidual may resolve to keep them to himself for the future. before trying them out on real things. Often his invention ceed. to some extent. Self-criticism is to " sleep on it helped by such rules as to " think twice ".

The This calls to mind the old advice to writers about its being " better to compose with fury and correct with phlegm than to compose with phlegm and correct with fury ". socialized. Give invention free rein for and come around with criticism later. for example. the time being. he said. Some over-cautious and too self-critical persons. In the evening. which allow time for invention to get warmed to its task. when it takes the bit in its teeth and — — dashes off at a furious speed. its When you are it all warmed up over an recency value gives such an advantage over opposing ideas that they have no chance. or painting periods of intense activity. and lay the paper aside the feeling. is Criticism always at their elbow. cannot afford to be autistic. he would write on and on till he had exhausted the lead he was following. much of the best inventive work is done in prolonged writing. of making themselves felt in the line of criticism. The phlegmatic critical attitude interferes considerably with the enthusiastic inventive activity. For a similar reason. suggesting doubts and alternatives and preventing progress in the creative activity. though rather fertile in ideas. 5H idea. objective or social standards. for the moment. leaving criticism to trail along behind. I once heard the great psychologist. subjected It to criticism. never accomplish much in the way of invention because they cannot let themselves go. make' a remark that thrtew some light on his mode of writing. William James. instead of biding its time and coming in to inspect the completed result. but must meet Mechanical inventions must iron. work when translated into matter-of-fact wood and and . Invention in the service of art or of economic and social needs is controlled imagination. after warming up to with his subject. might not seem good at all. Good! That's good". realistic. and great writer. "Good! it next morning.IMAGINATION the same ". he said.

but you must get the " hang " of the passage for yourself. from the consumer's side. It beauty in it.512 PSYCHOLOGY also pass the social test of being of must some use. Social inventions of the order of institutions. plans of campaign. and if he has introduced a novel effect. at least on the first hearing. We have the same questions to ask regarding the en- joyment of a novel as regarding a daydream. production as well as consumption. or " Putting ourselves in the other fellow's place " for it is only — by imagination that we can thus get outside of our own experience and assume another point of view must check up with the real sentiments of other people. is Art. it may is not be easy to find any play. and you must respond by putting together the item^ in the description so as to conceive of a character you have but never met. play of the imagination. the question as to sources of satisfaction in is the enjoyment of art fundamental in the whole psychol- ogy of art. of the work of art puts the stimuli before it is you. Now. The painter groups his figures before you. not a mere repetition of some response you have often made. cial So- imagination of the very important sort suggested by the proverbs. you must get the point of the picture for yourself. but you must make the response yourself. laws. The novelist describes a character for you. with the materials conveniently presented by the artist. as art is intended to appeal to a consumer (or cnjoyer). " Seeing ourselves as others see us ". and an inventive response. The musical composer provides a series of chords. political plat- forms and slogans. — The Enjoyment The producer of Imaginative Art It requires imagination to enjoy art as well as to produce it. must " work " in the sense of bringing the desired response from the public. Novelreading is daydreaming with the materials provided by the .

they mean something. is A story that runs logical course to a tragic end interesting as a good piece of workmanship. to the sex impulse. ciety " in Cynical stories. that interests of a more objective kind are also by a good work of fiction. is The frequency is of novels in which the hero or heroine a person of high rank. has the same effect. showing the " pillars of solight.IMAGINATION 513 author. much to the Love stories appeal. of appeal to the mastery motive. a sign is or wins rank or wealth in the course of the story. The escape motive difficulty relied upon to furnish the excitement of the story. may move you almost or quite to tears. and not necessarily sad music either. when you suddenly come upon it in walking through a gallery. The appeal of art is partly emotional. " Crying because you are so happy " similar . they epitomize world-facts that compel our attention. and as an insight into the world. and set them down a peg. and gratifies the same motives. and mystery stories danger or reader's relief. A very great work of art. Beautiful music. self-esteem The humble reader tickled in his own by identifying himself for the also is time with the highborn or noble or beautiful character in the story. in that he led to apply their teaching to pretentious people whom he knows about. to his own again we have to insist. to curiosity. as under the head of sports But here and its daydreams. gratified relative advancement. We can- not heartily identify ourselves with Hamlet we should be sorry to have those figures erased from our or Othello. humorous stories to laughter. of course. Why this particular emotion should be aroused is certainly is an enigma. A novel to be really popular must have a genuine hero or heroine some one with — whom the reader can identify himself. yet memories . which always brings the hero into and finally rescues him. an ignoble appeal to the self-assertive imis pulse of the reader. the Apollo Belvedere or the Sistine Madonna.

it is tame. is In many other cases. . their emotions.514 PSYCHOLOGY itself but rather inexplicable. Art makes also an fying intellectual appeal. dral before getting the full effect . but that. The sex motive is frequently utilized in painting and sculpture as well as in literature. of this It is satis- when we remember that many great works of art require mental You must be effort in order to grasp and appreciate them. the tragic to fear and escape. partly to interest in the work- manship. and again in self-identification with the fine charac- ters portrayed. To " get the hang of " a work of art requires some effort and attention. music may be too " classiUnless. If his appeal were simply to any intellectual labor is would be a disturbing in- element. the mental activity which he de- mands from his public must contribute to- the satisfaction they derive from his works. The intellectual appeal partly to objective terests in the thing presented. and owes part of its appeal to its being a problem. It comes in once in the joy of mastering the significance of the work The mastery motive of art. is probably as important in the enjoyment of art as it is in play and dreaming. wide-awake to follow a play of Shakespeare you must puzzle out the meaning of a group painting before fully enjoying it you must study some of the detail of a Gothic cathepartly because appeal. The pathetic ap- peals straightforwardly to the grief impulse. Perhaps we do not often thihk of a fine painting or piece it is of music as a problem set us for solution. if the problem presented is too difficult for us. the artist cal " for many to grasp and follow. the humorous to the laughter impulse. then. has made a great mistake. the emo- tional appeal of art easily analyzed. the work of art is dry if too easy. as is clear . and partly to the mastery motive in the form of problem solution. . .

but the grand or sublime must be big The question is. if it is rightly proportioned. you get the feeling of strain and insecurity. what in us that responds to the appeal of the big. however interesting and attractive as it rests on the table before you. . The according to empathy. it If the pillar is load supported. thinking of mere bigness as great or size lofty cliff's. Architecture can certainly present problems for the beholder to but how can the beholder possibly identify himself with a tower or arch ? If. The most perfect miniature model of a cathedral. Look at a sive for the example. we remember the " empathy " solve. as architecture. the illimitable expanse of the demonstrate is cogently the strong appeal of the big. some forms of art. explain the appeal of the big in In spite of the warnings put forth against fine. or somehow suggest bigness. gives you the unsatisfactory impression of doing something absurdly small for your powers. tremendous waterfalls. huge banks of clouds. is made by the giant building towering above you. we must admit that makes a very strong appeal to something in human nature.IMAGINATION 515 Empathy in art enjoyment. seem incapable of making the just-mentioned double appeal to the mastery motive. not necessarily grand. beholder that we spoke of under the head of play. sea. fails to make anything like the impression that Big trees. however. unintentionally of course. At first thought. we see that the may project himself into the object. you get the feeling of a worthy task successfully accomplished. pleases you by arousing and gratifying your mastery impulse. but pillar. it is Perhaps the big then. Empathy can perhaps art and nature. If on the contrary the pillar is too slender for the load that seems to rest upon it. for his mastery too mas- impulse. grand canyons. and many other architectural effects can be interpreted in the same way. and thus perhaps get satisfaction of pillar.

tics and even such serious matters as of these it is and industry. amusement. but I soon realize that the mountain ness . This great mountain. a type in these respects of many social enterprises. affords me the joy of willing submission. of is history has pro- making its appeal more and more varied. — how to My interpretations ought to be possible from the behavior or introspection of a person in the presence of some big object. and each one appeals to a variety of different impulses. To mastery imdecide between these two opposing I feel big. pulse is It feels big gratified. then everything looks like the mastery motive. so far outclassing me that I am not tempted in the least' to compete with it. We have to think of art as a great system or collection its of inventions that owes existence to its appeal to its human Art poli- nature. According it feels to this. identifying it. Empathy myself with suggests a very different analysis. with submissiveness thrill of fear — The escape motive may come in along at the first sight of the mountain a passes over me. That is one analysis of the esthetic effect of bigness. projecting myself into the mountain. and humble and bows reverently bewe may conclude that the submissive tendency is in action. such as sport. the effect varies with the person and the occasion. but if the sight of the grand object makes him feel strong and fine. gleam comes into his eye. and that has found ways. . and the humble joy of submission.516 PSYCHOLOGY it is Perhaps the submissive tendency that is aroused. as gressed. will not hurt me in spite of its awe-inspiring vast- so that my emotion is blended of the thrill of fear. Quite possibly. Each tions that persists because a collection of invenappeals to human impulses. if he throws out his chest and a If he feels insignificant fore the object. I experience the sensation of be a mountain. the relief of escape.

astonishing to read in the of inventors what a One lot of comparatively useless contrivances they busied that he " never worked in his likes to themselves with. the really gifted inventor seems to make play of his work to a large extent. That " necessity is the mother of invention " is only half this . new We When their inventive geniuses have been requested to indicate How method. free himself of . does the musical composer. Certainly the inventive genius does not always have his eyes fixed on the financial nor on the appeal which It is his inventions are to lives make to the public. In spite of the element of control that present in pro- ductive invention. goal. in the sense that reach those ends. but he needs a kind of bility or playfulness. apparently from the pure joy of inventing. prolific writer said ". The inventor manipulate his mate- originality. just because his job is that of seeing must allow him to toy with his materials a bit. for example. life. without which the inventor would not flexi- be likely to find the answer.IMAGINATION The Psychology of Inventive Production is 517 To the consumer. they have been able to give only vague hints. is it is directed towards definite ends it and has to stand criticism according as does or does not What is true of the producer of art works true also of other inventors. and of the truth it points to the importance of a directive tend- ency. art play. sire. puts a question. and even to be a bit " temperamental ". playfulness has something to do with his by helping to keep him out of the rut. and not expect him to grind out works of art or other inventions as columns of figures are added. and we may is as well consider all sorts of controlled imagination together. things in a light. or some de- the beaten path and really invent. but to the producer it is work. but fails to show how the inventor manages to leave Necessity. only played rials.

by without a fall. He that he did not plan out this change. what is that last. We see in this experimentally studied case some of the condition. A soldier. willingness to " take a chance ". manipulating spirit was probably there.? Confidence. ing for anything of by a coordinated series of The amazing thing is that. and shift suddenly testifies from to a his habit of spelling out the new manner of writing. and left the room and getting through was naturally much encouraged and main- . without trythe kind. he made it. and "hopefulness". conditions that favor invention. is free reaction. cutting straight across the . of course the air did not really side. ful of reaction originated. enterprise. it was his come to him from outreaction. he took a chance wall. he was striving for greater speed. so wounded training. Perhaps the best-studied case of invention that of the learner in typewriting. he has been able to break away word. of which he could observe little introspectively. who. freshness.? Some of this independent. Good physical mastery of the subject. this new mode writing in the new way. and. One mornof recovery ing. striving for some result. the word no longer being spelled out. Now. after laboriously perfecting his " letter habits " or responses to single letters by appropriate finger self movements on the keyboard. but being written as a unit finger movements. as to paralyze his legs but capable had advanced far enough to hobble about with a cane and by holding to the walls. hopeand ambitious. but was surprised to find himself He was feeling well that day. Now.518 all PSYCHOLOGY the familiar pieces and bring the notes into a fresh ar- All that he can tell about it is usually that " inspiration " the new air simply came to him. while he was completely absorbed in his writing. feeling pretty chipper. he had an rangement? . but it was a quick. eagerness for action and readiness to break away from routine. may suddenly find him- writing in a new way.

one preliminary. tively few even from the middle-aged. first. is Another condition favorable to invention youth. not having as yet. tive response. bringing together materials from different past experiences. and rearranging things to suit yourself invention. was breaking away from what had become routine. and association by similarity. and invention consists in a response The two steps in invento such novel combinations of facts. and second. Typically. responding to the combination. manipulating. artistic or prac- tical. acquired the necessary masThe tery of the materials with which they have to deal. we must return to the question of definition or general description that was left open near the beginning There seem to be two steps in the invenof the chapter. have emanated from really old persons. . This play- ful spirit of cutting loose. The preliminary step brings the stimuli to bear. it is certainly a condition favorable to It does not guarantee a valuable invention. the other strictly inventive. 519 it This might be called invention. is very important as a preliminary Facts recalled from different contexts are thus brought together. Imagination Considered in Generai. period from twenty years up to forty seems to be the most favorable for inventiveness. tion are. getting a combination of stimuli. Few great inventions. boys and girls under eighteen seldom produce anything of great value. Finally. and invention is the response that follows. and comparaOn the other hand. but at least helps towards whatever invention the individual's other qualifications make possible.IMAGINATION tained this advance. to invention. Sel- dom does a very old person get outside the limits of his previous habits. and that is the essential fact about the inventive reaction. the preliminary stage consists in recall.

reactions.520 PSYCHOLOGY it Sometimes has been said that imagination consists in putting together material from different sources. . but the response goes beyond the mere togetherness of the stimuli. for example. as when you imag- how a house would it look with the evergreen tree beside it cut down. not a relationship that is there. consists in putting the data into new Imagination thus presents a close parallel to reasoning. is both are perceptive variable. but imagination and more Rea- soning is governed by a very precise aim. where. or imaginative response. The freer final response in imagina- tion is in general like that in reasoning . sponses besides that of a centaur the . to see the actual . The is particular manipulation. It is seeking. though it is usually more or less steered either by a definite aim or by some bias in the direction of agreeable results. a picture of man and the horse politely bowing to each other. recall can bring together facts and so afford the stimulus for an imaginative response. it is exploratory while imagination. or may give many other re- leaves the matter in mid-air from different sources . has after all much more latitude. but this . but one that can be put there. also. always relationships. sometimes it consists in taking things apart rather than putting them together. that made ine varies widely . The man plus the horse may give no response at all. there are two stages. meaning of the combined premises that is. the preliminary consist- ing in getting the premises together and the final consisting in perceiving the conclusion. Thinking of a man and also of a horse is not inventing a centaur there is a big jump from the juxtaposition of the data to the specific arrangement that imagination gives them.

and try to discover the sources of satisfaction in each. at any rate. mind wander few moments. Take some dream that you recall well. Recall two stories that you specially enjoyed. How An far does the account of with your 5. — with the object of seeing whether they remind you of anything personally significant. 2. and tally off the several scenes or happenings that you thought of. so as to count up and see how many distinct thoughts passed through your mind. How many seconds. Push the analysis back to your childhood. and happening in the dream 7. river. 4. Now review your daydream (or revery). Solve some of these. speech. bringing in an old man. and about the separate items of it about each object. Why do dreams seem real at the time? Analysis of a dream. and try to dis- Make a cover the sources of satisfaction in each. ences or wishes. and a waterfall. Outline the chapter. sure. and how far does daydreams given in the text square it seem inadequate? Befreely experiment on the speed of revery or of daydreaming. by ask- ing whether anything about the dream symbolizes your childish experi- would object that the analysis of his own dream just as the psychologist would object to your accepting the recalled experiences and wishes as necessarily standing in any causal relation to your dream but. (d) Design the street plan for an ideal small town. the exercise is interesting. built on both sides of a small 9. the psychoanalyst To be individual cannot be trusted to make a complete — — to everybody's satisfaction. Problems in invention. 8. on the average. let your for a dry. (c) Imagine an interesting incident. and let your thoughts play about it. Show how empathy might make is us prefer a symmetrical build- ing to one that lop-sided. a little girl. (b) Imagine a weird animal. list of hobbies and amusements that you specially enjoy. after the analogy of the centaur. . were occupied by each successive item? 6. own daydreams. person. (a) Devise a game to be played by children and adults together. and compare the mental process with that of reasoning. by your watch. ginning at a recorded time. 3. stopping as soon as your stream of thoughts runs Note the time at the close.IMAGINATION 521 EXERCISES 1.

pp. For a view which. 1920. see Norsworthy and Whitley's Psychology of Childhood. J. translated by Brill. see his Interpretation of Dreams. 1913. also C. W. Kimmins. 1916. " The Psychology of Invention ". also M. see Josiah Royce. . W. see Edward S. " The Compensatory Function of Make-Believe Play ". see Maurice NicoU. 1918. though psychoanalytical. The Psychology of the Organized Group Oame. diverges somewhat from that of Freud. Robinson. 1917. Vol. 429-439. 113-144. 5. Chapters IX and XII. in the Psychological Review for 1898. 27. Reaney. Vol. Taussig's Inventors and Money-Makera.522 PSYCHOLOGY REFERENCES On the imagination and play of children. pp. Dream Psychology. On invention. 1915. For Freud's views regarding dreams. For studies of play. in the Psychological Review for 1920. also F. Children's Dreams.

feeling. " Will " is conflicting meanings. one may say. for we also have voluntary attention and voluntary control in reasoning and inventing. but rather to refer to certain relationships in which a response may stand to other responses to be of use. but would be in duty bound to add at once that this " tripartite division " is now regarded as rather useless. ACTION IN SPITE OF INTERNAL CONFLICT. He might refer to the old division of the mind into the " three great faculties " of intellect. if not misleading. anyway. " I zmll do this. " Since you urge me ". —but this is certainly too vague a definition not precisely a psychological term. with them is psychology should do simply to take them as a mining prospector it What takes an outcropping of ore: as an indication that may pay to dig in the neighborhood.CHAPTEE XX WILL PLANNED ACTION. AND ACTION AGAINST EXTERNAL OBSTRUCTION If the psychologist were required to begin his chapter the will with a clean-cut definition. and we have involuntary motor reactions. he would be puzzled on what to say. though much against my will." Let the dictionary define such words. and will. but is a term of common speech which need not refer to any In common speech it has various and psychological unit. " Will " seems not to be any special kind of response. 523 . clusively It is misleading if it leads us to associate will ex- with motor action.

. though the same movement can be made voluntarily. or after-knowledge for that matter. The solution of this puzzle is. The lid reflex. since is to sneeze when you want to which we usually think of a voluntary act as one — done to further our wishes.. completely involuntary act is On the other hand. It is with or without ! —a remarkable fact both act remarkable from the ways An physics or chemistry or botany — which say that foreknowledge is a fact. was an accident and so wholly unintentional or involunThe court wishes to know. intention. full sense. since a man who has comis mitted one sort of homicide a very diiferent character . A man has committed homicide. occurs many times in the course of an hour. The simplest reflexes.. and the question in court is whether he did it " with malice aforethought ". to be sure. PSYCHOLOGY Voluntary and Involuntary Action About the first thing we strike when we start digging is the distinction between voluntary and involuntary. with full will and i. that an act may be performed either intentional side of it is is to very exceptional in nature at large. The pupillary reaction to light is not done with malice aforethought. from one who has committed another sort different acts can be expected from him in the future and different precautions need to be taken accordingly. whether he did it in a sudden fit of anger. then. or whether it tary. is To to sneeze when you don't want to. or wink of the eye. some impulse. are completely involuntary. for almost always there is some striving towards an end. i. Sneezing and coughing are not voluntary in the sneeze voluntarily but they are distinctly impulsive.e.e. they strive towards desired relief. a rather exceptional in human behavior and perhaps in animal behavior as well. impulsively rather than quite voluntarily. cannot be so done. and to sneeze involuntarily seems queer.524. without foreknowledge.

Thus we may posive. imagine some change to be produced in the existing situation and then proceed to put our imagination into effect typical voluntary act. however. you will find that you left out of your image many details of the actual kinesthetic sensations. me- chanical. then proceed to execute that change and other changes incidentally. tition. such as to prove we can do for it. We should notice. as impulsive. Besides the simple reflexes. picture a complete act in imaginait. up to those done to accomplish an ulterior end which is imagined beforehand. for if you try to imagine how the closed fist is going to feel and then close it. we may arrange acts in a scale from those that have no conscious end. The last class of fully voluntary acts belongs under the general head of manipulation. and even without conscious impulse. We . tion before executing Even so simple an act as closing the fist cannot be completely pictured beforehand. there is another sort of involpractice and repe- untary and mechanical action. some purpose beyond the immediate satisfaction of an classify acts as wholly involuntary or impulse. so habitual as to be done auto- matically. The is practised typist re- sponds in this way to the words he copying. Through an act may become is. that a voluntary sneeze is 525 desired not because of a direct impulse but to gain some ulterior end. however. and as distinctly voluntary or pur- Or. that without being imagined beforehand. is What we and we imagine and intend some change in the situation.WILL of course. that this does not mean that the total behavior and state of mind of the typist is mechanical and devoid of impulse. through those aimed directly at an immediate end. just as imagination does. and this is a We seldom. The typist may write the letters me- . or for histrionic purposes — in short.

tried apparently to get it He aimless " throw- ing of his arms about. Thus the voluntary . . since obviously he till cannot imagine and intend an act he has had experience of that act. he worked towards that result by trial and one error. and in the course of a few days was able to put it there at will. linked to the thought of the result as to follow directly upon the thought. liked the sensation of the hand in there again. having observed a desirable result of movement. a movement becomes with further repetition habitual and mechanical. At least. and no longer voluntary or even impulsive. may be first observed in other persons and child's process of acquiring is then voluntarily imitated. till finally he had the necessary movement so closely conceived end. made up of he must usually have experienced doing the act himself before he can effectively imagine of the simpler movements familiar elements. but you fully intend to sign your name. In the same way. in signing your name you have no conscious in- tention or impulse to write each successive letter. how the baby learned to put his hand in first made this movement in the course of " the mouth.526 chanically. this is true compound movements. The child's " aimless " movements at the start were proba- bly impulsive. Development of Voluntary Control The child's actions are at first impulsive full but not volun- tary in the sense. and if PSYCHOLOGY expert is may write even words in this way. but all the time he consciously aiming to copy the passage. details His attention and impulse have deserted the fully mastered and attach themselves to the larger units. and it. The voluntary control over a movement of illustrated his by the story mouth. but they were not directed towards any pre- Then. Once brought under voluntary control.

during the organization of reactions that they re- quire attention and must be thought of before being executed. stays with him to the end. . Blowing out a match affords another example of this course of events. Being prompted and shown. Will. speaking. or series of movements. in the sense of action aimed at the accomplishment of foreseen results. A child can of course blow out. and the . A complex act. may be voluntary result. the interest in a performance goes more and more to the final result and deserts the elewhile the single ments of the It is act. from ever reach- ing the condition of a wholly automatic machine. mentioned a moment ago. as a whole. however well organized. act is voluntary . but with further practice it becomes invol- untary. he comes by degrees to be able to blow out the match during the learning stage he has to try. a thoroughly organ- ized reaction being later combined with others into a constantly still bigger act. which means directly aroused by a sensory stimulus oftener . such as preventing a burning match from ting fire to something on which it has fallen. instinctively. New demands made upon the indi- vidual prevent him. This is well illustrated by the instances of typewriting. though it may still be executed as part of a larger set- voluntary act. With practice. Organization goes on and on. Ideomotor Action Involuntary movement is not always " sensorimotor ". and signing the name. being directed towards some preconceived movements that Constitute the series are mechanical. when he has the natural stimulus for strong expiration. their particular results no longer being thought of separately. but he cannot at will blow at the lighted match.WILL 527 performance of an act intervenes between the native or instinctive doing of it and the later habitual doing of it.

in the fullest sense. Good examples of your of ideomotor action can be observed among the audience at an athletic contest. unless inhibited is by some contrary There is no need of a definite consent to the act. without at the same time having any contrary thought to inhibit actual execution. He is rising to clear the high bar. and the thought of his clearing it. or directly aroused by an idea or thought. when you differentiate yourself clearly out of the total situation. but think of that change as to be produced by you. We this think result. The thought arouses the movement because it has previously been linked with the movement. served as the stimulus to an act will tend to have this effect again. and not only imagine some change to be made.528 it is PSYCHOLOGY " ideomotor ". and are so much absorbed in his performance and so desirous for him to succeed that you identify yourself with him to a degree. monopolizing your mind and leaving no room for the inhibitory thought that the performer is down there in the field and you up here in the stand. of a certain result and our muscles produce though we did not really mean to do this act ourselves. still It may be so aroused and be involuntary. A thought which has previously stimulus. provided there nothing present to inhibit it. Conflict and Decision It appears that in our " digging " we have now struck it. that is to say. occurs when you realize the situation and are definitely conscious of yourself. for instance. Voluntary action. You are watching one team do the pole vault. causes you to make an incipient leg movement as if you yourself were vaulting. another vein. for here we have the fact of one tendency running contrary to another and inhibiting desires Conflict of and the consequent necessity of choosing between .

that is to say. Conflict between the enterprising tendency to explore. to reach a decision. The lowest animals. when a wild creature seems poised between his inclination to approach and examine a strange object and his inclination to run away. It may be a step in a good direction. sisting conflict. and little being responsive to only a narrow environment. nipulate or somehow launch forth into the new. but incompletely environed as we are. but it is a step in organizing the individual's reaction-tendencies into what we call his character the more or less organized sum total of his native and acquired tendencies to reaction. The most distinctly voluntary acts occur when two alternatives are thought of. and unable.. or in a bad direction. show sign of internal conflict. having few reaction tendencies. in the way described in our earlier consideration of attention. as fundamental.WILL them. 529 is thus brought vividly to our attention. Organized as we are by nature. with emphasis on those reactions that aff^ect his life and social relations in a broad trary tendencies — tives — way. Every one would at once agree that " will " and " choice " belong closely together. 261. In the behavior of we sometimes detect signs of a longer-perbetween curiosity and fear. and one of them is chosen. with perhaps a shift later to the other. and when it does occur it is resolved very simply by the advantage going to one of the opposing tendencies. is See p. shyness. on a large scale. inertia.^ is This type of decision higher animals. is a step in the further organization of the individual. maand the some- negative tendencies of fear. every conflict resolved. with multitu- — dinous stimuli constantly playing on us and arousing con^we cannot hope to escape conflict of moand the necessity of making decisions. veering now towards the one and now towards the other alternative. as it seems. . Every decision made. 1 etc.

There is a hesitancy in such cases. — unless he richly deserved his fortable state of vacillation human who is the very uncomby running away altogether. placed equally distant from two equally attractive bundles of hay. . in order to get action. and swings the pendulum its way. or to speak up and thing that recurs again and again in illustrated ing. instant to enable the individual to commit himself to the enterprise. or else we want peace. and go fishing. is a sort of parable to fit this case. after which he usually stays The positive motive must for an instant be stronger than the which negative. but vacillation gives us neither. Old Buridan's celebrated problem of the ass. We want action. and whether he would starve to death from the exact balance of the two opposing tendencies. may be called "vacillation.530 PSYCHOLOGY human experience. or to have your say in a general conversation. A somewhat different type of conflict. what we shall miss by not choosing the other comes vividly to mind. occurs when two positive tendencies are aroused that are inconsistent with each other. or of the positive tendency it the may be resolved in favor when this is strong enough for an committed. is sometimes so much disturbed at having to decide between two invitations for the same day as to decline both. In spite of its irksomeness. Probably the poor ass did not starve name a —but he may conceivably have ended being. so that gratification of the one entails renunciation of the other. as by making up your mind to get up in the mornplunge into the cold water. Vacillation is certainly a very unpleasant state of mind. we seem sometimes almost powerless to end it. due to a positive and a negative tendency. The conflict may be resolved in favor of the negative till tendency by simple prolongation of the hesitation occasion for action has passed. because as soon as we have about decided on the one alternative. as really more subject to vacillation than any other creature.

but the process of passing from the one to the other is often obscure. he has completely self-assertion altered the balance of attractions. and self-assertion. and see how it suits you. his now going wholly on the side of the chosen college. Some people. he " rationalizes ". Having identified himself with one college. liberation. and forti- his decision. the satisfaction of having a definite course of action. indeed. then alternative. once he has reached it. but now this course of action is owrs. and ourselves. Now is all all for the other. Thus the person you say against it you is X who has decided defends himself ing the question. are abnormally subject to vacillation and seem never to accept their own decisions as final. A student may vacillate long between the when he he for one and not at apparfinally ently equal attractions of two colleges. you do the same with the other You think each . It differs from one case In one case we find the rational process of deto another. This is essena work of imagination: you imagine that you have adopted the one alternative. During vacillation. fies if to reinforce his decijustifies. and the curious fact then that it usu- ally sticks. and even leading him to pick flaws in the other as sion. because we have decided. it reached. neither of the alternatives was identified with now we have decided and are not going to be our college now and anything so weak as to change. energetically against reopen- and the state of decision seem thus fairly well understood.WILL However usually is 531 is is it comes about that a decision reached. once made relief : the unpleasantness of the state of vacillation and at having escaped from it. the advantages of the other lose their hold on him. but decides on one. In other words. but normally there are it is strong influences tending to maintain a decision. say against us. in which each alternative is weighed and the deci- The state of indecision sion tially awarded to the one that promises best.

that a decision has emerged. Even when practicable. or since we have no common off different sorts of measure by aid of which to balance satisfaction. we simply find. and that we now know what we are going to do. What see. This but often impracticable. . tial Perhaps the most common process is a sort of par- deliberation. or are in great danger of so doing. . of being unable to make up our mind. but follow the worse ". the is deliberate way of reaching a decision likely to seem irksome. " Any decision is better than none here goes. when we next take it up that one alternative has lost its momentary attractiveness and the other has the field or else. has happened in us to bring about the decision we cannot but here we are with a decision made and per- haps with the act already performed. is ideal. Then there is the case where we " see the better. without such a distinct " act of will ". because of the delay involved and the natural propensity for impulsive action. we say. moment one makes a strong enough appeal is Sometimes there a deadlock. sleeping over the matter. so breaking the deadlock by what seems like an arbitrary . or since we cannot trust imagination to give us a correct picture. feeling the irksomeness and humiliation. The two alternatives remain theoretically equal. and without any observable change in the attractiveness of either alternative. the two alternatives appealing to us by turns tiU at some to secure action. and. almost.532 PSYCHOLOGY how satisfactory it will alternative through to see be. and then we either give up find deciding for the moment. since we have not the time for full deliberation. and choose accordingly. At other times. bal- ance one against the other. The " worse " Is usually something that appeals to the " old . toss-up. then this is what I will do ". but one has somehow got hold of us. after awhile. while the other has lapsed.

though denied. more dutiful. ambition. the is drawn in. I wanted it it to be a sailor." When a motive is deeply rooted in our nature. as when an apparently courteous deed it is contains an element of spite. Sometimes ". Fear of ridicule or criticism. " As a boy. content to bide time enough for that later on its simply deferred and time . " there will be it is Sometimes Sometimes disguised and then gratified. and " defense mechanisms " have to be devised to keep it down the " sour grapes " mechanism is an example. something that strongly arouses a primitive instinctive response. cannot be so easily eliminated. ideals of oneself. be used not only when the " grapes " are physically out of reach but also when for any reason we decide to which may leave them alone.WILL 533 Adam " in us. I would rather like to try for once. What becomes of the rejected motives? If unimpor- tant and superficial. self- respect. after having his " conceit taken out of him " by his mates. may it be ranged the advan- on the side of the " weaker " motive and give tage over the stronger. whole man Well. Sometimes. " sublimation ". . perhaps recurring to mind once in a while with a faint tinge of regret. it remains insistent. substitute gratification. as afforded a when the boastful boy. since after all we should have liked to gratify them. it is remains dormant. they simply lapse into an inactive state and are gradually forgotten. well. The psychoanalytic school lays great stress on " sup- . how can it ever be that the higher motive gets the decision? these two. while the "better" is a nobler. the fight is not just a contest between Other motives are drawn into the fray. profession. or more prudent course. concern for the welfare of another person. loyalty to a social group. boasts of This is often called his school. and it is a question which side is the stronger. town or country. sense of duty. The lower motive being the stronger.

as well as in busi- Introduce a nice young certainly. faction in a great variety of amusements. holding that they become unconscious while still bolically in dreams. But the fascination for particular individuals may so lapse or be forgotten. accepted motives —to harness be done. that the sex lady into an officeful often for the better. Probably a tendmotives into a very effective team. is Deferring the whole matter till the time ripe works well with many a youth or maiden. so happens. What be- comes of them. at the boastful boy becomes a loyal and enthusiastic a school. These various ways of handling a rejected motive could be nicely illustrated from the case of the sex instinct. the sex motive finds sublimated ness associations between the sexes. and will have to say good-by to one.? Of course the sex instinct is too deep- seated to be eradicated or permanently to lapse into a dor- mant state. and the atmosphere changes. for example. —which means. motive of these men. once in a while. Combined satis- with social interests. This cannot always if a young woman has two attractive suitors. them into teams and put them to work. his self-assertive motive cial is But when member of harnessed up with soleast. PSYCHOLOGY remaimng active. and that they find gratification symand at times break into waking life in a of handling rejected motives is disturbing way. combined with ordinary business mo- . with half-humorous and certainly not very poignant regret. partly because It modern economic and educational conditions enforce a delay in marriage and in part simply — because there are so many attractive people in the world that the cravings of sex must often be denied. pressed " desires. Certain people we remember.534. of men. The most adequate way to coordinate them with other. ency can only be " sublimated " by being thus combined and coordinated with other strong tendencies. she might find difficulty in harnessing them together.

rather than any other tendencies specified one of his tendencies. tempted to yield to the fascination of sex. but a very this general sort is to throw oneself some quite different type of activity. fense mechanisms " are common in combating unacceptable erotic impulses . stimulating and gratifying sex attraction. Such a low-level attachment. As " decision " is the response to internal conflict of tendencies. It the individual that must be satisfied. Where is the " coordination " ? It has to be found some worthy mate will harness all these tendencies. ambition. and coordinating them all into the complex and decidedly high-grade sentiment of love. and others besides. as the young man may successfully work off his steam in athletics. some mediocre representative of the other work. ambition. militates against self-respect. will " is used to designate the response to so characteristically " will " as external obstruction as well as the response to internal con- In fact. The sex motive " Dethus enters into a great variety of human affairs. is finding 535 a sublimated satisfaction. Obstruction and ErroRT The term " flict. As regards this coordination. the fact was illustrated just above that it always work. so " effort " is the response to external . the sour grapes mechanism sometimes takes the extreme form of a hatred of the other sex. but fies is grati- and so gratifies the individual. social sense. . selfrespect. however. Here a young person (either sex). with in- sistent sex impulses. but sometimes is method would not works immensely well. for athletic sport it does not gratify the sex tendency in the least. This is not good and useful device of into sublimation. in any proper use of that term. in the twenties.WILL tives. nothing is the overcoming of resistance that checks progress towards a desired result.

but encounters obstruction. though rejected. there is not the same determination that apthe goal. is almost the same thing as the instinct of selfeffort Now tive impulses. Certainly. in our chapter on the naput under the head of the assertive or masterful tendency and it does seem that " will ". moving towards a cerand his response is his movement towards pears as soon as an obstruction in is encountered. were . his task was changed so that now he must respond to any word or syllable by any . or in gone to sleep but In still in your the dis- turbing effect of some desire which. in this sense. will not brook resistance —the The " will ". and determination. effort. The mastery motive came clearly to light in an experiment designed to investigate " will action ". has not pulls you another way than is the way you have decided to all go. and consist own lack of skill in executing your intentions.536 PSYCHOLOGY The obstruction may be purely physical. an obstruction puts the individual " on his mettle ". these cases. The subject of the experiment was first given a long course of training in responding to certain stimulus words by other certain words that were constantly paired with them . assertion. and when his habits of response were thus well fixed. in the case of adults. common usage. and superimposes the mastery motive upon whatever motive originally it may have been that prompted the action. underbrush that impedes your progress through the woods or it may be another person's will running counter to yours or it may be of the nature of distraction of attention from the end in view. as the resistance encountered in executing a desire that has been adopted. " indomi- table will ". or increased energy put into So long as the tendency towards a goal finds smooth going. the individual tain goal. The resistance may also be internal.

. unexpectedly. gave what he was doing. " I can and will He was thus put on his guard.WILL other that 537 rhymed with it. This check sometimes made him really angry. why he bends so closely over the desk. made few errors and task. why he purses his lips.. and so failed to rhyme as he had intended. and he might answer. and twists his foot around the leg of his chair. Ask a child just learning to write why he grasps the pencil so tightly. that it is because he cannot do this job easily and has to try hard. closer attention to meant readily to do. He pounds the ". Other good instances of effort are found in the overcoming of distraction. what he is learning. did not experience this feeling of effort for and determination. h