STUDY MANUAL FOR

PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT (IMD 104)

HAJAH SOBARIAH AWANG MUKHTAR Faculty of information Management UiTM, Puncak Perdana Shah Alam

PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
Overview of the course : Today management world has been developed tremendously. Organization place heavy demand’s on effective managerial skills to achieve their goals. Changes happens result from pressures on supply and demand, explosion of quality revolution, human resource development and the globalization of the economy that leads to competitive pressures and competition. This Manual was prepared to familiarize you with the field of management, environment changes and concepts and approaches of management. This course will provide an exposure for the student to the principles of management as they can applied and practice to the real world .

PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT

CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Introduction to Management Evolution of Management theories Planning Organizing Controlling Managing Human Resource Total Quality Management Decision making Leadership Motivation Communication

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TEXT BOOK AND REFERENCES : Main Textbooks : 1. Robbins, Stephen P. and Decenzo david A. (2001). Fundalmental of Management : Essential concepts and application ( 3rd ed). New Jersey: Pretice Hall Stoner, A. F. Freeman, R. Edward and Gilbert Junior, Daniel, R “ Management “ , Prentice Hall. Holt. David H., Management, Principles and Practices, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, New Jersey,1993. Schermerhorn, John R., Management for Productivity, 2nd edn, John Wiley and Sons. Institut Pengurusan Malaysia 1999. Management in Malaysia :Print Resources Sdn. Bhd

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OBJECTIVES OF THIS COURSE ( CO) 1. 2. 3. 4. Ability to understand the scope of management theories and practices. Ability to identify and familiar with various environments that must be considered in managing people in an organization. Ability to recognize and apply the roles of a manager that have effect on the overall goals of the organization. Ability to be a good and success manager.

CHAPTER ONE OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT 1. 4.6 1.3 1. Define what is management Familiarize with the different types of organizations. MEASURING MANAGERIAL PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT MANAGERIAL SKILL MANAGERIAL ROLES MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES THE CHALLENGE OF MANAGEMENT Learning objectives After completing this chapter.8 DEFINATION OF MANAGEMENT.1 1.7 1. 3. Explain the levels of management and management functions Know the different types of managerial roles and activities.5 1. challenges and skills that will give Meaning to our future work experience and careers as managers or other professional careers we may choose.0 WHY WE STUDY MANAGEMENT ? To enhance the understanding of events/ activities.4 1.  .2 1. you should be able to : 1. 2.0 WHY WE STUDY MANAGEMENT 1. 1. ORGANIZATION AND MANAGERS.

Enable us to assess the future. leading and controlling the efforts of an organization members and of using all other organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goal”.     1. MANAGEMENT: Earlier definition by Mary Parker Follet – Management scholar as: “ The art of getting things done through people” Stoner “The process of planning. To be responsible and accountable for employees to be in the same track towards accomplishment of organizational goals. Holt “ The process of planning. Equip ourselves with effective management theories and practices that can be applied to all types of organization and any occupational settings we may choose to be in the future.1 a) DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENTS.( Schermerhon) . thus making good decision about appropriate solution and utilizing organizational resources effectively to implement these solutions. organizing. leading and controlling resources in an organizational b) ORGANIZATION: Is a social unit in which two or more people interact to achieve a common goal or a set of goal ( stoner) or As a collection of people working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose. Make us to become effective managers who will be able to detect and locate problems to be solve. ORGANIZATION AND MANAGERS. organizing. thus acting as good planners. Make us become effective manager who will be able to help the organization achieve a high level of performance through the utilization of its human and material resources. make plans for it.

Aim to get all member to move in one direction.3 MANAGEMENT LEVELS Leading . The establishment of the organizational structure ( involve the creation of units. E.2 MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS Comprise of the activities of planning. The lowest level in the organization is that at which individuals are responsible Controllingwork of others. Aim for maximum efficiency and minimum waste.The structure of relationships that exists when two or more people mutually cooperate to pursue common objectives (Holt). the budget and audit.ordination of the horizontal and vertical information flow.g of standards. Informal organization The shadow organization consist of two or more people involved in a mutual effort without deliberate structures of authority or the necessity of the common objectives. the co. correction of deviation the managers are the “ foreman” or production supervisor in a manufacturing . instituting of feedback and feed forward controls. setting objectives and identifying alternatives. organizing. . directing a) First line managers others.line significant supervise Involves the setting of first – measurement of performance.other managers. First. 1. c) A MANAGER A person in an organization who is responsible for work or performance of one or more other persons ( Schermerhorn). Formal : Consist of two or more people who are involve in a mutual effort with formal authority to achieve common objectives ( Holt) 2.plant. .Includes defining goals. selecting the most effective communication channels. The identification and classification or required activities. Includes motivating subordinates. TYPES OF ORGANIZATION: 1. rules and Achieving the organization’s stated purpose ( Goal / Mission) procedures. and resolving conflicts. Planning . Organizing 1.Concerned with assembling and allocating of resources in order to achieve goals. leading and controlling.activitiesfirst level that they aredirect operating . establishing strategy And developing plans to coordinate activities.Monitoring line or to ensure managers being for the accomplished as planned and correcting any employees only: They do not deviations. departments) and the ascertainment of a clear line of authority ( include regulation.

Middle managers direct the activities of lower – level managers and sometimes also those of operating employees. Middle managers’ principles responsibilities are to direct the activities that implement their organizations’ policies and to balance the demand of their superiors with the capacity of their subordinates. It establishes operating policies and guide the organization’s interactions with its environment. the top management is responsible for the overall management of the organization.the technical supervisor in a research department. and the clerical supervisor in a large office. Responsible for with the vision and long term objectives Of the company.Typical titles of top managers are “ chief executives officer”. b) Middle managers Middle managers can include more than one level in an organization. c) Top managers A comparative small group of executives. “ president”’ and “ senior vice. MANAGER .president”. Actual titles vary from one organization to another.

The ability to work with. every manager needs all three but the amounts differ by their level in organization.Is the ability to use the procedures. Robert L. musicians and accountants. engineer.General manager -first line manager . Conceptual skill – ability to coordinate and integrate all of an organization’s Interests and activities.Katz. understand and motivate other people as individuals or in groups. techniques and knowledge of a specialized field. human and conceptual Technical skill.Top manager 1. Human skill .By their level in the organization By the range of organizational activities they are responsible -functional manager . Surgeons.4 MANAGEMENT SKILLS A manager’s job is diverse and complex.middle manager . Three basic kind of skills : technical. and requires a range skills. FIRST-LINE MANAGEMENT MIDDLE MANAGEMENT TOP MANAGEMENT .

2. Informational roles 3.Information received internally or externally will be transmitted to the subordinates . Informational Roles Monitor .Manager continuously seeks information that can be use to advantage Disseminator . training and motivating subordinates in the organization. 2. The interpersonal roles are to help the manager in managing organization smoothly. the informational roles are to assist the manager in receiving and information to make the right decision. signing legal documents etc.A department head performing ceremonial duties like greeting visitors. Interpersonal Roles 1. According to Henry Mintzberg “ The nature of managerial work”’ managers perform ten inter. Figurehead . .5 MANAGERIAL ROLES The specific classifications of managerial behavior. Interpersonal roles 2. 3.related roles in the organization.Information will be transmitted to people outside the organization or unit communicating Thus. Spoke person .A person who perform and interacts with other people outside the organization. A. Leader Liaison . B 1. . 3. Decisional roles 4. Ten roles classified under three main roles : They are : 1.Conceptual Human Conceptual Human Technical Conceptual Human Technical Technical 1.A person who is responsible for hiring.

1. Controlling . organizing. entrepreneur Manager tries to improved the unit and initiate the changes.Manager is responsible in allocating the resources of the Managerial Activities 4.6 Resources allocate . who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made. 4. . 2. selecting the most effective communication channels. Organizing Determining what tasks are to Be done. and resolving conflicts.managers is responsible for corrective actions when the organization faces important. The production manager and supervisor have created a certain environment where workers will want to produce more so as to meet the target. 3. Leading Includes motivating. managers have to face and contend with a wide variety of challenges in pursuing their mission. organization 3. Managers are the people who deal with planning.monitoring activities to proton Ensure that they are being Accomplished as planned and Correcting any significant Deviations. unexpected disturbances. Negotiator Manager is responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations . Disturbance handler . Production workers were assigned to different supervisor assembly lines / unit many productions activities were rearrange so as to achieve the goals Specified. how the tasks are to be grouped. 1.7 THE CHALLENGE OF MANAGEMENT In an environment which is rapidly and constantly changing. who is to do them. Since the sales of proton wira and Perdana exceed expectations management has add mare shifts to meet demand which will obviously increase the market share.C. Decisional roles 1. subordinates. directing. leading and controlling.

This will enable employees to make quick decision without getting caught through the ladder of beauracracy so they will be able to serve customers more effectively. Organizational restructuring and consolidation. Success goes to the managers who can recognize and seize the opportunities. Concept where organization is slimming down or downsizing operations in order to focus on resources and boost profits or decrease expenses. without constantly having to appeal to higher authorities for permission. If the managers do not closely monitor this challenges or changes in the organization environment or fail to respond quickly to this changes. This trend will shape the managers’ environment through the movement towards more streamlined. The current challenges that are considered as the important factors that affect today business environment are: a) b) Globalization Services or business not a local focus but must be global Total Quality management Comprehensive effort to enhance an organization product or service quality and reduce cost. they are likely to find their organization survival at a brink. An approach that involves granting employees the freedom and responsibility to do their job as they think best. Re. c) d) e) f) ACTIVITY Can you define the following terms in your own words? Management Human skill Organization manager Technical skill Division of labor Conceptual skill .engineering A radical rethinking and re-designing organization’s processes to achieve drastic improvements in performance ( Micheal Hammer) Empowerment.This challenges can and do influence the work of managers and affect the performance of the organization as a whole. Current and poses another new challenge to management and organizational today. efficient organization. Social responsibility and ethic Focus on what an organization does affects the society in which ethics is the discipline dealing with what is good and what is bad or right or wrong or with moral duty or obligation.

6 th ed 2001. 2.. Freeman Edwards R. REFERENCES : 1. Gilbert Jr. Daniel R. Prentice Hall.Management functions Organizing Controlling Interpersonal roles Re-engineering Restructuring Top managers THINKING EXERCISE 1. David A. James A. 2. Stoner.. Give examples of how they would be used by the following person(s). a) High School principal b) Information professionals Why we need to study management? 3. Stephen P. Robbins. Decenzo. CHAPTER TWO OVERVIEW EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THEORIES .1995. Fundamental of Management. Management. 6th and. Management process leading efficiency Decisional roles Total quality management First-line managers Functional manager planning Effectiveness Informational roles Globalization Empowerment Middle managers General manager What is management and what is organization ? List and define four (4) management functions.F. Prentice Hall.

Apply several techniques of management practice. .1.1. 5. People think ways to improve efficiency and effectiveness. Egyptian use mathematical to organize labor. supervise to built within specified design and time.0 Understand the beginning of management practice Explain several management theories . 4. 2. 2. 100. Organized management practice in 2000 B.C during King Hummurabi. 2. 3. China – Sun Tzu War. EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THEORIES Begin from ancient civilization.000 workers involve. The factories became widespread and large number of employees need to be coordinated. 6. Great Pyramid in Egypt. Therefore the challenge had motivated a number of individuals to think of ways and means to run the factories more effectively. 2.1 Pre classical view point. planning and leadership use by military strategy.1 THE FORMATION OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Management thought started with industrial revolution around 1800. 2. THE FORMATION OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES PRE CLASSICAL VIEW POINT CLASSICAL VIEW POINT BEHAVIORAL VIEWPOINT QUANTITATIVE SCIENCE APPROACH CONTEMPORARY VIEWPOINTS Learning Objectives : After completing this chapter student will be able to: 1. This point saw the invention and use of machinery setting up factories and creation of entrepreneurial capital that finance the industries. touching on strategy. 3.

400-500 young children who worked 13 hrs (11hrs/2hrs off for meals) Concerned for the working and living condition of workers. Charles Barbage ( 1792-1871) Known as father of modern computing English mathematician. Three different approaches : a) b) c) Scientific management Bureaucratic management Administrative management 1. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT . Recognized specialized physical work as well as mental work ( specialists Invented a profit sharing plan _ a bonus for useful suggestions and portion of wages that was dependent on factory profits. president of Yale and Towne Manufacturing company.2 CLASSICAL VIWEPOINT A perspective on management that emphasizes finding ways to manage work efficiently. Henry R. houses. The idea of work specialization – work is divided into various jobs. Tried to upgrading streets. b) c) 2. pioneered in computing and management. educational system. Ideas used in scanlon plan. sanitation. Observed good engineering skills and good business skills were rarely combined but both were equally important to run organization. Outlines the importance of management as a science Called for the development of management principles.Management theories can classified into 5 view points that are : Pre classical view point Classical view point Behavioral view point Quantitative view point System view point PRE CLASSICAL CONTRIBUTORS a) Robert Oven ( 1772-1858) A British entrepreneur and had a cotton mill in Scotland. Towne ( 1844-1942) A Mechanical engineer.1.

Thus. Divide work and responsibility. Observed ‘ soldering ‘ by employees. improve production by his principle. Management tool that helps managers to schedule their work. Henry L Gantt (1861-1919) Gantt chart – graphic aid to planning. train them by using scientifically developed method.Approach that emphasizes findings ways to manage work efficiently.1. b) Frank and Lilian Gilbreath ( 1868-1924) A brick layer Observed inefficiencies were handed down from the inexperienced employees – propose motion studies to streamline the brick lying process. He redesigned the work. Carefully select employees. Frederick made use of time and motion study to substantiate his theories and increase productivity. scheduling and control.which will help people to reach their maximum potential by developing their skill and abilities. Three different approach are: a) Frederick Winslow Taylor ) 1856-1915) The father of scientific management. Management will plan work method using scientific principles and employees are responsible for executing the work accordingly.3 BUREAURATIC MANAGEMENT a) Max Weber (1864-1920) . Lilian define scientific studies management must focus both analysis and synthesis.working at less than full capacity meaning feared that. Increasing their productivity would cause them or others to lose jobs.management should develop a science for each tasks to be performed. Generate rules handed down were inefficient. developed science management : 1) 2) 3) 4) Scientifically study each tasks and develop the best method for performing the tasks. Faulty wage system encourages workers to operate at slow pace. b) 2. Cooperate fully with employees to ensure them using proper method. He divide work into different task.

so that members know what is expected from them thus. people promoted on merit) DESCRIPTION Jobs broken down into routine. it depends on the worthiness of its leaders. provide supervision of lower offices by higher offices based on Selection and promotion based on the qualifications merit and performance of members. Necessary to run the organization. Multiple level of positions. formal rules. Henri Fayol (1841-1925) -French industrialist -Outlined a number of principles in management : a) Diversion of work Will result in efficiencies applicable to both managerial and technical functions.4 . CHARACTERISTICS Specialization of labor Formal rules and procedures Impersonality Well defined hierarchy Career advancement 2. ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT An approach focuses on principles that can be used by managers to coordinate the internal activities of organizations. (Ideal organization where activities and division of labor were clear. become more competent. policies and sanctions are applied uniformly without prejudiced. to ensure uniformity and facilitate coordination Rules. With authority comes responsibilities. 1. b) Authority c) Disciplines . carefully reporting relationships among levels. The right to give orders and power to exact obedient. procedures.- German sociologist An approach that emphasizes the need for organizations to operate in a rational manner.1.

BEHAVIORAL VIEWPOINT Emphasizes the importance of attempting to understand the various factors hat affect human behavior in organizations. feel that the actions indicated are inline with their need and other employees and view themselves as mentally and physically able to comply. is also encourage as long as managers are informed. Objectives is to optimum use of the capabilities of personnel.1. Materials in the right place. easy to retrieve and facilitate activities.Horizontal comm.. see the communication consistent with the objectives of organization. 2. High turn over is not rate will effect the functioning tenure of organization.d) e) f) Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination of individual Employees should received orders from one superior only. Select right employee for the right place and right time. Employees willing to accept orders if they understand the communication.5 . managers encourage and develop subordinates initiative to the fullest. A scalar chain of authority extends from the top to bottom of an organization and defines the communication path . Compensation should be fair to both the employee and employer. Promoting team spirit unity in organization g) h) Remuneration Centralization i) Scalar Chain j) Order k) Equity l) m) n) 2. one plan and one person in charge.argues that authority does not depends as much on persons of authority who give orders as on the willingness to comply of those who receive orders. Managers real powers come from the degree of acceptance of his workers. Stability of personnel Initiative Esprit de corps Chester Barnard (1886-1961) Acceptance theory of authority. The interest of one group of employees should not interest to general interest prevail the interest of the organization. The amount depends on situation. Activities aimed at the same objective. Employees treated with kindness and justice.

have capacity to be creative. Once has satisfy basic need before other can be taken care. Power sharing Conflict resolution Integration of organizational system Hawthorne studies A group of studies done at Hawthorne plant of Western Electric company. = Hawthorne effect – improve performance. Theory X – assume employees are lazy. rather than specific factors been tested. . focused on security needs. This Dictated people’s motivation to perform task. Physiological need ( lowest) Safety Belongingness Esteem Self Actualization Douglas Mcgregor (1906-1954) b) d) i) ii) iii) iv) v) b.employees work together. Theory Y.early 1930s : Monitored the five women assembling electrical relays. Conclusion – managers who assume best of their employees are rewarded with committed and satisfied workers. 1920s. Found that the women still increased their productivity period. Theory X and Y – managers view their workers in one of the categories. 2) Human Relation Movement Two theorist : a) Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Contribute to the theory of motivation “ hierarchy of needs”. Mary Parker Follet Focus in group dynamic.1) Early behaviorist: Hogo Munsterberg ( 1863-1916) Mary Parker Follet (1868 – 1933) a) Hugo Munsterberg Interested in identifying the conditions that would promote the individuals best work and finding ways to influence workers to act in accord with management interest. higher level need are often unmet on job. may be due the added attention they receive from researchers. Concluded that the increase of productivity was due to the change of supervisory arrangement that had been made to facilitate the experiment.Employees are capable of self control. little ambition.

E. 1. 3. 2.can be use to establish practical guidelines for managers. sociology.g work scheduling. anthropology and economics. Behavioral Science Approach Emphasizes scientific research as the basic for developing theories about human behavior in organizations. 1. It include management. 2. 2. Operation Management The function/ field of expertise for managing the product and delivery of an organization’s products and services. financial. inventory analysis.1.6 QUANTITATIVE MANAGEMENT VIEWPOINT Emerged as a major force in world war 2 Focuses on the use of mathematics. Components of system Inputs Human material. Employees do better with attainable goals than without goals. production planning.g system that run raw data to information.2.1. psychology. System – A set of interrelated parts that operate as a whole towards a common goal. 3. Management Information System The field of management that focuses on designing and implementing computer based information systems for use by managements .use by the organization. e. System theory An approach based on the assumption that organizations can be visualized as a systems.7 CONTEMPORARY VIEWPOINTS Major innovations in ways of thinking about management: System theory Contingency theories 1. equipment and informational . statistics and information aids to support managerial decision making and organizational effectiveness. managers can be used as guides in assessing various situations and deciding appropriate actions. Management science/ operation research Operation management Management information systems Management science/ operation research Aimed at increase decision effectiveness through the use of sophisticated mathematical models and statistical methods. 2.

4. Freeman Edwards R.1995. Organizing. James A. Does little or no interaction with environment.. How did Industrial Revolution Influence Management Practice? Why did scientific management receive so much attention?. David A. Gilbert Jr. Contingency Theories View point arguing that appropriate action depends on the particular parameters of the situation. . What were the Hawthorne studies? Why was the human relations movement important to management history?. Managerial and Technological Abilities: Planning. 2. Stephen P..F. Fundamental of Management. Prentice Hall. 6 th ed 2001. What is contingency approach to the study of Management?. receives little feedback. Open System Closed system 2. Prentice Hall. Emphasize that a change in one part can affect others It considers how an organization interacts with its environment. A system that operates in continual interaction with its environment. Identifies contingency principles to take action on the situation. Information about result and organizational status relative to the environment Advantages of Systems approach : can be analyze at different levels.Transformations Process Feedback resources required to produce goods and services. Controlling and technology –to converts inputs into outputs. 2. Robbins. Successful companies operated differently depending on their technology categoryappropriate actions by managers depend on situation. Management. 3.better to operate in open system. REFERENCES : 1. ACTIVITY : 1. Providers a framework for assessing how well the various parts of an organization interact to achieve common goal. 6th and. Daniel R. Stoner. Decenzo.

7 3.10 DEFINITIONS OF PLANNING AND PLANS IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING IN ORGANIZATIONS TYPES OF PLANS GOALS OBJECTIVES OPERATIONALIZING MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE STRATEGIC PLANNING MISSION BARRIERS IN PLANNING Learning objectives: After completing this chapter.1 3.9 3. 2.5 3.8 3.6 3. 3. Explain the differences between planning and plans.1 DEFINITION OF PLANNING AND PLANS PLANNING .3 3.0 3.1 3.CHAPTER THREE OVERVIEW PLANNING 3.4 3. student should be able to : 1. 4.1. Explain the importance of planning Explain what is “ goals” and “Objectives” Apply various types of plans in planning 3.

logical and realistic Planning is a pervasive and continuous executive functions involving complexes processes. defined strategies. politic and social. In other words. whether he is top manager or lower level manager. he has to plan. Where should the activities be carried out? 5.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING IN ORGANIZATIONS Why do managers in organizations have to plan? Why do you have to plan? What is this activity important to an organization? The reasons are : 1. policies and detailed plans to achieve them.Important to all organization. What activities are required to accomplish the objectives? 2. plans are statement of how objectives are to be accomplished. As a manager. Formally prepared Observable. the profitable alternatives that exist are identified through a planning process. there are several questions that need to be asked to realize the organization’s goals. Planning allows us to be more certain and to plan for the future.2 PLANS According to Mondy. 2. 3. A process that begins with objectives. When should the action be completed?. Planning is an important managerial functions. managers can inform their subordinates about the expectations of the management and the objective of the organization can be realized. Based upon the definition stated above. factual. you can infer that plans should be: 1. 1. A manager must plan ahead to get things done through his subordinates 3. ( MONDY) . Through planning. economic. Planning establishes an organization to implement decisions and includes a review of performance and feedback to introduce a new planning cycle. When should these activities be carried out? 3. (STEINER) OR Planning may be broadly defined as “ a concept of executive action that embodies the skill of anticipating and controlling the nature and direction of change “ ( MC FARLAND) OR “The process of determining in advance what should be accomplished and how it should be realized”. Whatever activities are planned by the managers. Planning helps to determine what opportunities there are to exploit. It is important because organization are effected by change. Who is responsible for doing what? 4. .

Without proper plans much will be left to chance an therefore to risk.5 Focus on forward thinking The planning function forces managers to think a head and consider resource needs and potential opportunities or threats that the organization may face in the future. rather than allowing them to dilute and negate his efforts. It assists a manager in attaining confident and aggressive leadership. 5. What is really happening become more meaningful expected. a manager successfully copes with his affairs and problems. resources are efficiently and effectively utilized. Planning enables us to identify the course of action by setting objectives and choosing alternatives that will be most profitable. • Plan helps to define the responsibilities of individuals and work groups and helps coordinate their activities. 3.2. 8. Participatory work environment Successful planning requires the participation of a wide range of organizational members. 6. Through plans.4 3. 7. 9. 3. thus resulting in saving. THE PURPOSE OF PLANNING • • • • To help organization reach it objective Minimize risk by reducing uncertainties Increase the degree of organizational success To establish a coordinated effort within organization BENEFITS OF PLANNING • Better coordination Planning provides a foundation for the coordination of a broad range of organizational activities. 4. It can reveal opportunities for new services. It provides for effective utilization of available facilities of an enterprise. • . By means of planning. Not to plan is to manage as a results of events rather than by use of foresight influence an action. Planning can point out the need for future changes. when we know what is really It help to achieve goals and reduces random activities and needless overlapping. It guides management thinking to future desirable activities and spells out how best to make the shift and what must be done to attain goals.

More effective control system The implementation of the plan can be evaluate and progress toward the achievement of performance objectives can be monitored. groups and organizations. 3. So. Greater risk taking and more action. Example of a Goal: The goal of every manager is to create a clear and verifiable objectives that facilitate measurement of a effectiveness and efficiency of managerial actions.6.6.3 TYPES OF GOAL : 1. 3. large or small it must set goals. Setting goals gives people a sense of control that leads the action. Goals are the ends toward which activities is aimed. Purpose .6. Provides the direction for all management decisions. The goal must precise. 2. Controls provide mechanism for ensuring that the organization is moving in the right direction and making progress toward achieve its goals. lead and control their departments or company successfully. Goals is organizations provide the ends towards which people direct their efforts. Goals that are clearly established an properly communicated to employees stand the best chance of being reached. Often called as “ foundation of planning” Goal is one type of plan.6 3. Accomplishing goals leads to self.confident.1 MAJOR COMPONENT OF PLANNING GOALS: Future target or end result an organization wishes to achieve. 3. Weather a firm new or old. Desire outcomes for individuals. Well defined goals provide a solid basis for managers to organized. 3. An organization’s plan provides a foundation for control of the process and progress of the organization. what are goals?. The goal must be clear and coordinated The goal must be include long – term and short – term plans to be successful. specific and meaningful.2 Characteristics of setting goals are: 1.

5. personnel. departmental or individual level. and Help to shape long term plan to make decision.g to develop. Strategy It is the method of shaping a company’s future and involves determining the long – run direction of the organization. Organization will establish priorities and make a commitment about the way they will use their scarce resources. A company may have the strategy diversifying into related businesses within the next few years. manufacture and market pharmaceutical products that assure strong growth and profitability. 2.4 IMPORTANT OF GOAL Provide sense of direction Reacting to environmental change. land and other tangible means of production for various uses. 4.5 SETTING A GOALS 1 MISSION Purpose or reason for the existence of an .It is define as an intention to produce a specific good or service. Objectives are established at organizational. Resource allocation It distributes money. marketing pharmaceuticals products can be the mission of a drugs manufacturing company. 3. Focus on effort Guide our decisions plan Goals helps evaluate our Become a standard performance that lets process individuals and managers like evaluating their progress.6.e. 3. Mission It is the purpose or reason for the existence of an organization. E. The mission of an organization’s is its products or services or markets or customers . People in organization bolster their motivation and gain a source of inspiration that help to overcome the inevitable obstacles they encounter.g. 3. plant and equipment. Objective It is an estimated end result expected in the future. can be an objective of a salesman. Increasing the accounts handled from 20 to 25 percent within the next year.6.

Major steps that are required to reach an objectives.7 3. Method of shaping organization’s future and involves determining the long run direction of the organization to achieve the objectives.The organization unit or member involved for each steps. markets and customers) It is estimated end result expected in the future. departmental or individual level.The order and timing of each steps. This operational zing strategy is done at all levels and involves directing the organization’s day to day operations to achieve overall strategic objectives consistent with the organization’s mission and policies. Single use plans consists of program. It is designed for a specific purpose or period. Budgets are plans that commit resources to activities. Programs Deals with the who. .2 3 OBJECTIVE STRATEGIES organization ( product. project or programs. where. what. Projects Are similar to programs but smaller because each project has a limited scope and distinct directive concerning assignments and time. It si established at organizational. when. Usually the programs may be accompanied by a budget for the activities required. 3. Budgets Statements of financial resources set aside for specific activities in a given period of time. managers have to make use of the different types of operational plans for the effectiveness of the organization. and how much of an activity. .7. Standing Plans . how. It covers a relatively large set of activities whereby it indicates: . There are two types of operationalizing strategy ( operational plans) Single use plans It is a detailed course of action that probably will not be repeated in the same form in the future. Projects are short-term in nature. Program are the actual course of action designed to carry out the established objective. The plan ceases to exist when the goals are achieved.1 LEVELS OF PLANS Operational Plan In planning. - - b. services. project and budgets.

It indicates what is permitted and what is not.g.3 TACTICAL PLAN Making detail. 3. short term decisions of what to do. - 3. e. how to operate a Photostat machine or how to handle employee grievances. Policies found in all aspects of an organization. 3. Policies policy is a standing –use plan that communicates broad guidelines for making decisions and taking action. E. procedures and rules.2 STRATEGIC PLAN. policies and resource allocations.7. Choosing specific means of implementing strategic plans. They exist in the form of policies. which will do and how it is to be done. overall objectives.8 PLANNING PROCESS Stating organizational objectives Listing alternatives ways of reaching objectives Developing premises upon which each alternative is based Choosing best alternatives for reaching objectives Developing plans to pursue chosen alternatives Putting plan into action .g are wearing uniforms or reporting to work at a particular time. Process of making long term choices about an organization’s mission.These plans serves as guidelines to managerial action and are designed to be used again and again. strategies. Procedures These are a series of steps in which activities are to be carried out. Developing annuals budgets for projects and departments. Rules These are very specific actions to be taken or not taken with respect to a situation. These plans bring consistency to the operations.7.

It helps to coordinates decision at all levels It provides a basis for establishing standards facilitating performance measurement at all management levels. They provide a direction in which the organization should move. A high degree of motivation can be maintained by setting objective for a members of the organization an enabling them to achieve to those objectives. having some sub.units accomplish their objectives at the expense of the other sub. . It helps to prevent displacement of objectives where it means become more important than ends that were original intended. 3. Objectives determine the role an organization should play in a given environment.3. Hierarchy of objectives_ It is a series of objectives linked to one another at the various levels of management such that each higher-level objective is supported by one or more lower.optimization. The efforts an activities of the members of an organization can be coordinated with the help of objectives.units in the organization.level ones.9.2 A hierarchy of objectives is important to any organization because: a) b) c) d) e) It helps to ensure the proper alignment of all organization levels with the organization’s purpose.9.1 The nature of objective: 1. 3. that is. It helps to avoid sub.9 OBJECTIVES Objectives are the prime parts of the plans and are vital to an organization because all the efforts an activities are focused on this objectives . They serve as standards of performance against which actual performance may be compared and it is an important dimension of the control process.

4 EXPLAINATION: 1. The purpose of society that requires the organization contribute to the .performance .9.Personal development objectives Organizational hierarchy Lower level managers Middle level managers Top level managers 3.3 RELATIONSHIP HIERARCHY OF OBJECTIVES AND THE ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY OF OBJECTIVES Board of directors Socio economic purpose 1 Mission 2 Overall objectives of the organization ( LR strategies ) 3 More specific overall Objectives ( key result areas) 4 Division objectives 5 Department and unit objectives 6 Individual objectives .9.3.

2 MBO PROCESS 1 2 3 4 5 Review organizational objective Set worker objective Monitor progress Evaluate performance Give rewards Manager gains a clear understanding of the organization’s overall objectives. Top management must be committed to the MBO process and set appropriate objectives for the organizations.10 MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE 3. like designing. At the next level of the hierarchy. producing. Rewards are given to individuals on the basis of how close they come to reaching the goals. you find more specific objectives such as those in the key result areas. 3. 3. These objectives are mutually set and agreed upon by individuals and their managers. .strategy has 3 basic parts: 1 2 3 Individual within an organization are assigned a specialized set of objectives that they try to reach during a normal operating period. 5. The purpose of the business. Manager and worker meet to agree on worker objectives to be reached by the end of the normal operating period At intervals during the normal operating period. These are the areas in which performance is essential for the success of the enterprise. marketing a low. 3. which might be furnish convenient. 4.efficient automobile. low-cost transportation for the average person. 3.10. MBO.welfare of the people by providing good and services at a reasonable cost.10.1 DefinitionA management that uses organizational objectives as the primary means of managing organizations. fuel. Popularize through the writing of Peter Drucker. the manager and worker check to see if the objective are being reached At the end of the normal operating period the worker’s performance is judged by the extend to which the worker reached the objectives. The stated mission might be to produce market and service automobiles. These aims are then translated into general objectives or strategies. 2.3 SUCCESSFUL MBO PROGRAM 1. These objectives have to be further divided into division department and unit objectives down to the lowest levels of the organization. Performance reviews are conducted periodically to determined how close individual are to attaining their objectives.cost.10. Rewards given to the worker are based on the extent to which the objectives were reached.

Determining the organizational mission .4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MBO ADVANTAGES MBO programs continually emphasize what should be done in an organization to achieve goals.2.11. communication of goals etc) Environme ntal analysis .11 STRATEGIC PLANNING 3. 3. .General .11. It need managers to considers the organization as a total unit and ask themselves what must be done in along term to attain organizational goals. 3. Strategic Management Process : Strategy impleme ntation Strategic control DISADVANTAGES Time consuming leaving both managers and employees less time to do actual work. The evaluation helps to determine whether the objectives are fair. 3.objective Strategy formulati on 3.Internal Establishing organizationa l direction .10.Very broad statement of organizational direction.Operating .2 Strategic Management: Definition: The process of ensuring that an organization possesses and benefits from the use of an appropriate organizational strategy. Management must follow through an employee performance evaluation by rewarding employees accordingly.1 Definition: Long range planning focus on the organizing as a whole.12 RGANIZATIONAL MISSION 1. Increase the volume of paper works (Elaborate goals. 3. MBO process secure employee commitment to attaining organizational goals.mission . 4. Employee’s performance should be evaluated. Managers and subordinates together must develop and agree on each individual’s goals.

. Important of Organizational mission Help managers focus on human effort in a common direction Serve as a sound rationale for allocating resources Help managers define broad but important job area within an organization and therefore critical jobs that must be accomplish. Purpose of which the reason why an organization exists.Insufficient knowledge of environment –only know internal and external environment may confuse managers. . 3.worries about negative effect to their work and daily life. 3.Effective strategic thinking can be developed through training and practice. Managers resistance to plan: .Fear of failure-be blame for being a poor decision maker.Uncertainty about the causes and effect.Lack of knowledge – new goal will conflicting with the one that they are used. normally based on input by manager as well as non managers that describes and explains what the mission of an organization actually is. .14 OVERCOMING THE BARRIERS TO PLAN . Employees resistance to change .Lack of confidence.13 BARRIERS TO AN EFFECTIVE PLAN Demand on the leader’s time Ambiguous and uncertain operating environment Resistance to change 3.Involve employees in decision making . Developing a mission statement Mission statement is a written document develop by management. Mission express in writing to ensure that all organization members will have easy access to it and understand exactly what the organization is trying to accomplish.2.15 BARRIERS IN GOAL SETTING AND PLAN 1. 3. .Encourage strategic thinking .difficult to change their management and leadership style. . Reflects such information such as what types of product/ services.Diverse view lead to a broader assessment of organizational problems and opportunities .Tolerate a diversity of views . customer tend to be and the important values its hold. 2.Input from all levels of organization is essential for successful planning.

Fundamental of Management. Allow employees involved in planning process. Employees: a. Freeman Edwards R.. Management. 3. 3. Managers Develop and improve communication system Develop program that enable them to establish contact with the various department.may need to do extra work or transfer to another area. 6 th ed 2001. 2. David A. Plans and changes must guaranty that none of the employees will be affected ACTIVITY : 1. Eaglewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall..A and Latham. Contrast formal with informal planning?. Locke. Training and managers development program. 4.16 OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO PLAN 1. Training skill that enable them to increase their knowledge and skills. CHAPTER FOUR OVERVIEW ORGANIZING . Provide support.- Uncertainty about the job. E. Prentice Hall. REFERENCES : 1. Robbins. Give detailed information about the plans. Decenzo. Stoner. A theory of Goal setting and Task Performance. How do single use and standing plans differ? How do you formulate strategies? 2. Stephen P.P. Prentice Hall. b. Gilbert Jr. Recognition and reward. 6. G. give recognition and rewards for accomplishment of tasks among managers.1995. 5. Daniel R. James A.F. Under what circumstances do you believe MBO would be most useful? Discuss.1990. c. 6th and.

0 4.2 4. the work done and facilities so that goals are achieved.1 4.3 4. Pool resources.8 DEFINITION OF ORGANIZING IMPORTANT OF ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ORGANIZATION CHART DIVISION OF WORK TYPES OFORGANIZATION STRUCTURE AUTHORITY AND POWER DECENTRALIZATION/ DEPARTMENTALIZATION DELEGATION Learning objectives: After completing this chapter student will be able to : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Explain why organization need to organize Familiarize with organizational structure Explain how to prepare organizational chart Describe different types of organization structure Differentiate between centralization and decentralization of organization. Explain why organization need to practice delegation 4.4.4 4.0 4. To structure / arrange the relationship between people. increase efforts which lead efficiency .6 4. 4.1 ORGANIZING Definition : The formal way for managers to divide work coordinate task.5 4.2 Why organizing? Divide work according to nature and similarity of tasks. delegate authority and responsibility to achieve organizational objectives.7 4.

organizations charts and lines authority. To create and maintain relationship between all resources. Letting employees know what to expect by them establishing rules. 4. 3. Important of Organizing Important to management system. The chain of command and hierarchy of responsibility. 4. Standardization : Developing the procedures an organization uses to ensure employees perform their tasks in uniform and consistent manner. Organizational structure can be divide into four elements : Specialization Standardization Coordination Authority a) Specialization : Identifying specialized task.5 1. Coordination : b) - - c) .4 Build continuity and synergy. Minimize costly weaknesses Accomplish better objectives by using coordinated efforts of people. regulations operation procedures and performance standards. 4. when. assigning to individuals/ work who are trained. where and how. Clarifying responsibilities through job descriptions. 4. 3. Middle managers will be responsible for directing work. On the job training programs will promote standardized skills and reinforce values to organization’s success.4. 2. 2. authority and accountability are established through organizational structure.3 1. How? Description. by specifying which resources to be used. instructions. Organizational Structure : Formal system that separates and integrates tasks : Allocating people and resources to tasks. rules and regulations to standardize subordinates jobs success Application forms will standardize the selection of employees. accounting or quality control. functional and first line usually supervise such as marketing.

Various organization distribute authority differently. Easy to assign tasks to individuals based upon their talents.coordination requires knowledge of company wide problems.top manages make decision.7 . Lines of authority Lines connecting the boxes show the official lines of authority and communication. 2. a willingness to share responsibility and effective interpersonal communication. 4. d) Authority : Right to make decision and take actions. those reporting directly to the same individual are at the same level. 4. Type of work Label in each box identifies the subdivision area of responsibility. 5. interest and positions. In less structure. Five major information found in the organization chart are: 1. 4.This division of work and the grouping together of people is done based on some common characteristics linked between the activities involved. Centralized organization. Decentralized organization – Greater decision making responsibility is given to lower level managers. 3.7. Subdivision Each box represents a subdivision of the organization that is responsible for a portion of the work. 4. Levels of managementManagement hierarchy.- Formal and informal procedures that integrates both managerial and employees activities. departments and function within the organization. communicate to lower managers.Simplified tasks that are easily understood and completed quickly.6 ORGANIZATION CHART : The way to describe the four elements including the location of positions.1 Importance of division of work : Increase productivity Create specialization. Tasks Indicates the range of tasks within the organization. How? In bureaucratic organization rules and regulations. DIVISION OF WORK : Work is being divided among members and different jobs related to each other .

delegate clear policies. - - - - Types of organization structure: Flat and steep Flat – Flat wide span of authority SteepShort span of authority with many organizations levels. the fewer individuals they can manage effectively. Advantages Supervisors are forced to Close supervision and control. obey -Tend to be bottleneck b’cos of the burden of managing subordinates.8. Disadvantages . Superior’s too involved with subordinates. Planning The more time managers must spend on planning activities. the smaller span of management should be. -Danger of superior’s loss control. 4. Coordination The greater the amount of time that must be spend on such coordination.8 Span Of Management: Number of subordinates who report directly to a given manager. -required Good managers needed to handle situations. Complexity of Function The more difficult and involved the activities are. the more of them managers can supervise effectively. the span of management appropriate for the situation widens. 4. Create dissatisfaction and boredom of routine and specialize tasks. Many levels costly excessive distance between the lowest and the highest level. the more difficult it is to manage a large number of individuals effectively. Geographic continuity The closer subordinates are physically.1 Factors that influence the span of management Similarity of Functions If similarity of subordinates activities increase. Rapid communication between Subordinates must willing to subordinates and superior.Disadvantages: Sense of control felt by managers will be different. Job description detail the responsibilities and tasks associated with a given job.

It is legitimate.9 AUTHORITY The right to perform a command and make decision with respect to work assignments and to require subordinates to perform assigned tasks in accordance with the decision made. Disadvantages: Superior too involved with subordinates Many levels costly Excessive distance between the lowest and the highest level. Advantages : Close supervision and control Rapid communication between subordinates and superior.8. 4.4. Authority is delegate from top. 4.8. Danger of the superior’s loss control 4.3 STEEP : Short span of authority with many organization levels.9.1 a) Types of authority Line authority – A manager is responsible for the work of his unit and its direct contributions to the objectives of the organization.2 FLAT : few organization levels with flat wide span of authority. Each employee and each superior should know Job suppose to accomplish Duties Authority His supervisor Subordinates Levels of performance Authority is a type of power. Advantages : Superiors are forced to delegate Clear policies Subordinates must willing to obey Disadvantages : decision not passed down because of managing subordinates. .

The Scalar principle: Members of the organization should know where they stand in the chain of command.1 Why delegate? Culture of organization Specific situation involved. authority and accountability.Obligation to perform any assigned duties.9 4. Relationship behavior personalities and capabilities of the people in that situation.9. Responsibility. 4.9. Guide lines for effective delegation authority. Unity of command.b) Staff authority Each individual or group pays a supporting role and contributes to the objectives of the organization. 4. The Scalar principles 3. 2. Enable individual to know to whom they are accountable and whose instruction they must follow. DELEGATION: the process of transforming the responsibility for a specific activity or task to another member of the organization. Superior delegate authority to subordinates in order to facilitate work being accomplished.Requirement to provide satisfactory reasons for significant deviation from duties or expected results. Indicate there must be clear line of authority from the highest to the lowest level of organization. Authority . A clear line of authority will make it easier for organization members to understand. To whom they can delegate Who can delegate To whom they are accountable Unity of command Each employee should report to only one superior.3 THE PROCESS OF DELEGATION a) Assigning responsibility Responsible to refers to the employee’s obligation to complete the activities that he or she has been assigned . carry out actions and direct others in matter related to the duties and goals of a position.9.2 Accountability. responsibility. Basic consideration in delegation are: 1. .Right to make decisions. - 4.

Leads to better decision making. promotion.9. 4. A process where managers affect other’s behavior.5 BENEFITS OF DELEGATION 1. Principle 3: Transfer authority and accountability with the task. c) Managers may be insecure about their own value to the organization.b) Granting authority Authority is the formal right of an employee to marshal resources and make decisions necessary to fulfill work responsibilities. praise. physical appearance. 4.10 POWER: Ability to exert influence. money.4 Reasons for failing to delegate: a) Lack of confidence in the abilities of subordinates. 4. 5 types of power: a) b) c) Reward power: Money. difficult. Principle 2: Be organized and communicate clearly. Provides opportunity for employee to develop analytical and problem solving skills. Principle 4 : Choose the level of delegation carefully. status Expert power Influence others through knowledge Referent power Status. 2.5 Learning to delegate effectively Principle 1: Match the employee to the task. Provides managers to opportunity to accomplish more complicated. b) Managers try to avoid the potential pitfalls of dual accountability. acceptance. or important tasks. 3.9. Leads to amore involved and empowered workforce. fame . 4.9. employees understand that they must justify their decisions and actions with regard to the tasks for which they have assumed responsibility c) 4. Establishing accountability Where there is accountability for performance.

In some situation all managerial decisions have to be approved by the chief executive before operation. By product . More reporting and inspection may be needed than if the control were centralized.president. penalty. rejection and denial of rewards. Little coordination and interpersonal skills needed. Promote conflict over product practices.activities by product produces By territory / geographic – activities by territory By customer . 4. difficult to understand responsibility for By Function Mainly used by smaller firms that offer limited line of products because it makes efficient use of specialize resources. supervisor CENTRALIZATION The responsibility and authority concentrated in one place so that major decision are made by central controlling body. Four Types : By function . Legitimate power Position. ridicule.d) f) 4. Does not foster development of general managers. .Spread of forms and rigid procedures will thus slow down the operations of the organization. Easier to mobilized special skills. Administration convenient and the focal point for each function. It will lead to frustration. managers members of staff unable to use discretion but according to inflexible rules. Advantages : It provides absolute control over organization. Control can be autocratic and inflexible. Bureaucratic control methods. Difficult to determine accountability.activities by work or customers flow.group of activities by function performed. By process . Disadvantages : Each section may not have standard procedure. Manager is expert in a narrow range of skill.12 Coercive power Pain. Advantages Disadvantages Difficult to make decision.13 DECENTRALIZATION : DEPARTMENTALIZATION :It occurs where responsibilities for various functions and operations are taken away from the center and rests at the point where operations occur.activities by common customers. Common standards for all in organization.

less control for top management. Improves coordination of functions activities. ACTIVITY : . Division managers fairly independent. regional manager are fairly independent. Requires managers and employees expertise in customer’s problem. 2. 3. Flexibility to meet changes Rewarding to managers and staff because it enables them to exercise their own judgment and initiative. Promotes personal development and their service becomes of greater value. thus difficult for top management to control. Responsibility for profits at the division level. By product Functions and activities based on products manufactured by the company. By territory Organized around the places Offers better services where operations are located at low cost. Responsible for profits at lower level. 4. Allows growth and diversity of products and services. Requires more personnel with the general manager’s abilities to fill up the division of maintenance of central services becomes difficult when each managers need his own services. Places attention and focuses effort on product line. Offer better face to face communication. different customers Develops expertise in customer handling By Customer Difficult to coordinate operations between competing customer demands. Emphasizes on local market and problems. Grouping of activities to Concentrate on reflect the interest of customers needs. More staff required. 5. Advantages: 1. Costly. Promote job satisfactions Provides good management experience to managers and supervisors.overall tasks.

Stoner. 4. 3. Apply the effective control system CONTROLLING 5.. 4. Daniel R. 3. 5. CHAPTER FIVE OVERVIEW : CONTROLLING 1. 2. 6 th ed 2001.F. How does size affect structure? REFERENCES : 1. Robbins. Gilbert Jr. . 6th and. Decenzo. 2. Freeman Edwards R. David A. 2.F stoner). DEFINITION OF CONTROLLING IMPORTANCEOF CONTROLLING STEPS IN THE CONTROL PROCESS CHARACTERISTIC OF AN EFFECTIVE CONTROL TYPES OF CONTRO Learning objectives : After completing this chapter student will be able to : 1. Can you identify the four ways to departmentalize? How do authority and power differ? How do centralization and decentralization differ?. Management. Understand the definition of controlling Explain the importance of controlling in organization Describe the steps in control process Describe the types of control practiced 5. 2.1. 3.. James A.1995.0 Definition: The process to assure that actual activities conform to planed activities ( J. Prentice Hall. Fundamental of Management. 4. Stephen P. Prentice Hall.

Plans and goals set by organization deals with future which is always uncertain and is constantly changing. Its depend on the situation. Control is needed to coordinate activities and accomplish integration.(Strategic and results oriented) 3. Deals with human limitation ( mistake) e. .g wrong forecasts thus it help tosspot mistake. FlexibleIndividual judgment and is modified to fit new circumstance as they rise. 5. when and why it is required.2 The control process. or uncertainty.5. What .3 Characteristics Of Effective System: 1. Ensure delegation and decentralization are operate smoothly. 2. E.g market shift.As organization grow in size and diversity.1 The process of monitoring performance and taking action to ensure desired results. Determine whether performance matches standards.PLOC by determine what is necessary. If the performance match the standard no corrective action is needed. Focus on strategic control points ( strategic and result oriented) 5. Deals with complexity. Accurate informationInaccurate will cause organization to make wrong decision. The Important of Controlling : Assist the management process. Enable managers to check on performance. Focused on strategic control points. when and how frequently to measure. they become complex.: Establish standards and methods for measuring the performance standard. 4.g R & D gas in the air. product demand. Take corrective action if the performance does not match the standard then corrective actions may be include 5.g customer waiting time. E. Measure the performance e. Objective and comprehensiveStandard set must be understandable and measurable. TimelyInformation must be collected and evaluated quickly to enable managers to solve problems on time. Deals with the change.

Premeaux. Discuss steps use in controlling? management REFERENCES : 1. Management. 2. James A. human resource and material resources. CHAPTER SIX OVERVIEW HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMEN . Freeman Edwards R. Steering control To spot problems as they develop or work process. 2. Decenzo. E. 2. Why organization need to focus on controlling? What are the basic relationship between controlling and other functions?. Prentice Hall. Prentice Hall. ACTIVITY : 1.1993. 3. take corrective actions before final result are achieve.4 Consistent with the organization’s structure(organizational realistic). David A. Daniel R.. 2.Control must be exercised at all level of management.F. Screening control ( yes or no control) Check points before an activity proceeds further e. 3. Stoner.. If there are problem corrective. 5. 6th ed 2001.1995. Shane R. actions are done and applied to future activities. Robbins. Pre – action control ( feed forward) Control done at input level of production.e. Gilbert Jr. Attempts to measure result of certain action. management Concepts.g finance. R.6.g bank procedure approval of large amount of cheque. Stephen P. Fundamental of Management. E. To anticipate potential problems and prevent them from occurring . Practices and skills . 4. 6th edn.g restaurant will ask how you find your meal after you have taken it. Wayne. 6th and. Mondy. Types Of Control ( Control Methods) 1. Post action control After an action is completed. Allyn and Bacon.g zero inflation campaign.

4. 2.1 6. 6. 6. 3.2 RECRUITING . 2.Techniques used to gain the understanding are: Job analysis Job description Process for collecting information on the important work related aspect of the job Description of the basic tasks. .1.The process of finding qualified applications Must begin with the understanding of the position to be filled so the broad range of potential employees can be narrow intelligently.1 HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING Step in providing Human Resource 1.0. duties and Recruitment Selection Training Performance appraisal . Understand how to plan human resource in organization. Definition: Refers to the individuals within the organization who make valuable contribution to the management system. Describe several components in Human resource Management MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCE 6. 3.1. Definition Human Resource Planning Components Of HRM Recruiting and selection Training and development Performance appraisal and feedback Compensation and benefits Labour relation and / employment legislations Learning objectives : After completing this chapter student will be able to : 1. 2.

Physical effort . 6. Qualification needed perform a particular job.Job summary . tools .Materials and form Used .responsibilities of an employee holding a Job specification particular job.Job title .3 1.Experience . to successfully JOB ANALYSIS Job Description .Location .Duties . 2. Major source of Potential Job Candidates Internal search Advertisement Employee Referrals Employment agencies University placement Job fair SELECTION The process of screening job applicants to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are hired. 4.Education . 3.Training . 5. TYPES OF SELECTION DEVICE a) Application form b) Written test c) Interview .Communication skill 6.Physical skill .working condition Job Specification .Machine.

A judgmental process of the job performance of employees. Understudy Assignment: . . PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL . Sample Off the Job Training Methods Classroom Lectures Films and videos Simulation Exercise Vestibule training . . . .Working with coach/mentor .6.To demonstrate technical skills that are not easily to presented by other training methods. .Provide support and encouragement from experience workers 1.Learning a job by actually performing the work.Employee work at different job .May include case analysis. .Provides good exposure to a variety of tasks.The process of assessing how well employees are doing their job. Sample on the job training methods 2. role play. Sample on the job training methods Job Rotation: .d) Background investigation e) Physical examination TRAINING Is the process of developing qualities in human resource that will enable them to be more productive and thus to contribute more to organizational goal attainable. 6.Design to convey specific technical.1 Importance Of Performance Appraisal . 2 types of employee training methods: 1.A process of establishing performance standards and evaluating performance in order to arrive at objective human resource decisions as well to provide documentation to support those decisions. group interaction.Learning tasks on the same equipment that one actually will use on the job but in a simulated work environment. interpersonal or problem solving solving skills.

job knowledge etc.6. skills. 2. c) d) Critical. Definition of quality The differences between Total quality management (TQM) and traditional management. promotion and transfers. 360 Degree Methods that utilizes feedback from supervisor. value to organization etc. Understand the difference between TQM and traditional management. initiative etc.2 Methods Of Performance Appraisal a) Rating skill Use a form containing several employee qualities and characteristics to be evaluated such as leadership. Useful basis for the coaching and counseling of individuals by superiors. Provide a systematic judgment to support salary increase.1. attitudes. b) CHAPTER SEVEN OVERVIEW TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 1.Form Essay Write down particular good or bad performance. Employee Comparison Rank employees according to job performance. . Telling subordinates how they are doing and to suggest needed changes in behavior. 2. 4. employees and coworkers. 3. History of TQM A system approach in TQM Learning objectives : After completing this chapter student will be able to: 1. 6. 3.

people. Discuss the main ideas of Total quality management.(GSA) quality involves meeting or exceeding customer expectations. service. Goal is customer satisfaction. QUALITY 7. processes and environments. Explain about the history of TQM Familiar with the system approach in TQM.0 Definition : “ Performance to the standard expected by the customer”( Fred Smith.2 Differences between TQM and Traditional management: TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Customer Focus Quality first TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT Management focus Profits first . 3.2. Quality applies to product.1 Total Quality Management (TQM) Integration of application functions and processes within organization in order to achieve continuous improvement of the quality of goods and services. 4.( what is considered as quality today may not good enough to be considered quality tomorrow) 7.(Boeing ) An ever changing state. CEO of Federal Express) Meeting the customer’s need the first time and every time. 7.

Multiple quality dimensions Management and worker involvement Process oriented

Single quality dimension No worker involve Result oriented

7.3 History of TQM Occurred in Japan after World War II. Japanese industry was completely destroyed and had to be rebuilt from scratch. Number of American went to Japan and helped to built and operate modern manufacturing facilities. Contributors : 1. 2. 3. 4. W. Edward Deming Joseph M. Juran Philip B. Cosby Kooru Ishikawa

W. Edward Deming

Defines quality as predictable degree of uniformity and dependability, at low cost and suited to the market. Quality improves, costs will decrease and productivity increase, resulting more jobs.

Joseph M. Juran

Fitness for use in terms of design conformance, availability, safety and field use. Focuses on top down rather than worker pride and satisfaction.

Philip B. Cosby

Quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not goodness. The system for achieving quality is prevention, not appraisal. The performance is zero defect. The measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance.

Kooru Ishikawa

Contributing to the emergence of quality circle, workers meet to discuss suggestions for improvements. Focusing on the total quality effort on customers. Output of one department should be given to another department.

7.4 THE MAIN IDEAS OF TQM: TQM is a process of continuously improving quality over the long run. There are five main TQM ideas A system approach : Depends on understanding organizations as systems. Parts of the system must work to support each other.

Systems: A series of functions or activities within an organization that work together for the aim of organization. a) Culture system: Referred as social system. ( set of beliefs and resulting behaviors that are shared throughout the organization). b) Technical system: Factors such as technologies in the physical infrastructure – include ergonomics consideration, investments. d) Management system: Define the effectiveness of those processes by which an organization manages its human and physical assets. computer software, hardware configuration and capital

7.5

THE

THREE

SYSTEM

IN

ORGANIZATION

The managerial system Managerial diagnosis Managing and checking points Policy deployment

The social system Symbol, rewards, recognition.

Cross functional Management goal setting

The technical system Tools and techniques

The tool of TQM

Kaoru Ishikawa determine a good or bad outcome in Fishbone diagram – helps to show possible causes of problems. Benchmarking – comparing own products and process against the very best in the world. Internal and external customers define quality and employees produce it. Effort from all levels supervisors to senior executive making TQM success. Know how to pass on authority and responsibility to the people they work and put extra effort to cooperate with other departments. Empowerment. Letting employees make decision at all levels of an organization without asking for approval from managers.

A focus on customers The role of management

Employee participation

ACTIVITY :

1. 2. 2.

What differ between traditional management and Total Quality Management?. What are the main ideas of TQM? Discuss the system approach in quality management?.

REFERENCES : 1. Stephen P. Robbins, David A. Decenzo, Fundamental of Management, 6th ed 2001, Prentice Hall. 2. Stoner, James A.F., Freeman Edwards R., Gilbert Jr. Daniel R, Management, 6th and,1995, Prentice Hall. 3. Berry, T.H.1991. Managing the Total Quality Transformation. New York: McGraw – Hill. CHAPTER EIGHT OVERVIEW DECISION MAKING 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Definition of Decision Making Types of decision making Steps in decision making process States of nature types and decision Condition that affect decision making

Learning objectives : After completing this chapter, student will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Explain what is decision making Explain types of decision making Apply all steps in decision making Familiarize types of state of nature in decision making. Know the condition that affect decision making

DECISION MAKING

NON.2 Types of decision making : 1. controlling.0 DEFINITION Process where a course is selected as the way to deal with a specific problem.program decision PROGRAMMED DECISIONS It is a repetitive decision that can be handle by a routine approach.PROGRAMMED DECISION This is a type of decision that deals with a unique. 8. organizing. 8.g in planning. Decision making is a process which affects all the manager’s operating functions. Programmed decisions 2.1 THE NATURE OF MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING Decision making is one of the vital tasks of a manager e. The key to successful decision making depends on the proper formulation of the specific problem at hand. Eng is the selection and training of personnel. Selection of one alternative from two or more alternative. e. It is usually made in accordance with some established habit. The nature of the problem that occurs is unstructured and something different.programmed Highest level organizational levels nature of problem programmed nature of decision making Programmed decisions Non programmed decision .8. rule or procedure (STONER).g Nature of problems an decision making in organization Un structured Organizational hierarchy structured lowest level Non. Grievances procedures for employees are an example of programmed decisions. unusual or exceptional problems. Non.

Well structured situations using predetermine decision rules. E. 2.3 DECISION MAKING CONDITIONS There are three different conditions under which decision are made. 8. Virus out break. unusual or exceptional problem. Steps 1 The nature of the problems Possible alternatives Result of alternatives . related rules and policies.g J. E.4 STEPS IN DECISION MAKING The understanding of the steps will enhance and improve the analytical and decision making process. unique. Unstructured.g grievances procedures for employees. Each of those conditions is based on degree to which the future outcome of a decision alternative is predictable. 8. Individual are fully informed in terms of : RISK Future condition are unknown in advanced. Occurs in the situation in which an individual can define as : Nature problems Possible alternatives UNCERTAINTY Individual cannot even assign subjective probabilities to possible state of nature because the individual do have the information or intuitive judgment to use as basis for assigning the probabilities to each state of nature.A repetitive decision that can be handle by routine approach. 3. These condition are: 1.E. requires a higher level management participation. Some information are available but not enough to answer all questions and normally most of the management decisions are made under this condition. Certainty Risk Uncertainty CERTAINTY: The decision maker knows the out-come of the problems.

Decision makers responsible for reviewing the plan periodically and comparing the actual performance with the planned solutions. identification and diagnosis of unusual and ambiguous problems with the unique. Represents a series of mini decisions made over a period of months or several years. operating procedures and computer programs.- Investigate the situation. Solution obtained from standard rules. . Define the problem Diagnose the causes Identify decision objectives Step 2 Generate alternative solutions. many and various time. the decision maker has to examine the probable desirable and undesirable consequences of each alternative. Step 4 Implement and monitor the chosen solution Design the implementation for the chosen situation. Unusual and partially known problems and alternative solutions that are modifications of other known and well define solutions.5 State Of Nature Types And Decisions Routine Decisions Certainty Objective probabilities Adaptive decision Innovative decision Uncertainty Subjective probabilities RISK CONTINUUM Routine : Choices made in response to relatively well known problems. Innovative: Involve combining the discovery. 8. Consider as many alternatives as possible Step 3 Evaluate and choose among alternative solutions Once the possible solutions are developed. Adaptive: Combination of moderately. involve many people. Novel and creative alternative solutions. Represents an individual decision.

low level risk uncertainty and risk. based on hard facts and figures. but influence their decisions. Certainty: Managers are fully informed of the problem. It include noticing. Objectives probability: The likelihood that the state of nature will occur. Noticing Managers Monitor environmental forces and decide which are problems .6 CONDITION THAT AFFECT DECISION MAKING States of nature: Condition. Non-rational model Information gathering and processing limitations make it difficult for managers to make optimal decisions. orderly sequence. situations and events that managers cannot control. 8. Rational decision and non.g new technologies. Made in the midst of a lot other managerial tasks. interpreting and incorporation Interpreting Managers Assess the forces they have notice determine what is causing it Incorporation Managers Relate their interpretation to the current or desired state of their department/ organization to the future problems. new laws and political instability. Problem awareness and diagnosis. probability that certain states of the nature will occur. alternative solutions that will lead to desired result. ADAPTIVE INNOVATIVE of High levels of risks and certainty. possessing and understanding all information relevant to their decisions at the time they are made.Differences: ROUTINE Do not unfold in a logical. It merges the rationality of the decision maker and the decision into sequence of basic steps: 1. Rational decision : Permits maximum achievement of an objective within limitations of environment in which decisions are made.rational decision model: Rational Make optimal decision. Made under conditions of Moderate levels certainty. entrance of new competitors into market. e.

Set objectives What to be achieve and by what date. Compare and evaluate alternative solutions. Prentice Hall. 4 5. CHAPTER NINE OVERVIEW . Gilbert Jr. Explain the step use in decision making?.. Management. including relative cost of each alternatives.. 3. Choose among alternative solution. 2.F. Discuss two types of decision making?. 2. 6. Daniel R. undertaking. Freeman Edwards R. Robbins. Search for alternative solutions Seeking additional information. 6th and.1995. thinking creative. 3. James A. 6th ed 2001. Final choice Implement the solution selected. Decenzo. ACTIVITY : 1. Prentice Hall. Stephen P. REFERENCES : 1. Stoner. Emphasizes expected results. Fundamental of Management. consulting experts. What are the condition that affect the decision making?.2. David A.

Prentice Hall.5 9.8 DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION TRAIT THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS LEADERSHIP STYLES MANAGERIAL GRID (Leadership grid) CONTINGENCY APPROACH/ MANAGERIAL STYLE.4 9.0 Definition : Process of directing and influencing the tasks related activities of group members to achieve goals.6 9. management. Familiarize with factors that influence managerial style.2 9. Management for productivity.1 9.2nd edn) Four important facts are: 1) 2) Involves people.employer and employees. John Wiley and Sons. R . Identify several leadership styles practice in organization. student will be able to: 1. LEADERSHIP 9. ( stoner. Involve unequal distribution of power between leaders and group members .0 9. John. J. Define what is leadership Explain the importance of leadership in organization Recognize several theories of leadership ..7 9. New Jersey. 6th edition) The process of directing human resource efforts toward organizational objectives ( Schermerhorn. PATH GOAL THEORY SITUATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING Learning objectives : After completing this chapter. 4.LEADERSHIP 9.F. 5. 3.A.3 9. 2.

mental and psychological characteristics. - Set of Traits that differentiate leaders: Traits of leaders and non. It depends on how well the traits match the requirement of the situation that / she is in. factors. mental Intelligence. Qualities such as intelligence.. charisma.1 1) 2) 3) 4) Importance to organization Make contribution to organization Enhance and elicit cooperation Encourage teamwork Motivate employee to generate good work. self assurance and managerial ability.leaders Cannot point out the differences between of leader and followers.leaders Traits of effective leaders and noneffective leaders. strength. Traits can be gained leaders through learning process Traits of Effective leaders and nonEffective leaders Does not depend upon particular set traits. Physical appearance. personality supervisory ability. expert power and legitimate power or authority. obligation and responsibilities towards employees. 9. Leaders have certain inborn personality or leaders are born with certain characteristic. RESULT Traits of leaders and non. bravery. 4) About values – Moral.3) Involves the ability to use the different forms of power to influence. The traits theory failed to isolate prominent traits to distinguish between leaders and nonleaders. charisma. integrity and self confidence. decisiveness. behavior/attitude. referent.2 Trait theories of Leadership: The average person’s definition of leadership are : Evaluation and selection of leaders are based on their physical. 9. enthusiasm. reward. .

Concern on getting the job done to her / his satisfaction rather than develop or employee growth. An effective leader must performs both functions simultaneously.3 BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP This theory is believe that people can learn the characteristic of a leader or people can be train to be a leader. counseling. opinion. Encourage to participate in decision making. Help the group to operate smoothly. Concerned to get the job done rather than the development of the employees. 2. Respect the feeling of others Sensitive to other’s needs and mutual trust. Employee oriented/ people centered.g suggesting solutions.5 LEADERSHIP STYLES : Generate into two different leadership styles : 1. Two aspects of leadership behavior : Leadership function Leadership styles 9. 9. Managers try motivate rather than control the employees. offering information. . Develop trust and respect . Characteristic of Manager: Warmth and has special rapport with subordinates. Task related/ problem solving function. Show high amount of consideration towards employee’s ideas and feelings. Group maintenance/ social function.g agreeing the work performed by his/ her workers practice empathy or sensitive to her/his subordinate’s feeling. Task oriented function/ production centered.9. E.4 LEADERSHIP FUNCTION: Leader considered to be effective when practices these functions: a. Plan and defines work to be done Assigns task responsibilities Sets clear work standards Urges task completion and monitor results Supervise employee. E. b.

1) Little concern for either people or productionLaissez.5 (1.9) 5. concern for feeling and interests of the group members.fair Full attention to people’s need but low concern for production.oriented and task oriented styles of leadership to be practiced simultaneously.9 Team/ High concern for people and production participation/democratic/supportive relationships.6 MANAGERIAL GRID ( leadership grid) Developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton.9 5.5 9. It concern for both employee.1 1.1) Concern for production Managerial grid identifies five leadership behaviors :1.9) Concern For people (9.1 Impoverished management Country club management Middle of the road Autocratic/ authoritarian/ management (9. ( Autocratic) 9. ( Democratic) . Moderate concern for people and production Task High concern for production and low concern for people. Leaders want work schedule to be followed at all costs. Work accomplishment. Managers management.9. The Managerial Grid High ( 1.

Increase goal attainment Clearly defines job requirements. Result from theory: No one leadership style appropriate in all situations.member relationship. Source for rewards. Leadership behavior depends on situation such as leader. . position power. expectation. Two leadership models developed: 1) 2) 9.cycle or situational approach.7 CONTINGENCY APPROACH/ SITUATIONAL APPROACH Focuses on situational factors influencing managerial style. PATH GOAL THEORY Life – Cycle theory or situational approach ( by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blancard) Path goal Model – By Robert J. E.7. according to level of maturity of employees Clarify to employees the and demands of situation.g leaders give directive. House Leader : - Leader : Make valued or desired Must change style of leadership rewards. e.9. experience. kind of behavior Behavior will contribute to employees satisfaction. assist employees. Increasing rewards to employees who achieve goals. task structure. open minded. Path goal theory will enable managers to influence their subordinates by : a) b) Activating subordinates needs for rewards over which the leader has control e. Employees attributes ability.g Recognition and praises. supportive. participative and achievement oriented. Predict leadership style that will be most effective. organization culture and policies. Identify which style is most important at any circumstances.1 Path goal model Life.g A leader explaining to employee how they can qualify for overtime pay. It tries to identify : Find out whether there is any leadership style appropriate in particular situation. provide training. self control and experience. employee’s characteristic.

7. guidelines. controlling and monitoring) The amount of relationship behavior the leader provides ( Vertical axis) ( e. helping them to reaching goals. 3.g providing direction.g providing consideration and level of emotional support) The level of task maturity the followers ( employees) show towards achieving specific goals ( tasks or functions) that the leader wants accomplished.2 Making the path to rewards easier through coaching and direction. E.c) e) 9. 1. 2. The willingness and ability to accept responsibility The education/ experience and skills relevant to particular tasks. Reducing frustration barriers to reach goals. Amount of task behavior that the leader shows ( horizontal axis) ( e. E.g leader replace new equipment. 3. LIFE –CYCLE OR SITUATONAL APPROACH Developed by Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard.g training. 2. Life – cycle Theory high Phase 3 High R/ship Low Tasks Phase 4 Low Tasks Low R/ ship Low Low Task Behavior Maturity High Moderate Immature Low Phase 2 High Task High R/Ship Phase 1 High Task Low R/ ship High The diagram shows the relationship between : 1. This theory says that a leader should change his style of leadership according to the level of maturity of his employee and the demands of situation of the situation. A desire for achievement. Maturity means : .

ACTIVITY 1. 2.Telling Leader use one way communication. 6th edn 1993. : REFERENCES 1. More experience and skilled as well as achievement oriented. Allyu and Bacon. Phase 3 (HR/LT). 4. what leadership style you may practice? In what way leader can increase productivity?. Mouton. 3. Defines the goals and roles of employees and tell what. Wayne. Employee lack of task relevant maturity. The managerial grid III. Practices and Skills.1985 Houston : Gulf Publishing. Managers provide high level of emotional support and encouragement to develop trust and confidence .Participating Employee show maturity in performing tasks. Robbins.Explanation : 1. Shane R. Being motivated to assume more responsibility. Premeaux. E.g employee relatively new and in experiences. Prentice Hall. Mondy. 2. . possess a high level of task maturity. Discuss the relationship between leadership and management? If you a boss in any organization. Stephen P. High task relationship is needed because employee lack of experience and skills. Management Concepts. 3. They are skilled and experienced and motivated to assume more responsibility. Managers reduces the need for task relationship and continues to give emotional support and consideration to increase employees level of responsibilities. R. Management 6th edn 2001. They no longer need high level of supportive or task behavior from their leaders/ managers. Phase 4 (LR/LT) – Delegating Highest level of employee maturity. Phase 1 ( HT/LR). Robert Blake and Jane S. 3. They are self directed and are able to exercise self control. Phase 2 (HT/HR) – Selling Employee are learning to do the job. how and where to do task. 2.

Needs ( unfulfilled) Tension Drive Search behavior Reduction tension Satisfied Needs ( Needs fulfilled) . Management. you should be able to : 1. MOTIVATION PROCESS 3.CHAPTER TEN OVERVIEW MOTIVATION: 1. DEFINITION 2. 10. EARLY VIEWS OF MOTIVATION 4. recognition or achievement. DEFINITION : The willingness to put forth effort in pursuit of organizational goals. 4th edition) tangible – higher pay. bonus and benefits Intangible – reputation. Understand and apply contemporary theories of motivation. Concerned with why people act or do or why they refrain from doing things they do not want to do. CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Hierarchy of needs Theory X and theory Y Life cycle theory or Situational approach Two factors theory Learning objectives : After completing this chapter.0 Explain the concepts of motivation and its significance in the managerial process. respect. 2. ( R Wayne Mondy.

They are :1.10. 3. 3. People need organization to achieve goals and organization needs people to achieve its goals. . Efforts are forces to perform. manager. Encourage your subordinates to set performance goals that are specific. distasteful to most people.2 EARLY VIEWS OF MOTIVATION There are three early views of motivation. challenging and attainable. 3) Few people want to work to involve in work that requires creativity. The Human Resources Model.Manager should 1.1 Motivation process. 2. The Human Relation Model. 2) Need to belong 2) What people do to a group. 2.Individual. The traditional model. Management policies 1. 1. they learn for doing it.People want to contribute to meaningful goals. Increase your employee expectation that their efforts will lead to effective performance. Good motivation practices will help leaders and managers: 1. Taylor and Scientific Management. 10. Most people exercise more creativity. self direction and self control than their present job demand. Theory Human Resources Model 1. This lead to effective and efficient organization. which related to Elton Mayo and Hawthorne studies. Be sensitive to the differences in needs and values. 2. Increase your employees expectations that their efforts lead to effective performance. Traditional Model Assumes Human Relation Model 1) Work is 1)People want to inherently feel useful. Associated with Doughlas Mc Gregor’s X and Theory Y.Manager make use of under utilized human resources. is less important organization to be rather than what recognized.Manager should closely supervise make each worker and control feel useful subordinates. associated with Frederick W. self direction or self control. employees.

( Herzberg two factors theory/ hygiene theory) C) REINFORCEMENT THEORY Describes how people learn patterns of behavior based on environmental reinforcements.( Theory X and Y. listen to their objectives. Allow subordinates to exercise self control and self direction on routine matters. 3.Manager must break down task into simple. will satisfy their 2. Must establish detailed work routine and procedures General expectations 1. A person will be motivated when she or he has not yet attained satisfaction with their life.2. particularly with regard to work. easily learned operations. 2. This is because people are different in nature.People can tolerate work if pay is decent and boss is fair. subordinates making full use of their resources. encourage full participation.Expanding information with subordinates influence subordinate and self direction and self involving them in control will lead to routine decisions direct improvement. This means behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated. 1.Should keep 2. 3. 2. Need vary among individuals. repetitive. ( Hierarchy of needs) B) PROCESS THEORY Process where individuals give meaning to rewards that will allow them to influence their behavior or process theory explain how individuals are motivated or the steps that occur when individuals are motivated.) . people are closely controlled they will produce work that is up to standard.Create environment subordinates where members can informed and contribute. Sharing 1. vise versa. 3. CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION a) b) c) A) Need theory or Content theory Process theory Reinforcement theory NEED THEORY OR CONTENT THEORY People need or require to live fulfilling lives. Work satisfaction basic needs to may improve as a ‘ by belong and to feel product” of important. 5. If tasks are simple.

freedom from coercion and a need for clearly defined regulations. or need for personal “ belongingness”. . opportunities for advancement.g are respect from others. and shelter from environment 2. Examples are job security. 4.10. It is a need for self-esteem and self growth. E. Self. Physiological needs These need are our basic needs. 5. 3. Self – Actualization needs It comprises needs for the development of one’s full potential or the realization of one’s own potential. Self esteem needs It is also known as growth need. E. need to love somebody as well as the need for social interaction. E. Safety or security needs Deals with our physical and psychological safety from external threats.g food.actualization needs higher order Self-esteem needs Social needs Safety needs Physiological needs lower Order needs 1. water. Social needs or “ Belongingness” Need for companionship. achievement as well as prestige and status.g are love. They are the lower order needs and the higher order needs.3 HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Introduced by Abraham Maslow. These needs are arrange in a hierarchical order . recognition. He states that all people possessed a set of five needs in them. These are for our survival.

The absence of one does not affect the other. However they will not prevent job dissatisfaction. they will not improve job satisfaction. From the study. Improving them. 2.4 TWO FACTOR THEORY / FREDERICK HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION Introduced by Frederick Herzberg by studying the job attitudes of 200 engineers and accountants . However. such as changing the rule. Improvements made in the hygiene factors can prevent or eliminate job dissatisfaction.Supervision Recognition -Relationship with supervisors/ boss Work itself -Working condition Responsibility -Relation with peers Advancement -Relation with workers growth -Status -Security How you apply this theory? Both hygiene and satisfier factors are two separate entities. policy on dress code in the work place can make people less dissatisfied but does not contribute to job satisfaction or motivate the employees to increase their work effort. It associated with job context. Therefore. To motivate. b) SATISFIER FACTOR Also known as motivating factor.10. it was concluded that individuals’ work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different sets of factors. The factors are: a) HYGIENE FACTORS Also known as dissatisfier factor. Hygiene factor only affects job dissatisfaction. . The factors that will contribute to employee’s satisfaction will be the satisfaction factor. Improvements made in the satisfier factors can increase job satisfaction. Often called as job content. Source of job satisfaction and job Dissatisfaction Factors that led to extreme job Factors That Led to extreme job dissatisfaction satisfaction -Company policy and administration Achievement . It associated with the work setting of an individual. Satisfier causes feelings of satisfaction. Satisfier factor is related to the job content of individuals. managers need to turn their attention away from hygiene factors and focus on improving satisfier factors. the managerial implications associated with the two factor theory are: 1. It causes feeling of job dissatisfaction.

3. Daniel Jr. John Wiley and Sons. Management. Inherently disliking work Avoiding work whenever possible Lacking in ambition Irresponsible Resistant to change Feeling that work is of secondary importance Preferring to be led than lead. Schermerhorn. Capable of directing themselves ( self direction) 4.C. Greater job autonomy and taskvariety is offered to employees. freedom and responsibility in their work. Prentice Hall. Stoner. 2nd edn. Freeman. Petri. (1990).Management. where employees are allowed more participation. Belmont.A: Wadsworth Publishing. and Gilbert. REFERENCES : 1. 5. have to apply the autocratic style of leadership where the employee have to be constantly directed and controlled. work is as natural as play or rest. ingenuity and creativity in accomplishing tasks. 3. view their employees in terms of the following characteristics: 1. since work brings satisfaction.5 THEORY X AND THEORY Y This theory was developed by Douglas Mc Gregor. Discuss how Herzberg two factors theory help in motivating employees? If you a manager. Prentice Hall. Theory Y managers.. Motivation. Willing to accept responsibility. 7. David H. Theory T is optimistic view.. 8.10. Frequently using imagination. Here managers have a traditional or a pessimistic view of motivation with regard to employees. Coercive power will be used. 3. J. 2. 2. New Jersey. Capable of self –control 5. Managers of theory X view the employees in terms of the following characteristics: 1. Having to be pushed by managers to work. managers need only to apply the participative style of leadership.1993.F. This theory describes the views or perception of managers with regard to their employees. Principles and Practices.. 6. Willing to work.A. 4. 3rd edn. Holt. 4.L. 1995 . These managers in order to make sure that their employees do their work. To ensure high performance.. Edward R. Theory. ACTIVITY 1. John R. Theory Y manager will delegate the authority and allow employees to participate in decision making. 2. 2.. Management for Productivity. Research and Application 3rd edn. What can you do to motivate your staf?. 6th edn. H.

Explain the communication process Explain different channels of communication. reports and newsletters. 4. OR The process by which people seek to share meaning via the transmission of symbolic messages. 5. 3. bringing in with exchange.CHAPTER ELEVEN OVERVIEW INFLUENCING . conveying or exchange of ideas.. Process of sending and receiving messages among individuals and groups called interpersonal communication. Overcoming barriers to effective communication. 6. .0 DEFINITIONS : Webster’s dictionary “ the information.COMMUNICATION 1. Define what is communication Understand the importance of effective communication. writing or sign. by speech. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING OVERCOMING BARRIERS Learning Objectives : After completing this chapter. In organization – Disseminating of information through memos. 3. 5. Discuss face to face meeting. OR arts of expressing ideas”. Organizational communication. knowledge etc. 2. 4. COMMUNICATION 11. The science of transmitting Oxford English dictionary – Imparting. 2. letters. student will be able to : 1.

who— says what---.2 Types of communication Interpersonal Communication – Between two or more people Organizational communication All the patterns.11. E. 4. allocating and correcting mistakes. 5. 2. Noise Sender encording message Medium Noise decording Noise Receiver 11. Assist managers coordinating and integrating the work groups.in what way -----to whom----with what effect. In leading and motivating managers need to inform employees of doing the right tasks. networks and system of communication within an organization. 3.g spoken English . From in which the message is.g I’m looking for a place on PR course. Everyone in the organization need to be informed of the objectives and goals of the organization.1 IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Convey information Giving instruction/ commanding action Persuading or influencing change 1. Employees need information to conduct tasks. Managers is considered effective in his instruction when employees acts according to instructions. The telephone The information itself as encoded by the sender. COMMUNICATION PROCESS Classic model of communication developed by Shannon based on fine question. E.3 Feedback Sender Encoding Medium Message : : : : Person with information to communicate Ways in which the information is expressed.PLOC requires effective communication. . 11. Management function.

11.g that course is full.5 FORMAL ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION Information flows around organization whether or not they try to control it. rules.g incomplete information.Communication transmitted with words . Upward – through suggestion schemes or some other form of feedback to management. Any kind of interference which results in distortion. a) Vertical communication: Comm.g policies. Person who receive the information. reporting work progress.Decoding Receiver Feedback Noise : : : : Interpretation.The receiver’s thought process on getting The message. Convey info to their superior.Communication transmitted without words 11. procedures.g switch board Operator. E. eg. Information flow at the same level. b) Lateral communication Known as Horizontal communication. Downward. system in which messages / info move upwork and downward. E. So that the receiver gets a different message from the one that was sent e. The element of the receiver’s response which the receiver communicates to the sender. suggestion box.4 TYPES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Verbal Non Verbal . suggest ideas.In the form of instruction and information e.1 INFORMAL COMMUNICATION Grapevines between individuals and groups can be job related or personal.5. Information can be accurate/ inaccurate . work schedules. \ 11.

Intrapersonal communication Between you and god Interpersonal communication Deals with communication between people usually face to face. 4. Single strand Z D C B B A 11. 7. internet etc) Gossip probability M S A C A N B X D F Cluster J I L DE F G H T I K J 4. 8. 5. Organizational communication Occurs in large cooperative networks and include virtually all aspects of both interpersonal and group communication. 2. usually in decision making setting. 3.Four types of chains show how individuals convey information.end feedback Motivation Team spirit Crisis preparation Participative staff Good relation with its public . 2.7 ORGANIZATION INVEST IN COMMUNICATION FOR SOUND BUSINESS REASON. Group communication Relates to the interaction of people in a small groups. 11. 1. Effective employee performance Manageability Sharp. Mass Communication Deals with public communication . 5. 6.6 A LEVEL OF COMMUNICATION 1. Received by or used by large number of people ( postal service. 3.

background. mail.9 Barriers to effective listening 1.11. fear. communicate. memo. hand and body Verbal face to face. It can be very responsive to the change and they may refuse to listen. Poor listening Happen when employees are not allowed to participate in the decision making process and are not given a detailed explanation of rules and procedures to be implemented. use mirroring to establish rapport. Credibility of the sender Associated with person’s feeling of love. playing. avoid exchanging ideas and get direct using the same non verbal. hand gesture. confuse or disturb the messages from reaching the receiver. embarrassment and enthusiasm. dress and appearance It is in form record and evidence. use facial. hate. Noise . easy to retrieved. newsletter. Face expression and movement. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Means of gestures and to express feelings and emotions. 3. 2. Filtering Alteration of information to make it interesting. Selective perception When people selectively interpret what they see or hear on the basis of their interest. anger. fax. Emotion How a receiver feels when a message is received influences they interprets it. letters. 11. clothing. Often interpret the same message differently depending on whether you’re happy or distressed. Info Obtain feedback. learn to relax when well kept. body placement. bulletin boards. 5. experience and attitudes. 7. posture. writing letters. 8.8 Improving The Comunication Process VERBAL COMMUNICATION Spoken words. speed up gesture to supplement speech. Filtering The deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver. Semantic Certain words may be interpreted differently by different people. voice tone. positive and acceptable to the receiver. Factor interferes. 6. use role feedback. defensive. jealousy. 4.

5. if the sender has low credibility the receiver may ignore the information. Where else. Information Overload The information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity.verbal communication Facial expression. . Credibility of a sender How trustworthy the sender or the source of the message. repeat message. Create openness. 4. visit site. 10. Send message in an effective way 8. Jargon – specialized terminology or technical language. education and cultural back ground are the most variable that influence the language of a person. ignore pass over or forget information. Use verbal consultation over on issues and draws up formal document to outline the agreement that was made. 3. 6. 2. 12. rational and trust Instill an atmosphere of openness. postures and gestures. National culture Cultural differences can affect the way a manager chooses to communicate US tend to be individual rely on memoranda. Japan – more interact to their subordinates and used a more informal manner. They tend to select out. 13.10OVERCOMING COMMUNICATION BARRIERS 1. the information will get to receiver clearly. If the sender is known to be trustworthy . 11. Obtain feedback Ask question.. Understand verbal and non. 7. 11. Defensiveness Respond in ways to hide an effective communication when people feel that they’re being threatened Language Words means different things to different people. age. clothes. Use simple language Technical terms must be clearly explained Recognized emotions Empathy Do not make own conclusion Listen to all issues carefully Avoid noise Identify it cause or sources. announcement and other formal forms of communication.9.

Management. Modify language and use word appropriately We have to study audiences and their background. Prentice Hall. Explain the important of the two communication channels in organization?. Listening is an active search of meaning Listening is more tiring than talking Be specific in giving orders Managers must precise and clear when giving directive. 6th edn. 12. New Jersey. 2nd edn. Use bias free language The receiver of messages can have a bias feeling when a biased term is used in the messages. John R. education level and position. Daniel Jr. ACTIVITY : 1. ... 3rd edn. Schermerhorn.. Prentice Hall. Edward R. and Gilbert. 10. 1995.F. For what reason organization invest in communication?. Stoner.1993. Management for Productivity. Management. Freeman. 2. 3. 11. David H. Effective communication importance to organization. 3. REFERENCES : 1.A. Listen actively Listen for full meaning without premature judgment or interpretation..abcd9. 2. J. Principles and Practices. Discuss how organization overcome ineffective communication process. John Wiley and Sons. Plan and clarify ideas before communicating Be specific Use bias free language Modify language and use words appropriate.. Holt.

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