Chapter 8

Net Present Value and Other Investment Criteria

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Chapter Outline
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The Practice of Capital Budgeting The Payback Rule The Average Accounting Return Net Present Value The Internal Rate of Return The Profitability Index Conflicts between NPV & IRR
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1-2 8-2

Capital Budgeting
‡ Investment in long-term assets ‡ We should consider several investment criteria when making decisions:
± Payback period ± Average Accounting Return ± Net Present Value ± Internal Rate of return ± Profitability Index
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1-3 8-3 Good Decision Criteria ‡ We need to ask ourselves the following questions when evaluating decision criteria ± Does the decision rule adjust for the time value of money? ± Does the decision rule adjust for risk? ± Does the decision rule provide information on whether we are creating value for the firm? 3 .

300 ± Year 3: CF= 91. 4 . NI = 29.120. NI = 13.100 ± Average Book Value = 72.080.000 ± Year 1: CF = 63. NI = 3.800.000 ‡ Your cost of capital for assets of this risk is 12%.620 ± Year 2: CF = 70.1-4 8-4 Project Example Information ‡ You are looking at a new project and you have estimated the following cash flows: ± Year 0: CF = -165.

1-5 8-5 1. Payback Period ‡ How long does it take to get the initial cost back in a nominal sense? (how long it takes to recover the cost of investment?) ‡ Computation .Subtract the future cash flows from the initial cost until the initial investment has been recovered ‡ Decision Rule ± Accept if the payback period is less than some preset limit 5 .

Example 1-6 8-6 ‡ Assume we will accept the project if it pays back within two years. 6 .

Advantages and Disadvantages of Payback ‡ Advantages ± Easy to understand ± Adjusts for uncertainty of later cash flows ± Biased towards liquidity 1-7 8-7 ‡ Disadvantages ± Ignores the time value of money ± Requires an arbitrary cutoff point ± Ignores cash flows beyond the cutoff date ± Biased against long-term projects. 7 .

2. ± If straight-line=> Average book value = (Initial cost+Salvage)/2 ‡ Need to have a target cutoff rate ‡ Decision Rule: Accept the project if the AAR is greater than a preset rate.Average Accounting Return (AAR) 1-8 8-8 ‡ AAR=Average net income/average book value ± Average book value depends on how the asset is depreciated. 8 .

1-9 8-9 Example ‡ Assume we require an average accounting return of 25% 9 .

Advantages and Disadvantages of AAR ‡ Advantages ± Easy to calculate ± Needed information will usually be available 1-10 8-10 ‡ Disadvantages ± Time value of money is ignored ± Uses an arbitrary benchmark cutoff rate ± Based on accounting net income and book values. not cash flows and market values 10 .

11 . ± The third step is to find the present value of the cash flows and subtract the initial investment. Net Present Value (NPV) ‡ The difference between the market value of a project and its cost ‡ How much value is created from undertaking an investment? ± The first step is to estimate the expected future cash flows (CF).1-11 8-11 3. ± The second step is to estimate the required return for projects of this risk level (r).

‡ Since our goal is to increase owner wealth.1-12 8-12 NPV Decision Rule ‡ If the NPV is positive. NPV is a direct measure of how well this project will meet our goal. accept the project ‡ A positive NPV means that the project is expected to add value to the firm and will therefore increase the wealth of the owners. 12 .

(Cost of Investment) + PV(Cash flows) 13 ....1-13 8-13 NPV formula NPV ! § CFt t t !0 (1 r ) CF1  CF2  .  CFn 1 2 n (1 r) (1 r ) (1 r) n NPV !  CF0  NPV = ..

1-14 8-14 Example 14 .

1-15 8-15 Decision Criteria Test .NPV ‡ Does the NPV rule account for the time value of money? ‡ Does the NPV rule account for the risk of the cash flows? ‡ Does the NPV rule provide an indication about the increase in value? ‡ Should we consider the NPV rule for our primary decision criteria? 15 .

Internal Rate of Return (IRR) ‡ This is the most important alternative to NPV ‡ It is based entirely on the estimated cash flows and is independent of interest rates found elsewhere ‡ Definition: ± IRR is the return that makes the NPV = 0 ‡ Decision Rule: Accept the project if the IRR is greater than the cost of capital 16 .1-16 8-16 4.

...1-17 8-17 IRR formula CF1  CF2  .. CFn CF0 ! 1 2 n (1IRR) (1IRR) (1IRR) ‡ Financial Calculator ‡ Constant Cash Flows ± table ‡ Trial and Error 17 .

000 63120 (1  I  70800 (1  I ) 2 (1  I 3 18 ....Example 0 1-18 8-18 ! 1 (1  I ! ) 1  2 (1  I ) 1 ) 2  ..   n (1  I 91080 ) ) n 165 .

Year 1-3 = $400.76.Computing IRR For The Project with Constant Cash Flow Example: A project has the following Cash Flows: Year 0 = -$994. 1-19 8-19 19 . Calculate the IRR.

000 0 -20.000 NPV 30.08 0.1 0.14 0.000 10.000 0 -10.02 0.1-20 8-20 NPV Profile For The Project 70.000 60.000 40.18 0.04 0.06 0.2 0.16 0.22 .000 20.12 0.000 50.13% 0.000 Discount Rate 20 IRR = 16.

which is often a difficult task 21 . you may not need to estimate a required return.1-21 8-21 Advantages of IRR ‡ Knowing a return is intuitively appealing ‡ It is a simple way to communicate the value of a project to someone who doesn¶t know all the estimation details ‡ If the IRR is high enough.

1 implies that for every $1 of investment.5. we create an additional $0. Profitability Index (PI) 1-22 8-22 ‡ Measures the benefit per unit cost.10 in value ‡ This measure can be very useful in situations where we have limited capital ‡ Decision Rule: Accept the project if the PI greater than 1 (implies NPV is positive) 22 . based on the time value of money ‡ A profitability index of 1.

1-23 8-23 Profitability Index ‡ Profitability Index=PV(future cash flow)/Initial Cost 23 .

Advantages and Disadvantages of Profitability Index ‡ Advantages ± Closely related to NPV. generally leading to identical decisions ± Easy to understand and communicate ± May be useful when available investment funds are limited 1-24 8-24 ‡ Disadvantages ± May lead to incorrect decisions in comparisons of mutually exclusive investments 24 .

Internal Rate of Return 5.1-25 8-25 Summary 1. Profitability Index Reject Reject Accept Accept Accept 25 . Average Accounting Return 3. Payback Period 2. Net Present Value 4.

1-26 8-26 Conflicts between NPV & IRR ‡ NPV and IRR will generally give us the same decision ‡ Exceptions ± Non-conventional cash flows ± cash flow signs change more than once ± Mutually exclusive projects ‡ Initial investments are substantially different ‡ Timing of cash flows is substantially different 26 .

you can¶t choose the other ± Example: You can choose to attend graduate school next year at either Harvard or Stanford.IRR and Mutually Exclusive Projects ‡ Mutually exclusive projects 1-27 8-27 ± If you choose one. but not both ‡ Intuitively you would use the following decision rules: ± NPV ± choose the project with the higher NPV ± IRR ± choose the project with the higher IRR 27 .

Example With Mutually Exclusive Projects Period Project A 0 1 2 NPV IRR -500 325 325 Project B -400 325 200 1-28 8-28 The required return for both projects is 10%. Which project should you accept and why? 28 .

15 0.00 NPV $80.00 $20.00 $140.00 $0.00 $100.1-29 8-29 NPV Profiles $160.25 0.00 $40.3 .00) Discount Rate 29 IRR for A = 19.00 ($20.17% Crossover Point = 11.8% A B 0.2 0.00) 0 ($40.43% IRR for B = 22.1 0.00 $120.00 $60.05 0.

1-30 8-30 Conflicts Between NPV and IRR ‡ NPV directly measures the increase in value to the firm ‡ Whenever there is a conflict between NPV and another decision rule. you should always use NPV ‡ IRR is unreliable in the following situations ± Non-conventional cash flows ± Mutually exclusive projects 30 .

1-31 8-31 Capital Budgeting In Practice ‡ We should consider several investment criteria when making decisions ‡ NPV and IRR are the most commonly used primary investment criteria ‡ Payback is a commonly used secondary investment criteria 31 .

000 every year for 5 years. ± ± ± ± What is the payback period? What is the NPV? What is the IRR? Should we accept the project? 32 . The required return is 9%.1-32 8-32 Quick Quiz ‡ Consider an investment that costs $100.000 and has a cash inflow of $25.

7 and 15 from page 258 33 .1-33 8-33 Tutorial ‡ Problem 4.

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