cu·u '7 o ""N" 'CiUF1' C'i ''ffi'I'1i1l1E' "1


. ~" " ... _ ~ _' I OJ:.r.lx.J. v. "'-,

Series Editor: Ian Richard Nettnn Pm:fosw ofAmbu' 8i~, ,U~Wef:S:;_~ i'!f hal~

Th C (i'I ~ IIZ" ';0. "'..;I 'L .• d '"

- : Ie r ·tn~!@:n ~'U!IJI ~e],1,e.s· .aJ!~t'e:mp];s, to :provruue 5.ltcmt mtre rucborns, to' a

vari.ety tiI,f f:atew, of the :!5l1iq'ec~,~ ·~re itc~es.'5~b]e· b6th to f:h.'e ~]l,~~ed :reaclJer and ~be :stud.~nt ~liIJd scih,olar in h'he :fi.e~d. Each book. ~ill~ be ,citl'we:r a s.ynifihts[s, ,~r ,exi.aunrg kn,Qw]edg'C' en", 'a, d~strunct 'OOl1tributi,on eo, a.nd

eX~lenfi~o:n of,. ~'~I]j,gw:medge (){ the paru~~la'!f' to:pic. Tihe two :r:m~!;H~ ]])ndei~yi1ilJg p~nciples ·O'f me. Se,nes ar'e seund sch()lam~r$hip and .reaJ.d;aomJity"

.iI;·'f)·DU·-,iii"·1" .,1;. 'iJl-':'l" .o\.·N.J·S···· ;Ij;"fi,'if' .0.' "rEI' 'H"-'V'ifi A.Trt.J]ii1 .. _ .. '~ ~ .. " ·: ... ~f.\...ll ," ,\.E' . , jEi\ll~,

An E~rly S~fl M$leT A.G .. Rfmtm R~

.ALHAIJAJ Herb:~' hi': M~ttn :PER81AN S.U:FI POET"R'Y

,An. I[ltroduccl~n to, m.e' .Mysti~~~ Use ,~r ClalSsicru Pe"im P,(:jet£;{

1· T. p," (j Bm-·.':

. )", ,' .. ,

.",1] •• -f] Igll

B'ID'·y· " 0" ,~'fn, F''''''Vf'9[jf . .>\ lII.'fI't ~ n:'fIii'D~1i' 1'l'W'1ii"' ~~ . '~'l~U . l'"\JL L_.i~ J1U-'~L.I ;~".IF.,I! 'JElbl,Jl1J;

the Sufi :~~etry and ~earn~~ Qf Mahmud Shab~smri Uondffl.~/fn

Rnzbihan Baqlt

_'r_' I,. I J... .. I.-_.!Ii

Mysticism and the Rhetoric of Sainthood

in. Persian Sufism

G I, w..' .. ' E' '" -,

- .-" .' . , . . .... ~I

I ': .~ :.. :~':. lI: '" '\ J ~

aT. . • .. ·ms,_

CUR!ZlC::H~4j P'R,&SS

Conten ·t·-·s

.1. ' .. '. I. .-


Ai Rlizb-ihan Eaq[fi" a _Ne,gleoted Figure in, Sufi. S~udies

B:- R·· ~jiii?:bthan"- S-':pu,~I~Qo. A·. B,.,,'ll'·:'''''''c ,0." :,":'"Ii2IoFH~i~d'

.. • I~ ~ • ~ __ ~ ~ ~ ~; 'U.U_.L~~~~'h!!l .,' .. JJ3J . ._ . v IIg.I.J '~'~~:r¥

C,' ~ ,of the Present W'ork

1, 'The Tradition ,~t RUEbihall, l3aqu Ai A SmllC's :Life

B TL, !ifig-'" -: 'bib" ~.' O· _.l ~'~ de ,- f

• '1 ',tle --liz .. ' 'a\nu,yyal Jrder a:n' th,e L~ga(y ~:: '


n. Tbe Inner ,Stmcwli~' of $lal11'mood

A. 11l'C Unwit-mg rd'S&Tel.r: Structuee arid Con'ten~s :0,. The PI~l~e and Emdy 'Yeats

:C i The~@gy) C1oomtilog'y', ps~rcb()togy,: A, Primer D" The FUliJ.d~menmaJ. lAf,etaph0r: Un~rei]i~g and

1Clothing with Divinity

E. ~hre~phanwes .()if Majes,ty I~ith~:'tic VisiO'llS

S~inTh,etod and Prophethood T:b€ Power: of 'Wrath

F. The,01Phan~,~~ of !eauty

"The red. I10~e '~i of [h,e glOry of God. 1M The Body of Revelation

,A, TraJls"C~ndental Landscape:

J\n~lic :EnOO'lU'D;t'efS,

G., TIre Uwxetli;n:, ,of Secrets: as a Urer.ary Text

A 'iiJ,., • 1,.. • 1 ,iii;, .~ r- D ': bih -- ~

~utol~!1Dgrap£}l'C~a,_ Aspects 0>, Jl:\.:Uil); ]",3,11.'3

S elf~,lPresenmd,on, -

[c$tatlic Spe~ch and,:n :N~]\Frative

:Fim ~~b]i&_hed in i'g9S by' Gu;rz(i~ l?:r:;~,s.s

StJo~mh;, Sb.lrdios) C~ltr.cb Road, Iil€ltmD:"l1d S~ITeyj rws :l1Q.A

© ] '9~6 Gad W. Etnc$t.

'lyP~~el ifl BaskerviUe by .&olmaml~ Sl\oij,gh :Pwoo:~ed in Gir~~t lJrilai:n b¥

Bldcl:1Jes 'L~d.~ (juild~ro. a[,Hll K1~ts: Lfn~

,AU ci_g_hl'S, ~~d. No- parrt ~f this. bqo.k :ma¥ be .Uflrlln't~~d '@F rep.r~dtl~cl ~ uJtiilI~~a ]n any fQ~ (tg;; by' ,any ,drO~tro:n]r.:JI 'mech8:nf£al~ ,?.r olth,e;r Ul;e3!l1S} DOW b@,~'I,f"~ ,®r h€::r~~ne;ii' inrV~[il.'ted, i!i'1cb:~di;ng - l?:hQn~(:o:pyiD;g' ,and ['flC(i!iCJingi~ '!ln' 'in ::±ruy' ~l:l(bI:[n~dilinTh ,s~,r.~ ;0'[' retrieval s~ttem:) liVim(Jfl!..Jj( 'pefm~!l)]'JJ in 'writi~1)g (["Om tb·~ pttbltishen:if

,l!Jriluch £ijr~ 6ma.nil ,~n AiJjiki;lil~. ,lJt$~

.A ca:tfi~C!su~ ["OOOffl ftlw this bffak is, a::vai~b1e fl'\tun ,the Bci'ds~ IJbr:ary

l.ib1drJ gC~r~ j~ &bti:e(l~ lUM

.A ~aJt.:iJ.Gg :rec.{j(f!d·~for~ ~D...s book. ~~ bten J:le~lIeS"t~d

I~BlN rO-'7100i~~J342""X



'1 '1

6 17 17 2()


:3,5, 44 46 .l8 63l

66 66 68

"4- 1'(5


so 93

II . Institutionalizing a Sufi Order

.A. The Biographies ,~l RG,zb,ihan Baqlt

B~ S~,ari.Jts.", of R(i'zbiha n in ,the Early ,-N arratru,\t, s

C. The Descendants of Ruzbihin

D.Pclitieal Connections of the R.u:zbihaniyy,a,

IV'~ [Conclusion

Appendih;:, ,A~ The '\tVlitings .of RllzbUlin Baqli Appendix E,. R,u'zbilian!':s Two Commemltaries on the

u Ascension ~, of Abu Yazld al-Bistlinli

S·: . elect Hi"· u1~ ..... graph .; a· . IUU'Vb-~ . -uy

Index ofNames

[Oruossary' and Index, of Terms ·and Su~iects



III 11.1

116 130 ].3,2

li3 ru.5l



161 -169 1"13- 171

Prefao .

. Au.. Rtizbih;iiii. a ... Ii" a Ne~lected Figure ia Sr" ,S.dires,

- .

Sufism, thetradition of ]slam.ic mysticism, is, 'increasingly , I ecoming known in European. Ianguages through a ·steady stream ,af translations and studies, of mlajio-T :figures, In some cases, as vv.itll, I~ he g;rea:t Persian Sufi poet Jalil ,aj,·I)bl RamI (d. ru 27,3" popular

. nglish versions, of Sufi classics can be feu d in ii" ria.Uy dozens o,f papemack edibdn.~.r The 'vast and ,oomp~eK Arabic wo:r-b of the. :pr,olijic Sufi m,etaphys~, of Andalusia~ Ibn '~abi (ct., 2+' ~)a'r€ gr,aduaiy 'bec-omin,g accessible in reliable "'ng1L' I and F~. neh versions, ]n Ameeiea ~nd .run Europe; Sufi orders of Arab, Iranian, Turkish, and SOl uth .Man o~n nave found a fQUo~ng~ This is one area in 'whwcb tile' encounter between lS!lami,c civHiza'lion and

E A ....... .- • ., '~l~: 1 ~t· ·'~I d 'h·'.r.tk1

nro .. ,ftJ nenca ~ws. taking p ac-e on a. no:n"p0:d'bClBJ. run ' " ,~1:&IJ,wIY

personal basis,

Yet the Sufi ,tradition is so immense in xrent that we are $1~ only familiar \-~,th, a (radion of th,e 'majlOt 'figu,f'les, 'O,nIy a small portion of 8:00 'texts, in I r 'able; Persian, Turkish, and other langUag.s have ever been prrint-ed~ et alone critic2J1y edited, or' translated and discussed :run ,an)! European languag'c,., The' most urgent tasks in Sufi studies are to produce readable and reliable transilartlo,n,s of important texts, a1~)ng "~ 'h analyses .of thew' contents

L~ 'h ·~I'· ~l~ ~ L ith ..:!Ir'" '" • til' fi Id f ]. ,.

\VUlIiC!t : .!lJIOIl'i I~,i,em up ·'i,tvl.·.· current 'kwmSCUSS1(JrDS In. ' .- e eic 0' re t,glJOl,l$

studies, This book, which be[Omlft:· to the seeend Qf these categories, ~ . intended to, introduce one ofthe r . l~,Ojr 6.gun~s, of Persian Sufism who has QuTh:y recently' emerged ~f-t:om an undeserved Ob~Ollll"ity.

Ri].zbihan Raq1i (5;2121 l 128~606I.l2'Ci9) recorded in Arabi,c I~d. , 'Ie sian a lliife HUed 'wiJh, intense visions and pcwerful ecstasies, interpreted in terms of a, Q.u:' inicaDy hiSed Illetaptiysi1cs and ,ca,~t, ill a dense poetic S'tyille~ He lived at a time when Sufism woo just begJn~ing to ~ecom: _ a. b~~~a&l' bW1e~ social ~,o,~,_men.t., aJt~_ centuries IOf pnvate As a me.gacy be len a ,g;en~s. of 'Writings "(hat covered th~ e~tir.e spectrum of .sufi ,~,ys,ti(;ism, from Q.ur'inic eommentary • 0, Islamic law, 'tbe',ojogy:;, specuadve :metaphysics~ and poetry., His .dJe.scendttD'~s ,ke:pt ,illv'e ,L .j~ teachings


:stati.OllSt 'lhgug~ Baq~i ~U're~y' knew the~e ·theo.ri,es: and the technical .terms, lIlt is the l:a.lll\1age refined by the poets of Iran during d]~ eleventh and t~~!dl. centuries, ·fiD~d. with roses

.',. '''! • l.-J: ll:2

and rugh.'ttngaIeS.; phab.~e and OO~i~)b~.U~.

In a. simiaf manner, M'u)),amm,ad M~:'in has :pointed. ou.'[~ "His speech is like a rose that Butt,er!) .aparl~!nce gnILspied iml the h~.d,j, ~r ~e an .a~cbem]~w sebstanee mat. turns. :intAO' vapor when 'barely heated, HIs .~an~ge is: the'language of per:c~·ci?ll;s.; he pl" ~~ be~utiful. and beauty, and loves 'them both," These remarks hold true especiaJiy for his Persian stV1ej. tJut dl,~ are :s~g~eg,liv'~ in a diftel'lent \-~ay fO\~' Riizblhan~s t\r(tbic ,,\1ri.ti~g, wh~,Gh itt :~ts mest impasaioned "]S, ly.riGal and ~a~sp~'rent d,espj.te :ilh~ s~mplidty., But much remains to be' done before we ~all g-o beyl~([1d these iml·,measiQn:isb~ Iemaxts to: evaluate R"iJ.::d~ibi:n'·s, H.teralYjeg~·,as. a whole.

De8:pi~e his imponance, &u~biha.n is, stil. :ha(rtUy .kn~,~, o~.~d,e a narrow circle .of ~pe;cialbts; 'his name is, .not even mentioned, to(f' i nS,fan 00·,., m 1J~e C«miJ~e Hismry if .lralt;. M'u~a;mmad Mu~n, the pjone~ring editor <of R:irzb~bj;n/ s 11w Jasmine tf tift '~:S'J remark~d .about i11,[l't t,eJN;,;, that ~ to u:rnder;s~a:hd. the works 0'£ mystics such as 'Alt'tilr,-, RJ1Ii mi, 'lrnqi) A\rvb,adi ~:~. Kinna'ni,. and :~~ ~ researches on

..' .• ~' . - '. ~'II~ 'if . 1,]1- -1· 0.. - -_.. ;Ii. \....~.

this beek aJ1~ qUltle' ne~~ssary ~ . i. V!lO'U u. en a;rg'~' upon 111.1:':118

'state'me:n:t and say tha:t the; wrlti.~gs, ~fr R;uzbffiin 8agn (01 nl a wW reSOUFGe fMJf underSUtlldktg 'the t~xpmiendal ba5is~ rno~. simply of Pef$, '8-urS. llrefilblilDc)1 'but Qif .sufism ~nd indeed :my.stltlsm 'wn general,

for .sev~ ~ener:ad0([18 m S;bi~ .. W.e ·t,oYn} where he .~s. buried, bat

It), ~ ~

the R!l1]jzbihiniyy~ erder did H9It gUMVe OOlng as an indeptudl,e:mlt

insdtu60n~ pc@~siblY' due' ,to a.nti.-Sun. f~e]in_g afte'll ili~ Saf~vid dynMty made lr,an a ShI ~'i oountry aft~r lSrO:t .~ .. eVfH~the~,eS8, a seleet pup 'o:f readers in Central Am~~, India, Ottoman T~rke;y~ ·and hes eontinued to regard his wri.tin~, as some .0;( me, 'most ... .:'1... n· d" Iati '1.",.' C'.:C. 'I,~~ '1if ,. hed cnar en.gjn.g tln,~ sltWmuattrwg '\vor~ m ~;Uwj .ut{ma;~ur~, . ..!._: ooJl,'c, wished

. -

·to make a comparison to. a figure: foo'm W~st~m religious history,

R.lttbman, could perhaps be - v1e;w~d as a .c,olnbi.lla,tI(tt:n of:' St. Augusti"De (l¥itbou.t the' agonized .oouv-e:rsion:) and ·Hildegard. of

. .. ~ - .,. . . h ... .J d ~ ..-

B1·R.gen. -like Augustm,e;. R·U; .. an i\ . eep ~mpac~ om &tripttUllJ.

. .' .,. hi I' - ,. - d···'~· d 'b th .. .

intemsetauon 'm" ns rel-'O'iIIOU~ tra IDJOn an I 0 men '-c:ommll-'

~'~-Vl!...r~.r.~~ .Uv . - "b-~' '.' - . I_ .. _.. ...,' l:t __ .... ; _. .... i , ", __ ., ,. _

. d .... 1.;: d .. l..:'L 1 ilL L. '~:m::,

fUCl>teJ·· a. perSO:n~Zie· . 'm~tu:a~ LJl~O: ,ogy''afUgn. C,Qmpeilin,g pr~se;

$im;lm~lr to H:illdegil'm~ Rn~biha,n. had an intensive vWlo:nary' ']ife thaJt Fllm'lsh:ed the raw raaterials far eJ{1tiI(fe'8sl0n in ~l'Ji~b11'Ol>~10r and

~ ". ,- r- - ?"w

metapm.ys:wc-s" llilzbibi.;n·~s 'voice is unmi~td,eably Islamic and

P.:ersia~'j :~~l)Wevet i De'¥()tion ·to the Prephet ~uq!am:mad :ru:s a constane re[raln in Rilz bwhi:n'),s vmtlngs.. His ISUiim-l censtantly ilustratJf:s the itn'Si~11l 'betwreen esoteric my;stic;~ blowl,e;d~ mnd th~

'bu . 'b. 'ill·' ...Jl:· 1...... H· ! a, ~

.yJll]ji.IJjC respoaS:hY :-'ty to I~viue mW~, .. I i;s \1Vfltings censbtue a ·~t

synJhesis and r-:ttmnJcing of Islam1c, religieus thaugh:t from. the

. f M ml p . e ... ~':... W~''''IIL'' ... 'Ii... I '~I i

.penpe.cll've '0:.' pre;.;. I - rOn:gO,W . ·eman ~ unsm. . .. ··lu:~In bHe . iliwarrllC

'"J~ ,. ",·IIL.~,jfFI ~''''';:;' :'L.'"D - iI!.::.~'L - ~\rii1hJ rob ' .~.~ •

tr;auiUon; tne '~.~;~.:. t6 ·W\liJ,iOm. AUZUJUa!n m~w.~test O@'lllpa::r·et;w . .l~,

Ibn 'Arabi:), "e8peciaJly 'because both men artru,culat:ed e%~~nsiw' visions ·md ,marted the remtory' of inner ~eri:enue just :B8 the Sufi. orders began to 'utk_e on Jdefirute s'bape~ this :,ob:a;rbaffify re\N::·aling oompll.ftS€lIl, VfiI. ha,~ to' be: Hostponecljl however, until the ·w'D.rD, of both Sufis are better twndersrood in their 'b)taJity'~

.PtJ~JicatiOn of Rifi]zbihan:'s Persian 'writings hay€' le.4. q'~'ickJ\y to an. apIH~'€ci.aJtion of his 't)de, His is an origilinid poetic sensibility ~ In which ·the :li~~S and nigh,ti_ngaJe-s ,are' freshly' s~mped ·y{,i·tb th~ i'mages ,o:f Persian ~d,tfj:S'j' ]on_g' 'before diose llmlges faded in:tt~1 c6JCfie; :w. 'the 'oomlds, of :~es~er \Writers., }\S, AJi·nemarie. Schimmel has

n.l..,,,,:, ;-1I"'!I:.r;'P.-1I. U'~J. vu[]i"

'''.~.&. :if' dl 'Ie J 'u.. ~ ~II • ''D' - b· 'L.. ~ .> .~.

"'" li9Ji so :FO:rnou:n, ¥ ~rnm.p~~8'6<S! b;~ t;~~a,tw~r m Ji"ii.,UZ·s,

1:",rri'f.~;1'1:!lF<:!. _ . . ~,fo. 'iI!..:;: .... ,~#, .. I ~. W·.' h:'ciII.. ~'", "lrllt ~ ...... ~¢ ,\\l,,[! '~I'~ r~ t:o translate as,

',"".Ii .I~~IY! • ll! .1 LO ,W~ rQi~ 11/\:.p~, i .. W:'lI, .I'll!~. IIYJIJ.J.~IQ ~ ... ~lr~Qd~/U '_ _ . .

~aJ1! of A.hmad IG~hbzali aDd]1) ~sesses; a :SttiJ'Dgerr and ,deeper :~mtmme.ntatkm;; 1~ H flO, lon,g~er 'f:}le rSichoiasoG :~anguagre nf tih,e ,e,a,:rly ~~one.nm O'f' $ufism, w:hG) piled ro, ·classif,· ,s_cages. and

'Bt' RuzbUm;il Stullies': A. Briel·OVervi.C'w

louis Ma$~(jn, in I 91.3 was the firs!t E~~()pea;n. ~th@lar ~'O draw attention to. l.iizhiha'[1~ in eonl1iee~aln vAth. his interpretation of -the Baghd~an Sl!lfi .~~'rtyr aJ~fjaUa:j .. ]; In 192'8 W .. Iva~Qw' de~cribed, a ma;n~script of one··of ·t·b~ 'biDgr,a,pllies of Rjb:ljjhan dl~t b.e fbund. on a. '~rip top Shira,zjl wl'u;i'£ he ilia 'ri!digJ~o,,"~n;:d tbe' ·tomb Df th~ ~haykh ,'6, 'MaS'sign'QrDJ ~h.el1 .. o~(ntttributed th~ :fi:rnt. b~bHOlgtaphk lessay 6n. . ·R·u",'Z bih,aJl. .in. .1 '9r5:3, l Aldilough. ,R'fi zDwhin's great QW"in co:mme~·ta:~· '~Nl~~ ~ver,ai limies .]ithogratph6d in In.I~ru~ in the rtwn.eteenth cerru.ttl.fY,l' it hase nln~¥ been since ID 958 that fu~e ,my--stical ~.itin,gs of RU.zbiban ba~e' begun td appear in :print~ t:hanks to m,e



.pi(f,n~ring effO·rts, of nenry C'Drbin. CottLin edited VN() af Razbihan:"s Persian ~(~~ 11u }asmi:ne rf th.t: ,UrMl''J (iWitft the eollaherarion of' Mull'acmmthd Mu.~·n) ,and, Tlie C~ry ,00 Ecstatic .$~ings.B ICorbhl. also wrote a lengthy essay on RfizbUdLn. which is still the fullest interpretation ()f R,illz'b.ihin since '. assiignon. 9 Two bmdgta:ph~es of Ruzbihan written by his great-grandsons, The Spirit) rj it' Gatden.S' and The Gift: oj,the Pmpli qf Gllom.~ were published in 1969' by M .. T' .. D'inisb,.,Pll:dlllh under the title Rid>ik~n lla1lU'l (1l'1 Bqak Ir! Ru:;cbiJi;q.n), 1. 0 The url1sh schelar -a;zjf :HL~C-a brought out editions of two Arabic. :wo(I-.lU of Riiz hi,han ,~ID. the ,ear]y 1 9.17013. based on ,~an usr;;ripb in Turkey, an abridged version, of 'Th!J Utlv:eiling ,t'Semts '~~SO' pubH5~ed by Pam N'W)'ia from a Baghdad MS) and. 'TJie, Spirits" Fr;nt (100) kltwns). It Javad > urbaJkhsh, pl.resent head of the ~ i 'm~tullahl Sufi order, ptl ilished several new' editions of Rlizbihin's Persian ~tings ,alt about drue same time, based. on manuscripts found in the ,N~'~nlatullahi 1ibr,all' in . ehran: tho Sf

incl 'ud .... .J n"'J:""~;~iII!»"nJf' ;i!,L.""'fk",,,~,:,- "'T.l.. - T;.,.:nI!.",:·,.....,· ofi·it(J! ts: '1:"JDC'I!; <T1l:"- . n~

_'. ,: j cu .J; .iI',~, : !~.!'f~~p.·~~ ¥J' J!W UJlJ(ffoJ· J: f,tt; J! 1-'m~;f; ''''!l~ 1\Ivl;~',~"", .1.,/~· :C.~"{}rs,~

W.rD.f, and the hagiographieal 'The' Gift to ,the P&:;p.,le ofGnom. ,E 2 My , arlier s:tudy W~ds ,rtf Ecsti#)' in Sv{i.rt.n contained a study o,f RUibibins in.terp_retation IO,f ecstatic sayings in SWJfi£m" and in some additional articrue_~ ~ have addressed his use ·of s.ymboHsm and. his teaching-en

l ~ ~,J1 'T'h""1 '.. - .... ·L'I h .F •. 'I L'I,!: h _1 L'· ' •

Oy,€: lI,,_,. _ree, raman senoiars - ave aiso pU~1w.s. eo IU'lO:gr~phlC~

studies of R1!Jzbihan,. vrlfh special attention to his Persian ]~qlH~'try .. I.~

Despit thes promisingederts, much remains to be done befOle: it will be :p'I~blre, to aner pt a oa.mprebens·;ve, analysis of R'i1zb.~~in~s Sufism, .Prot Man Gedlas of the ,-~ niversity of 'Georg[la has undertaken tlre study of B:uz bwbinjs immense 'Q1!lf §~nic eemmentary, and in his Ph,D. dissertation - " niversity of California, ~ 99' I) h edit d and translated the portion of the Oo.mln~ntary_ devoted to sun, of the Qur'a,n (consti .ti,ng approximate,~y one ju.i:J~ or on -thirtieth, of the Entire '~ext)., ',lw o~ the manuscript tradition will be crucial to. levaluating Rttzhihill~~i :i,mpi8ict on the m,ysncai int-erpl"e~ati.Qn :of scripture ,m,

s~am, and bi·g ollgo~ng wo;rk on. tra.llmab:t1g the f-emain.der of the text promises. to make av,aUable one. [gf da,e. :rrUJn 1lJlne.llts. 01 ]shuni,c reWigiousl tilought. Dr.. P.allJI Ba:llanfat hatS. jus comrp!'etietl a doctolra]'

djssevtanon, on Ruzbiha - " (Sorbonn.· ." 1991 ~)~ Vlih]ch '~11 illclud' Ins,

critical edidon ,and Fr'encb tr,a.ns,ladol1 of thr,oo important mysti,ca~ 'trea;~~s; (~ .. ~GUm'9 ojtkiJ $Puils" ne Commenldry on Vm:U and ICOVUing~j and 'The UnRiling f!{.serrets) pillus, ~6 shtul!er tllea~ogital texts"


'Bdanflit and I abo propose to collaborate 011, a ·c;riti.tal edition of

.. ill.. A - .... jb. • "1"'1.... J"...... "j:' .1"1. hi· ... :L.. 'R' - bih = 'ill.. • elf

Il!~.e Ararnc A;I'g ,i;.ig~(1g4 q, .. ~onJ'cum,:es~ ,w" ·u,i,~"[i.z Ulan ,~ruIm8"':-

e?rpanded and tFans~~tf!d into Persian a'S The a,tnmenttfry on ,&Jtalic S~ - the Persian texr is· 310 problematic .that it '¥lin be im.plr.a(; for anyone to attempt a tran station of the P.'et~an Vilithout hawing a sun; gr,a;sp on the Arabic odginw. In addition, my O"Wn translation of the cemptete texs of The ,Unveiling ojSema, pomon rof whieh are presented here, lNil~ be published sep1arately,. From these remarks-it should, l.e evident that we ~re j~st n~'~chlng the point ~f haYing :full access to all I@f Ruz;b]hiJ).~s m~or wridngs; each <w.fwhi,ch deserves full consideration in itself and in relation 'With the rest of his lit~r.3:!lt

d·" 1 .]. eli "' . dual ...:!I':: ....... ...lI11 • d ::1" _. _!'M

pro U.COQ(I],;. ~n.tJJ In-~,Qua, studies are camec 0 .'t m c etau, 1ltwil

not be pessible to i(!s.tabIDlsh with any ccOnfidenlce t.h.e lTe~ati~nships, between Ruzbihl_n's. Ylri'tings) the '~evdopmen:t and maaaration ef' his 'techn~cal. vocabulary, or :his 'use of Qur~in and IpuJitk tests, With

".'6 " -',. ~ill . . ... , b I~' [' . f:' '. . ... , 'h" i, ", 'ilrJI.,· ., ~r·ld '~. " . r., 'L, .. ,. . " " " .. ~' --

UJ;.~e smau num . .' et () researer ers In. ~"u1S ne '. '~ It rna y Ij!~ some rune

before this agendl~ can. be accomplished, 'but the sise and. stature o:f R'(iz'bihi.n's ceevre .. mands a, serious effort of mterpretation,

C:" Aims, or die :Pfesedt W •• k,

In this be.u,k . would :H[te '~O present ,9" sru.dy of the m:fS;tjcalllfe of R.llzhihin Baqli as portrayed In three sources: his 0,\;1/0 ~u[,obiographicaJ 'I;loi~k 7118 Unveiling of Secret.J~ and, bvO hagiographies CijHves of the saints"] wntte- by his 'gteat-gniDdsons~ The Jpirit oj.rAe Gordtns and n~ Gifl"f!!Me ,People f!/Gttosis .. l·",rill ,net ,attemp,t ~o construct from these sources a sin:gffie definitive ~arntiv-e account of

R~ b:'L., - li _1· '. • h L 'If 1- 'b . ,a . d u.z rman s external aenvmes, t, OUgW'IL, .11., :lave : ne~u,y' summa.:nzo·:.

the standard 00 nS£JlSUs; my concern is rather ~th his mystical. experien es as viewed in j ~ I, se difren~:nt sources, sach of which needs ~D' be understood on ~~S own terms, In comparison to the r:ela,tiv-cl1l brief treatment of 'l1te iUtlfJeiJ,ing' oj Sene-Is by Gorbin~ this study OOlVe,fS much more of the text in detail, and it also has th ' ,ad~lJtUilljtage ef dta~ng (In Wje' other ~dngs af RG.zbilhin that :&~ve ,com,e tn light :since CQrbin~rs hntiaI e~savs 3)ppc"ared in the ~ate l:9J.5JJs. In overaJiJ I:PPf'OMh." 1h~s book differs fra·m the learnoo and d,emiled inteneorua~ biography' of ]bn 'Atabi by 'Claud,€! Addas" 'w,hich seeks to reconstruct his spiritual itine' 'a'ry land mystical experieo€e8 as de~tribed in his 'own ~ting$; d€$pite :her Icriti¢a1 attitude ~oward hagtograp,bies,~ by 'taki.DJg' somew:ilalt l~.ter.alf Ibn



~]"'=""U j("'J:~lIrd-~1b

",Aralbii '>8 C~:3iim8 to. sainthood, ,Addzm earls. 'WY' pr:-eSOlttn,g her subjeet

h" h' '~II]' rs I . d th a _ ,..]'

, .agIiQgrap._,IC3l1!.y. ,a;rn con,terne~ ra - 'eI' 'to ,~l'ticJ.dtii!te' .an,~

deter.ibe: ttH~~ structure of mysdcal ~oPelienc~ in R:iiZh~t.JiiJl~;S wri,tin~ tllmog;h "~n.iM~," of ~hls rhe.t()rIi-e '@:( ~nmood. A1mQ~h

t, '. ..~'III_;:: .'~r.:,. R-" 'Ilk ,a.. ~

ttns means '~__ng sen'~usv 1-""l1zu''yJ;in S vocabulary and categories.

~(:mysOcism~ it ~l~ijr leqblireg that bjs daims ,~@, spiti,mal ,a.u.thority be inrerp,rrered ~qth, fcgard to their synlfuo]jsm and, signi'canc~ ~JS. Iit~rn\ry 'tex~ ,rarID€f. ~han as trangpabdlt exp,ressi,~ns - of ribj~ctive ~pi'ri,tuaJ. l$tal[1l)S. :1 wS'O 'take a diRe~ent a~lI'Q.a~h to inre:lPire~~ng sun bi.o;ra;phiGa~and ha~01graphica'~ '~ts, n ,a, prre-..rious b(]-~ on Sufism, in South Asia, I :p~ij!p();sed a hermeneutical method of ,n:ad:m;g Sufi lbiogr, t~u. t~a'f takes i7~ account of :the coneerns of pre-modern authors, paying particular attention to th.€: way ~hai[ authors ·wri~~ in terms ,@f g~'n.f-e~ aud,lmnce; :pa)t'rQnQg~". :i.in_d

-li- • ·.L - . '''] . ..L. 116

iter;ary Go:n~ntuln WlIIJ,.ulout pnV'Le:g:tng' one text over ll'110!JJ:J£T'., '

What 'this, means in. practice is that lives of the' saints are not read as,

I· f' _

cn ' eetions 6\l. 1I':~a~ts.1I dl;a:t are to be e:1ther accepted or rejec~edt~ but

rllftJt: eaeh text is a~ illiter,alY inrerpre.m'llO'n tha'c needs [t() be e~ucidiU:ed an, its. OWl] ~~rmB.. This is net ,3, parti€lU'~3\d:y Iadi~,ea1 aprproach. in swdle~ of~ain~hQ;Qd a~d hagiQg{'~'Phy in, Christianity" but the sludy ,of the- ,Is'~~m~c humanities 'Cf,)nclnues to lag 'behind the~·n~:ti,cal.v :in

...]r c "",I'!, '!iL h '. ..tJ .... '1.: • L 7 A' :.:al :~,

;~e'd.1lrDJg- 'W'I~n t, re, -ln~~f'Pr~l_aJt:ton -ow~ r~,g.t.()n.s t~ts,. - - '~'" ggou example

r .,:iIL. th ",~]. ,OL • 'L 'I '~II • hasi :br~1I'

o tne .moreth ~~(fcetruf;a~y 8:e[ll~n1lve ;ap,pf\OOC11 to JSJI)aLml,C a,gJ!()Igraplill:w.;j

is 'tbe 'woik o\f ,my oQrIDeag\l'e ]Prof., 'Vjneent rCOffilJeU of Duk'f U niversity; be- points out ,that th€ act of mterpretation '~. impneit ill one' ,of 'me $m~, ka\bic terms us~d, to, rJe~GrillPe b_:lgio,@1,aphru;es~ '~~traf1slati' of i.v~s of '~bre sa~n.ts'l (mr~im (lt~~",

IThus I :p.(['opo.SCl: to e~3:mine here tb~ ~~li~s!! of Rilizbih;in~ be,gitIDn!ng with me: customary -SUlnn12UY dl~t can he f'Ou,nd in most .of tbe sec:a,ndary' &tudIir~rs :me:ntr~n,ed id~~lVe:. This ~c6nventi-o:tTh~ .a'0GOU_fl~~, !1lverl in C:hap'tetf I, d~Srtribes the his[Qricm and po~li],tical coo~t or ~~-tenmry 1?enm, 't'h( $ta;nd,a-rd teWhttmo-' tien (Df RUr2ibiha.n's itiner,ary :wn Ire;, his, family" :his Sufi aoti,vines; and an overview ·of ms ,leg~ey .. , Ft)j;" 1t~~d~rs ullfltmillar ~d:l me historical 'b~kgtOUJ'ld of this s:tt,and! o:f' :P~rMan r$ufism) this !QG(jOUl1l will pI10vide a. brief o:ri~ntaclJ'-r.DJ that setS: up tlN~: DetIDS of' d~lre subsequeu)t ms~~s8~on. (~h81pt'~r II,. the longest part cof tht book,. provid~~s a d;etail~d cla-ssifica!l'on and aDaly,sl$ of me mprur~tls

, ' ... 1.-.. G' d .. :ml.. • - 'D,- lIi..'·'b~' t . b'" h'" _

e,n~ouDte(pg "\Y1ul ~-o~ 'Ulat COImIlJure Di:.U.Zul:u~n. S ~utD ~,lograp 'J1Cru,

T1Je Utw:ftlin,g rf S~ttJ, 'alo,n,g \~,th, ,an in~odw:tiiO"n to, ID@' te~bn~ca]j.

v.oc;abulazy mat. Ruzbihin '~Set; t.o deseribe :mysticaI ,experi,ehCle:, So!me of his ID'Q$t di;" 'visions are presented here mn 'tr,alJJ',on~ ~~ped together '~-bema.}ltlcally under the headil1gS ef 'r~·the~rphanie1;, l),f ma,j~~~~1 and ~~'ilieophanj,es Qf,b~uW,~'ii 'When the

'te~d is~ considered in terms @rr ,a;utohio,g;ralp:hy~ despite ,giving som,€" inten::sthl,g de'tai~s, ooncem'in,g R-u~b:ibi<nts Hfe:, it: doe's, so an].y in order to, relate 'them to hrus inner visiUO'X:Ht~ry fxpm~nce~., In remls ,of its a~r,a~ ,sJtyille and fguc'no:", TIl., lhi~-liJg &/ ~ts be~uDls to ~, well-established li~erall' ~:r,adido,n of vis.i,ornmry nafi,atl~e:s and heave nhl' ascensions. C h,apltrt. III rnQ~es '[J@, e !)n~:~dtI '~h,e' ins.titu~na1iza:tilon of the 80'0, "order" th~t ooaJeSicecl around Rii,wm:an ,and. his ~~c«ndiu:J,ts iw1 Shim s, T,b,e '~~~grapjlic~l p.k~[n~e_ comp osed bY''s p~t ... wands@ns differs in !Sigrllijcant w,ayS fmm .he pictu~e that he; 'himself drew in hm ,own ~ti~gs., paitru,c~1~9!'r~y as regards. ltfi,zbjha:ft~:s of hrumse]f 'wn terms of s.aindl.@Qd. The ga:p~ be~een Rfitbilii,D~t S'el:f.-pDrttait and th¢{:t of his ,clJ,es~endants f~m;.sbes the op:p,c)rt'Unity to locate their a'rums, as anthers, to ,e'Stabli~h the heTm.ene~tic~1 ~pp'r'Qa:ch o.ftacb indiru,vj~w~l text. F"ma11y) Chapf'eF IV bciefly re'wews Rii zbihan 's oanoep~ of

_ ..J!.a: -.' h ,.]UI: ~'li .~I

sw;[9Jmond; and bow' uiWl~;renJIlJj¥ ~t can be seen :~:n t,er(,w\~mtlt -', vec8

of llu,z'bihin., TIn:QJ]~hollt this essay ~ e~t~s;ve )1tran~a;(i(jns, :fr:o:~n the seurces furnish examples of the extl',aominal1' ,s.t:yle and, personal presence 'i}r llu,z'bihin~ ,s,amedlin_g thaLt jl~mps lijff the page of his Ar,a'Jbilc;;an~il Persian 'YIflci~", I '~,p~ ihaljt this brief studly ,~t he~p' bring a r-J,ew and h~ll'ger~aud~.eflc~ 'W th€ Sufism of:R'uzbih,in" WhlI~ t\ris is partially 'aimeii at those \~ho have a special interest in Islamic stJudies and Sufism~ ] alse have in mind those :readen 'woo' foU(D',"v ~,e o.f~ Jtolll1J~a'~'ti'Ve ,mysticism ca:n.d SaiB6J(JOrl., This book is more descriptive than an.w.yti,oal~ s~mply because I dlink it Mll be :mC1~t psef~d i-~ the fi"t instance te.present SQ·m~ of ' the moot ]mportMtnt ,aspects of lluc~ibiha.n~g vl.'Mollary sfqyl€ in. a way that is accessible ~~Or non-specialis:tSf,

'I ~uld like; to .here U1Y thankS to those who '~1;ave QO\n[ribu.'~~d 'vital ~sjsta~c~ to, make thi$ project :pessible .. Dr. ut")nit~d Le'vnsohn ~of:' ilire U mveaity Qf Lvndon :m~ted :m'e' lO n:tllm~ to tbe BY bii!9ct pI Riiz bLha n ,in oo·nn€crion. M~h two m;e'm@\f,abte 'col1fen;!iloes on. 'P,ersia:n, SI1Jfis,m held ,at th,e Sehoo~ of. 'Orlelllal abd African s.-wwesj U'niV''e:nity ,~f Llndon.~ ill, 1990~ a_nd, ,at George 'W',a;$hington UmveFti'~y lin. :~, ~'9~:; 'bow ponr~'[enoes '1Nef'€_ CO-s;pOD$Or-ed. 'by ,th~ Ni~maltl~ilbdli Sufi 0td,er. PI1l)f:. Ian Netton of





li ~ For: an OVf:'MeW of mocul :re~~rch Gill ~U.1y surmn ill tll'~ b~anj!~a'D., e1l:dtn:r~~d. :regi,on, see LeoiHMd Le~~ohn;. uIranian 18~3m and. r:eman~L~e' SuHsm~,i~ in nit l«a'f1_ ,q{ MedJ(#!i!f),1 . Pmitirn $~ttm, ed, '~ofl;axd Le~1'~Wlhm. (toWl.dIon; Kbrutlq.ihi '~imarUJI~hw~ 1 '9192r)y pp. ] 1- 43.

~". SchimmeJ~ Dimtllmns;. p,. 2ie·a;,

~:t 'M~'11n, i~'t.n>lj~~ition to' ~j.IlM td- ~hiqi'n.~ p., 10ft

4\-", M~L{ln.} Mfitroduedon 00· ~~.u~ 'p. 84. In ttris respect, M,~,t~·jj:n .. Sbr3.JI1ed. mr.· viel-1' ~,f Dr, 'Qhim 'GHt~Ullj Utayt 'i'fifram the :P-Olli'ljb mf vi~¥ Q,f the gre',~tne'5S or his, .mY!'5ti,c;~l $t:ittio:n ,. and :f~,rn ,tbe p~npffdve of ree5ta.,y a't:lJa ~piritJL1~] state" S:ba'Y~ kGzbihin isen tJJ~ level ~s'ba;y'kh AbnJ.11-· H.a~an Kbar,~inl and S,h~,~ith A'bi Sa'di~i Abu ']~Khayr~!;~. 'GbJnj also placed R1ltzb~ha,n pIDnlm~neNdy in h~ Iis"t of h'IDltl'~lg)U ,mJ~j~lr Su~i au(bnm. See h~ l!Jl1/gtk, dtu a dia r wa tifI.,i twa ,~l-i J;lafi?, voL '2, 1in1dz-i /tJ:tltlV114~ ilr ifm,m'~ lafiiwwumt ~ ~,t-:i w1i/rJ$lfa:=Ji a~ ~ ~adr-i ~laa, ,m; '~¥~' J.:Ja./iJ; (fe'hran: IGtibfnrui_hl Za:W'W',iJ',~

t340lll9161 ),' :p.. 395" n. 2j P., 545,. .. ' .

5., IJusayn i'~~ M~~·ur· ,~~'ij~l~iij, ,J['w./), ,al~,~sm." ed, Louis. ~J~S~]grlO~ ~ne"lJ ed, Paris; uJo'r,airie Pau~' Get~thnel!~ li 9:1 g)~ ~sp" pp. 79 .. liO$. Of. wSQ Mtl!$s~on, La p(~ d'e H~s~ .lIJn MpUSUf ~1l£Jjlt1j~ ~~ 'm.Jslil'!'f8 de l:Jl$ittM aieldt ,i JJ¥i1tid 14, 26 msrs ;,2,2~ limb dJti~tQife 1ti~e (2~d ed., 4 vorb~.): Paci~:. G·a~limaJd., 1'975), esp. H1, (06i-14~~ 498-501; id., Tk~ ,P~~n fJj'~ trans, :M¢vbeE!t~ :l\1~SlQ(l1 (4-:. 'VD~sc., J;ri'nl©~ton~

,f'rincctQIn, UniveF~i:tY Pre~~ ]:9~2')" IT., 39'5-99~ 478=;3<3., .

6, "A B]og"];auphy' of RnzbiJi;n til,-Baqi~"1' ]QIWl€J.f tm!J, .'Pm€fJe~.'S rf the' .A$1':tJ;&~ Sotic9' of &.1. N.S, xxrv ~ (19213)) pp. !lJi3~6'~; nMoft, ~ Brog;raph.:!{ l('if :&iz,biban ~ili~B~q:Iill/'1 }f.wllmal qf tite &m,j(!V /JriGm;k IrU fJi8' .~ j~itf~, St;?C'~, VII ,,193.1 ),. p, 1~?,

7,,, uta Vie ret les ,Qeuvres, de FJ.-uz'beh.aJ] :Baq~, II :in S:Utiili omnmlitJ' ,J'@M~i ~'Sm N/Jlu~M~rio , ... ,~ tolkgis dii:s~.'w;li;. afftW; diGattJ (a!)penfiagen~ V~.5,3)) p]>. £'7 HS,;, tep(l1n~€d in [()'U'i~ MaJ.S'S~g[]Bifi, Ofjttfa Jlm~m;; ed,

'yo Mt)ublU'ac fB~irlJt~ 1 ~Mi~},j Il, 45 ],-6\~L c, "

8. ,l;e Jti!JJnin ,des FWl~ d~ll~l@td'~ ,Nl4'b~ ~Jitlr ,~t- ~kiqm~ ed .. H:e:mry Qorbin ~d Mu~a~ad Mu'~l n, mihelliiad¥eqJu~ IDtl'l~nnj~~ S (Te·hrall; E~stit1Jt rnlriiC~- d'~mra~Jo~~Ii¢ de 1.'~heran~ 1'958,; ~~prrint ed., Tehr~U1! Intiishiri. t=i. Ma~n[j,clt~hrl~ ].365/] 9\8t); C~mme.ntaUg SIU lis Jl(f,rNl~tG der SoJifti rSlMfli=e Sk~~~a~~ ed. ~e!lty CiQ~bm~ B~bFi,ij,tb~~:e lid~ni,ent:lJe~ no, '1 '2 (TelnaLf:11': nep~nemet)l!t d'Eran6k~gi,e de r~nstitnt Frallco-

Irifln~el1..j '] 966). .

9", .' Jemy Co~~iri~ u'Qui'e~~ae ~~ Inq-utetudle de, ~',~'e dc~:S ~]e S~~~«u~d.~ Itil1.bcllan :Haq:n de' Shlr;®;z~ ~!' Bmn~ji- JrdJ.!!O,rJih .l ~:58{ 1 '~,9)., pp. 51- .l94\.~ ']',epcinted. in r~w~ed ~r~, :in Co~hin~" lin, .1~kim irtmim~· fA,.gt~ -firiitilS el

,J:.l:r~,~ ,.11:," ] ~ ,f' "'_.;, ,~'cn:!' ~ .1~ .c"1. ':"'C,~ ~ ,.t;,Mv:ll; In ~ ~. 9~"2'

p"f.~()'!f,~pe..f,~ vo' .. .]i~ Lij- I.tiUUl~S u~(lur.J ';;"Uf~~'J.I~ e'~lp:e.:.;J),~~\! .lI; ... " .. J~

p~., 9":"14ft IC~Hib:ln, he~: ,~~usge$ p,ri.marny t~e 19lti ~~ _ (pp., a:Q~~~, tth~ KiMlif ~ll~1l1~f' (Pip,. 45-~4); atta a,boll!Jot all. tHe Wohm (Ji-,th:/nVl1J ~f~ 60"'"" 146) .. ,P.Qtti«nfS of dli:s. 'ei)$ay h~ve ~ppe,arMd in a~ ablb,rev]atred


the University of .Exe~er;\ a participant itt those o~(flfen!m1Ce'S and the ~ditQr O;f' the Series all. Sufjsm~ S'U:,g!ges:ted the id,e;a 'for rung book. Dr, Daniel M'aisS~Oti and. Pnr>;f. james MorJls of Obei!in CoUege: ~r'th prowd~d copies ,of imPQrta'Dt maRus~rip~8 :lud warmly ~supporrtea! ~~ prqjec.c; 'th~n~ amo to E'rof, Herbert M'asdn ,. of '_ B-@~Itgfl 'Uni~rsilty for his, timel}r h.e!Jp,. My gQ~d., friends Pr,~f Bruce L1ruwrem1oe of 'Duke . 'm~~rs~ty and Pn){r. J~h~: Bussaaieh of, tihe U'ni~rsity at ,N,~ 'Mem.c'o g,ave much ap~fociated et)ooUf3Jlg1fX11fnt ~remb€rs. Olt the N'cuth O"aoo.Jirra His,to;ry'- or:rteligil(Jfi;$ Ccoll~~jum, :p(wvided astute criticism ti7J' an earlier draft ot:' Chaptef" 'IT, Arm. earlier v~rsi.,n· c.i ah~pter 'U~r was :p.reselltodr at tffi~ Middle Eas~ StucJi,e.~ .M~ijtiation. ,oo'FJ:{etOOot' ,in Notth. C~oo,ffiinal :m 19£W3'. .Pm[, Alan G(}.:u~1al of ~he Univel~siqt of' IGeo~a and Dr. Pa ul Ballanfat of tb~ ·S:QrbOh~e,- dle two nlJ@Sl ac,ive :resea;r:ch,~l',$ on the' ~u bj~ct af Rjlzbi~li;n Baqli, hav~~ shared unsliRhngly the unp1lJ'bliibe.d fruits or

hei ~I b" ... ilk .. ill.; ," • 'L" ,~, ' 'Ilk

,t erur Wa\o:rs; M'II;,j!i~rOll.t tneir ,genef'oSlty ttns s,oldy WQu1d. net L~Wav~e

been :PQsg~bl,e:. R~iB!i~h for this 'boas was supported. 'by' a Summer Research Gr~fiJTt rrotti the N:atiou& End~vnnenJ f(Jj(f" the Humanities in 19913 and a (tudy assignmerlt "from tb~ U'rrui:v;en~ty ~,f Norcllil Gal~Jin,a-'Ohape~ :Hi~ :run 1994~ ,As alw.ays, ] \\f~nt to 1h~my v.cif€

Jud¥' Ernst and our dal!1ght~rs SI~'P.hl~ and Tess "O(f" d:~eilir unde:rnmnaing: and support,

The trnflm.~T;!.uj,Qn 'of ~bi~ and PersiaH fp~lo\Y5 fh~ SY,$t,em of' titre ~r;t.opd$ilW W.lr6arn., e~~pit that J is used :f@rji'm iUlid IQ 'foc 1;0;1; and digT.aph. transliterations are not 'tlnilerr1JlineclL Translatiens from, Arab~c and 'er~~an. :a;~ :m.~ne u__nles$ othell"Wise floted; ~b~~~ are meant to be' fairly lruter~~. ,and g~ge'r.a_[I~r GOnrs:ru&t~roJt, th,'~!Ug;b. sometimes :phrases Q~~ bles~ing are olmiiu,ed fbe the sake "f Idtu1;ty.

'If.... .J;!:...' h ","1, '" ,\d't' a.. r ~..J

n;;t t._~Clt'SSing a t,~~ t .- ,at mOSr~y e,on:s~~rts of vi'S:ruon~ 0 " ""Ou,

icapitanZ,l:tion is problema ti~, eg,pe~ciaUy since there is :1110

'" ~I!......· .. - ilL ~ ''Iff ,e ]] .. L. ,('. ..... 1!_.~

,cap],ta~atlon ,m i\:raJvic. .Ji'. t)ue in .JtTYVS I~!€ ,custom OJ!; -' cap~t~i~g'

le~ery' OOtM .and pIIgn0tlll. 'tha;t .];'~fe:rsr to God~ the QI)~k ~]1 be 'Sl~)' filled \Vi,it:b ca:plta~lzed. w@rri! dlat it will :re5i€mble .pfl,itj1ieations, 'CY.f the s~n:tleeflfh, otnt:t]ty" I hav~ 'u1[owoo d]eexpeme,llt of b~"av]n_g pOOfJIeUDS referring 'b(ll God in lo,w~f case". ~ud !eap~tal~zi_~ only oertain er:ucial rechnicac1 terms for Ir,angceodf;Jl,ta~ roealities, 'tttttt a're not ordinarily treated as- ~~ch ~n lEngITJsh (e:.g . ., E~Dc,e, AUcibu'tes).

~'ho~gh a,dmit~edly inc~nfili:S!c.elQ' ~ ifuis practioe ba~ ,the meri~'[ '0;[

If" ..... 'i;~f!ng iIi-'t",,p '_""',,~Q1iO"r['j"!i"'fi!.8i1i'1i:,j>:AiII'II, ~ t- b,,::;. ~·lI""innn...,ji.,iI!iI!'If1i',n,;:o, ·o-···r.1:)u-~b!;iI6.~I'r'i;;!Ie le'foe I~~ !.-: II!.JJ,I-w JI.-";aLUI~"" ~ fG.L1l.!l!.'~~"W,UlU,lI:_1Il tL-V . ll~ \ltYdli!:ir·~·J;-~a!.l!"~'v-~ ._ . ,~ ~{IQI\L~JJjGl..-'~ ~ l ~:J,

f; W" ecll'~ J

" - 1- -:. '-, \ ',.'1 ,'I • , " ,',,' <-

am. ax t ' nu;:a. Ijel'ms.,


C:·- . hart 1 1

_ ',. d-:. -

l , R.mtiih"i,['[ Baq~ Sh"irn;zl (52'2/1 [:2~8=1j06:t l2®9f}

:R.n.iDill~IlIJ e~$ablishes :riJii1t in 8b'i:raz. in 56:0l1 i 105 "

2a. 8hiliab ,ru,-Dfn M:u:t.ammad ]011

D ,_. 'I.:._:'L_'- (d ,Co'" '" I i nll"lln, .!Ji!.tl z,!'.!IUI[a,n . , ti~.J .. ,' II: ',l;.,'IJ)';}'1

2:b. Fa_Idl;]:' aill~rrll Ahml~d\ ]bn

nn zihiha,l1 (c~" 5 70/117 H45l124·i)

Sa, AbiJ Ba;kr jib'~ M~mm_mad 'ihm '&i~bmin: (d. 6~Oi '124-2)

4a. Sh~~f aI-Di n '1bl'ihlm ibn ~t :d:m'n, :Rijibihin T.hin~, :lIJ!J:[{h!!i)t of TUhfo~ ~ (1l;_~irffi:1"I. (10D/130U)

4b. Shams a]-llrn:n. '.Abdl al-:L~tif n~\D:IJ ~rlJr aI-IT!~, Hfiz'bjhi:n- Th3J111j, "3ruth.ior

. of .fG~aliiMn (7051 [,~(5)

(-c. J~ftiJ al-Dln ~a~ya ibn S3dr ail,~'])JJU RUiIl':fuihan. T.b~

Sla. Sad![' al",Din ;,bo a] ... D1n'm itD.z'bwi1ia,]1 '1'ha]i~h

5b., ~hz ~~~·Di:r.IJ Mas~id ibn Sh~['af alDin Ibribim

Col1tempora,nr :P.Hdca),

~" Iii F II i'I,~eS' id .. _ a;i!is '

Salpuridl Atahe,p' 14:!lt'zaffar at-Din So\nqur Cr. 543'/] J 'fBl"'~561 ] '(6 ])

~1J]mraf al=mrn'Jd Za.~

(1'. 55;6/1 U)]~570l1 [75')J

S~)d. Degeilie (l"aJkli.) ibn Za~g1 (r .. S7®ll17'§-5f~.U]I/l ]194)

[ToghTIt (r., 5901 'I 1 ~~60J I :r 203)] S;a/til ibn Z@;nj

(1'., ~Oll1203-6'2:ll12'3'1)

Abi Bakr ibn Satd Qutl~_gh K_h_.i:n (t.. 6·:28l123·] -6j,Sl.l2GO)

[f:@uT' ,OWer Ati.bagsJ

Jar&~ :al-Dln Abii EakI :ilbn, KhWij.a cr)()m1~r (·3il~f,d'ta~ off'1.eimJ,?')

'l1l"i. ~ •. iI' .~ 'I 'IIL_'. = ~,1!.0:.~. c~o/'

,l!!Ilre~it l'f:';QQ,§~ ~ ii1iIi!~r uU!l,t)

1 .. 2101

f\mIlE' ll[I'U1Jilghi,rrJj ~,f)~. ~~em,(!!r 'w.lle OOi1V'~ts t@, Is~]l1:ijj" ~:.l!I.. 680/12B ],e,Gj 'U /',"1 "1I'i)"",,\

~O'~<· ,.L:sO'4\)

N~~_[~~ ;;;)]~mn An:unad~ J1weJr of LU"ra,j BU'lU'r,g {r. 6i~t6/] 29.'6=7:3$/ '13 ~·3)

Ch "2··

,. art (~.

1 .. Riizbih~n

- ---" ... -- - ~----

.2, Sirjj .~=Enn .Kb.~f;a

$,. AJbr(l, .am-Qisim. Mu~ammaa .ibn /ili.fn~d. ibn '~·Abd al-Karlm 4- ~ K}la~ib AbU. ·Bi[lrr ibn Mu:~amlnad

5. Abu I'~q .Ibr.i him. ibn Shahriyar )al-.J(.az~'ribri 16. ljIlusayn .. Akki:r FlnJ.zi bam

7 ~ AJbfi. '.A:b d .AJ~.~ih :Mu:!]ammM :rubn Kharmf m.-ShIr.izi

B,rancll J,

8~ Abu Ji '+£a:1' ]jaddad

'9. ,Abu 'Umar E~p;k~hri In, Abu Turab N·aJm.sWla;b-rn: :~ 1, Shaqrq BalkhID

12'., S~mi~·rt :Farni

13·. :Mu;,s.. :ibn Zayd

Ii .. Uw,ays Qarani

15 ,. ~Alffi.

16~ M·~b.mmmad

Drane •. ·0 ,s,. Ru~ym. '9'. Jurul\yd

.1 O. SarI :al-Salqa·p

111 '~I ~I'f K~~. -f'· "U·~. 'I •. L!" .iIi . n , .ll.'VJIl:I. TIl . .~rMl~

'~15· ·M'· uharnm ad

,~I ',! '_ . _W.llJu_ r. ,



Cnart 2

,8. Accon:ting to Ri1~ alj.in1i1i, pp 18'- 86~

Pa"th I

1.. no zbihan

2 .. rSiraj al-Dm MaJpn.ud ibn al-Khalifa

:5., . ·,ba al .. !Qasim :M.ahmil, ibn .AQmad 'wbn cAbd al- Karlm [K.a zaribiijj

4,. Abi Bakr ~b:n [s_]cJl ·,ad ibn. Kha,llb Abu. a1,-IQJi$~m. ibn "Abd al-Karirn

5. Abu Ishaq Thr,lhlm. ibn S,hahryar al ... Kitzaruni 6., I:Ilusay.n al-Akkar

7. Abu "Abd Allih ibn. Khaf1~'

.> I


8- J - '- .. - ';:;'_1111 U:""dh- - dh - Jl .»: a ar ~.-r~:.· a-

[ . ~

9m Abu Tura.b al-


lO., Ha.-tim. al-Asamm

. ~

1 I ,. Ibrahim ~bn al-


12. Dii1d al- . a"

l ,3~ 'lI;Iaib1:b al- ~JamI

~ 4·~ Musi ibn ':. azid w.-Rii~

15 e. 'U¥Ia:ys :al-Qaranl 1 fL ~'U mar ibn alVi.. -"-b

n, .. u.a~,a -'.-

J 7 '~~\'if;::'b' Ak'5'~'Ih:'

, --.'" . .M.ill!Il 1 n,~.Ui . au"

8. Ruwaym ibn Ahmad

"! "

9· Abu al-Qasim Junayd

10,. Sari al Saq.ati l l, Ma~ruf al-

K :lp·II!..·~ arJ:!iJl_~


Sub..h ~ __ ~L I

- .1" iiUU,;Q.

12., Di,"ud al,~n'l

- .-

1:1. IJal3b al .. ~'AJarni

14" al- ' .. lasan alBa,ri.

'11 11iii:_ , A. 'IE "IL"" A- k'

~ .J. ,00 IIlJU ..... ui


. _ .

Sub-'brane: D (iroaums)

12, 'An, ibn M,fi&a alRida~

~i 3 M-' ... "b J' '.Co

,~,: Usa ~I,n .Ia lax

'14 J ,,c:..._ ..... '1 Clb.' •• J:

.. ' •.. 1,30 Cwar w-9iu1'q

15" ,Muhammad al-

.1 -~


l 16". Zayn al .. ,~ Abidin. ~ Ali mbn alli~]jusayn 17. al-Husayn ibn '.Ali

lB, .. II,Ali ibn Abi.


Chart 2'


1. R.n zh~ha,n

2',,, Abu a~.-SaJa' aJ-'N,as:rnfi

~ - I~


3. Mub;a-mmad Minkil ill '0 ~ d i b M L.,

'~..'i' il( :~ m ~ _. uhammad

5. Abu al-,~Abb.~s ibn Idri~

,6,. Abu al-·'Q.asim Ramagan 'l . :'btl Ya"lqub al->.)ibad

H. Abu. 'J\bd Allah ibn 'Uthrnan 9.. ,ba 'Y'a~qijb oru,=:N'm-rajl~n

1 O~ Aba Y'a"·'q.u b ,a] .. S;usl

'1 I, 'Abd al .. V. :a~ .~b-,_ Zayd [:2, ,aj -Has an, ,aJ":B~sn'-:-

~ ~~

13'" Kum,ay~ ibn .Ziyad 14, ~ Ali ibn. AbI "fa jib

~ <,

B'r,alnch D

3- A'b - .... , M 'LA:' 1M' .

";, '. U w... aJpasm __:, :- .a] ..


4; ~Abij, al-;oJQ_asim "And Alli~, ibn 'Am]: al- :.haraJq,;nl

5+. Abu 'Amr ) uhammad ibn


6, ion Muhammad al y,ZujiiJl aJ. -'isiburI

7 .. Junayd

(- nds abrupt]y)

1..,,... .: ~I M' ""h d'- ..._'~i 'z . _. _ lm'irn.g' ,dl!i, .. ,_;, 1 , f': itr ,W-dlttjRllll


2'IAJi!""I'iT, ,",,'~I=M'" ,- "'!il'il..c;;: t'f~A ,~'~~ ... 1 ..

1llaJ(~l nJUu, ,~ . . _If;!lJL.l\ttI alll I. 11 l~~ ~



C. The ]niti'al'uc IGell.eaJo!gy of ~adr ,3J-D~n, It~~bih[:11 II (Ri4 ,al~ Ji,UJ.;u:ii pp, 18JQ,-=B7)

1. Sadr al~'Dln 'Rij'zQruh§:n II

-> <,

The Tradition of Ruzbihan Baqlt

Q[I"aDc'b, :1

:2. fakhr al-Dln AJ,ii1n,ad


'~t Say[ ,aJj .. DIn. A~ij ~Ubij,yd }\]Jin :MtdJ,a·mmad. .ibn AJJm3Jd a]=,Za~j:irtl~ ,in 1Uliraz

3. ,lama] ~l~,D1n, ,Albii ,aJ~

Maha,s~n :F,adi ,A1Jlih ibn Sar-

- !!II - - - 1Il

,l. A' ~,~~.c '5- .' ,~r:e

~!I! :__:__: Q{gg '. ~I~ .. l

Ffi.'llUadlU in Kh:nrasan

etc, [see :O,_ iPa:'cl}, 11, Bra;n_rC_h n above]

The canv:endQ"l~J stlr~H'yl of the' lwfe of RilzbUlin Baqli :bas been preserved in ,3" :nillmber of biopapffi-1JJicai reports. ,H~~ I would. 'like: simply to :pf'-e$ell"it"~ summazy, napI1:g in 1~ery J~~e the SQUl;\~ ef our irruformatio,n and ]ndica'ti,f1JJg' 'w'lTh,~r~ the '~bay:th,~~ own writings bear out or oOllifljet "Wi,th t]tle da!ta ,Of ]a:~~r writ[~"~ ~rune~ 'th,e~e diverg~npe~ MD, be explored later ,o:n" It willU be :~~'~iap:'U~ to the reader .~D digest

;I.'L ~ . 'I<.. t:" ,""b. .l ... ,]_ ,-

tms aeeounr ~i€:~lo:re ,gorn,g on to '[;n'e rapt'lu:'a ana tU,e inner

landscapes Of TIu lU&Jm~g W Sea'm~ w:hich ;a'u' a'mlwyzed ,in the' ChaplOOr 'U, l'~~ 'cantr,asdn,g Jite:rn:rw p~p~ecti'v,-e!i lDr 'We :~a .. ter biQ~,a,mes ~11 b€' d'iscuss~d in Ch~pt.ei 111.-

l&Jij'zbruban '8, lliif~ took place :~n Persia dilling' the pC'riod that

M 'I.. _'I 'H ..... ,JI1 _,'1:1,=, .. 'I."" ~I -. ·d..J!I 'do r T_1 •

I arsnai [~'w_gsOWTh 'C~ 'in€ 'earlier rni me: perie ,- U 0: - J;;51~UllJ}C

h.' ' 'Ib 1IiA" '-bb'-"'d it:: 'h ~ 'D hd .... ...], ...:all eli d "'L '~\.,

jsr[\?i~,. ",-J~: '. " __ ' ,~l~ru,' , ea4p aate.m J)~g.' ~m Icier 'ne~. :P.([,t\eIpJttouSJ!Y

after ,the middle: of the :fQ~urdlltenth century. New waves of nomadic cOI;}{~deJi,an@(ft.s ~T'~ dmvm. foom the s~ew€:s ,O'f 'Centr,al] Asia to the cu'~;tured ci~es @f ]ra;n and Iraq; 'The' Sclfjuk Tuiks, becam,e MusHrns and qnru.dd!~{ 'w:ere dta~ to support tile SUf!)'ni

]1- - '[I,. d =,1., _,1H ·'th _~ri,rni:, _:Ib., 'ml d ,~ .e.,

Cia p.w,w~t~ ~itl_. to' maae ~a.:nc'es M r '~~~ous $I;,U'O!!,Iars a'lnJ·" iJ:U.nS.,

1"'i""'iI'h . b1! ~;b d- d .' '. 11' ' 1'1,"' .. ;L. h

'- 'ef esta ~'u.SJJ,we c onUJta'tlon QV1el'"" ,()on'tr~Mrnn_g, IIW,ie area 'lIN, [~re

R - bih -, n'd b 'b m 11'4 -" n,ALt::'i 5 ~, I "'ho, t,

JU Z :] , an w'O'tlW;, e norn as" t3!riJlY as "t ,1,' . 'U~:J~IU'." d - traz, 'Wn'e:re

R~ ~h~hall. ,f! plllJ 11 ed; became the £~pitaJ, ,O!f dle Swgbum:iCb, one of

... '1 • ,. d d ...J '. fA b . ~:I

several semi-inc epen efllt Yiynast1es. 0 I ;'·nri. - egs ,~ nommal 'rege'Il'1l:S

for Selj:uit princes who ~i:zed leffettiw power. .f~f"'t~e~sel~s, at nrsJ! 00, vassals for the Seljulm,. then 'fio(f' the Klru,wa:mzmshabs; and ilnally roW' the ~ngl()ls" The Sa]g:lrnun,d.s, remained inae,etUl.@IDt fa,r over 12'0 yeal's" :froffl ,54>.3/11 ,18 ob) ,tHiBlI2"7 D.; when the MOngOls finally took dire~t Icputtol Q'ver F~~,,, Political turmoil i\In,~ the c,o:ntest {olr :po~r- 'made ~t a tu.rbu'len:t ~]ln.e;, m~u;g;h there were .a]so periods of

'years of tr,anq;uiUity., '

N~early all our biJ@grap~ers, agree that R(lz,bihiin Bacjlll W,a!i born


3, Ab~, M'[~~cammad Ru,,z'bihan [8 a qll]

in, 522/1 ] 28 in the p'enian, to~ ,~,f (ArartJiaiz1ed a$ :FMi)" The lone dissenter ,~~rdling the date is MasmgnO\ll;j who, SU~S~S 530.1 '1 ] g,5--6;2 Accor,mn.g to :RU:2;bibi~fIIJ:;'s 1f2r!VV1l reSIJIDO,nY'il which is 'reported i~ ~t:uJ1 IQ, dle Ilex't 'ch~p'~er~ he was born in. a :'am"ily of Daylamite :st'ocK", and his childhood was sp,errt among people who l~'[lwd any :~en~e' of :religioD]" 'He recalls having sm;dl'itJuaJ experiences at the' a_g€s of three, severn" and fjft~en" but cm];y the last 100t [hese does he characterize': as ~ true' ntl}]vl~ilrung~ (lmslifj .. 'That €"'llCnt would have taken place in ,,5.37/1142-3. s In gar:.:. bio,gnlphYt his E;r.s~' llJll'VeillirD:g' is, ~d :raJthe,t to have tai;,en pmce ,at age twe::nty-five; itrbereftDlre in ,541111,52-3) although ~hH Icould easily:halv,e bee:(ID, a seribal error Cor f[teen,4l~, any cas~, be abandoned ,his ~g~table store ~ casl1.bex:; 4!llld $lijfpp~ie8 ~ arid, 'w8rn'de]~c;d fo:r- .a 'Ye~r and. a. haIf (o,~~ ]D ,3, "~aler account, ,~x and i1JL half years) in the desert, 5 Then around 53ra--9'l1143~ (or, foUoMng MaiswlPlQrlJ" in <5+8-91l1153,., 4h Ru,zhiharn joined th:e Sufii~, siaving: ,mem,~ leaming their m$cipline, iWJi~ studyin~ and ,memo.rizin.g lli1€ Qlu:"~n,. \J\lliJere b~ s;tay~d, or how lQ'Qg W'€ d,g not know, but he reJ],'Qrts h~ving an ini'fial 'Vim'~'n on lithe :nlof or 'a S[lR hospitc (rihir)~,6 ~signGn:;, :CQ]ill,o~ng later reports, believes tn,at llfizb~hin was associated wfu:th. the fibfi~ of tbe: ijin{ffi, Si.&l0,[~ famlly in Sh;], where he w6u~d have bad' access ro %t, deb llibrary ,ton:tainin,g the wr.ttin~ of :r.Jal~ij. ':j Ri zbl.h~i.n, then re~roJrnoo tg, 'Pas' ;ti1,d boc~m,t a diBcip~e of Sha\ykb Jamal a'] .. Di:n. Abi w-'\J\f'afa'" ibn Khalil al- Fa:gi~i; a '6gur~ about, WhO,t.l1 we kr)jlow nothing :aside fr.lJ:m Rti"ibihin'!;& 'ilepo:rt.8 Nonetheless, this; J ~m:a], al-Dln is ,tb,e on~y contemporary (asidj,e from his, OW)}, son AmpnaA) that names En JThis ant(]bio@;rap':~y"

'The FlJ9:t t\W;,~ d;~cade:s are hacd to pin, d~wfJj "dtil .aily centidence, Rfjjz'biha.n rep,e,rreCl:y traveled to Styria;. Iraq, Kirrnan, and Arabia, 'He is s~d, to have tna,d~ th;~' pigfin.1a,~e '1;0 M,~oca twkc"g, Later bru,ographe-rs ruttemp'b!\d b:;~, fill in, tbe gap f~gairditlg RQ2:'b,ih:ii1'~s teachers and m~;ve'r,s. They ~u.ggest that Rfi,~bih,in ~, for ,a, m:i:m'e a ,cl,isci[lle ot a. :KJJrd18h Sun 'masrer :nam"ed Jigir K.urW ~d~ 5~!O!l19~), who Hved near Sahmarra in Iraq~ ]Q' RrLzbihi:n')s gra~,chon5 ftm'nished hj.m, ~vvi'd1t ,a ,[.omplet,e initJ1a.tIDc ,gen,eruog)fJ & that h:is :pnmafY teamer hI Sufism, ~~as ,Skaji al,~Dln Mitb;w1Jd ibn K_hai:fa (d., 562:1 n, 166=7) of the S,albm, &nWy :wll ,$h~r,az;, ,ltv-bo reprefJen'ted, Qili~' Kizan1ni Hne~ge of P~rsian S.-ull:srn. Sinre BJuzbihin :~imrelf r.DJever m,e;nUtH1S ,this tearner 'Gt 'the


teaching :Gneage~ W~ ''Will return '[,'0 this qu,estion later on. IO~her Sufi t'eacl~lJ,~rs, N~e: is said ~Q have ,.aS50:~iat.oo Vlith. ,~~dud,~ a certain Qiw~tm, al-,Din Suh:ra;w~rdi, otherwise unknown. I, ,I In, t:erm& of the basic reHgruQ"l'ts iScl~n~~, R:G:z,bih~n is 'b~li'~'cd, te ,hmv'~: tt.~H;lired with th,e leading schohtn (;f Shiraz~ ine~udin:g Fakhr: a~,·I:ij,rru ,rulDn Mary:arn~ and Arsharl al-Dln N'a,ynz'i (d., 604l120,e.)~ a commentatee un'dl'e ,gn~at eolleetion o.fp!fophetic ~wJilh,~ the ,Mt14li,bI4. In a ff'.agm,~n~ of one of his :~,~~ th~tiS~g,l' ,R.ilzbiha rr himself 'h81B, recerded a ,l!iJ,di1J~" report from o 11,li' ,Ahu. aJ-~"a&'! fiLI-'Wi,sip an a .leg,a~, paint conceming ritual :pra;ye1"., I cHis. biQgra:Jpne:r S,:h~ms a~-D]n ,mBg:nififld, ~hi~ ,etl00Ull~er~, p~aci~g it 1ft the Go.n~ex:t of his pilgrimage made frem 'PaS'a 'W th~ holy p~oc~s of ,Ar,a ])ia. 'w~t:h a gfO''IlP Io;f discip.~es,~ During a 'tffil:ree-da.y' step i~ "'Visit, he: ma]ntaills~ 'R.,izhillin

.' d'S' C! 1...._,· .... ~'- f' ,. •• ~ c;: ;'l,'b _._! S £!E' d . d it

:ret,eJ've , a. oun ,e,~ 0: ,- mmation lfo.m :t;i 'U, ,m,·,,;, ara., ,an)~. '~nlie:Q- e "

'~'ifi make a' retreat under :n..~:It', .oJ1'" .. ,h. - 1.. *' - ...... 1211 ilL ~;t... - ;;_'II!.. - ;1111.1.. ",,,.;.,, ,.l.I!n~ _ 'R, . LIb.~:'lUU. ~~_il'- ilLo.i. n~,j o[j'll'eCluO\l1~ 1;i!l;1l., WU 'l.'!lJ\1'!k:W, IlUf 'tU:C i:iW:wayAi.l

that he did not need t'his ldnd of discipline to bew,me~ 'p!,edect :H, Ail-oth,el' aceeunt has :it dla~ Razbmi'n studied lJ'adltlt 'Wlltn the famous Sufi master Abu, N:ajlb ~al9'$uhrawlldl: in Alef~a:lltlria) 'but 'it

'I:u.._ ··n d rh - 1I!......J.:a:_

nas neen ,oQn'VmC1_ng~y ~u:gu]e tJ:.tafn; tms 'was ,I o_lW=JeJ:'iel'l~ ,p'e.f'son

nam;ed JRjuzblb;il'1 Mi$n~, 15. As we shall see, R:ui:bihim,'s biogr'3:pthie.s, cO]1S]srently linked ms name '\¥lith mme of other ,flUDQUS SJu6s \-\7hom he had n~,~ met, as, part of tltreir ha,gL'ogr.apbica] ,p'tlrtt~t

The most in teresting account ()"f :Ru ,~bihan. b1l a nearcc'n~emporary is Wat of t.h,e great iSJldalusian. ,master Ibn ~'Arnbbij,) who :found this st,(}:r;y stiU current when 'he visiood ,Mecca~ sometime ~dle'f 120 1",

The s~,@ry is told, dt Sbay.lh. R:(ru,zbihin tba.t he was a:BffiructeJ(]! M'O] the love 'Oif a, woman singtrj, ,h,e .fell etst~tic,alf in ~ove \v.ith her, and he cried. ' .in his state' of 'ftstasy before God, confounding tbe pUg'lims a'~ the Ka 'ba d.urin_g 'the 'lime he resided there:., ~e clrcurn;ambuhlted on the l"Qf,ter:r,a;oes, of the sanctuary, bu:t bis, state was sinoere~ Wh:e~ he was aAlicted hy t~~ ~ove of t_hi:s ~in,g~r). 1'10 Ej~e 'kne,,,, of :~tl' bu~: :his telatio'ns~ip v~ith, God 'W11S '~~,Jj,~r., H,~ rnwized, 'that dl;e penp:te ·wlOuld. 'iroagjne dl~'t his 'OC8t:a~y wil8· far G!D-d in. ,its Q,Jigj'fTh. $0 '~e ~nt to ~he. Sufis, and, touk Qff his cl'OI~" thrQM:o,g ~.t befQr~ t'~,elD. H,e ,told. hi,s stall" t~ me peopw" saying, U] d"j) nnt '~lItt. t-a :!ie' about nli}! 5pwri~ual sta'te.,~ir He thell be£inD~: wk~:3, se.rva~tto, 'the singler~ '1h!e woman wu to:~d

Later aceoenes add '00 ~i~bmin~'s ad\lice tG the mother the comment 'tbat "Leve and b e~\U~l made a pact in ~pri;!""e!t,er,mt¥ .n~r to' be &~,plar-a~6 frem one another." se After some dtne :he :fnunded. his own 'hQs]Jioe :in. 5,611)\1'1165" 3:ICdQhrding m an insc:riprtion quoted

by ,bj~~ bio,grapb:eH) 'l~nd .'~~ere b:he r-emh~,laj:!e~ {'~e:~~~e~ in sup:rd~ enllgaw'Iy :pray1ets a~~ '\>Vt1tJll~ a:. out ~. ,_i€ ",tU!!!~ pa:IU:Il, . rse marne

l _., h IIJ... hi ,JIlr ,",1.. ~, L

s.eveta_ ~(!jJ'es, W.,,;_O nore ._llItl 'MO sons ano I~n'ee Q{au~J(teH.

D,e~:pite _ the numerous VilritL[t)j~, tlia t Ru;'z;bmhi'rn compesed in Arabic and Persiaa (s~e App€ru:H~ A)" ~)U~ htc_k, of dates an.-cl ex~en:ud. references makes, :i;t ~mc:1dt to lextr~iC!t frem l:J~t€m anything' lite a,

b, '~II r h· ~I{·C ~II •• ., if b l~ ..-. . ..:1 - iI1. iil..

Cw,~l?o;nQwogy -to· ~.'];S me a;n,u, ~etID,Vl,tl.e~., It :m~y '. 'ce eoservea t~'w~t cue

m:ajiority of ]lu:zbihj)1?S, '\!\~tirr. we:re' i:n }\ra;b;ruc) and ~nHk€ J,Wil alDin Ruml) ~RIil z:bruhiIJl, K€fi, little in the way ,of Persian POg~. Mass;i:gn"Qri has, s~s~d tha:t RllzbU~an \-\r~ 1f'ijI1;~d '~ hoo~,~ c:ri'tiC5, :t@ :~ea,;ve $hWI,Zt'Z; :[101'" ~ period of €;"Kii.l; :in Pasi; alth.ough he. cif~8 1\00 ,e'Viderit€ for pe;r,ocu.tian~ he pr1Osuma1blo/ .~ thinking of several passagee in )~:,u,2:bi~lin's, a utob~.ogr.aphy· whel'~' ~ri'Jti,(;~ lG;)f S~fism. are ca:strugflt~:ed,. 2~ I\]~. d:l;ztt Rii~bih:'a,n -~dl8 u~, ,aJb;@uf this ,~riQd, is that he purchased, an orehard ,in I~~ butt; he eould not er~d6f it m th~ depl'\€ss,j(f(ll that he suff'ete'd. ~fl the: death ofa :favot"iu@: ~e:.,2',lJ Then

Ruzbihin :ret,u~ne,d. to Sh1.'mz, oom:fl~Ming, in 5,70.l:~ 174 the C~~t~ tl~ Et;;ftpti( S~ings, whit;h had been 'b~:g~n ill P:acSa,. 2J~ :Ma!~ign,on maintams tfha~, llil;z;'~,ihan W9!S runvit.ed, to

return _ 'bry dle' new:rn.y ins:taU.ed Atiheg: or 'Fa;rs, T,~;) in 5"10.1 .1 I 15 .:2~ The evidence for ~his postwil.1ted political eonnectiea deri~<s, entirely ,from the ha:gi€jpa:pllle~), ,and it Yliilll be examined in ,Cha,rev III Of the remahnftg ye',an. of 'R:~l~bma n 'W~ ha\1f!: >(j)nly a :ftw' hints, The Golophoo to, his, treatise ,~ Spiri~llat sQtes~, 11tl SPirit.!' Fom:~ states that it was ICrJm,teted:m ~79l1 ]84 when RJa~zb~haf;), was fifty-Rt0J, :but this dating 00nflicls 'Mth :h,is age ,as Rn.O"WV)1, f~o'm, ():th~r sau:n::.ce~g.~6 It may be remarked in pass:hl:_g that mis tte~ti$e2 WhIDOb has yet '~~I be caJlia1yz~d run :deta~~" C'o:nwns, murch that is ~e~iPfuI ~[lli understaOOin;g t~e experienoes, d,e~mIbed im. l1te! lJt~veili'f(g r;f S~k. :2 7 From lnY' ~'naly1;~s of Tho U1t1J8ilm,g' f!f Setr:~b tKe Ch~pt¢r II}r; it may be ~njjggested 't~lrat Iiilzbihi n 'b~~,an 'Mirnn,g it IH 5,1" III S 1 =2 at ,~g~ fif1:y~five~ and tlru:en. ooro,plet~d ,rut in 58~ 1.1 'l ,a,g. 'Th,e; gene-fa! port~it of' ,R'G zbruni n in hrus. 'h[o~~phies ShOfW;S him guidmg dJisc1ipl,e's" pra,ying and :m>e!Qlmclng in bis Pii;i:t; and, c~nt1numng to, pJ7ieD<;h in ;:h,e :p'rin~ipru m.o~que !@.f Shtr:az un.til ms ae'a'th. H~ had ~om,~ :f.0n~ in O'~h~r; such as ''1m~id ,td,..,~~, M~hammad. :ibn Ra';is, 'whe>


of his state and his eostaS)' 'Ov'ts her) and she' ,te>aill€d dlat he was to.:D€ of the great saints -of IQ0d. The WOI1D,]1 beca-m,e ~~ha'mea" and 10epem'~ed before God {t.)of the pp~f@ss:h)n she had '[ollQw1!ld, .b¥ the b]es~in,g of: his srnc~ri.ty., She became 11ik,e, a servant 'tQ him. (iod removed thal rel~6.onBh-~p wddl, her from his heart, and he ;re~urne.d. m the S'~ms and. ptlt on bi$ doal. He was 'fru.Qt seen 10 have :Red to G'Od .about his sta.1ie" 16

}\lth€t(lgh this. stofJI does net occur in the :ha:mO,gtoap:~li~s of ~Ruibibj~.) ,it h:a:s ttrikin:g' :8ymrpa:dlie'S, ~th the R,iizbihin W~ see in the ,alltob.iDg;aphjc~, "11'te, U~ of Slm"ets~ 'weeping in ec>st'a;s:y at the bea~ of -God. has su~s:t~d rhat dtb:, incmd.ent UU\yb~1!(ie 'wttVed. as, The model £ar the charming dlJialo,gu.~ at die beginnrung' of Tht J~f.' qfq,t'/ie liJvt1S~, wh,~r~' a '(emale interloeutor demands that 'Rci~binan explain bow 'God may be described in

terms o:r paS$~;o,rtare :~.ovt {irkql.~' -:; ,

RG~'blh'in r~r]Jm~ ,M: last '~. S~i.~,~:li':. _ ~he~re :~~ __ cam~~ _ ~ '5emaUon 'when be fint preached m pDbliGm 8 In the dla~st 'YerSlCU1,

h 1ik hi- •

t ~ i=:-ir&:onr tr~Af:_ !jill ~ j. - ~IIJ

-. ','.,,;;, i:lI11jiJ, - & iJ ,jDu~;i:l' ~ :::_ 'I!, a~

VVhe~ the sih~ykh came from, P,asa, b) SWaZ., the,,:n-rrstday 'mat he :prea~ihedl ,in the 'Anq ~mo~u.~~ in the midst arms ,se:.rnlOl'l~ he said, ~!Whe:n 1 entered 'the m,Qsqu)e;, in the IC()r.n1!r of dl -.

herbsellers a. woman wi.\S"adlvisiDg her da;ughto€F~ ~ying', !'M¥ dear, -your- mother oodvb·es you, to ~QVef yeur raGe~ and dQn~t sn,oJw we:r:yo.n~ rour 'beaut;r' from the \VJin~w.. his shookl not be, :r~)r by reason ,of yOlltruf :~aveHn:ess' :a:~d 'b~arlJ'~':; ~Imeon,·e~ may fall .int,D remp:tadiofll~ Dou)'i -you, hear my w~;rd, a:~d;

accept m y' a·~!'IIri,.r;f>?,~U

~I~ . : .. I~ J, ,_. lo.Y,¥JI!!!..r~'E

When. Riizbllial'l heard these w,ams" he wanted to tell '61at WOlman) ~!J\ltholagh yuu, aO.W:.sf' her and forbid heF~ :~e~ her :~b(l\iV' She sb'()iutd not Iisten :m:o 'mes~ wordJs of yu~rBI 6(r ,aoce:p,t this advioe ,(liD" ~h,e ,is beauijful, and h~au:ty '~~ U6 rest ~n:cli]. ldve beeomes joined to, it,"

\lVhen the sfia;ykh said this, one ,or the tra:.veleH, Om1J. th~ p~;th of God, \l\f3lS, :Rfiesf!nl.. The; arr():w of ther5e' 'wqms. h;.t tbe ta:~t af:his- hea·ftjl he ~)ri~d, l~uJ and, :ga:vi'e; up his, spirit The cry 'we:rru;t up i[JJJ du:~ tWiln, tha.t 8bay~ R,ij zbiha:n h, ,cutting gOU~S 1:0 bits

'w1'm ~'~f! ~o'fb"'his, ·WO~~.~ .. ;h~ ~~~fte ,of'fh~ t'R1Wm1 tu~d

t,ofw;a:~;M nlm. .aD'l1. ~ :eca:me ~JlS '~]illLSC:~flJ.tsc" ~

became a dfusc;iple when Rfj,z'bman preached in Kinnan; the mro

, , ' ., . ~ ., . .. " ".j;) 0 '28 ,- ~ . .,' •• _'~I ...

exchanged letters in tH,Owery Persian 'In 5~S;1 ~ I tJ:~, ,.' R.uzbihiin also

sent The Tr««iJe Q~ Heli-n8S$ with a, merchant named Abu ,301,- F:a-rajl fo.r the benefit of some Sufis in GentFal Asia. Ther are many s tories concerning the ,aumQrity· of 'Iile saint; these '~J1 'be examined in Chapter In., In 1606/12109,. ltuz.bihin ai~d in Shimoz;" Tw'P chronograms have been composed [t):r this date: 'lithe maS,1Je:F· of 'D1 iidance and pwre ~nosti,c; l.~if-t hair iriJ=i 'hakt', and ~'!~th,e ligbt of

0..... ,tj, 29 \P' - .r' ,

paradise 1'1 (nul~i jirdQWS)~ n. ~,'

P at d '.. rib, - bih .. - ... "a . , .... 1'1

erson ',I__ :.' lescnpuons 0 "I\.uz· [l,u;a,'n ar-e '. " VI. I,,' oug_" 0.CCalsJ.'onii.Uty

canitradlctory. A, writer of the selVlenw/thirteentb oentury saJd~ "I met him, and he 'W., a master of mystical experienoe and

bsoreti inuallv i ':iI.\.._ ,~, If." r- h ·

a -soIJl'tion C(HIWlU.~ Y In ecstasy, s • U1J!at one s tear o ~ . un never

left. He was cons.tantly weeping, and 'his heurs 'were restless, e~g

'. ," I s: 'h " 'OJ!!.._.

gut, never, :lSJng . 'IS ament lor an nonr, p,assmg eV€ry nJgJl-~t liB

. L. Ii: d G d U so. 'D· lib. "'IlL ~ d

tears and lament; ne "£,j are: .' 10' ,,.' '_".' ~ii.zll(lfll]Jin' s great-gran" son

Shams ,aj ... :Din transmitted l'~bm>cription: U' - -~: 'fa,(re was always so beaHrif'ul that ,anyone who saw him was freshened and quickened in spni and would see the trace of sairuhoodon his, fOm'drweatl, 'w.hich was t~le 'reflLectio-rm of his, 'blessed int'eriQr mad, 'f~em3Jj. u3. ,:-. -olher gm'"eat-pandsQu", Sharaf al-Din, gave this liliumbnai]

1., h I~Th 'L d fi b ,. ;:0""'

g""etc : .. I e mali' er had a: "De appearance ~ ut ,~lw~-'insprrm_g •

d f 'b'" -h h lfi-" ~ Ii- 'h· h

an most go me nme ': e was en een ui; tor .. l.m], . ope was.

'TI .... po· d ., ·t- ;eo - .c ~,'!iI'" 1I~2 '

_Pi""" ,.- " - aeran OVli,.;.C Ji~;!;I).[ ..

'D ~. n'R" ~'-h~:L,-!li' ,0' ~..II .. Ii'Iii . c • ...:iII ~'L. .. _ ". - ,ill'"

;~h JI.,o,e ", ··u.z.:,\Il!Uamna . ruer" au,g. '~e ,~,gaey 'UI,

U, ,..,-= 'L.:!'iL.-


The tomb of Ji'uzbibi:n lies in ~'h,e, rihd~' that :h,€ construeted as a hospice and 'reo idenee, in the section of Shit-az thenknown as. the

'N' ii""o .... _..:I A' , dd ",]1 • by' r-h·,

'ew u-aJl,Uen" . [DL~ ~ectlQn vro.s R:. ,'eu, to l't ",' ,IllS ,greal~grea\t-

,gr,afi,dson "Izz aJ, .. :Dln Mas ud in dlJ€ learly e~ght '/fourte\ nth c~nwry, ;and a. '''umber of Rfi,zbihln's relaev,c::s ,and fellow.ers 'were bl1lried th~re,. At 'mat time' it 'l<Vti a mtYO(f pbc,e of pilgrim~ge in Sbir-az, ,as noticed by '\¥Titers such as the travele'f Ibn Bat"tfila, (in 7':25/1325) and me geogr.apher lEJamd I\llah MustiLwU (7361

'~I q~~a1 ~'3 T]--' ,'. - 1· -~ f' 'D - 'L.~'L -,'_ ,~L. _'0 '" •. ,. ··d 1.. - . '

w, ;;:}::J.'ki' ,le papuanty. 0, JJ\.UZvlna:n. 8 ~.l1nne wan.e,_ '). ,

,and h~s, ord,er ,evidentLy disappe'ar~d- \r\7h,tn the Aq~QpYUDlu crown prince .SIl1Jtan Khalil 'beld ~n immense parade in 'F'ar! m 8'81/'[416" me ~caS~D:rs o.f me. 'c:,ariy .sufi ma,:telrS Ihn. Khafif ,and ,Miij hb.a.q


KaZ.Lrnm phlY· d a prominent ~e, but no foU@,wer 0, R;uzbilian was noticed in the Idetailed OCO()!tUlt of fui~8 event by the: philosopher

- ...lI - ,",,*;,;6- - D" - ,,....,,. 34 iD, .... L " . th .. _'L. L.,· I"

ann couruer .ay,anI,· ny me nmeteen _I •. century tJ:iI:e snnne \i'n ,3,

part of town now called Dar' . -i Shllth orB,ali Kaft) had fallen inro disre~air; ,~nd 10'c~ 'peop,lc!j,pillaged ttJ.'e ",8Eon~ for other lPurpo~e.s and quartered cattle ther .. As, noted above ~ .It was Ivanow who

eli d h b f 'R" = bih - " S' h" ~ lnr:Ji '

re scovere me 'tOlll Ill). .,':1,],2 dl!IJJ,2Ul. m .::., iraz m ~'",,8 and

personally dug up th€ tomibsto([J:e ot"" the 8h3oykh., It remained in a ruined state until Co'rbin and M'u.'~in condluc~ed an escavatiorr of the tomb and pe '. tinned the archeological department ef the Iranian government to undertake a full resteration in 1'96,a.~ comparable to what Bas been done in Shiraz ,at the tombs of the poets Sa ~ dl and I:&:ti~., A, restoration with new ti1e~w,o'df~ and ins<:Jipti'olns was completed. if} 1972,.35 It is possible tha,t th.e e,ar:-ti!ef

- . .1 .... - ' f' R' - ' .'iJ1.,.-" . b th 1 f' ~ SI fi c: 1·

neg~ct 0= : UZ. anan s tom .... was I e. reS!JJ t 0 ana- ::' ur J;~ enng

d.uring the Safavid period; \-v.e know, ~)(~(r instance, that Shah Isma11 in 90'9l1SH3 massaaed -4000 follo.\vel:'S of the Ka&amnw Sufi order wn Fars and d secran 'd m3(ny Sufi, tombs in '~e region. 3. j

AJong 'Mdl, the tomb, R'llzblli,j'o was memorialized by bingraP:hical \v.-ritin~ that are best characterized as 'ha~ogra:phi .) narrative p ,·:rtT9.its constructed around a mod l of'holiness or

,. l.. d The most : f' II... h·' h·

samtnooo. '. ,,Ie most Important 0: tnese . a~og;raJl' IDes are n¥.o

extensive mon,ographit bl(:}.gc.apbies in Pen jan; dev,oted eKc~u~iv:ely

a- 'iI.\.."h- t...' ]i"'J!" ._'11 '" , d 'L,;: d - B

to u:Z:U'll0an, rus ,]Je ane wnnngs, an ... ms . scendanrs; : 'oth

writi_rtg;S (analyzed, in de~ail in [Chapter HI) were \-mlt:en by "family members nearly a century .after his death, Sharaf al-Dln Ib1~hi'm wrote. . til . 'first 0" these hagiographies und. r th tide. TUlfat aliI ai-, bfon ft ,dkikr s~iil al-'f1IJrab lm~b~ I The lGift to M'6 Pwpk r( Gwsis" in

.Mema~ oftAt1 ChiejAJrts ,q/the Wotid Ruzbihi,n] in 70'1 113:0 O~ while his

'~~,. ..:L Sh .... 1 n- , A.lbd .... 11 ' - f' , ii' d'l R:-·I:. J." k"·:If

Il!.Jr'Hu:u:r:~ ,flms it.J- . lq 'roo c w..· ;p: : campi e 'I, ... : U';l a(;-:pnii,n,J~ n,T(d' (li-'-'

rJw.ykl~ ,Ruzbihan [The Spirit r( ~e G($fd(J1U~ on the. Life qr the MflSter RizbiAan] -five yea;n la'tfir in 705ll:305,~ IOf ~,econdafY importance is SluJt!d td-i:t;arft ~tJl#' al-aw.e(.ij1 ~an. z~wlir a_l:-mar.,jr i[ GirilitiIJ OJ.U~$ 4;ilu

. ,,;nI:. - .... t·_ n.....,...J I;, n;/~m_ ~1.··::J1 L. ~ h·" -

m ,~'fr,'lt1l u;itr outum jl,;:r;m c ~,{~;~J m JJl.nneJ'J;' a ,~,wagwgrap . 'I' Ul J\r.a\biC

m ten ded [or the use ofpllgrims to "'he tombs afthe sal. t. (}fShir,a;z,. Wriu.oo late fun dl€ ,eigh:th/f6urt:eenth Gentury 'by Mu ']n, al- Din Abu, aJ-Qamm Junayd (d. ca.. 79 1/1 :3,a9)~ :~t was organized lnto sev"'Q sectioll· giving guided \J;fa11itlg tours " f !h,e· ombs of Shir,a;z s.o that (~([le miglli]t encompass dlem aU'ln, a. week. TIus 'wa~r ~ben tta,ns]ated iUiO Perman by the authfKs oon ~Isa ibn Jtunayd under


:R.,ii~b~hi,n Baql

TIM Requ if' Fl" w'

i:, _,' '.. ~ ~1 _ I ...... _n.rJ_ . ~!!!,.""':J _l .. , ' .. <--I.,','

the tide Mulklmit'S' al=alJ,lbha Irni ll,f. lnm, ai-nya ' , ", " I 'UrI (), . nen

Fhrt of~l i'~t it. is3r.n~aBykn~wnundcr~e title l!azaT m,-tL!jl (A nfJUJand Tomb's)" his lengthy compendium devQ[_~s a

'€e'~ pages to llu zbihan and, his descendents. a:~d. i, pu 1.8 them into

the context of ,(1 higlhly formalized cult of the gai~[s .. Later biographical wOfks. devoted to Sufis 'and poets. ~q\'v_ e!1.tire~y upon these ~a_[.lry sources for. their information ab~ur 'Ra ~'biiha.w.

Rfi,zbillan's own descendants consti 'ut, d. '~n. efN_'ct ,a Sufi ,p:3tb

{:':"'~tJ!\i'l' n'r untd" er II meanina a teaehina 'it eage based on a sp-.~iritua]

1~_iIl,'I[i~,rL':~ IUI~ ,~~r .. ,. ~ ,t,_' - •. = ~: L '" t)i . I • ,

~ethod or practice, combined wi~ the s~cia.I ami, institu~~aI supports that w! roe gradually making Sufism it b~gh1y., ,vtmlble pheno.men9n during th,e sixth/twelftb and ge:/enilthJth~rt:ee~:th centuries, T,h€ construction of initia-tic genealogies 'WEllS, a device meant to n_SUf1 continuous. transmission ofsot,eri,( teaching' from the P'v~)pbet Mub,ammad. 'through an uni, ,rollrgn chain of 'masters, and disciples, R(ilbjha"~l.·"~ biogruaphets fu mish ed, ~im '~ih. s.ue~a genealogy; although Corbin regards this as 1_I'e5tablishe~ . vn~ c·ertaincy ~ II we will, have reason to Iqu ~~cilo~ the ~~. of '~lS for. RU"Z,hihi.:lm;5 OWIm eoncept of ,s~in~o o~. 3~ Like~se, the descendanta of Rii,zblhaft wer physn;al embodiments of th R.uzbihani,yy,a for several ge'ne:ratio,ml~J, This :famil.y Sufi order seems 'to baL'Y"'C' f;nd~d m the. fourth ,geo ration aftgr Rfi,~'bihil1.; withhis great-go at grandson Sadr aJ...9in ibn'n .I?nim~ :Ruzbih:i n III (see Chart J )., The process of Uls'lit,UtionalizJng this Sufi. order' will be: examined in Chapter Hl, \!Vb,att is. of interest <at. this point is the legacy 0'" e uzbiban~ and how it. was lran$mi~d.

'Massignon discovered a, docum_en.~ w~·:tte_n ?Y,_ '~he ,~t:e s,c~olar and polymatJh Sa.yyid ' ',' uttal~i Zi1Iru,(ffii: (d, 12051 ~ 791) m whicb ~ ,mu,c'h, longer extension of the Ruzbiliiruyy,a order is. deseribed

- _ +O"T'L.': '" h hai .'

reaching '~p' to t' - e author's O"wn day" " . ..l ms IS, a' e ,c_' anI (ll'

transmission :

1.. Rfi z billin Ba.ql~ , _ 2'" $adt 3J.~'Dr.n RG.z·bihi:n n (grandson of Ril zbiha n) (d.. 1685/


3... '_ Jjd al~W.adu,d Khalu\..;i[a:rid al-Dm 'I~ ~Abd ,~]-QidThr Ti\<Viim

,;. G,' h"~ya":' j·l!'lil :~,,'I'-'~:.I.n-'I K',SiII'il"'Jil'"l"'i'ni

~ ... I, • .11. ' ILlw ~ LJl1I d _~:_IIl,-DiW l 'LA

6,. Nur aI-Din Abu ail-futub ,Abmad lawns! (d. 871/ru466-1) 7., ~'mad ibn. M'ubammad N,ah.-·a\\raiJj (d .. 949./ 15,42-,3)


8m Qudb' al .. D~n ,Muhammad "" ahraYlin (ct ~l910 1'1,5182) 9 .. Ah~a.d. Baba ','udanl of: Timbuctu (d., l0321Ir6'24) 1 Cl,., ':,ALhd al .. ~dir GhaJSsi111 'F a si. (d,. :~ (13'2/1624)

.. ", ',_ ...ill~ ..... F~'h ,:- F-:-~' ~ (d- '1 °9- '~I)! I' 6'-'iOlO)

II ~ ',Abd a],-Q;t'UlU' 'U ,n I as~, '... ur JIj, ,,1 , .0 .

12: .. Mul}ammard ~·agbir (d., 11,34/),121-:2)

1,3. ,Mubammad ,ibn "Ayyu _ Ti~rms.a,ni

14,. ,:: "urtadai Za'bld'i (d ~ :205.1 li 791.)

.. .

The geofgraphieal spread of ~]~ tr.ansmis~doin" is .r,emarkab~y extensive; nos, 6~ 7 and 8 lived in. India and . Arabia, and. the remainder ~Pl to Zabl m are ,from N orth Africa (Timbuctu, Fez. TleITICen). ',·ot too mueh '"~ei.ght should be placed on his chain as evidence of a. {uneti,Q,nwng Sufi order, however, The, first ,(e\.v steps seen"! shaky, as $adr al-Dln Ruzbihan 'IT is. made' to transmit from his grandfadl' r, wb '.' died when he was .at most three years old, It m,ay be ~ too) dlat :ttd{. represen ts no more than, tbe transm~s$:~on. of at sing ,e ilhikr chant 'rnther than a. full-Hedged. Sufi teaching. Zabidi \WlS known to be something of a collector of such affiJia:ti.o~~ in an the 're'~li@jOus sciences, an·oJ he, boasted of having ~tud~d,. with over' 300 teach," of '_ U sorts:\H Those: :6gures from this lineage for whom biograpbi,es, are av.ailah~e are known primarily as memb_\!l's of a parDCU~a\r Iyulith transmission who also parti~c~p~J:e'd, in Sufi lineages, but the Ru:zbih.iniyya was evidendy nat. _ viS'~Jb~te e~ough, to receive mention in their biographies .a]ongsitl fuIDlC~~'~1al ~nsD.tLl:-

, - .. - - S h ... ...:1,: d d" , "[\..b' . eli ~2

tiona! orders ,!ik;,e the u:u :ra\1\f,aitu:yya an, '1Je .: . aqswlIJ '~U]J,,' yya,

Still, it is! 'pos$Jbl~ that some aspect of his teaching was ke.~t. wive' ~n this fashion, aJ]thaugh Godlas has found mdicao.on;s. of mistakes In identiti·ca;tion in this lineage,

\r\rIlat ms pedlaps of ,great 'I." mg,lmJitica'Dce is the ]ikelih~,)i()d tha~ Rfiz'bihin; s Sufism served as, a sourc for the gn~;at Pe : sian p ... t !of Shiraz,. l:li6? (d. 7'9':~ J lSH91)., C'oflbio has traced out the' 'contours ,of a relationship 'bebvreell Ruzbihan. and :Sifi~, beginning_ '~tThl ~he .an.~nymous comme-ntary on &llzbnlAn~s The Jasmine of ~ ?overs d13itt uses a number of verses 'by l:1ifi~ to .exp~am. the $ubdeties lof Rtl zbilia n ~ s doctrine of love, NJ 'ore expmicidy ~ the Turkish eommentat . r Su di (d. ca. I 5 g') has q uot d an unidentified blography of ,1:D~fi~ that describes him as .3. member ~: a bran~~ of :the Rij~zb:illhaJliyy~ oltler,. 'The sequen;oe is: Ruzbihin Ba.q~I~, Fak_h_r a[-D~n ,~ad, mbn Riizbilii:o, 'Abd ai-Salim, ,:: 'a:tan:iid (or !\.fugmnmad) ~Att:i, ItPw'f ... i GuJ .. rang.n' (lI'thl~ rose-ca[oredmas.'_ r")~


Hi nz" Corbin 8;[,iiiFI 1!t5, dl~t it is, p,r:eeh;elv' the aa,o[ation ,of bc;a,uty

~ ~~,~ ,J' ~

~nd the ndigion ,~Jf ~,ove 'that forms m,e ~DmmQn thread between

Rfi,zbih~bl and ltlifi~,. In R,ijzbiha~I1~&} U;[;!,sti€aI theology~ theopha-

" 'f·ilo,., ~ ",." -"b di t i , li, 'd" , 'L-1"'~h'i:ar

rues or' ueauty require em 0, 'm~n m ilJ1o:rmsan', :symW40R!' mat a _"€-'

i.nteUigi.ble to those :i~itlated into the esoteric ''ilision,) aJild rl;ijso i~ a~ab].y OW]€ :Qf 'the pr.ffilllJa.r.y .Hn~g, ,af mterptetatior:l of the ~mbi:O'lIL~JOUS verses ,of Hafiz. C"'ornin also 'finds a link between 'the'

~-_,. .' .

shaykh and the poet in 'fhe Od'mloepl gf self~Dhulle !mt1lill71Jt);, it form of

emy S,ufi 'pi'e;ty 'chat f\~qu]f:"ed pel&~ctt a,be~ierl,ce to me law in, 'priv;arlte, and rQu'tfa1gr;O\l$ beb~mor des:~gw,ed to :wn;cu:r 'cenSU'l7€ ~in ~ubIic:o'4:3 J\Jmoll'l(fn some hali'e ,exp,ressod. cau,tlon about aoc€:p'tin§'

r ~ I '

r. "b in. 'b,oh-oJr 'b'I':='£!,_,. .,

the O(]\I1DeCbOn etween ll~U~ '.1. in all,~, ~w~; lit

in,trigu:~ng j'~tapositio,n of these 'MO oHtstaIlding ¥I:fl;t,e~$ from

e'il • 44


The \vritin~ of :Rjj,z;h:iJh,a;~, :havd a patli€:ularly wide circulation among 'it seleet g:rt)up ,of t:\~aders. in Iran, lru]fi(a.~ rCentral, ~a., Ottoman Turkey, and Africa. Whhou t pf.1t;re ndimTh__g to 'be e~d]jaus6vel' 'we can :ffis:t a number ,~r these, readers sittrplly [0 giVie. an idea, of the cifc~]adon of his writin~, (see' aJjjo; the martuscrip!ts 0:' Razbmin:'s, wo(ftrs listed ,run. Appendix A)~ l\ll these later fi,gure~ testified ~-O, th~ dliIu€ul't-y' 'Qlf: Rfi,ibih~n~s .sty~e, 'wbiCh a;t limes is ad«rl'uedilly Cl);u.voiuwd. and ob~~m:e" la,mi @f Herat (d" ,B~t8 1'1492) remarked that "he has ~yil1g~ that have po'URd '~OLrth from hirn in

, lo.. - Ii:" '. ...::all ~L ,~c lib, •

't~JIle s'bit,e tW[, ,~e(rpowe.nng ana eC8'tas¥; WI uC IICw '~6~ 1everyon€ can

u:ndE:'~hlnd,;n45 The, Mug)u4prinae D,a,ra Sbiku,h (el. li l~l69l16\59) :linJ'nd. his stty}.~. i~:idigum.g. M~M3 N;~ R:uzbma'n;'s, re'p1lJ:ta;tian was, ~dely kno,wn) pa;rticula:rly' in S~1j~t.h A8i~.r In eight~h I fourteenth-century India, Sh.rnE, of tbe Chishti ·order knew

n 'I:,. .• t, d f t!· • 47 HJ· ;A, ,....)~

,.I!~g Z~1]~,ii1], ~M an ,3,.. vocate 0 ' !il.stentng to m USW,C. ' , IS ~Ul'a.n

'7!.,... ~:'..J' .,if:' 'f:'-,hJ" ., ;', d- 'Le A' 'iii,. r

,comm,enJttw_ry, jU,6 atmes tv' ilip~anatft?,f.l, 'W'aJ;S :rurtutate" _ Idy ,~~;~UI:

J aJaaJ1J,;'r Si'm'ni.nt (d,. 829.1 m ~:2:5}), a, member Oil the CtIDi;s:hti. orcl~r \'Vho ,mBO cOlmlIDented on RuibiliaJ1J~:S '1lf1 JQJ1n~:n'6 0} .fJtrt liJTJ"S,.~8 Another S[,qrH of $hir,azj Shj~~ Dil"i (tt. 8701 I46,5r-6); ,co,mpo®ed

- , ... :~II ;." , , _ - ., - _ .. ,. . . . 'f 11, =. 'b.;"h=' > -49 i[, ' ~ - ,,n:. '~d]1 ,- +11,...

8ever,i,U ,p'ucms In 0 .~tl~lJ.,ru ian,. .liD pre-~aw}aVl!,' . ran ru_;:I;e

p~jlosopher Jali~ ,a'llisDJ:n, :Oavini. (d. 90:S .115,0'2-5) quottd '\¥ith. :a'prproval Th't Jasmine Of ,~'8 ,It;v.ert,, caUing ,Ituzbilia.n ~~the

- __ , __ - §,' th·, ] '~~I " , . ..J ' ,. .', i.50 i\......'" -. "lli~ .

'empearor Ot~: ,Ie' peap.e 0'.[, lIJ,ov-e .anQ gllOSlrs,. I"UI! CMJJat'O ]a~,

N . , .... 'L'Il ..... ....l; S··Ir- ,Ii!:: ,,' d- ~A·"·'b- 'd ,"Ii,mli,;:'h I~I"i1...'~ 'e-', : l'k~ I.JI ann-/','l A'!o'7'

,aq;w;J.uam.'uI· 'Y.n namle, " ,. ,fum. , ,~.a.Id, olm.alJtl \u.~ 6J~ . '_ ~o, ,~

who had vi~~itedJami in H,~ra:t~ '~,te <:a commen~3Jtf' on ll'd~bihi.n.),s

"T'T. ," 7""",,,," ".;,..... :H' l.'--~_, 5] An",·, . .;I.'Ln- l!i .. T~lti, ... :l\..,iIk ~ 'I -reli' 17' 1,..= 'j;;;;'ID~l'Il'ii All" ,,' "ffio\'lld j! ",~ ,j l_~,e ,@~ D.Q"~;S., ,', OtUe:r ,I" ~M.lLUaD· ~ "D.J;.!,,,,,,, '~J'~6''''' :_,',. ,a- ._


Ka.shanl (d. f@\f19l1542)~ ~ interested in R'u;zJbiliin's visi,ons o:f God ira ffie form of 3" beilurifld Tt1lrk.:~·2' The [~h~htl sclto,bLr Sbaykh ~,MlZ Allah (d. 9J15J'15167~6B)~ 'who used to anend 'm~5wal sessions at the tomb ,of ,N i~a:m .al- Din Awliya::; in Delhi, ta~t his stJUldents The Brides "Bxjiktnat.oR- ,along' ~(h other Su:fi classics. ~-3' &ij'zb~hi n's

h '" 1 .. , ,.,J' ' k li .. 1 '111.-'.] ~l,

m,e~aJ~~'~'Ysl,ca ' 'V'l,If\\ffi are -qliO~.~~, UiL a ~tvot, on' pe "bCa 'P'~:~l~QSOpuy

wri tten c§r84l15r'j"6) dedica'ved to Raja' ~ AJru: Khan, raru'qi~ mler of the SJl1a:U Deccan kingd(6m of Khandesh, 54l Rn z'bihan'$ IQurin, co,mme'n:ta"ry inspired fit oommentary on the !~I~ig1ht verse" '0'£ the Our'a Jii'nr~",~,,~j.D'F.iJ ~y .,1..'!'" IiIi'1i'd~~"JI'Il'1i A,:i'..JI,;'~-; ~uc ;;!o~Ib.""lk~r'rr" "A:,'bt~: -:-l=Ha_'fiiq

'~1:lr e :!U!! \YAUIl;"""'J'''_ 10,. UJ,L ·W,lb, ..iJ;['w,J, '~"::.!l,illlI.L ~ ~ .tlL .:t!GU'U\~~J!. . tI!i ~ ,,-' "'"'l'

ro, " ',. , ..... ' ,- -.: - :, iIiiI:C '6 '0)"';51 [ ~"IIi,J!I:~/11:6~'7 '0' ... t,

Mul)addid'l, D,~h]a.M, (d. 1 O~bt:lI4,4. n HJ"rt ,.' ~J ~ : ... o,~ me

Mugha[ prince Oi ri Shi~,ijh. commissioni:d a" P'en1~~l~, tt,ansJ:altion. of ,R.iijzb~hi,n.~,8 Qy.r~.n commentary fi:lo;m :a~if ,al~nln Sirhindi,_ a bi'G)grap:her of'th"e, ,N aq'shbca.ndJ master Abmad 8irmnd!,) allcl,a~ least ill :founh of 'the whijile eommentary was completed, 56 D,i~r.i himse:~f

also ,'-'.rlfi'ltl!' ,"!j; """~'m' m' ':lin! and ""',' ..... ~n' ... ion :;,'f."'D"I'I, ... b~,1k·;;'InI-';:;~;,'i!7I!;,M,~lJ!iflnl' fl'g;o

ttU.5- ~yl~!W ~ ~~.' '" J¢A~}' ~.JJJ,'~. IIL-AJ~L~_~~Jl.V Y,II, ut~~ I.'~~_~~~~ ~ \JblJ1~·~r.-~~III!~~ ~\r~.

,Ecsltliu' S~i~{. 5 t 'Within ~he ~ast centu ~ >- the ~ea.t Chish~ master of 'the Pu.l1jab~ Khw,aj~ rG.hulam ~',ari~ l'eatured to :bm ~ipl~~ on difficult passages foom Riizb,iJhan~$ 'Qut~an ~o:m:m€m'DJta(~.~3: The impact of IJlzbHtan on N'orth and W;est Africa, remains t,c) '~"e el ucidated~ but Alan Godlas- has f€!tu'u:l materials :indircal'tlng t~~t m31j or ;e:xr:.elp[S from, Ru:zb:w;in~5, IQlDlJt~n O()l,,:m~nm'w' are quoted in Sufi, wriun~, ironl those regions, ~p through, the ninet.eenth century, It ,~s also ;Wo.nh ftOtllrng M evidence ef Riz'bmanJs importance 'ill Iran tile li~,~'e'U~: '~()ir:t. ,of :Dr., ].a;v.ii\d N u rb3lkhsh~ head, af the Ni,i<matulahl Sun 'tirdeoc\ who has edlit~d a. number of important works by Ru zbihan and continues to cite them in his

~ .

... ' "'. 'It'~' . _: 01 S" £T': m, own \W~,, r':ll , UnS .

1., :Nr~dj'hnl:. )'.. IStt . ,

2" ,Mas.signan,p, 45J2~ ~r~~es 'trnatt Ru~~iha,n ~1M, 5fty-'fi~' y,eat:'s ,"vhen he Mf)ilrC the K~f o,l-tttr'if:, and tball: ,'t w,a,s carr.iJpleted ]n 5"$~ III ,S9) -thm .indltating ~, birth d~,ue of .5 210) '[ ~ ,35--;6. l~bE vlel1\1' d,oe~ :I1CDt

.",,'k 'II.. ,;,;1. f'~' J:jl_", I.. J' - ~ ...JII· d "~ ~-"

squa ,t lt91u:!!; tue oatnllg 0. .£VJ;a.fl,tl':al1 (Jtrr.,~a:f1tl,J"(;I=~ ,al1!!;J! :~t ~ oes .not t~e

aCcount ,of'the possibiit)' ,th~t d'lJe K"biIif al=i:lslat 'W~~ -tQ,mplefLtd e~t yeaH, affe:r im COll'.!lm~n-Qell1!~nt~ as :s,uggers:wd b' .. do\t~' CCliap~er H,J ..

I"'i 'l,J," t· <, .A ,", " .,l.,;. !l"~ j;,.t.. "'.. .:111 ~ "' • -... ~iI"j;, 'f:l1if'io) 'n'~, """. ..,,~, ,~,

,.,..,.Ofuln ",ullT.'t)uueuoinl, ~0 JlVOJ'!Ilitf {If,,- (u-,,~~~J.. .1". J40::; 11" .:;il v ,FOUl~, QUII. '[~1a.1J..

tb~ ~a:~e ~:f,!t30 ~! impo~!rub]e_'[f'~n~ ,~~~ef!~ mg rep:~rt~'[~t, :Riiz'b]h~in $l~udi£d "Wlth Abu ,~a~ Jili)n 1\ u]].,a.mmiad B~rkall~ {o"<, 54n/l14~'-";, 11 also seems lln'lllimh1y mat Itil:zJbihin"s deseen,d~tnt:s w,ouh1 be m~stak.el1


~bo:u~ so b~k a .pi~1JX': .;:wf iDfo:rrmj.tion ,~8 the ~haiS~·k._h':s a~e at death. (~~l;t)! ~unM' yeaw.:s-)..

3. SO' .lftp}if" (i'l~r~ §l ~ §1 (L

4. 'Tt~l{fii~ dIU at='ifJin~, p, 1 ~t_ . .

s. ~~lO]l (p. 45~) says R u:im~ha n 'wa:ndered f'G!l' ~~ aJ.nd a haff 'yean~ (545-5,S ~ )" e\1'i]den:iy aecepiting" the b~Rh date of 510 iM"i.d. r-eferdll[ to dl.le report in 77w!fd~< ahl (i'ly ~~rJ (p. U 3)~ 'Walt he spen~ seven ~~ on

'0 - . 'b:r !i(""L' •. h] . ~I '" ] ~I •.

Jt)amu'"f moumam nertr '0:[ blllin;az~ 'Mit' 'OJn1. 'Y' a srng!le coal';;.,

:pe!rflJITl1i~hg ~ustra;tio:n. and 1J,blUrl,Qrnl In summer and ~ter" n,(~ve:r remf,ll~if:lg the e'lnak. 111lfJ daee of 545-55 '[ is r£pi~ta)!,ed by Muf-in, (p., S).

fl. I{8slf al-~~t"~ §J 2,.

'1". ~JJras$ignBJt~ p, 4~,6'", -TIl~s loon,cl,]J;tsi~\il is based on 'the' :lnitIDa:rlc ,g,en.e:a&o,gy Gf' RGzbihi;r.M ~upp'~ed by his ~a)t""'§t'a'M~i s;t~ung dlralt jtu,zb:ihQn l'ecQved the ~ufi cloak (Mir(}~ :ftA)m, SIraj al,=D'ln

''ft.."''" 1... - d -k V'l..,-,<~,~ f Ii.. e-'- ~1L.:l:L ,f.: TfrI'i;~lli~ 'D ~ l.,tl!.!·'~' ~

,l.!!VlE.aUlmiL i~n 0:. tJ.~~e .jo,"iili!JiIiJ.~ :l~~.~~i'" J1\.U'Z~~inan sra$e~'.'i JI]I!m~ev€X,

U!' ,:;]'''d 11-. . ~'L"- '" ~~, t V .... ""It,j@""if -. iI ",:'I,

, ,!. ... l '. no~ ~];a;"f~ a, m.a~ti3T ,~~,u;t~t 'um't·· ~'!c~fy ~~-~~T.~ .~ .;J'J.

B., ,Mf/fF ~'IrdJil!,r~ 1§ 13. ~~"~t (lkl ~l; "i1fu, p,. 169, ·'Sta~les, that his 'hnf \I[islarn tcOdk p1110e in, a nfjj.~' in P;aS'i.~ and it ,failils to m~i7JJti;ofi the name QfJ a:-mi ~ ,~~-l)1n a~. d. M~~on~ p\~ ?,42':? ,~& _,tllila:~_ltij~bihin .r~tljld '~',~ :int iiIJld~ iInl Pasili-th-3ot of Abu, Muha;m:mad aJ,..JaliVZ.aPk~ 'but this s,~ems, i'Ej ha,~e been 'Q:[iI}Sf' ,ail giVier-,nigThlt 'S~y dliIJrlng ,~, pilgrimage tour in Fars (J[(J;S'lg ~J~~Jti,r.j ~])~

9. Tkp ,(ijil al-lrfo~~, ,., 113,.

'1 o, Rii~bihin appt)J;m '(Q' mendon him once by name {SJi~~~ ihtitJ.P4 p~ 455)~_ as d_1e'. SQU~'. of ,i~o~~~Q'n abou~t the burni~g of ~~j~j "s baoG,} mO'1l1~, in CtHbin \~ leruoon the name is glven as "the f/~fD; Ji~us 'K.J1:lrcn ." lrI1Dm, di€'m;e:n'd_Q,n of his n~m.e litere md ,I:'lot in 'ule

d' '1 • ..,'L, A 11-.,. ..~! 'A_K· ., - t: I . .il12f1i...

oon~SPG~l' .1Jl:g pla,ce In me ,rt_j",W!lJ-U; Qit1grun_a~ vli/~1N a~-~rj, ·Jj~t. '"r ·11l.J~

'wJtem- this ~~UJ;c~. i.s reler-m:ecl, to $'Imply H U'Q[Je of "1thu~ maM:ers,II)~ ~ignol1 (P;tWs.iOO~ lEw 509~ ,etc,.,) d:edl1{~~s, 'rhtt't t'be lP~mall 'mext W,aJ~ CQ1mf.1etOO ~dler the de@..'w o.f J~;girj fin the :grQ~.nd!s tm,aJ;t R;,~tz'bihi 0- wo,uld have :resp:eeted h-is, :m~ster' too fi'lNJlch to JtllendotlJ hk n~m,e~ w~ h,e still lirv~~

] L H~"il:r lIr.t£!llll"', :p. 2;91.

IF:Ji 'S' ~\f'-.~- _.- liD' Il'!Iill~ 10- ~1!..~. ~r." '(1'- ,'.- IC,.i-Ai!'. ..... j",J F-"~if-:' -=-. -

,"'::;;", . ·ee 1"!.'J.:U Ut, 'PP" . ,i:j-.:I::ii!J'~ .. QJ.lIlJi,m, :muo. lll,etlC(I] tD n~u:~f (~= "ajl\~lgm, p.

51.. .

:~ 3.. 1il1J._ tl;(jinKll~ :P'. 3, l 131 qUDil]n~ Rfi.zb~h~~-]],' ~ ,d-~hlliillt fl' ~bl~ a'l=fiq~"

_. ~>lli~ ,,",U' "'~. - ,._-'

'[ ,4., ~ ~wJZ~t w,f4i ;~~:., ~ffii.~~ p,. .llt 7.,

l ,5" Co:r1jn.~ :runtrod~ctlian to ''Ablt<l,! r;;t-' ·;lmiU"i".~, pp., 2~51, 52; 'M~i]n~ p~ ~L.

1'6. :U'tl1J:Yi ~-D1n ~bID, ~A.rabI~ al-Fu'm~mt al-1Yd.tkiJiya C8tim~~ "[Jar ~~dfur~ 11,.d.)~ ,~ba:p'ter ].7 7 ~ .I:m'~ 31~"1'"".l i; P~rsi1tn translation rnn J2i,mru:~ Najti"a'~~ p" 2'57"

1 'j C ~,. 12-~ I " . . m .eo,. '''iI']

, • I ,l(!Jil;~II:1!~ ~~ . Ji:em t~n!fm~, . ~ 'U~-,;I' ,.

18,. N,~mi" p., I 0, :S~Jgges,ts, '~ha,t, lh~ ~tUlrn 'W' 8hlr,:±iz~ uJak pl~ce as ·early .'.. 5·~·41!'j/' 1·1 J!I'Ii)_(\·r ~,4u;:;/' 115i;1;_'~

as .. , ,,-;,} '" ~ TO, ~ (tI r .J! ...:".j) , " " v- !Ij •

l~l nlljfo~ 'l1kl i!ilr~r:pnJ., P]I",. 110=-[ '~. t, , {1rn* dldmi~~I~p'" :2,2"~:) O'mi't.s the Sittlry of me' wam~n al1d he'£ d~\JIJ,gh'ter:~ brut If\elMe~ 'that. me


eOft$'t,er,itlau,an ![u~'(Jru~i\:ecl. by this sermon €,3;use:d the ~oeM selul~a:B to seek his ~x,~~18I,o.A, frem the to'~; the Arta.:btg Sonqur w~s e:Kposed to Ruib~hin~.s ;gpiril:~.mJ pov'l'er~~ amid :S~; in,!:j)~ed bim il1ste'Q!d to preach 'weekly in both, major mosq,ues.

on J~ --=, "I:':;"~A~ - . ,t')~~ £: 11·' -"' .. - u-·,-· -- ;-' t'jj!l'iil~'

4U", '. ,iN!tm~", J~Uf:.«dj p. ;':;',,jIIQ, 10· (}~ng ,na;;:~1 ~~:r; p. 'iii,'_' ~~, _

~r~" ,Ri1:~ (lijina,~" pp. '1 7'8~1Q,. qn &e: da~ of the riii:r? Din~sb.=Puih.¥h~ 'IlllttoductiQ[]:li p~ 14,.. reads iit:kJ; :n:iEtth,er ID:ftR s~w;" giving ,a;. date of 5616/ l ], 'i 1., but the -~~bie ~mcripfl~Pri en 'ill's rij'?!~'"W5L quottd in Ri(~ ai-ji:ni~ isr ,m,e;ally ,Rama~ [1 560/Ju~y-:Au~st l.l65,.

2~:t M~5rugnQiD} Pa$rr,W14 :I1~ 4Oj. '

2~; ,<~,r,A:if~c.i!_ c'c~'''''',,' 1.iII'\i!\·=,i'" 11 '3:' .1

~. ,n~~,' a'& asra:r:t u;:;;!' ~ it:J.. Jl.. _ .

24., Oorbin, Lntra(iuctibID. eo SJm"l2-i $h~~~,Wi~ pp,. 2IQ-2.3;, the date :i$lllive-n, ,on p. G 35 or the -t~t" M~sslg[]on. rU 'V~e,~'~ p. 4,J 3) ~l]j~ts 1h;a;t 'fhws date ref~rs, to ttl,e' oompietion of rlle Ambie cr1rigi:nal~ ~a;n~ 1!~m tb,e

Persi 'I· ~~ . .;;l.n... .0:11.. .. "". ,..::Iit.I;,_ - 'k J'J- ,-

:e:rs~an !mn81atl!on anc e~pan:Sl~n. '\iVa~ :r:a:a_lye .:aJ~:I,,~ me ·uc~t:Jii 'GU, . ~gtt

,Ku-r~ 111 j,g 1/'11 94-5; since 'l11>e vision of ijalij mat ]~~pirGd the

if'I,b -,~l. ~ ,.i!'.JI~.'.-'=~ ..11 , \~ ·1 ,.. '~IA".~')IJ ··l', -I' M··'·· ',.' .

,]JW;(l;n;'t;-:~ SI\IQ'!l;t~~ Uiaes not occur m ,;{If~~~~ ~_ ""i!l'l$~\rj , > r ~~gl']j~n.

Jt}[)odudes that 'the ISllt1:r~-i slltl,~!r)1at 'was ~vriu~rl later. Fi:e also specula,les (PassWn:J .11, '40j'~ ,4'9B) 'truat tb~ W'riting ~ this w~rk roOk pJace at 'the flb7t~ of Ahii Mul~~_mladJ:a"l\?~_~ ·tb,l~~nmgh it is :m~'l1tianed by RG_~lj~han {:a 0 eve, n, 8) Qlrllimy ',~S the ~ru;i1e OlE a, brief stepover,

,25. M,a$:ignon gl:ves, m,le date, j i 1 :fbt T-akla}2 acttS'SiQn~ 'bu:t tcbj5 is, incl)rn~~Cri ,md wo,uld ~n any case be eu:fte:r ibe loo:r]]p'~e:tion of Sntlrlf:~i

".01.. ,I!:. • • ('! C-· ] om ~.,:l ''C''''''!!, ..l 'if.lj, ......;1.. ~~ .r: s: " I).,j;i"fi .';"".. 1M

..'ilo~:o1t~Wi~ 'CJ.-.,'.:_ 1Ll'6:Cu., wrnrun'l;I, D'.[lI~O':[;U]j:.'! . .u:w' iSUJ'IUZt .rL.riR~~iN:' n

.(;h;';~d.(ig fJWltJ g«~ HQ~~~ Isl~mi£": $UliVl~jf£j S (Edmnbur;gh:; at Im~ Univ'ers~w ~P1,eJ5s$ ] 96"7)) p¥ :[25.

26·~ ,:lfil~li:mb ~l-mwij'~J POI ,320l• Ihe ~ext pVles, the da:tte of' ea~]y mo,ming \i\~ednesda'Y ie Dhn al-Q.a,~da ,5,7911 U Malih li J.8:4? Salymng '~JJat Rfi~bihin W,~S :lifty-'lvJ.Q '~:r-s old at the time of 'wdm~ wnereas lIVidl a birth reM of 522 he would have been flfty ... seven in 51,9111~a4',. Tbere is ~b~; :~urlil'er dBc~e'I:Mncy tb:a;l!; 1 MB!l'Ch 1194 ~V,~S 1h ThuISd:ruy'~ 1in:al{in_g it ap])ear that Ithe ~illJi!:o:~{s readhiilfg 'm~y' 'be: m Gffor. If'w,~ ~h t,o ~QM~der emend~ng m,e tex~~ the year ooujd be lie~d, $5; ,5 7 4.~ mlllki:ng the ~qufuva~~nt date 2:5, ,A:prl~, 1] 7~9} '30, Wednesday. TbIs, ro'pyise~ enOl (t£~~~a [or axbi1z) 'w~uJcl. b~ 'v1tsually' 'more lirel)! lDa'n dli:n mLst~kinl' 'fifty,=

h .•.• ~ t~:~lJ.ii-J'flh'lX'~ ;o.i:;;j" iI'~,'~ ..... _,~ ... \ ("""''ItI" ItjiiCi~,_.c,cil![:J\~R ("" .... i!!;: !i"t-;" '1'#,10'11' u,...,.."", " ...... !I1!~

11"'i'rU \.~""""Jfj'fr ~~ N~'~_~I-W~~JJ ~\.!II~ ~~~~)'!.ili~.~J~~~ I ~1~tI u. ~ A1fm_W\f.~:..J\W\~JI'

27.. Sflme" of ~bt; . e~;]1)e'rie~,s;e$ d~tal]~le~ :in. )(.;S',,~,t-nsr7t't 1U~~ identital MID srn;t1()lIlts 'p:~~]1~ in, MiJilurlb ;a:l:"~mti~i From tbe5e1t!' e~~m;p,I,Ie,s: it:ffi ,a~s:g dear ·that th~ r'Ormulli~ ~of defiJ[fi:tiQu ~t :the 'end, ,of mc'St {if lIe ,e.nb:ie~ Oln_ the stat1.'ons ("th~ gn!ostilcsa],d~"~ g'a ill, td ... -a~ is th~: st~te:m.eJ1l t. 'of Rn~bihi:n and not !l)f :aJXY ofhi;s, "iJJ~sten ..

28" ~~ tJ'l-jiflan~ pp:~_ ~'O6-1. Tbe 'O?rrespO:ftden~ ~~ gi~-l] ~in,. Tu/jf~ ~l Ql'iua.ri'!J pp. ]]_ 7 --21 ~ :repeate.d ~h 80me V~Ul~UOJ1l In .Ri~ al:tma1~t :p.p. ~19='24.

. . , " • .i.1'..;r..;;A'~ ,W.J.':1... 111" ~'n9 .,:a, 'M' 1!-. ... .J: ~'.J',:~ 29" MH~in~ p . .l5l~ 'C::ltll:1L,g' .iIl~j~;~~at a.r.~t:~!91 1 \II) .)~.'·li Q[hi ,\, uI~JammiuU r~Wil

'wbn Sayyid '}Jasa:n ~u~~~j 'Til1l]J~dhi ,Akbal~bi,clJ:~ M'tJdi'b,ir ,al~ltt~~rm~ ed. MUisJinl ~m1lid N~~i,m] (De~hl=' Kuruib Kl],in~ N:~d[hil1i'YY,a~ ~, 35811 g,S,9,,__tO)~ pp. 5] -52 {oomposed 1 O&{)/ll~50).


'R~ 'b'"L - B !I:. , .' .uz;~im1an -:·aqilw

30, F.~ih ~a"in .aill .. Din '_' usayll fcl. 66fl1265~6)) ]11. Haar maziT~ p 2\89", 'On this scholar, whose lost ,agiograph~f ]s a maJor' seuree -fo·t ,1llU.ia:r m~.tiir see ··bkt p, 20,[~ n, ,85"

31, Tu¥a.e (J/~1 4'1~:'iifari., 'p. 15.

32. BiiI,J. al-j?:nan, li),. 1 ';'9.

33. COlbin~ .itl~r'QductioD ~o ~~har Qt-71shujm:1 p. 72; Hamd Allib ~bn-bBaltr ilbn Mul~amn'1ad ibn N.~:r' Musta;ltm IQa;zvin~ JYw:;kat ai-qulib ed, ' .. ' ut,.aJ,mr.rlad [)a;birsiyiql .', ,rubi,n u . : ~lrh~ng-] Iran, 2"~, (Tehran:

, !Gtibkhina,~~ Tubfin, ] 33611 g, - -B)~, pp. 138-39.

Q Vi' .,JI' .• M" ;,.1_ "''''A d - . D -~' II n," .... l·-,J....;:'~I".J !,- •

J "",' . 2I!tllmlr .. lrnOI':::i>A')', . ,.Wti-,~n;a\]na<=lavan:ru" .riN:ZYU:i:I,~J~t uar ,~laf;'a-~

~'nir=i :M.t(lamf, wa &h41' ni.:limf--i fl"'s~ trans, , asan J 3.v,adi, ,BCJI'7TaSff.l~i,i 1in"lc~f 3,/6 (.n •. d,.)~ p, 2'03-

as, Mu.~]n, pp. 1j-H5.

316 .. lVlir: Shad}-i IfnIJ .pp._ 19~20. with photQgr~phs following.

,37. Srud ,AljiomandJ Tl~ Siuldow 'r9 God QRd the Hidden Imam;: ReltgifJn.Pr1lilimt Ordlf~ and &Jdttlttl C~ in 8Ai'ik !r./m. fiotn I/le &gjnning to J 890 (C.hi-,cag'o: . nivers~ty of Chicago Press) L9S4) , p. l l 2" Corbin, Introductfuan ~IO ~Akar al- ';,in p. 1- 3,~ also 8Ugst$~ the possiblrty of Shf'l hQstU~lty· to R.iizbill.hirn BaqEi due. t~ ;~, €,onf~sion ,err names with an ~:ti-8hj 1 'pO]Clllidlst named .~ ad[ ibn I{u ~bjhiJ;], ..

38,. Eisa ~bn juna¥d. ,arn.,Shi.riii:, H:az:i'!' ma:~r~ Persian trans, from me Arabie .SlJ.mJ.d ,al-~o.~T, d. - limnl W~il~a[ ,5.hir.itz: KjUibkhinai:i. ~~~~ :131.-4/1.985)c pp.- 285...198~' I hat e consulted thk- ~'non" whieh has detailed notes om. textual divel~en(eS from the Ar,aJbic e,rigina. Cf:. JSt,or:ey" ,Persian LitcrMl~f'e" Pi. '[ I23,.

II}n C bi . dl..~' "A k.iI'.. '-.~" ,~~, .]iil1.. • •. q'r ]0" Intra lucbO~l to <!l"-!tultar a~,~' ~J'-iIli'fm, pt" .i1,j:.

40. Musignan, '1I'La 'Vie~ II .Pp. 455-56, citins; A5'u al-l?a,4 MU~'a!fWnad MtltlaQi ~ .usaynl Vvis~~: ZahidW Bi[gri.n:ll~ 1,' itl-j~ :al=,rlmrn,m# dbikr-,~ {lttfllJ at-,(I,lj7u wal:..tolq,ltl:- ,5 :3, •.

41. 'Abd al-.' ,W}~. ~'b~, F,akhr' al-Din al=1}.Manl), -'il-zk:at {ll~rtia(t7' WQ, ~Yat al-,~~iirpr wa a/~awi.dr (9 vols., 2nd. 00." . 'yderabatl Di ':itaut ,~-ma ~'.:i rif ,aID .. Utbman~yya) ~ 3821 J 962-1396l19-761)' vn, 48,9.

4:2. ,ur a[,-Din Ahii aJ.=Futiih. AIl.madl. Ta:lWS]' w3'5. ill~tiated inj}O 5;l,d[T:a.wal['\di~ ·K.11lbr~'wl;i T,iw{l~I~ M~y'ba;rni, : ;i~rr.i,~t.~Uahi~ tt:nd , .... aqshbandi ].1t.1.,e.3'ges" ,~nd h~ U'1ulsmiUed 1Jadi~, t,o Al}lnad ibn Mu1)_ammad ~'allra~dn in Gujarat (ibid., n '. 2'3r=27). The ma.ftter (b. 8,10/1466-7,· d~ 94'9(t5'42-~ aa~o,ntiD( tl? ibid. rv, 2'5r-26j and. h~s, sun 'Qu'~b ,a[-D1n Mu lJamnJ ad, '. ahrawiO: (b. ;9~'7l [521 ~ d., 99:: 1/ lS;B\2" :ibid':l IV) 2'·B5~O; Brockelm~) IG,AL I, 38 ]., GAlS, II} 514) ~v'ere kn,Q,'\iV1l :p(rimarily as 1p.uJitIJ SlCho~a;rs ~n aline~e famous for .~_ethusclah-]me lO\fl,g~v1t.y, slfh,ough Qufbcat;:Din had ~ N~aq:shbal1m :im'tl1ation.

4:1 9orb~" wnt~dustldfi ~o ~h,har. t11= ~hiqm, p.P'. 56 _ 62'.. ,_ _ _

#'. R.. M,. Re'h,de:r~ 'Iu]as:min des:fok~ tfamoll.T. liteview lu.1:idejoll J\lUSll:111 Wurli 5.3 (l'~n53)" pp.- 31·~. . 2U) is :skeptical about the ljilfi~ connecoQn.

AJa~. 'Go~as, 11118 dkco!v:red. .new .mate.riaJ1j :·n ~l,Jpport of this thesis 'which l;\iU be pm.b~iS:_hed ~~l a bnh,eom;'ng studY'~

45. JimI,! ':-_q[aJ.,it; p., 2!55~~ ill comment based on ,Ho.zi'f ,'lwzQr" p. 2,89 eit-: has .sayings that moot [:inen-!~ canner understandU}.

46. Dira Shikli.h J!asarlo1!,l al~ ariPf~ ed, M~khdfirn ~hin (Ten.r,an, '[ 352/197,3), p. 3'.,

,41. Somehow a. s~:yi:ng that Rm zbillin quoted :fI'Q[TJ. the eaJ:r:ly Egyp~i~Jl Sufi Dhii al-l G n became known as a" quot~'txon, 'f' om R il'i.z,b;:ha:]l Sown lG.ulif·al-~ir; see "my ~IR:uzbihin Baqll 011 Love" for details .. ·4ft On, Simnini 's interpretation ofR,fizb]hin) see i mm" Ea:~~ p .. 22

.... L. ~13 d liD - 1l", :'iI,.- B- t.; 111 ....._.. E' . ] D' . '!~!

,\WUciL n, y "an _I:'!;;;,uz.liJ~ua,m. .~aqLl on .IIIJIlJ~\te: as . ssennar i _\ ..

Ag 1; ~ (1~.""" 1- I A A -A6

~. _.. .r.\~.IIl·W r, ~t'4~i 'i.l(J,~~ pp., .o:Fr"'T. , ..

50. j.a]iU al .. ·Din D,~;vini, Akldaq~i ]itl-lali (lahore:: Tij Book Depot, n it)~

p'. '].'"]'4, ,citing ~J}Jw ,al-~~/tiif.itJ, 'pp. 6:_1 .. , .

5]., Th1S oom]ne'nta~ty~ 'entitled Ma1iadl' a.t-quw/b'J is printed in ·Rii,eh.ilfiin nima,- PP'. 381-4:2'0, fh)1nl a .... from Yugoslavia .. ' 2 other ' .. ~ -SS~fthjs iIt,e:xt are in ,gypt-i1! and, another is reported to be in .... anisa, TIDI1key;, CL M(jjjwaj, ai-,wah intrOduction p'. I.

5,2,. Hellmus ruu,er, Dm M- tier Swle,~ Mfmdl~ Welt :tma G:t)tt in 'eJ~ Gesc_hit.Jutrt .,le.s Fmidudd:r,,~ ':4lfi, ~nd.ecl., Leiden: E. J', B(ril~, 197,8), p.

• 1'!!'iI!' \.£., . .

44$,. This dtatioD. is .close 10 KasIff al~aJ'1ir) '97 ~ but It, has been

translated i ntn Persian and adapted to' the topos of '~r.~he cap awry" (cf. ScNmmeli~, p, 290) u

5,3. i~ Abdlu-'l-'Qi.dir ibn .. '~~Mulu.k!hib al-B,~diG:Jll" lI.1imUlkAah.,u- ~tbliwtdi'J;h" trans, Wobe-ley Haig. Bibllo~eca Indica~, 911 (Calcutta:: The Asiatic

Soeifty ,of Ben~l)l' IIl~ 17. .

54. I Abd al-Ladf Mllln~hi . ~U aJ-Harama).l'l1, Nt(a \s' ,tU-kalam wa- 'mi '"is qJ~aqliim (MS n~. 9~B~ ,~.L. 94'~', Kbuda !f~h ubra~r-~ lPatlla)~ £01.. 1 ~\~, a, pass~ge 1.0 Persian (;U1, absolute. esistence.

,5,5. Muhamm a d Zu ber lQ.ureshl~ 1"IThc Library' o:f Hasrat Fir Muham,mad Shah. at ,,1I in lslofll 2~ lruli&' ,Studies. anii' CmllJ1lC1l.taJi;e.s~ vol. 2- Religi_qn (Jlul ReligioUs EiI'U'(Jalwltj ed, Chnstlan W. Tro~1 i ··· .. le~v· Delhi: ViibSi Publishin,g House Pvt Ltd, 19(85)" p .. 29]:" th~l'e is ~oither ,copy in 'the B,ritish Libra'ry' (Rieu" ll) 84 SA).

- 6 - 'lb.., 'I S-· hi d ii'J ~~ = ,~ ..l ~ m, d ~ 'I'D' "r ~"b· di- 5 --. A~~ma(, U:''J:D! f ~ *a~~tft,~ al>..:guUJ~ compo n~t t m- -'Ul ~~ U!l!_---

(T' ""'--'h- M 1t..'1~~. '" JIi.m; -(." 19~ 'I) 6'· ~ ~'9 1'h" -11 •. '! - - ;

,l....;tl -.Qi£'e': : :a~pti:i.:ma-~. r~.'hI-vqa~} .11 ',,' 'pp. .~ iL,JI'- .. IS 'WO['~. lS !lot


5'j S' T>tJ' . ..lI_ ... r·-r~~~! ... "" pp- . 2<ll!1 (,'J4 1/. -_"~ ,Y,-91'U$ 0r' .c.;;t.;Ji~y, " - .,,,j-,,,, :""

5 8. Kh'wija, G,hula m F,I);dj M'a'qahf-s ,a/r'l1iqlI11is1 rdu trans. from . ernian b~l Wi hid Bakhsh ~Sirya .: .. hore; IIjWami,(; BOQ,k BoundatiOiI?, 1399/ ] 9_'79)" pp. 401., 409-1 '[ (·ussion t.ahl~ p]a. t in 1314/1 ,8,9 S).


The Inner S tructure of Sainthood

The Unvelling of S~cre.ts. is an unusual document in 'terms of Sun Ute ra mre, 'Pa'U~, ,N wyia has described his t xt as IIIU nique in the field of Islamic mysti~m, rather in 'world mystical 1i~~~:-atllre, u and Ccrbin h ld the same view.1 V\f,e hav V'elY ~Tew texts in pre-modem Is~a_mie~u ' literature that eeuld 'be called au[obi,ograprnes, in 'the; modern sense of·the term 2 al~Gba~i~rs, (d., 3J05/1111) Delivtr(lJ't~

ftom Error: has. often belen compared to A)ugusnne~s, C(l1ife.SsMcW as

• a, L. .... 1 G- h ~'iIi:-" k ,. b '~,

a eonversion narrative, but .w, .. : I, ,al,8.11 s wor, js, mucr tess

reve~3btory of ,3., gdf, concealing crucis], inner' events behind a veil of esotericisrd an d. a, programmatic presentation of the. option~

. ] bJl M Ii . 'J] ... ,1,,,, i, 'il "..:1_ S I "l"':L_ T' L . J" ... .F

aV31 a, e 'to ,'::, us. - m UJtreueCfU~ In ..El15i uay.' n .i IW uhZlmting ~;

$wrltt" R~i:ni.~bih:in ofrers far l ss in ~,enns vf a" deKril?~io'n of his ext, nor ire than al G'h.a.zill~, but far more d€~3LU ef his innu experiences, As Rii,zbibin t, lls us, "Nota day or niS.' has·g,V1i! by

b G d d . , .... .n 'it..., "J,;, h I

me .. '. 'Y 1'0", " uruJlJg' ~)!, me nme ,ex.tenuWl1g up to nuw, 'W, en ' am

Jifty-:five years old without an unveiling of the hidden w'0il-'ld II (§5 6)~ It is, precisely these ~ :nv'ehlings. ~ha'f constitute the sldJt~:ect of ruis text, Al:thoug;h there are rich traditions of biiogr3!,phicaC,an.d hagiogra-

hical .. I'] ., li ,iI!...J1 h

pmcai Wf1Ltlll,g m siarmc . ruJterarure, tnese 'uO not seem to ave

ser -ed as, models for Ru,zhihinj,s, ,seJf~ctisclosure., We sbaJl return later 1:0 the problem of ,dassifying ~he 1itera'r:y genre of this t,ex/t,

The tid of the 'work QQ'll'tainS '(\,YO terms that are crucial to underscandin,g,s mysticism, Commonly used ilivou,g:i:l:oU't Sufi discourse, unvefing (/iQ!ilrfj means lite:raJly rem:o:ving ~ veil, and vrit~ it' derivatives it often stands as a general term, for insight,

h· e, l' ,11 1. h "C: I . ki d f

'LV .T.- OOl!l can app' Y , 0 mtenect tn prop' enc :La,CU ty ~ or to a '. D 00,

vision most fully realiz;ed in 'the .aiterbfe,.4 The 'Qur'in makes. a strong' link between unveiling and visien: 'HWe 'have unveiled YOill; and ,t~da~' your eye is sbarp" (50':2'2). E_r~j Surfis like 'Q1J.lsbayri treated un'VeiJin~ Cn, 'the form mukislu:ifa) as a transitional stage


between being situated ~n the pres: nee of God' and having a, fuU vision of the divine reality, though other authors such a, Hujwlri and Sarraj consider ullveHiog and vision to be one and the same, Often the momentary character of unveiling iSI signaled by com- aring it IrQ a lightning ,fla"h_s for RiiJ~'bHli'n" i; has a precise technical m, aning that he has. d fined in ·his Jexicon of my- tical

. I . dicati j[;' r-'

'W rrnmo ogy-, m icaung a. rorrn 01 transcend ,n.'t \;]S1. ,11 that "sees"

the _ ,quaIi des of God: n-Unve~1ing: lS darifying tbe veiled to the

,..J] _ .. Jh" ~ iJ!..?

1j]jnru~rstan~lu,g~, as tw~wougt~'w one sees ~Nith: the ey'e, :Its :teruil)1" is 'the

manifestation of the kingdom, the dominion and the eternal glory of mi,ght to the ,e"y'e [of the' gnostics, To their eye the radiance of their: own 'glo£¥ is veiled, so that d~,_ 'Y' may s 'e' with 'i the beauty of God s :faJce., '-I, hen they look up on his hiddei lcingdom;; and in gnosis d],elr~ obtain an understanding of, very .Auribui . ' ,6 The m.05t frequent expressman in Till ,U1~l}JJi1ing' rf SeCltl$ is ~!I saw him'!' fri.!~lgiwm).. It i8[IDO~ ex:agge:rati,o~ to .say that Vision (ru!ya) 'is '[he most rmportant ~n~rnJ., c~~eg,o~ry fo_r mystical ~peri n' e In Riizibihin~s vocabulary, Ve shall return Ia t'er to: he metaphysical terms cited in this passage as wen as the symbolism of r_ ili_.g but for the mom~nt h suffice'S to sar 'mat unveiling is the mystical perception that is the characteristic of the saints, For Ruzbihill 'I,his perception ]81 not. aJJsttact or philosophical kua-wledge, but a vision clothed. in form, e-speclally human forlll~ it ,~_f; oognitive but apparitionaJj, revealing know[edge thr-ougb divin :~]gh t, '

The other term _ of the title is. anibiguousi although m can. b . rendei d as "secret" as the blte ls translated above" titr has both an 'obJecth~ and a subjective meaning, It can b~ ,3, secret or ,myst ry that :is ~~~eal Hum, ~a]Je-r,al kl1O'\fvlr.dge, b1J]Jt in Sufi JP!Sych.ollagy it is, also ~ facldt~l -of the mner self that is, [subtler. than the ,spiri.t (rii~) m: '~he heart (qat}}). It may often be translated as, "consei nee," i~plying' ~oith, an inn,e-r~ consciousness and. the s"hared. knowl dg that CQn st lU res a secre ',8 Razbihin says, II I he secret! conscience i a hidden thing b tween non ... existence and -existence, he :n~ality of the secret 1(~oJlsc~ence is that which the tengue of knowledge does not utter. The .gnosric ktThO\NS [it] from binule[rhn'me~~ely, but he cannot. reveal, i~. _ These are hidd 11 unveilid__gs of the kingdom . and the angeHc wodcL'~19 A numl er of. ,their Sufi boob have carried the same title Knslif at .. aga'f~ for instance 'tie great Persian Qurin ,oo-rnm'~ntruy b~l Maybud]" ba:$led on the 'teachings of 'Abd· _,-Ui,h i\n~iri of lerat. Som,l~ modem, p olletnical 'workS ill P'eciiao


(inchlcling one b" Ay,~toUah. .. I: ,omeini) 'h~. as d the same title, but ,m the sen ~ e of II e;.:l(poose. Ii , or Ru zhlhi,D; 'Vie Uooei1in, qf -SeC1.ets: conveys .' he meaning ~f tb.e perception of the secrets of his inner conscience through the' ~~n~a;t[on of the; mysteries that weJe unveiled to him.

The Arabic text as we have it is still ,. n man uscript, though a

,cri(i.eal edition and a 'rench translation are b. ~ng prepared by Paul Eallanfat .-'Q,t Lb,e time being, I have relied on the twro knorwn 'man~scripts~ whil~h were parti~nY' edited by '~nry Corbin" ,though I~ e unfortunately dlid D-ot complete this.project, !,O SOM,e CtOi£l1!p1ari;31on has. also been :po:s.5ib~e with an a~bridged recension (a:b~lut one£ourth of the- text), separ,atel'y edited by Paul - ···.t\-~a and Na.zif

.' oca, ,b.erle are no divisions and. no ap-[ arent structure or

h )]1: but i h b "'b'] . ...l,; '·...JI • • 'L.... I· _.J

~,ea'(llijngs~ aut it nas een pos81,e to Luvi;ue 1. ,-, te 3'ragr"apllli \atell

here by §) ~fh.el1e tbe narrative su,ggests breaks, between 'visi,ons; us,ual.y i"rnltroclluced 'by the phrase, ~'And, the-a I saw .him with the aspect of majf!sty and. beaulty ... , II Up to now the most extensive discussion ,of the text has been that of Corbin, who, 'has analysed and translated sections amounting to ~bQu't one-seventh ',m. the

• '. ~ I A '~."':L h ~ bi h . d b

enure treause, ~ l"UU.i'Oll,g '\_.jOf_:,lnas, PO'Ul,t': out a numt . r or

:il1~p(mtant themes, 'he did Dot 8tudy th.e '~ext ,el'rJSely enough to grasp dle full derails, of its stru.6~]]]n:. He remarked, far example, that "after the episodes of 'first yo~th;. these visions and revelations related ~~oughout this Diariwn are no,t arranged :~1l chronological order ~ 'iii 1 ....

A closer s~udy suggests that tex may 'be' divided i ue 'I;\-VO parts.

The '[WFSt part, twp to §56., 'is a -retrospec;o'~ .autobiography "Writt.en in 51'11 m Th 81-2 at the' .age of fifty""6ve) as he states in two plsees (§ 7 , ~.6). Taking up about one-feu .. r~h. of the entire work, it may be divided as foHoVia,: childhood and youth (§ 7 -ill 3) earliest visions (§'~ = 24)" 'miscellaneous early 'visions (§25 ..)_ :pilgrimagr~s in Fars (§4 I ~1" an. initiatic vision (§4"7 -'4:g~, '~mons of . eeca (051 5,3-) other visions (§.5: 55). At this peint Ruzbihin S:t(lPS to teftect on what has bee . written, and the second part of the text ~e.gins to, shift from, the retrospecdve mode into. a diary :r.Qrm~ 'ill have .not recalled this previously, nor what happened to me in days pllSt, ...

, .·.1_ ow I will write, 'with God -8 a:ld .. w;, 3,1 happens to me ,of affairs of

unV\eilin,g <and mysteries ,o.f ''Al1tnfwng ! • '. ~I (§56). :Phrases ;such ,ag

~1I1'~II' '. JI!.. - II ~71)· . di- • .il.-L_ tb - - fl"D' = 'b- 'ih- r. "

.. ~3.!S.t :mgl wt Ij , . In _:: _ ca:~e II.Ua't . ~ ,f t,ex;t no'"~' re .. ectiS ~uz ,~an. ,S

an~~ing' ,experien~eg.,


I " -I h h Ci h d tho ...:iIl!._

t IS. not c ear ltv. en or "OW' etten ne returnee to is ,wary t-o,

rCCQrd his current vis:ions, bu[ there are several lengthy sequences that reject power.fw experien.oES':: ~he descent @;f 'God. (§~7'2b 7 4), vruSiGIUS :,m R,ijjzb~han~8 falnily i~ paradise (§80'-434)~ and two 'visions

h Ri"" ~ ib,.iI! - l 'h Suf . .l! .' ,. clai ..J (§,~, q,~

w €re I'· uzmnarr s status m t: ,e'. aun tradrnon ~s p,ro' aimea ,,' [ ::JVO=

319) 161-62). -"'Ione'thdess,_ a, clear telnporal sequence indicaJ1tes 'that a large section (§ I '28-5 91) was composed all ,at once during' the month of Ralna'Qin, when Rfizbiban evidently ,!ha.d. the h~]SUFe to :re;cordl the fruits of his meditaticns dlu~i-ng the' ~raditruQnaUy contemplative month 'iDf nfa.sdng. Alth~ugh 'we do not lb1,~)W ,m. 'which year this Ra:ma4in section occurred, a final d~ting is apparent j' the final pages of the document (§2'OO- .. -(f'g)~ 'when. 'Ruzbihan records a :plagu.e 'in Shiraz during Rajab and Sha~hin '0f 5.f35l· -ups. October II 89. Thus I' would s.ugges~ that 'the seeor d pa~rt of The UfW8ilir,,' f{ Secre.ts (1,5 7 ..... 2l 0) lS 8o~l1IJething' Iike an oecasienal diary 11 intermittently' re.c't)lrde.d. over a pe1n@d. of emgh t

- ~ - - - d . - I, A hi - R' - :IL': L - ~ L 1- _jill I

years} am ,I comptetea w' en xuzmnan was s:mty'-h~n~e 'y.eari l@i '0. n

... I!... ....1· ... 'L....., . €' n ~I~'· • • .. 'h

tne anfuySlSitorJiLt ,W,o., -,O\'Vs- a prenmmary section summanaes the

be:gmninc' of the book up to, the end of ,Rfizbihi.l1J'g youth. Su bs~~uent section s in this chapter idiscu-ss his visions m terms of their KubJe-teit ma ter and literary genre.

B. The Prol\ogue' aa . Early Y:eal"is

Tbetext be:g]M as _ 'm customary 'with a benediction and praises .of God and 'the P'ropheJ ~(u:ttanl'ma4., This is foUo,v,ed by a brief prologue on the nature of sainthood; 'which will be examined 'below. :RQ::dliban then ex~~ins ,the purpose .of the book" :0,1, a

• '" 1;'" 1" f ... 1!.. :,., k . ....... [' 1"·-1 •

passage consrsnng QIJj. a ~tany 0 tne re~lrnc~ terms 0':' Islamic

.m~ticism as 'they had developed by the sixth/t\veltlh century:

A, lover, one of 'the sincea on, s wbo depart from 'me existent tbinlgs and tlemparality ~-vitb the charactee oiisola{tion seekjng gn.osis .and unity) asked me \-1fith, at perfect love 1'0 ten him of the events of nnveilihgs 1(110 the secrets of ~QlJeSSl.ngf that occur to 'me, of the brides. of the angelic rerum and the: wonders of the lights of might that ar .. unveiled to me, o-fthe particularities of manifestation and descent in the station of c~odlin;g "Wi,th wvWllity" of the pure unveiling of 'the !nlblimiti:es of me E-ssence:;. in m,y ecstasies, :my in~o:ricatwon,l' and nily


sobriety" b day and by nig;tit. and] il' e ttrLkn'O\\i\nci€uces that God th .. transcendent opened to me ,from his, presence; thus it wonld be for' him tb.e l~irOC~amali;Qn o:f his pad}, and his in timate companion in his heart and splint in ~he hidden world (§4).

This ann ,un.cem,ent makes no attempt to e rer ,0 _: ~y'one outside: the elite circ~. 01' Sufi adepts, It s[ar.cciy resembles the p,rogrnm fo((" an aurobi!ography as understeod teday, The unnamed per-sou 'who asked R:~zbihi~n ~o describe his experiences -j~, referred. to, as a, lover, one 'Q:f the "sine _ re @n~ II (#Jiq'iin},. a group 'that he us.ually connects wirh the P'f op bets. ,~ one of those who seeks the divine unity, which Cc una:yd defined as "the iso,lati,@n ,pf tne eternal from the

= 1 n R -b"'-h- ~·f 1 .. d' '.....~.~~:

u~m.pcrr~)cuz :\Lans mter ecutor IS it teresteo In unvemngs,

secrets, m~nifes~atibmJs., and divine :pr,ompttings, which can serve in some sense as, a guidJe for bis own inner spiritual liCe. "Wh~le' Rii.!!;bHlin is 'to a certain ex:~en[ ,l(;ti'ng as a spiritual ,master rnf his Sufi friend, he does so in an mnf:~)rmal mann .~~ oceasionally makin;g side remarks tohim {e.,g .. , ·§l05, 112'; 162', 1'913}. Ruzbibin regularly asks God to assist both him and his friend (§15,8) 17'5,:, la5~ 193), but he l~gards spiritual states and ecstas-y SiS a graoe.i' not as the result 'Of ,striving, . as. we' see ,from, a patSsi1l;ge at the en.m f)f the ,6n~t,

part: ,

I.,'· ot a dJay or nl~t has. gone by me, bY' God" during all the 'am,e extending up 'to :-'_OW', when I am fifty-five years old, \vithout an unv;ciJing of the bidden world, I 'I'"'" great witness:~ngs; eternal attributes, and exemplary ascensions time and and (hal is from the grace ,of G,od M,ost High toward me, "Grace ~ from, ~.he. hand. efGod, and H~ gives, i~ 'to whom he wishes" (Q~.i'in ~:73). He chooses lor :HiB mercy' whom he wishes, Prais be to God who e _In 'ht_s by these stations his sainrs and his prophets without caus or reason, not beeau . of striving Jor dis,(ip!ine~ not as. the phila~~phen :s;ay - may God purify the .earth 'Chi them~ (§56)

The experiences that Rfi,zbman is about to, describe consritute a map lout. insofar as ,they reveal \yh. re he 'has been, .. though he is ,~ming to confide 'these lexpe-rilen,e.· s to all. intimate friend, he is no prescribing a, method of meditation.

Ru.z'bfhiiin goes en to describe his own reaetion 10 his' friend~s


request, refffiecting thart i~ is 'wry d~fticult to provide aecounts of ~pri tual experience fo the u.ninioa;ted, whd :fail 'te see the. close relationship between the 8rll1il. saints and the :pr:oph,ets~

This 'W,M ,dilficui;tt, forme, because ·rtt.h,er,e' is a\ gn~at '~lat~sbip :m 'p''feserlting these stages when dlL~ p~ople 'Q(f oon.v~nt]onal knQwl[edge' do nat a{)m.prrf!h~lld. d~e:m~ S~ dl'~J crriticlze U,S' and eensure 'that~ and dl~' faU, tnt~, the ocean of aftlic60lt I: :fea.r that th~ I~n~op]:e of ,M:ll~mmad ~, :ld, inb) denia~ and OppogiJ;i,Ql1l ,and they mill. b~ ,d[~s:troyedJ' for 0nfi. who dues not bei,eve hl. ale u,nvemn,~ 'Oif the sinoel1~' oaes disbelieves in :~he' miracles of d:ru,e prophets and me:ssel1igern,. For t]l"€ ooea.llS: .or sa mthood, ,aWThd :p'h3'Phet~,Qod. interpene:\f:at.~ ,~ach .other '" . ~ (§i5} ..

Srn. In, a, sense the n~ed to t:Xp,~8S the ev~~rn of ,his inue;_r ur~ cannot be ,denied~ the proofs (If sainthoed should 'be ,d';yed) by' im;pHcation. As a £~)n8eq ~JLeflC~~ R.,u,~bihi.n ,~, :llnd .it necessary to ~,a;y $om.e~hing' about 11m own '~i:re and circumstances, som,ewing' that d,oes not prove easy 'Rt first

My friend, I have dela:;red your demand ~r(j'f' these exemll',lary statiO]:l~ and these lli~hie states .. , lFg,r.l W~ in my you&,~ :and in the days, of , my; ll!l'[o1ii,[acion, extra;~all{~~" and ;~£re~seeuoo, Uuv1fillngs of the, ,a~gj'fdLc world and the manifestation of the' 'wanders of p-aweF- took place In, my heart, ~piri~tl! conscience, and iru:e~ect .' S\IVam in the primordial ,~Jrud ultimate oceans, in. cetetnity and :subsisren~~ and I diocove~-ed the ul~lv[emng of ,Atlribut.e~, and (he Ess~nOf~) wbiih d,~,,~t s~on~5 .and :ru.of~y 'mountains cannot endure. ]f ,I wrote do\>VQ all that happened 00 me &o,m, the be:gir:n-nng' of my Ure' to n~)\Vj, it wl~n]]d be heavy loads of books and page$ (~6).

'But once 'Ro.'z,liliMn picks 'Up his peIDJ, the revelations 13 ~gi.n to flew. Sh;)w:[y ,at :l1nt, 'h~ relates his s,p~rllfluu experieneea ~Dd, life 'c1:rcumstEtnoes, frem bis earliest memories [WP' to the' age of fiftee.n" when he left his, prgfes$lQtI1 of 's~ll[n..g ve~:emb[es, ~nd ioit.u=:d the Sum. lronicaUy" ]~t ,rus from, 'thls, brief youthful" eriod as a greengrocer (lJ'Gi~,lt) tlllat itlU~ surname derives, ll~jt which R'\i zbffihi n the, Sufi is dHj.s,tiflljgtt~sb~d from several l€g$er~k~OW]"l ~Feligioa$ scholars of tb1e' same name who ,lliv,~d in Persia ,chruring tha:t time. ,Not).;e'the;le.$;'f), ic is, pl:refie'fabl~ ~o ~o lihrl as. RU2:biihin) as inde€d G~d dOres \~hen he calls dlre sai'~t by :na:me ..

Just as he begins, the narrative proper, Ru,ibihan lets full another pi;t;.(#c at inf,b:mstion . "I 'was, fir~e_n years old w~len file beginnin,g 'Oif these secrets be((-eH my 'heart:; U be notes, ~ ~a.nd, now ] am fifty-ive Y'trlll:-5, old, in So dlis, memoir has been wdU~n in the fullness of forty lunar yea(m or a spDituru Hfe~ around 5'1"]' l1181 ~2. Still, Ruzbihi ml :rus somewhat t: to begil1~ "Hew shall I ~~la]n 'V~) yuu the: secrets of :my unve:iiiin~~ and :m'Y subtle 'wij'tru~ssiftljgs) things that have e~caped yu~? But I $ha]~, elplaln some d~in~, ~htH wer€ unveiled to me :bl da;y;& past, and I s..haU mendon 'to you wJ~~;at

ha'ppe.:ned. to me after that, 'God. ~jing'n (§ 7)~ ~

The 1(')'V1e:rmJUy chronologW.ca1 memoir fOmls, a '~e~a;tively small pa1't of the t~;tt,,- and 'it is 'worth e~mfu:l~ in detail, R ~,zb'iha rl$ earliest reccllections date :from '~hJG: ag,e: of three, when be recalls ~~kbl;g other children about the n.atn]e (al God, a question, tbBt caused h1t11 'b) experience an in,cipient eestasy,

Kno\.v (may God bless 'YOUi;' understanding!) tha:t.-l was horn among ignorant drllJ,nkam.s who :b~d gone -astrn¥~ and raised 'by commeu peo:p]t of the masket, "as dlOUgb [b,ey ~n~ asses ,taking rright~ fleeing ·ftonl a U.O.J1 n ~Qp:r~i:n 74:50-5, '1)) up to the age of dtweei .. -he [q,lJ1es6J:)l1. occurred to :wy heart, ~ ~Where' is '¥<ocur God and the God [of tbe P €ol?'l~'?J:~ We had a "mQSCA ue at the pte O( lily' house, 1: '~W' $Clm€ children and, ~il melD, "Do y~lu know you.t God?'n' They said. "It 'is, said that be' has no hands or feet;" FOj!"' th~y ,md h~ard,~rrnm, their parents ID,aJll rGo(l Most High transcends limbs and members, B'u,t 'when :1 asked dl:a't~ I \V~ :fiUed ,~th joy and ran, and .Som.i~tbing happ;enoo to me simi~alr :!tID w'ha.t ,happe1lS ,"'lith the lights of: recollecrion ,tJf<ibj and the ~taDpins of 11l,~'dilitat~on but I did

not ~_nlOw the reality ef 'wh~t' happened t :).

,Ru:dJ,i'ha»'. caustic remarks a:JI) cut his 'Drreruigi()1.;1sl lupbcin~mg are ,[h~n~'actf:mi$llcaUy fiamed by a ,scriptural ve{ereJ)!ce,. His :moolllecdon. of this €a:dy ~b~ological inquiry arid resp ~)D:8e reads back, runtD it the standard I~mni'E 'theological posiiltiol'l t~at def$cLibes "Gpd as beyond pffi-ru,ysi[caJ aUTibute5. : rom his re't~oop~ctiv~ posrnti~n; RU, an~lyz~s ~i;s subsequent spni'tu.Lal ~per:ie'~l.ce: as simillar to m!e results oif Sun meditative -esereises thQugh he was 'i~,cap;;:able ,of recognizing 'rllWS ~t 'we time.

The H,ext 'milestoine occurr.ed ,at age seve'n}l wh.e:re even, ~mon~,; R:ijzbihan &ees the signs of hig later dedication to ; S1J]Jn, life. This


i~ described as a ;~pon~arJJeQUS, :mJJDd of f,efOn~Cb(;nJ. (ihiir) ,Iud ,@'b~dientCe ,~f God) followed b'l{ a speJJ:tacu~a~T' outhu~t 'of passionate love (fijhrJ) leading to ·t'(;stasies des!ZTib ed in all the ,vivid In~13pbDF£ that (har.-a~teri:ze his ruat,e:r'visi'on.s",

] reached the ,age of seven, and in m,,, heart there @ccu:~r~d, ,a 101~e of ,recp]I~c:t;~'tDin (itkikr) <and obeying Him.. SQu,ght my eonseience ~in~h and I knew it. 'Then :plit!ssiou,are leve occ~rl~d h). ,my ~eatt;. and :mLr heart mlt'lited in p~O'nJlt€ It'J,vf;;, [ was then, rnad with love, and my heart 'wars then a, diver :Wl1 th~ ocean of eternal recollection ~nd in the 23£ent of the :p1er£ll]Jmes of ,sancri~;, Then ~llSihl.tjon'S erf ecstasies \vitihou:t gdef'a.ppe,arecl 't@1 orne, ;and th€JI agi~ated m,y ,hieart with kindness and :my eyes widl tears, ,I did not know 'what

" ld L. 'II!... ~11' (.J'l;,ll:""" f G' A 'M" . U-

n .O()iU " ue exc,ept tu~ rec~,WJ!e&tiQn • mtYb,'1j 'JJ':' " 'i::lu i'l i€fst , " igh~

And at that time I' was :seein;g all ~ir existence as though it \ver'€ beQ'Ud{u~, fa.oe:s~ and d~rin,g frb~s, period I gtle·w fo.mJd of seclusiens, ~~':myel!$) devotiens, and pilgrim~ge te ithe ,g~t sb.ayk_hs (§"9D,.

Here 'R;ili,:zbihi:n sees his vocation comin,g intt) :(ocus, attrilbuemng this, precocity to' rus Bpon;tan~Qus, te~coUecri.Qn '0,( God) !elnu~~ting' the :m.~di:taJ1lVle reJCo.lectruon ,oxf divine names i~ Sufi didkr P'r$c;1$~e"n The ex~netl~' that fQ]]o~ is ~,ical of the tone of his ~~l~eT' visions of

~ '~ri·.t'

creation as, a the[)p.ha.rruy of 'be1iJ;u~',.!hi.n :maintains that he'

then '~bame dra\'VD run~Q ~e. medita;d,ve and, ritual p.[,2Kd~es 'C!l!f S.ufism" includin,g the desire to vmsit th~ fJJm~-sbriflles( of the ~at

Sun masters, -

AU these premonitions and ,adUtllbI,atruom, of his Fu'ttlrn ,~ife as, a.

Sufi C3n\~ to a h,t'ad in. an ~,)l1aDl'im};'Ulry mom,en:t wi.le);l RJi.\lzbihan was fifteen,

'\tVllen ] _ reached fitteernl y,€:ars~ wt \1f3;S as ,though I 'W,~S ,addressed ,from the hidden ~rldlp and "it was smd t@ me~ ny:01U are a prpph~t. II' I SAid in lny conscience, '"1 have heard [tom my patents that "There is no prophet a'l7tet M:u~m,ma~)' 'S!O ,]j,o\v,tan I b:~ a peopher, when ] ~~t and] drink, answer the c'a~~ o;f nature; and ,lli:'Jlave pt,tVat'f' parts]" I' ~tbou~;t that the pr-o'p,beb do Dot have these defects, rime passed, and I was IOIJ3:t ill '[passionate love, ] arose' .from nl~r shop ~fter dinner l! and I \~nt out, into rh,e desert s~e_kJng 'wmr f~),r ablutl,oos;. I heHro,

a b eaudful ¥nrnGe~ and, my conscience and, m,f l[!J1ngin,g were ati~ated. I' said" !I Yen'), who speak~ Stay' '\<\~th :me~ Ii ] dtmbed. upon a hill near me, and I' saw a bealudful person, in ~he ronn, of die s'bayl:hS;. but I 'was, unable to speak, He said 8@' coneerning the divine unltty (tm.a~id),~ but [ knew' nothing @f that ,A r,a;,vishwRg and a b~nderm'ent befell me 1(11101).

This su.ddern voice that ,cams .O'~ t t'Qr 1tii~blhin announces ,that he iE

'ilL. 'be n ,. th ,. d - . .!i r- ~I ~I 'I' ~ e-

3" Pl"Opwwet;, {;l;ta. ~ugill\lg , . e '~l~··. msyom, 0". :51' anua:r,ci !IlB.]a;nuc,

dleollo,gy :feg,arding the nnaliJfry' of Mu~am]nad~~ pFophecy., This passage 'fb:rms '3" parallel Mtl1 his, J~"a[l1er quest to find G~d ~t me age (if three; "Ebert 't9~i) standard wisdom w,uu1cl ,hl!lve dra!V'n1; a line be'r~nd. which h llJlfttaniqr t1\l[nDJ1i go, but this 'was ])lefuted by a. sp Qutall,€JGUS: ecstasy, Curia:ll]shy) R:U,2bihill'~S bi'ograph~!f:S ro:~,nl!d this passJ.,ge COfJItro:ve:tSia~; and me')" suppreseed it in their s~ri'.unary 'Oif his 'f'a'rly life, 13 Ie ltifrmge]f in retrospect saw' Ilothing preblematic aboul this aJ:U'fJjounpement Then 'when 1\ Sufi mMte;r ,a:pp:~,ated speaking' eni gtn);,ti,c all,' a;bou't '~he ,divine unity ~ 1tu~'ffi;)Ulitl deserihed his reattlot1 using terms tha~ ifJ:tlica've ,adva,'~t:ed s[a~es ~r ~ove; ''':ravithins'n 'WIlm'k~ and n'b~ldermeD:tn (!i:ayanmn).. '1'4 I'n The ~piriU~ F&:'Tlt~ Ru,zbLhin bM re:ferred, to beLng e~d~ed !3!. p~opbet as a normal experience.

The station, of God calling ~ut to his :f.tien,dj /. saint, €3~~i.~~ him to 'him~elf~th the name err th,~ pro~!het$" ]'hls.: :rns '~he $~a;ti~n ~f kindness and. the appear-a.noe ~,f ben.w'Olem]rC~~ :pn~;-~t~J1lal ,cieetl.OB,llnd dlie ptr.e~~n:C€ Or!PQgt-'e'r,,a~~'. S1"l.d~]itbo,~-d and p~ph~tfiQQd are ~ns~ in, ,gnoms", :11,~ .gtlosclc sm~, (ml~,Y' God: s-anedfY his. c·onsci~rDJct)" 'ITh,€r( :~s no harm [~n that]., He, the transcendent, ealled him [the: saint] by :bis awn eternal name mn th,~ m~m,m~s o,f~ union." [The 'Pwph~'~ (pe'a'ce be upon him)" smd", i~ The ~bq~n of my eomn~u .. u']jl'ty' are: twit'€: d1€' prophets of the sr,ildi,re~.,'~~ J e

This ,g-oes even further than l{Jizb1hiJl'S eartfi.e\f obserearion that .. the uceans ,gf sainthood ~;nd p'r,op~eth.,oal1 ifiteqlen.I~ltr~t~ each, other" (is); fJ!OW they, alit:' '~MS,. ,Rii,~'l),ihau:'s, a~mernlt here seems t:o' be dJJat if God calls one a prophet or even a div:run~ name, th~re is no objection, ba;~u;s~ this ;8 ~:Md, in the heat ,~f union. ,fbj,m this lil might also be cencluded th~t R;.i:zb~ball 'f:¢lt that it 'was, G9d who addre'S~~d, him, ,as a~, prophet., This. who~e ,plru;sa,g'8] i~ be


'(Oll'fresied~ go es much farther toward erasing the djs,tin,ction betwee 1 prophet and ,saint than mosr Sufi authorities would allow, '- he next s~age :]n this vision led [,0 a dramatic crisis, what may

be considered to some extent a cOrJi1iler'sio:n scene,

._ 'was .afmj.d~, and people were. vw,a]!].cing around, I. was out in a, ruin :u G and remained there 'lin night :6 It hen I len and returned W my shop, and: remained there until dawn in . CS' a8y~ grief sighs and i~ars. I was astonished and 'be\-vUd~red. On my tongue without volition carne the words, Ii - Your for,gjv,ene5S! _ our' ~ My' tongu. ~\S scillf'.ld, and it ~~ as though I was there fo.r hours and days together. I sat th~re for another hour. ' ,-hen ecstasy o~n'Vh,e1med me, and J th:~ew illittO the. road the money b~(K. and whatever was kept in the shop for time of scarciqt,. I tore :my clothes and ,beaded. to the. desert. ] remained WIl ilial state a year and a halt; ravished and a [onislu~dJ, weeping and ecstatic. Great ecstasies and hidden. visitations happened ,ev,ery' da:y. In those ecstasies I saw' the heavens, 'the earth, mountains, deserts and trees as 'th0UJgh all of that were Ught

_ hen .serdcd dewn from tba;t dis.turban.ce (§ 11). i, i

he emotional eonsequences of Uris eni_gwna;tic, encounter "~'oold be

• .-..~I f R bih =' '11' '. [ d

typiCW Q' 'j"j2:' 1 . i,n S Jater expert' noes ~ ecstasy, 'gnc= t, ars, ,an_

sighs,·. .e 'is h~eU"d ~n[o dialogne \vid1b. Gad, l'lepe,a}tting a phrase, '"i[gi~ve us] you-'r forgiveness," (ghqfra~n.)~ that in tile Q.ufin (2:2'85) is recited by the .rmth:fi.l~ 'wh,Cf follol\-~ and obey the propbets - th~s evideA'tI.y dQu.~..:s not mrucate ,any unusual amount of sin.~ but the heightened consciousness; of h:'U:'ma:n imperfection found ,~n prephet and "lint alru.k~. FinaHly the moment comes of tuming' a\1\I.ay decisivel)"' 'fromn the ,~r:]d, typi,caDy considered the beginning' of the Sufi path. RH,zbiliin hurls, h~s 'possessions into th sweet and heads to ~he desert, 'w1bel"'e he is overwhelmed by ecstasy, Here we see 'no anguish over CQ, iversion as with Augusune, but: an ecstatic response to a person:a~ 'visitation in the ,fo(nn. of a Sufi ma:ster~ though It is not ~ ] ear whether it was a human, an a~aeI. or God 'wh.o. spoke, 'is, ,nong study and diseipliee ~th the Sufi~ ,~u. ~aL'~"er give R'uzbiliil'll a vocabulary with 'which 'to analyze and d scribe these f,atill¥ experiences.

I{ijj zbiban relates his first encoun ers with the Sufis 'With scant detail, ,indicating o:n~y that be was shaved, in a ceremeny signi'~ng 26,

hi$ initiation; and that hlilm-rudertook the customary personal seI! ice, devotional exercises and study of the 'Qur~[fl.,

I recovered fV(]1l1 that veiling, and Llonged for the service of the Sufis. So I shaved :my head, though ,had fine and beautiful hair. I entered araong the Suf1s~ and \--vork£!d in their service, and undertook ,.trivi:ng.s ac, d exercises, 1 studi,ed the Q'UJ1'Pa,n and memorised it. 'Mos Qi,f my tti'm:e was spent ,amon:g the Sufis, in ecstasy and spiritual 'states", But noth · ng in the way of hidden unveiJ'ing_s. happleneQ to me. ~ultm, one ~day ] 'was on the roor of the twa'h meditating on the hidde _. world, And I saw' rhe 'Prophet M'i~_al1lmad, 'With AJ1).fi Bakr, !'Ulnai~ 'Uth: __ ma'nj and "',Al~ in front of him, and this '\OVitS my first unveiling C§ 12~~,

It is remarkable ·that Rfizb~hin considers ecstasy and. spiritual states to be his normalcondition diur- n,g this time. Bu I at this p'@int his fint ~ unveiling' takes place, a vision of the Prophet .... l·ul~anl· nad and ms 'G.n I four successors (likalf{as), the C~iph$~ 'who, art' the forerunners of the ',u6, saints ~n lnitiatic genealogies. This vision. appears to si_,gn,a1 ,at onceR,izbruh"a~j,~s csnnecdon to the 'P~ophert Muhammad and 'his proocimity to those who are his, closest heirs.

'Up 'to now' R,fizbihin has. not found .~t necessary to mention '11h· names of any ·of the Sufis, with whom he studied or he plae s where he went. Vet he attained spiritual experiences of a hi_gh order, :vidently without the benefit of direc guidance of .any

master; as be next makes .elear: '

I did n.ot have a master at ~h,at time ~ and I f tJurne.d to my heme [Pasa] seeking a master and gujd .who was one of tile: saved Then G'Oo •. ,ost High ,guided me to g"haykh J~miU al-

"10 1 'V/.":;:_j."'b VL.7.11 !F -, ( G...:I

.. tn ·1- •.• i a - .. ata mn nJ 001 ar ~ ; a.~a· i . may . "On have mercy

'On him], and 'he tOQ' was a b gi:(lner.J\nd ,GQd Mos . High in his company opened t me the doors of dornmion and uninterrupted unveilings and in his oompany the spiritua]

'll.. • • .... 1..0, 1] 0 ~I _.j' A ll;,ffl

states were guS~:JJlng wttn .IlUiEWuen sciences ana rengieus

'mystenes~ uno] inn umerable 'ecstasies. ,3 nd unve[, '~O ek place (§ 13).,.

'W,rr; know' nothing about R;u.zlli]iha,n7!s compatri~t and firs.~ master, 'I,ami} al .. Dtn, aside from tins brief referen .. , " ''Y:"-·t ,~'t is striking that :RuzbH:DJin refers to him. as also being' a beginner (wa-Xina ,nu'UJ'a


'Ei{- 1 "h- B-' lit:::

All :l_Jl_-_3 n . aqilru

9441 ft kdw (loi-amr), especially since it m in his lcomIHiDY that an asto,mshing' series of revelations begins to, 't~ik.e place. Rii.zbihin:'s. b~ogr.aphers were appaJ'lendy uncomfortable with this, unknown ;- ,.ld1i ClOU - ague who aet d. aLS a guide \Niiliou.' be ing' c ~rti:fi~d by any position ,af .authority or by a,ID'UJY known lineage, Shams a -,Dln in [act suppressed the name OfJ.amil al-Dtn, 'wh,'n he translated the o.p:-ning scctioas of' The U";()rt.ili~ ,~Secrets into Persian while recounting the 'life lof.·6zO~ha]]· according to 8m' ,a~-D'ln'-s edited version in nc' Spirits. of ike GtlldenJ; Ru zbihan ~ 8 "innumerable ecstasies and unveilimJJ!g~1I were simply a continuation of his vision of the P:r.opberc and the Caliphs, which is now moved to a ribiit in

P -]:8 - fL.~ .... - -r-. ......... 1.. •. •. ...J1=: to . ~,'L "" r .,!L., -n resene .A.fJam··:!jj II a' '~.-

asa. lmio Vem-O'l~ r [rp ']fiUIILCa"es: ~ .. nm t.'ner,rll;;~";'; '. -' U, .1. . I _w. '. ,J-v,w ' .-

like the heavenly voice that had called Rii zbihii n a prophet, was '~n conflict with the model of sainthood that d1¥t 'ha~og;raplher 'wdhed to COUi'itey. Instead the hagiography su'bstirut,es a ftilly de·taied i·ni1ia.tic. 8,enealio,gy to gual1U1ree the le.gitima,cy· of R;i~b~ha n's Sufism,

C" Th'eolo~8Y; 'CoSIDdIogy', :Ps-ye'bology

Before proceeding further into tbe explerstion .;Yf tll~: visions. that constitute the bulk of The Unueili,. qf Sec-f;ets~ it. ,rid be hd:p!tu] Ire consider them from the vie'\iVPofnt of t'he principal }sla.tllic 'l . eolQgicd t- rms that .'tum hiLs basic re'" f, noes. throughout, The .summary that .follows is 'based on ",rdJ.~kn.o·wn .. materials in t'he biSl~)ry of '_-sbtmi,c religious thought, higb]ig;hting terms and concepes that are ,de6Ded in the writings of Rfizbihin, to help 'make in.'t,elligib~e the passages analyzed subsequently, In general t€fl11is) tbere was-a fairly.1Nid~esp·re~d consensus ofSuijs. in. W· S'€ljuk period cha'f the theolGJ!gy ,or. al-Ash'art {d. 324l93,5} offered an accepta ble doctrinal description of the nature 'Of God and humanity .. In this pos.idon Ruzbihin foUo\¥:edf the esampl ' of his, ~at predecessor In Shiraz Ibn ~lg·KJ)]a::rf (d. 311.19\8.]) as weU as 'til .. Khurasanian Sufi Abu, al-Qisim. al-1Qushayti (d., 4651'1072),. The theological position of cA~.h 'a;r~sm.· 'was an ! ~ orthodox II

d- . f ... t, ., '11::" .. .t, 1- f .... t, 'M: ~ . '·l~ h

a, aptaiaon -0-:- me raao-naJ!JstU.l,eo ogy ot tne .. u ta.'lZllS. \-V' ose

position 'wag, generally View,ru:). by SufiS' as. toe intellec tual t'Q' allow for mystical expe fl. .nce or the omnip otenc - of God; :SOIIlle Sufis went further In their ~djstrus,t of rationalism .and ,adoptf:d . he pietistic faith of "Ail! mad mbn .- anbal," 9 . ."0- '1 :.. sure, the . - .. h ari

~ .

posw.tion wa.s, not ~out controversy;. ~$hay.ri .in :p·a:rticular


t'e..stifieJ to violent persecution of As·h';:ansm. in &Jiltra:san ,at the

- - - --. al 6 f' M' ~ "1 · 20'p 1 • , •. :11

hands. of pofiu.c - 'gures Oi I a .... u ta.z~ _I p rsuasion, - -' Q!J)el'WCw

remarks in .: .. U zbih it, n' s theological wfhi ngs .ru ndic,ate that

.. u'tazilism was stiID] a. :forc.e to be reckoned with in. Shirazin hils, own d;a;-y ~ Nonetheless, the theological ca te,gories .of Aih 'arism had. become increasiIDlgill.y cemmoa in. S'ufi cwrc~t:s" because their emphasis on the omnipotence of God and the n.imi~atio:ns 00- reason tit weU \--vith the experiential basis of S~fi8m.

Without attempting to describe the full complexity of Islamic religious thought in 'the Seljuk period we can see how R'uzbihi:n in another ~~t presented a kind of' .I~damwc catechism on basic 'religious beliefs, This text, The Paths~ of Un.i~\- .1S a commentary on four principles of faith: the, Essence, AtttibU.'t~s:, and. ,~ctions of God and the aft,erlife. The first three of these terms in parti'cuJaI appear over and. lover in Ruzbihan.'s descriptions of'his visions, so it ",wm'b - helpful to begin from a basic understanding of the n3!.tut€ of God as Rfi.zbihin (who~ after all was also .8. preac ier) explained it to for the benefit of his community.

The basic :position of i\sh"arism. on the Essence (tlkli,~ of God is that itis 1JJJ.1i~ilY' transcendent and unknowable m itself: BeYond'd:mat

nl h G" , d '",L •• =.1

one can 0 y say t: lit ,~o_ 's .ssence 18 one- an I ma U: 1.$ rear

existence, AS. Ruzl:dhin summarizes;

.I:JI~ exists ,ete.rnaUy \~thOllt beg"ln'Ding or end. He is really existent; not lLke r e existence of things, that depe nd on 90methin.g €lse; 'his·~ence dep-ends on tmelf~ ·;w.[.thOtl~ heady, substance, or. accident, for substance is the locus of accidents .. , ~ .. Tn.· Essence. or him who is exaltc dJ. does. not enter things '6,'i depart from them, nor is ita state inhering in something or imposed on it. Rather, he transcends any

1" . ~L .... ~i: .t! he i - - .:21

re a1JJ,On. vn,w;i t mporatity JOE ne IS one In every respect,

The lUlk_now.,b~ Essence ,w 'God! is) however, kno,,,,able O(ri~y thfO'ugh the divine ,- uributes (pfli)) which are leomm.only considered to be tbe names of IG·o.d. 3JS mentioned in the IQ,r" an:.

H ' is' .knoViing, :po,¥e[ful~ hearing, seeing';, speaking living, \~]fl,g. These Attributes are eternal withcut begjnning' or ,en,d jn his Essence+ It is likewise '\i\T:itth all th.e names and qualities by which he has described himself' [ia scripture] 2 He spe-,i\ks by his ~pe. ch~ knows by hi-.tnowledge, Vt.ills by 'his;


roJitiO(ll; lives 'by his ,~ife~ These lUtributes, are ,~l]J, ~llgm~~~mlion to the ,EsSen,~eJ' thol~~h. not i:n the sense Q,r divi~on~

. . . ...: _ 22

JtQUllllg:'~ or S'e]?litU:Ei,(UOl!il.

What is CQmlTIOn. to all the divine ,Aftribu: es is ~al dl,~ are modes ihf'ough. wlli-cl1 the ES]l~noe can interact with 'the ttrmper.a] w.ij,:dd._ The Attn.bu~es of' God can be divided jl1,(Q t\"O' types; Attri.bu.b~Sl of majeS'ty that mediate (he power and! wrnJn of God, and Attributes

of beaut~jl that cb;[Wvey the ,gr.a;oe' aed :mercy of God. _~ ,_

'On ii, sligl:lit~y 10\"~H~:t level, everyt~i~g created may be "CaRed a.

result of the Acdt)ns (¢ft1.~ o.f 004

U:ndcrstand 'chat [evefYth]~ :frllm ,th~ fhlrotn~ to. &e earth is the cr-eatioD. of God ,M~o,!t H~gh; everythi~g' bult ~is eri'u,~nQe' is his AcdlOtn~ He brought them into em~~ertiJt:~ ff.~m pure nenbeing, So it is 'With, whaJre~f ,IDS ~)trigin~t,e.d in ,his kIngd~m ~Qr ,et,e'rnit'y 'Md1!OU~ end, Tn& actions .o~ c:r::ea:t~~e3 are ~~ ~lle creation of God Most :HigTh~, althoug1h th~ are" ,aoq[Mi:md by

_ _ _ 23

crea 11ft'S.

W[thh'l, these' parameters adcp~,ed ~'mm Ash'arism, the Essence, ,Attribu.tes", and Ac~ons of ~i(:'jd are 'nrt primary categprles fDF undi€.fStanding the di:vinte', :r~a]ity' and its relation to the world,

,falialli]e~ ~th ,the8le >careg~':ri~ t~f '~h~ divin~ u~tur.e are several oosm,ologic~d t'eRn~ that 'play all, :imp@![lb111~ role in :me:taphys:~cs., Ch,let 'iirrlb:ng the~~ are ~he ~wo terms, "throne" C~r:sJl1 ,and_ n~ij~tRt,~~tIU (~fSl~ ancient s,yni~oIs dl'a~,_ fr~m, ~h~ V'?jC_~b:ll]~: ~f druvlJl,e king~fuj,p.. 'Tlu~cs~ are of course the ~h rOBe and fOl)mt0~1 of

G(;uzlll as m~nti'on~d in the Qp'f~iD. Tile re'[i;giou~ imagination has created lUKul:ia)]t tlep~,ction:s of these 'Q1titwes, as, for ~fl)5t;afJje~ 'the theorv rtJu~t both thn)ne and foboitst·eol are, made out of '~mm·ense

" . ~ if . .' .' ~ :~5!"'"f"'11r;..

jewels, or that the throne :ru$ guarded by a 'M._qg~d S!erpet~/~-, .L ~-fese

fanaasies are u:suaJ]y qualified b, the .admonklon th~,t (}od does n!!Ott have ·'&patia] :aittribn~es\" so 'Chat rnro,ne. and 'foort:9ic,O 0'] :s]j,Quld be' understood ,~nlboli~any as tclietring to G0d'~, ebsolute authori.1ty,. 10 ,any t~e~ tbe thf\QiAe is the :~Qfdle$t thrnng in ,the creJ.lted '~ni~ne; visually ;oo·ru;,e.ivl~d) it is 'the a~Je¥ ·()if dl.·e eos~o,s~ ~1.1~' p~inl.t ~thr.ough, which, ,the divine na:turc ma~ife'$ts to €r~attOD. ,Ii fto~ts upenl dl,le 'wattCT'S or ~h.e higheSif f:]y.mam,e-n~ aoo ,];t :rad:iat~,s li,gh~ ~hal mtrnct

the' :sprim:s or ~h.e smn:ts 1'.0 th~f ,m,\lin~ ~Qucrce,. 25 .

Ri :!biha n, :imquen.tly L~~~8 '~he ]}hrag~ lIl'fl'om, ~,be: J1!.-nr'IDne t,o' ,the

,e~;nh:I!' to irumClJte ~U of a!:~;ti·o(l, Odl~r :icmptD"~n~, terms, all~o Qut'a,l'li~ in {~.~ de:sigfl,are the di'fl€fien.~ w·().rmds or l~~;~ of T1eali:ty in creatioa, ~ 'Kingdom" (mtdk) 'U'SuaJly means the Vl;S;lbl€ wo;dd. Opposed "~o it are fvVO terms, r@<ugbly s.ynou~rmo~s,: uang1eJic realm"

. ' . '= . . 'iI1..' ..JI..JI. ' • 'l..ll~n~ (~~'~ 1 tl.; - cl~' ~7 1':'~-" .. ,_'·,je':.', (mo;itiIirt.~ arrd "the ,bJ;uuen. WOlZ~~ _ -a~jI';~ a,,;-gfWYf.J)<, .ne O:P-PQSJ,!;~On.

between the 'vis:ib~e' 'w'nrlcl ~uiJjd the hidden vV'Q:r~,d has an esclt~toro~~cruJ sense '~n tbtf Q!lr~~R~ ,as 'the hidden means the f1WJture and, espetwall¥:' 'the' aEttr]ife, Sufi references to ;rh.,e hi:dde~, world still! preserve something 'of this t€scha;~QIQgj,~ru meamng, btl_lit ,ru!t nQ'W mea:ns also dle realm of internal consciousness revealed ,thr-ough medilatio~;~l ,AJ]tbou,gh. ~N:eo;p~~~t.onic Jih~lo8Q:~h,'e:r~t1~~ _ the' term tfuilakfd as, an eq,uiv.~lent ~ror 'the realm of i.n~ele"~t_~ ,&u.~bibi:rn:ru gees, 'ihrus and the hidde-n w,(l(dd as dj~ :[GlCUS for his '~dsio:na{ry encounters 'Mcb :tngel~~ plfoph~ts~ and GDd~ ~Of 'nange·~:e realm' i _ is

" 29 _, _ d 'b .. .co '~Inlll 'Ulfl"'iik

the 'tra.ruia:tito'11 ;ld.op~d heJ!'€:. _" Hedescri .• es u _a.s,_ IO,~OWS: . ~,ww,e

a.nge~ic reshn of' the pruosf(i,c· is his _ heart, in. w'hich. ig' ~u~' world of G,()d~ 'the Wlij;:nders 'CDt tGo.;!~ nrue t.a.ritfue~ ,of :his secrets, the graces of his lights, 'IDe manifestatien ,at his R~8e-nc~ and Attwibute8, and the. f~s Q.f his AcOOI:ns., 'When one's h,eiu'li, takes on this ,cltar9lJ'&ter~ h~ becomes a mirror J~)r the an~Uc realm (](f: God .. He sees in. his, heart all that ~~s in. the a.nge1it. rerum, e1lth.erc Vfitb ~h.le [ext:eTmiW] e,Yt or as an. [in,l!~IDlal] ~:I:m'esg .. I~t As w'!! shall see, Rllz bihiia" s, visions give a tnj'nda~]Jt ~,est~mc(Jny to' ttie: po.wbUit:/ ef seeing ,ap;~arit~,o,nSI from th~ allge1ic realm, ~h~ 'ph.y~i.caJ eye.. I~ b~e"~ee~ ,th~ 'kj~d(jm ,~nd the .a:ucgdic realm is the wprld, ,~r !J'mlght!' U~DQ:nd?~, ~~1J~h phHo5li:]phers idl~n:ti'fy as the wllt:ermediare realm of pruato·:tnc ideas,

'. - - - '. . · l 3] D'" 'L'W· - '- - - - L.~ ,~~ 15ii;'1L., ·t . iii ..

d]te wOIJliJd of 'the' I" n...;UZu an sees mere as u,~e ,?CuS

for ,ex!per1e;~c[ng the ~ra;mful and powerful 'manifestations ·of the

Attri.bu~s "1rif :m_~.e&ty .,:3.2 _ _

Another <as!p,ect @.f 'the divine-human relation is exp(re~ed,_ ,~n :t~'~: relaticnifl or eu~rniqr '~Q titn~" The S~fi ¥l)c~buJar.y" is !nLd;ptiolJ:aI,y :rich. :tlJ, terras describing various shades of empha~is, in the concept of tWmtm'5sneSS~ t!IIPr&ererniqrU (~m~ ia e:b~rlll.ity 'c'dnte~N\ed as ' begianing, derivin;g frfJ(m the perception or di-vine power as p;'re .. ,

ii:¥' - " ilL d .

existent. ~~POStt=,et'6\n]it~l~ Ctj'~Q,¢) m et'er)li~rjl \vjl~-l[out en- ," an eM.tei1$1'O~'

of ,the :~el'sonaJ, :800,ge_ of duration i[1 tim,e. i\noth~c tetm~ u,e:te:rlThiry! (qid~m) wi tbtoU ~ q'u.alifiJC-atlo.~", is ~, more, genera~ rer,m (o,r, tim elessne:ss. ,Rfiz,b:~han. r'dl~cts on ,me®.e' ,as· 'follows~'


..-.'L. . ,,,. d .... ~"'"'~ h 0 •• D,"","":II!...

cnaractenstie ·an 'P'fe-ererluty .m, a Spf:t"w c ~ araet~tistlc" ~~ w.

,of them, has a t-aste~ a Iquallty" and 'a name thart is c~oaer to one of m!etn than the other; ~~Pv~-ete:rll;al~tyii is the appearance of tile majesty- of primardffi81~.ty t~, 'the s.piri:~~ iI;:l~thi:n.g; them in dle Hg,b!S ,af po,wel' .. '" " ~"Pos~,~~ternit'YJ~' is th,e .name of

II 1M 'i 'w";f; 1" Ii,'lIP;:;'-: jf'1I'1!< II brrll',ji. ,:,,j1, ';'C' a; sneeialchar . t .'..: '''t'-h i~' '~I

~~UQ .~"""".J.L~~' I I ;1I".l1~ .IlJiL .11:"" U, ~r;- '!t:r.LW, 'WIN ,ac .e.nsll,..l,c "W1:.' , . ,ia :Sp~""lal

:tnan:ite~:t~ltiQn and a special i[ra~n~l'tg,,, Seeing it l1i~c~jit' enCID~,~~s ,p,a~~ioD~t~: ,lave". ~m,~ma,]_ :t~i],~~l;g w1·~.out end, and j-gy and Ip,bmalt'y "VIm, the ,cljlIVlne umry.

Usrun,g a ~~caJ :r1hetDrica~ device for r~info.rcill:g the sense of tram~ellderaro~ ~ Ru,zbiha,11 an:e:FDJ. double<~ these terms, :mMl'1:1ng to "the pre-eternity of ,re-e.tcern~.tieil'll and "the pest- eterniJty of eternities, ili' The ;[olltr~~ti;ng term is II temporality" (lJhdatli)~ which b~kaUy means rhln§s created :m time, "Temporality is she name af something that [a.t. one time] tWid not Jexrust and then ·exi$t~d,. Its n~aHty is that a. causal existence based on the .kll!(]\vli~dge of eten1~Jt:y

bdngs :h into em:SJ[;en,ce ff9~'D I1nn-he:tng; u u3~ ~ .

n terms of ,my~tic~l psychology', Ru zbma,ll inherited a mg~hly d.eve~,oped technical '~~nD;inQlogy .1~];~;ci'rtg 'tog 'the states (fIl.l"ilifl,i!}, runcl stations (maq,imii,q as axci.cula.ted by earlier Suis,. $,i~.e~' these 'f~'a;bllltes, of Sufi reacirui'm1g: ha1~e been ofren di:sc~sse,d; mi~ ~l:1"mmary .M]! be limited to terms that are characteristic ,or ,R:n1,zhruha n. 35 The states are typica~y lQ~k~d. on, as, ,e~p"eriences sent by' G~d ~, gJ·~te~ unasked "or, 'while' the 8taUa'DS are the result @t the eff()ll'lt. and s:tri~ crY the' ,aspi:raut. The. states-are the part1E;o~jl;r so bJ~ct J@:t TlYt Uli~lifw' qfSee:rets, as, ,Rl1zbioon chronicles the: "events @tuu.wilings

d th r'" tr::. JL 1 r.~

an tne secrets a· vV'j;~neSS]ll,~'111 \s4) "tW;lat nave ,o~ctIJrroo ,to him,.

R.fizbih~n records these as tal1ng .p,latJe in (it v;a.riety' of lllode;s., One char.att~tis~ mode is, dIe emo:bo(l;lal palari~l b e:t\'v€~n Jt~pans~vel1eSiS (basf!J cand (;,onsivricbo,n (,qabiJ)., ,\>\,ffilich a;.re~ res,p'@'1lses to the Anribu~$ Q:f ;majesfty a;fJjd beaut}',

'These 3.;'(\e twD ;noble ~ta,~~ rot ,gtl'OOrlC$J. He ,gi~e~, ~Jt'm oonstriction ''Wfuth 'the w.rath ~ofunjty" 'the v1ei1s or.a.uthority~ ~be 8.\Ccum 1!llated Ugh t6 'Qf gr-e~~n.lel$S!~ and d~,e .mou-otin_g of .m:argJ]i6~n~ in ,their .llilea~l .. ts~ so 'tha:t they a'tre r;tm,I~\f1ed frdm ~hi~' 'qualm,ties, fjf h uman.ity,. VVh,en. ~),e gives ~fhem expan~vene8:t~ 'With the b~aur~ ,and, lQ'V'!iUne'S~, of ,the .AjtttiUlJte'g, llUtj, th.e deigh.t af speec~l, [with. :bim]l~ he ·gi~es them :in.'t,'~oo.C&tio:rtI1 and. purificati,on "t\d'ch ~h~ stat'e of ecs.tasy) 80 that:· ~h~y dan~e and,


listen to music, spea'king and JgDlwn~~ The prIDn,~ip~~' of €ofjs,ttrl.cttibn is th,~ ~.l11nruh;)aJtLQ~ g,f the eonseience in e~'€'rIT~,ty) wlille 'the p-rillcip~e of le:xp~!'ns:~wnes$ is the s.ubsisrenoe 'of th€ conscience in UU! '1f.i~n~ss]ng Df p:ost-e:te'J:Dity~ 36

C~ . ,0 •• d ibed j ~ ·ri 'l:"~nr ;,.(.. (11 •

. enstnetion, as · escnnea n1J ,j: liiJ.C IU1'~vtlw,r~: qj' ~e(,j.~ts) sometimes

resembles a ·'t::lIP'b!.-:.; iII'~- -lei! rl"lfnI' ri',.. .. Qr -] o,ih""j'"g. .:.; Iltd'l' . e'l ~I Ii ...... r "'!Ii ...Ji""irT'i'L, n~,I!'tit..t of ,!!,t"...:;!!rL. r ,;.... .... " .!l·~ .... Ift)'~:wJ\Ii"'" >,:i.r' iI;,J,'-~.~, alUJll,"-"_'~ :~J,. ,::y sp Uj-- crauars ".II~W·IL'~ ... ,

m,e saul Ru,zbihill, does not see ehis as a fall ftom .~aoe) h.owe-wr)

b ~ .' < f" .. '1-. d'·"> t'· 'L. • .. ,.

ut ,D an e'xpeneri~ O~' me .. lWn~ aspect o '~1Ta'tu~, It ~s: just las

,.. . ib.. ,.. • .' r -

]'mpo.rtfitnt as tne 'mw,r\tt,c:atruon @:. e~pan8iveness.

Other terms lQ,f ltlystii.caJ p.~chQlogy apt dein.ed :~n cjifft;lien~.

~ .' b R'= biha 1I!Jr..,.,' ll....iil r; ]. tho, ." "h

"iNTlbngs'lj1' : iU Z, lJ an" ,I." ~rtru,C'iILD.:ua:[,~y usenn In .]5 ·-connect~,on. 1$ t . e

~encQ'm. of S.uli i~r.m'IDn,oIIQgy that forms an appen dix, to the CO~~~ on, Ec:sllltic. S~,it!gS; some or these term's; are particularly rev€~g ,il~O'l1't the mrOdal~ties of spbi~;utd states, Also he~prul is 11e. Sp~~ Feu4 which in its 1 001 gt~aitiDf]S; includes :ma~y of tile idruosyn,cr,8.tic experiences of ,Jt:o:zhihin. Here I' '\~ smmply pl~"nll!, a, number of these deHnitirons. as an ind!;cadoD ,of the' ,pheno.m,€nOII~gy' of-sJiI;rituill e;qltrienc.e as .Rii ,zbj han, ,c~fied. it, Plr,d~~, 'riO" th~ :gfa,'te

d ;i.;L· t, .. "\~" 1 d . ..!~I d '.

am . the station are te[l1:ls, tllJw~l g~gnlll~ ess ,: eveiope •. expenenoes

circumscribed by' minuve qualitffive dHEhrence:s., ~'M,01il:enf ~ (.tJ-t{1'q,~ ~s "the portion of' time in :m.iediIt~t:ion (mariqaH) 'b~tW'een 'p~;st and,

,t: T ':::1,' "ii]...,. ,{" b 'L,~'..J..J .. ;1Il.. '. h

tuture, JJ. ~ rea .. (I~ 'ms tne ,gra~s, 00),' l e lliuuen lI,!l.~a't ~ppear m t::, ,1i3

heart, ur3 i U'Apf'zu'itiQn n (budiJ is i~l~ha;lt light of 'Mtn,essrung 'whl,C:h

appears in me I;H!~~[t in. the moment ftf mltdi~ado:[t1} :~n the :fonn <If speech," 38 u:Vism,ta:tlonJJ' (rtti~ is "that 'which enters 'the heart and settles in 'the be',art) elleo~ntering the conscience, It crus unIDike 'me,

~ . hi 'Ill.. d- de., Th 1... .. ,f;i '. - • ~

appamtion, W'~Cu alppears, and •.. isappears.. tie u:asrns Gfjl 'V]m'tatJ;co;n '~,

the Ul'lvehlling ,Qf dle gtqa~;, of tne grrnsdt~ \vh~c~ ,eo'ten Sp'01J;tanetJully ~ in-cR(iSm,g his. lo;:tl,gjng. n ~~,

Same . terms by the:i.r Viery n3.n1f5, ,oon.v'€)' the a,biiliity of fhese' le~erilru:l&es '[10 l1dlOck and O've'rloaa th,€ ,[~~.QnnaJ], faculties of ilie: ll'iIlnd" ~ ~Ons~au.gltt~ II t/u~ium} is I~'the' ~lccum,ulatior.9l of ~iphi'tul'l, 8'm-Ires ,and their ~st~tu:e :In conS!d,ences~ ,and the entry of t_he' Jsp~ni~s into the angeli"c r~~m in the rom_', of boldness ,a:mong ~h.;. :]i!g]~,ts,. 11,{;IIj1 nOven>Vhe~ml,~~\1I (g"'nlahi,~ aPe !~lthe':fHgp~ @rihe spirit in th~an~~Hic: :re~m\) th~ j,biurney of tnt oonseienlce in. 'mjgh:t~ ,a'nd the aJsSiiltdt ,of

i ~,-. '10·. f r-r~' ci Ii '! - -:.

.a ttra,ctl on, :m, rll,e: manlfeSlttallOn oOi dru:VInit;~,. and the essen.ce of p'Fe ...

1· ~ 'h;jf.' r" '~ '~,~t. f ",.' . ..:1 iIi...._ di' uI41

,etern~ ~ty, U;], t.· e :~orrn 0-: : _t~~Th~ qllaiung a sp]:nts antJIJ, luO"~ ,es" -'

nl.J\stnnimm~.tu (~'~Fa) is ":s.omle:thlng ~hal 'sudderdy enwn, )h-e he;~;[t:t


,C)f the gn.ostit by the path [ptf I1l€di.~~'li'~n~ which 'then asrol1is~,eg ~im" H~ r~]s, into the storrnof 'Unknowll1~ and ,gnosis, so th~t he knows nQthing ,any mare. The basis, af astonishment is 'the relaxation of the censcieace from ~band~ning the rse'ardl, eo comJ"re~end, the s~biSitance '0:[ e'reTni'~y) and enterin_g 1n'[[0,. 'the; D]uwled8'e of fate' in the form of total ecstasy, ~ ~41'2 ~ 'i'EcstasyH (,(.f}(gt1) is

"the heart's I~Qmpr-ehension of the sweetness .of e-Otlll:B~ering tbe lighJt ~~, f~~,ete~'n:diJ~'1f'; tbe ,. IJ~~riw of' 'wi:tJles'sin~r ,and, the d~~igbt of s.p eech, I~ ~ 3 ,All these rerms indicate the p'f'eva1~P£e of expenences of

the numinous power 'Of God.

Certain }rer terms relate- to 'the domain [~f sight and in'n~r vis1[()\n" U'~itooss~ng'! (rR:u-s_1i~hada) is [!"seeing ('jod with 'the ey'eL ~ffu,e ~s,piri~tJ so tlaat one sees h1S be3L'Uf'Y 10:n tbe level of plie~er:uee.'n44} "Vision pf :tl1[e heart" (rru).at {J,t=l]lZl'bD is !!gaz~~ :!it tbe kgaA:j[{!S, [~)f the H~dden. \vi~ ~e ey,e of' certa_rnn'ty and the re:zifj,tie~ of -tai'ch,. Its ~reali:t)l is. the enooantee of me' ,e'¥c of the spirit '~th [he 'bea,uty of nlight and dle a:ngefic f-ealm .. [~~4~ This kind of w~io,n is to 'be di5cjnguishe~ from t~f veridical dream (m)~ #a1il'Jt4~ a '{bffi1 of commuaication tta,ditionJaiUy 'ooc-ogr.ri2ed as oq_uivale'l1t to one farLl"'s~ parr of pt-ophaey - Vvhiile 'Ru z;bilii,n ,ack__n~wiedg~s me v~did~ty of the veridical dre,an'~ and Q[f rhe :~nspir,atioIi dla,t [~tCAJn, between \vakhlg and ar~.a:m]_F{g, h is a,bca¥e a~ the 'waking vjs~c;n1 Mth 'wbich he is con!!Cemed.46 There is it. rl!.lJ;J}d~ull[en~any '\Ii5ual1~aMs fo[t dlJe common term '~m,a,f:J:~re~tcation ~'~ (l4JtdltJ~ from its root me' of b:r.iJ~ianQe and clari tyt liG zbihin

~I ~.. '. ~1~",'L...:!Ii .' f -~ 11:'';','''': ''J!... f G ' ,

oenues u. as .- tne 1u:l'\l'f1l1ng (L t!,.t(~~~Jit '0_ .. ':I{)d~s care ·(Qi~ the hearts of

cb~-s€ who care ,fOr' hhn, ~ ~4\" "VhUe 'CheSf visual terms suggest the passiwfy or m,ysti[cal experience, o(he;r ca:tegories: ~tn.phasize :its reciprocal rUI;ty-)7ie~ as, ~ proce;-ss, ef internal dialogue wj.'Ch God. ~1'hl'~~t],o,cu:Cj.'Q[~~' Cwra/}aadt:/i':1 is IId:Th,e speech [Qf IGod ''VWth ~h~ gl',O~rif: in, the: place Qf-smbi]tt1f~ in the form Qfdi~vuJgjng secrets," MUlGh lik€ prii:y~_r ~ ! ~in.tima,~ 'OOll1;ver.~ti,on~lr (nz~~:a tJ is "the ~~€'ch ot consciences, during [h,e p,urincation [of ~f(!iCOU~ctilD:n, with the 'Gr,Roeful F eDlfgi.v[~f') in the: fQ.f.m o~ :~nrl]ge~llrt:e" II~

In any case, R:lDi,7; bi.h:i~ df:'SClih~s m.yst:k:al e~~F,~,~R0~: 3tS a5cm~rill,g beMe~n all'r.D:lhiJan.on ,and. su.bS:[S~~1r'c~~ nvQ Fup!es tbitt :rde1Gt the negatru.on ,of tr[~atf:id qll,aJnti~s :and I[h,~ :affirrruadQl'l. @f dbiJne one~" ~j,A11~ihilati0n ~'I[ ({ana) i~o !'Ild1.1@ depSJ:f1tlllre of knpwl~cl;~ l]l, dIe ~vit~essing [g;f, 'the a-nnillilation of the t;(1U1OCie'n~e h1 the light of the Kiti¢bln~ the' anmnilaJtion of ens~e~c~]n the 't$8~'1ae;e of unity ~ ili~ annihllatruon Gf ,CH::'fltatthond in k~itas]'fuip, and tbe


annihilation ,~f 'h.umafii~ in [akiwg on ~he' ' ... ua1~rle,s Qf GDd,,~~~o Its counterpart, u5u_bsiS!tence1f~ (btli'(J. "~ is "the stlbs_ls:te]]}~e ·of dIe s.Piri't in. witnessinH' ~thQut disturbance, rhe subsistence 'of itthe. eonseienee in.

'. 1 h b '" f ,-" t, ..'L. '

ur.iIJ.t¥,. ano ~,~ esu .5[l.'S.t~:m.,ce {)' ereaturehoed !by me departure of the

animal soul H'!15"~

'D U .!1I,:!_ :;:) CI' .;;ii.'I.!''' ~ ~- d _·-1 'M' 'b

~-' • B¥eUU1l:g; aau_ ~OE;_nlljlg~ -lL De' I'raD: amelltw ,< etap: -or

of MY'stil"aI £\

Throughout 'the' ¥rriliJl,g$ of' RijzbllihaJl,? a:atl particularly in T:fzt Ur,aJ'liMing iJfSemJf, the me:tapbo:r- of unv-mIDrng and ,c];ad;:dag tuns as, a continuous theme, Unveiling, as mentkmed above, is,· a kind of' trranscende:ntll 'Pf(f~pt~On. of d)e di,vine nar~ut"'e", wmci by i~ 'name s~mru, retains 'm~ sense of someone rippi'mlg rnff a veil, In it, saci.lety where veils €U'e M~bcja:ted ~th the, V'~ruling of wom-en~ the' ~()Jij Qf ulIDvemng hag, the eennoeation [of 'bmealdn,g ~he ba~r.rie[ 0f seclusion, of sudden adttUlu.~ce t6[~ 'in'tim:ac-y" LikelWise d~dllng has ,matlfY ,agSij-ciati~l1s ,@f a eeremonial and ritual kind, some of \yhwch relate to the investWtt,n""€ £er-ermbllie.$ of the caliphal cpurt and lh[e: panJId U~E of ,trliltia;tili~ robes in. S'ufism·, For lluzbihan, these secial '~')OljU}'o~arlo'ns are ,also, g,yrnbgHc of tire dynan:ucs of the: tivin~human re'l·alio,nsmp" Xno\--vledg~ of G@Q is a, pro cess of tln,ve~iUl'lg ln 'w,hichi ~he vci~s Df CFe,ared nature are S'lllGtttssively ripped a~y until, in theory aJ Ieasr, the divine Essenee stands revealed. Yet divine nlanifestadtltr takes: pla;,oe through vrus.u~ dleophanru,es of the ,Aurribute,S a;~d .Actions,. and when G~d bestows these 'quwilles @(Q ,3,. human being, this ,man']f~ra:no([) besoo\¥S ort 'hiun,anity a £~.otmng '~~,th divini'ty fUtibas). These ,~@, movements or ul1\1!\eiHng and cl( ereate [a. p~rmdox.", however) pecau~~ :!lUlY fdrm of 'maJ.g:ifesta~J~m~ no matter how exalted, p~&~e~ a 'barrier between G~d .aDd bu-ma,nru,ty; ~vEFf m~nifesl~'tion is :rune,vitably a veil,

f'oom RG,z:'bi.~i.n~! other W'l'itin,g;s1,cu1a:rly ~he Cmmwntw:y' (j~ ,/Ecskttit $p~s~ it is, d.'~·,ar 'mat v~j1ing is not :mere~ an d'b~mcle' to visi[Wfl~ bu~ .rug a symbow>ID revealing ereation as a t_h,eophan.y, RetJwrnin,g to t~e tef,m ["~dCithing ~th dljvmlliJt~~t~' (iJtiIj,ijs), '~ firui, 'that R,u:zbihan :]inksit to tViiO 'Fn;)phetic S"ayi:n;gs. th~t 'r-e:f;er ~o ftiffi,'rll1,in (mrd~ .as "the link beM1een IGod a;n.d humanity',. 5~ Fh.,~, is the w'Oll-

mo\m sm~~" (~~>ca~ IG,en~~~s 1 :'27)~, ':,j[God,~e~'~ed, ,~am ~ his a~, :r.gml~ ~I This. aS~le11S tha~. the ,~ua1itrues ofOod .hawr[~ been made

'pan ofhunlM natu're at th~ °time ofer;e'a'tWon (JrhoJq), TM' ~tber httdith


r(~ates a 'visional'Y exp'eri,enee ef M'U-bamm~d~ whi,G1\ he :r-eoalliJjs saying\) ~~ I saw ru;y Lord in the mos~ be~uti1Kul )Of {OrnlS,. n5~ ,a'()n~,ectrung the visruon. Qf God's foem to the mom,ent ,of creation ~s the g~,ttd, of the: Su6~'s meditation, in m1Jd~_f-''to'f()U(lVV ehe injunction of aflntbe~ iaiJj~ "take on the' qualities c~f Ged, U'SS l'IClotm~ mm diVim:ty~"; ~hus means, theQphanr bodl as the dili,vint mode O'f creation and M, tn,e' revelatien ,of beauty' iR virdol'lary form t(iJl the

an~~,i~"" 56 ~'''V~~''

The phe:n(lme[DJ,oJogy. o:f vcifing. and lU71~eiling is so Lmp ortant. a

~f~bj'~ct ,th~'t ,R:'Ctz.bihi'n has ~[se'"Whet-t d_evitt~d an entire treatise 'to ,it) Ul,e CQ,mmm~ry on VeiLS and CO'IJm~,,~7 That ~t takes the form of

a c9m~~~ o"'t:hePItlJl, ,h€:tic ,~~Jit1C, on dle 710~ O?O veils (~t9~'ub; astar~ that g~ra't€' God from, creanon. Here .I ~.,o~,d ~ to examme

this IJCIVMive ~bol;sm. in Th'6 ~ii~' q( S~, oontf,asting 'tll¥~eUi:ng as, b:,an&Qendefloe ¥lith '~!cL~"tJhing with di;vjnity~it ~s

,manifesmti'Ofi. When, seen Jwgetber." the~"~ ~@ tCt:fQ.s ht~p e~t"lain Riizbihi~in:s visaO;f},al"Y' €t'D:OOUI1'b!rn with God a") an endless g,am"e of hid~ a(l;u$ seek, A, t)p]cru e,lt:~.plf of 'the, dffiaJootic between veirmg'al1d clothi~.lg with ,(ivm:ity is 'the fOUOMr.t.g: pIS~ge:

The w~n~l~, of 'uni~l' ~wear,ed to 'me, but ttlEe '~ffec~s ,af the 'watlcl, of Ac~.ons :remained 'M:ch me. I said, 'IIM¥' God, let me, reach r~u M'di th~ Jq],l.:udity ofisona:ling u:nh",'I~ Thea ~,e wOiclld of creation ,a~pe~rnd, to me as tI·u~' moon of fuurt,~en ,days;

ill.. s '. ~I ~ 1.., t:: I-I if, h '" 1 ~ m,

w~:w,en Il1l rises u,t' a, 111 moon trom t (. e moumsrn peas, 'GI" ,~J!ioe

the spar.ks of smokeless ,Rmn,e. .God made me' enter 'that "'¥'Oi~].d.. I ,shed, the skin of external 2~tcrudef1lts, b~t I ~(jtLjd not get ,e-Qmpleb:dy rid i@f them, for' thar ~tt\,ti'Qn is, she s'ta:tffi,Q1;j, of ~\an~~itf, tr~sx;en.d@nDe~, and. ,ann]h~lattru,on. 'He, '~pl;ained ~Q 'me there the realities .of n~atru,ty ~ and my ,corl&:~ier.r~ was bur.ned" ]~ was, saiil to, 'me" 'I'Tins :~s the wo.rld of unic1t~l~ II and what I read, :m 'my book was, "There is, n~,thin'g like him" ('Qp't'in 42:: 11) (§1661.

Here RuzbihallJ begj;n$ ,~m a 't~velation that :~8 still :~nked te the m;af.)Jift~t~tiQn -,~r d~,vine Attribllltes; s~, that he ash 'God. to ,~&~ him appFoach thrt1ugh dIe "iS01attilOll (iajfllj Gf unity ~tawJ..i:tlJ; dIal ,rns, throu~gb !;1n~'t:y stripped ba,re of any mul tip,lt' ~pec[. G~)clJ shOlWS; ,h~m a vision, of lC~e:a:tiotl ~ril'lij $~,_gured illto Jtne wodd of uniciql (wnJ,JiitJ:iJ!FI/.), ,an.d ~uzblhi~1l ~t~ecIllP~S '~ij, u.ansQef(ld his :~]bni~ations by medding his creaitu:reilt quditi~$ a$ a snake ,sited$, '~ts, skit1~ 58 His


,efto~t fails, hGweverj, and when Gad ,e~,la~ns roeaUt-y to him, he is eonsumed, This ·aM nonsttcu'te-s a vlfsief1a_ry' oonnn'~ntary' on a famous (;rUT' ani!; text on Gad 's incomparable-transcendent namre, Inc this, ex;ampl.f·~ the' actual J.n,t;tap1;a,o:r of un:vciling '&8 'barely aU~de~ ~O' in the ,imitgJC ef a. snake shedding bs sli~j 'fein[u'~ced OJ' 'the image @f bu:rnin'g away limp,u r~ties~ S tin) ~~ ,prob~ew~ of transcending created 'quaillities ~s a:mbipou51y ju::ttapas:ed 'Mth the

mani"smtjPl] 'fDf divine quaHtiesr• '

l\,llzblhal1. :reRe.cts more. genemJIy- O~~ the problem, of representiog ~he dlh4ne 'trarD.soendeno¢' 'in aE {!~leDded vision th~t also comments on a, ,QuriuEc text on God 's uniqueness,

[ saw him after '~d,dln~~ t as tb.cIUgh be appeared in a. thousand kinds of beauty ~ am1~)ng which I saw a glory '(If latty likeness, II and he has the loftlea;t lile:ntSi [~n me heavens and. the ~a.'rt]l,] and he :b 'the' m~'il¥l' the ceJmma[Thcilj~'lgll ~Qp,r~,a~ 2,0::27). Itwas as th9ugh '~t weve' like the glory' of' th~ lied I'QS~

,~I iL.,'." '!'=:1~,,,,,, ' B l!:'!-d':C bid 1io'L. h 'L ]. ~l~

ano tw>~m lS, a ~1\U'::IiiSi. I ,'ut WJ.,~ IOfUli· iHa~: ne J,ta'V€ a lk.eme$~ ,_

"There i~ no Ukene~$. qn~ ~im"IJ ~Q.ur.'an 42::11}~ Y€t I: cannot except by all, eX/pression jl 'and this deooripti6D :rns from d:r~ p,enpective ~fmy weakness and '·'ncapaeitw and mv matckof eomprehension gf the qualiues O'fet'€r.tlJJity~ 'In me riwr '~~d ~f pre-eteTm'~' theee are'deserts and \YM~elam,ds ~run w:hich dwell, the snakes of wrath, If one ,of then. opened its mouth, none of ,crea:tio(ll or t,empo,ality 'wDuld ~SC~P€~ E~wa,r~ one wno d,eserilbes the pre-eternal don\d[iJJab"r'~ ,['011" ,in the oceans, @f Ins unicity aU Sphics and oon$Ci~ltl9~S, are d;rQ\;\I'l1.ed.~ and they v anis h, hl the s~blimitie-s 'Q!f hws g'Fe:a.~negs, and migh~ (§8'7), ..

'Rt1. z hihin strng§iles to !r;{;rnJ:ep~uaJi~E' :his overwhelmibg 'vlMOR of the divin~ he~'U;~' 'in ~re, theop'}1jany of t~l~ red ,~sr;., }\~~hO'ugh these are Sle~i[ltU'ral :mppons far eC(Pcci~iin_g God. through fr]; l.uoon,essj dley are OPlp~Qs,e d to an (Jther fDf'gnd that powerfuUy :'" ~ sists on dru e :~ncompa'rabruJjty of the di¥ine' nature, Rii,zbihln tCOl1fesses. that this 'is the fundamental problern ,of the ~n}adequacy of s~Tnb olism, but to convey this he ironicaJly :r~.rts tQ more djt.lm~'tic sy-mbo1$, '@f dhnnrt wrath (m3k~'j o,c~;a]]g) t~) indicate how' :~,lkefi,e:ss~~ a..r,e: 'CQllSUmOO ,in ,infinity,.

T.h,c; QsciUatru.QIl. bemreen di'Vine 'man~f~stat1"001 m:nd c,QITceajment ls' vivi&y conN,~yed :in a dr.lJmatic pa5s~ge WolD. the di~ that :~ecoun~s In :n.lulll~ed ,dietai, 'the ,e~pefi'e(noes, of the' ISufi~s qu,estin.g SJj'

soul, portrayed as a bird. in fligbw; as it ascends but is thwarted by its own limi arions,

I saw God from one of the windows of the angelic realm in a form . bat would have melted 'all creation from sweetness and pleasur .. H~ spoke to IDle and was kind to me repeatedly, I remained thus until the tune of the call. to prayer. The doors of the bidden opened, and my ~ird flew away m tilt: form of thought and temporality '- 5~'killg the beauty ·of the ,men;iru~, 'who, b, exalted and sanctifiMr ,: ut ,~t \tWjs, not ~ble to tfl~Il.r\ers~ existence, because it reached the t(~ro,ssing poirlt 0.£ temporality by k;n,()\yledge, Dot by 'witnessing', and heynnd that it saw nothing bu~' blindfless and :lm,agiBation. It ,@lid not perceive ,anymiRg of the tights. of sanctity, and it suffered, returned, .and besitased for Q, long time, 'God manifested run the :rorm of be.a,u'lY~ and be put me? in, his. vision 'With. perfect lOrulging .~~(f his nearness ;~uld union. Then he hid and I was idle,. e manifested 'in the fb,nn of nlajesty, and made me bewildered and passioaare \t\qth hi'S eoumenance, Tl11.en he abandoned me atld hid, and. the" sweetness ,of 'Mtnf!ssi~g' him remained ,~.n. my hear ~·i. e scenes ,of the breezes o,fhoHn'ess, dried up m the st~rion of intimacy~, and the ,light of awe filled .my h~a(lIt, as {h'o:u;gh GQd were next to Ole in. the fOITn. of greatnesa, sudd tiJy. My thoughts and .heart were confitsed, and my spirit flew, and my intellect fled; and my secrets csoled o&: and my ecsati -' 'moment was joyful, He mspro.;yed to me the

.light of his gWty' (§ 160)~ ~

wml~t is striking about this account is tbe sense of movement ~nd. . nceunter a bac 'k and fO'f' I between the soul and. 'God that is never r: 'Sl' lved. The ascent of the soul is b~ockedJ 'God ma:t·lfes~.s and. hides, btu there 'i~, 00' 'finalli_'~; dns alternation between manifesting and hiding occurs. in dozens ,of passages, The. problem is i"nsQ~uhle through knowl . dge~ for that leads olnJy to blindness and (as. Rii.zbihan s~ys, el$€\~he~) ullJmQMng~ for :R'u zbihlal1; only mystic al. modes of experience such as witnessing serve as a. medium for encQuntering ,~ od.

At times Rii.z·bihaln \VaS ·f:rustr.a,red 'Mth the Um:~Jtations. ,of vision, and demanded that God take him "beyond to, 'the divine Essence,

'1 saw IG,od in the form of r:najesty and beauty, farce and

greatness; I saw' by intimations of d.othm,g 'Wirth di'Vimity, and, I said, Ii', :~l',y God, my fii ' __ d, and, my:lord, how lang \VilJ you make l'IDJC see 'the chosen visicn within (he ~mitl of clo;tbmg ,¥ divi.nijty? Show' me pure eteTn~ty and subsistencef And he said. " ::. oses and Jesus periSh in tins g~arlon. n' And 'God 1" .. ~aled himself in an atom of the Hg~1t of his eternal, essence, and. my spirit nearly vanished, Because of dl~t ] feared d,eath and. the end of my life in tba. interval, in my condition at that hour (§45):.

Even a hint of' the ,revelation of th. Essence is almost enough to, destroy 'the visionary. 'Yeii he must continue to ask for vWsion and more [~l~UlL 'vi8~on~ ,~jke a beggar.

G . .Jl . il"~ ..,jl ~1!.... ......::1. farea d I b ..J l OUJ. unveuea to me tne vens Qi _ greatness, an ~ saw. eyofltot

th wils a ni~jesty, force, power, and mrugh~, and oceans and lights, which are impos'ible to show' to creation, I: was at the door of greatness fike a b MId red. be,ggar .. e spoke to m from the pav]]ions, of greatl1l€ss) sa;yin,g~ '~lBeggar:~ HO\1V did you get 'here?'1 ~ ,'~elt ,cxpansave ~r.d him and said, 'UMy God :my in,end, and my lordl From your favor, generosity and .munifi:oenoe'u (§55).

The tf!Dsion 1il etween absolute transcendence and the necessity of manifestation is never abolished. Rfi.zbihin insists on hi th, andit is the movement ben.veen the ['Vo' that 'er,e,a:~es the dfnamism of his


e:x:p erience,

n order to express th trr.ansce·nnene-e ,of God" Ru:£ ihan occasionally resorts 00 conventienal theological :Lan,guage, particular the formula "without [aJs.king] howl! (bt' ,~y.Jj; pietist g;rou~ps. such as the . '.: anbalis and hh -aF']'S used this phrase to ]llsist on, tb, literal trntl) .of seemmg1~Y amhropemorphic scriptural ,passag:es without engaging in intellectual speculation about their modalW.ty.

He transc nds change in his singleness anti cannot be: encompassed by 'hils creation a. I was wratch[llg God,~ a~_fairiDg th unrveiling of Attributes and the lights of the Esse nee, and 'God manifested his eternal face ~ 'without howl! 'to m ,'C heart; it was ~JS ~tbQugh I 'was lo,sJting at him with the external eye, and the hidden world shone from [be. appearance I~Jf his gl,o·ry.

Then .he appeared and hid, repeatedly (§92J" -..

'F'Of" R'uz bihitl, this phrase u'mti'H)ut hOWI~ indfuc~[tes more than. au ,abstrac~. fidl~ijst creed; i! describ es a vlSW[i;1, t~;3!t 'Cannot 'tae d,escrilbed.

, . .

I~ ,an~:d1e,r ~'~xMl1p~et; ,,:e see &Ci;zbih_an ~ie~~llI th.e ro:nt~s, ith~t appear t~) h~s. eyes~ ~,eekj.n_g a wansee~defJ:ta:jJ V!Siroll; but d~spttp this

G .:.J • f:: 'l.l.. Rl t· ~~

1 ~=OUJ, mahlw;e'St~ to. mm In a. numan '~Aeness ..

'\tVh.en~'V'~rwrond[ers ""r the hidde'll appeared to me as mapes, I ,reject..,d theme! until I saw God !~~:thOUl how;; II Mdl. the

'Qyua5ty ,~f ~maj~sty and 'b~u.ty~ .'. '. Then I 'was ,~~~onish~dl in tbe primordiality of God~ and 1 ;$a,w' him in d'iJ€ most l;.n~,'3.illltirlid of 'lQnns i I droffiJ,glilt ,in :my ,h,eart~ '!IIHQ'\v did you fall from the world of llf]it~l to. dl,e statien of symbcls?!~i He came near and :t@ok n1y prayEr carp~t~ g~yillJg) '~I Stand~, 'Whtil are; these :~'O'U,ght8? y eu doubt me l' so I' made a likeness 'fif my be,a;Mty ~D four eye, 80 Y'~U \voUld ~~ fmniliar 'MW me and l@;v,e, me," 1'1.u~Te 'were ,liigihrn, o(f :maJesty and be3iU'~' u:pnn. him rhe 'number of whie,h I ,ooul~ not C01U)nt., Tben 1 saw him at e'Vlery :m,@ment in, tire beauty ,~f' another [fcni'm] (~117).

Althougb the 'm~n~fe;ita1ion ,of God in form is In tension m"th his tra~nscendeno~ both, modes are ,irilbepent in the -di¥]IU,~ namre as seen from ~he human :f.h~~l'Specdv,e'.,

'"'hen lluzbihin ~ll;€,di~:at~s on. divine uansiCiel1de:nC!e.'~ :be $Qme~ijilTeS appears ,a]Q'ruost to 'be 'trying to oYnwQoo, himself that visions 3,'te ff!·all~l .not to bp re:lies4 tI:pon. 'H,e asserts standard ~dl"mul~$ ~bout how' [God is WhO've ,ammo ,ctre',a~t:d t~in~,} neither swmilar to creation thr-OQlffil atll:b:rnpom.oq>his:m. (tas.~,tk)~, DOl' cut '011 ffQ'lTl .it by a'~~rtt,aclion, (kl{(ft). B'ut suddm].y he is taken air guard by a divine m,3;nifesmrn,on., aJJJJd. Go d appears, to. him in. a ',nft:d form;

Goo. tr,aD~et1ds space and. bme. ] wd to myseJ( u[f ,m~g Ike these _~sten'l1 and ~emP9\t,aJitr ~$ted MW as l[reaJ] e>mtm(1~'", then the :iJre of thaJil would e~sJt ,iot:e'V'u; above ;)nd beIQ'w~ to the ,rigbi£. and left~ bei01"-e Hod behind, This is Goo" whQI transcends all O'f rhat. I[€reati~n] and ,[~nrJl incarnation :~n it. Ho,w W '01n6 ~eJt,G~" and who '~U, see him, '1fGod does not 'W911t ~o 11l.a:mfest, his ~~n~ ~o h~m? lie subsists in mtis

. , ~ d W U

essence :~n, ]J:rt-ettt'mtj anc pQ$t""'~ten:i;t'l'.. 'was at:lt'Onbh~d by

seekmg;> and when I saw' ,~jm, ill the {@tlll (l~r ~estY' and beauly

" L . 11," if'l).", 'Ill.._ "'t:' 1 (;"~ . ij~ I . "

:~m1(' li.10USe .. m I~ ~e ril~st ~6aJ1J]O!lrl1 'o:~: :IO~~ was ,ra'Vished:~ ,~n:

love,) ~d ~run Itlngingi ~lld my love and ,~ction increased . ..I'll,


my er~tasy and 'Spiritual state my heart did n.i~)t remember' ,th,~ s:toty elf ruuthl'opomorpoolU and a:bstraction, fo.r.m se:ein;g him, the 'tracts of ir:l'teHed:s. iilM s€,_iernc~s. are erased t§:[ 5:7).,

'The,[)[l<Osgl1ca], formulas vanishbefore visions, _ .

RU2~b~h~in oeeasiceslly uses a :rh.etoricFll d:_ev]ce of doubl1n,g his terms to indicate t1Mni1} ~l'tulsaen..Qlence~ In this 'way he can, apRly at defined descriptive term '~O Ga d, b~t at the same ti'me be, indieares ma;t Gpd is b eyl~)l1d th,e; limit:atJj,oI)s 0,1 the term: ~ II That is, the state. of the nearness of nearness, the pf\ol~dm.iJ1ri of PJ(),~rnity:; the' union of unidn, 'Thai 'remained until be a~mhlla;t€d ~vB:m:ylhil1l e;xeep~ for him from, 'my ~h,ought and. my oonSlci,eJlqe. I ~ema]t.Hil in th~t~ in the essence of ,the. essence, ,a;l]ii the reality ot ,reallty {§ I 26). ~[~ This rhetorical d.oubHng of terms s~§nifioe~, ilie ttan~C'enden.ce of the fimitations of th,e, 'cer>n1, while :fH~,eserving its: :modalit'jl.

Ru zbru.ha: n does defend the legj:thnfE!i)cy of vil5~O~Si} ho<~ver. After ,r~~o1lJn~ing ~ visWOll in \vhkb 'ehe all;gds arid rn,e '~[()phets, weep at hearing kG. zbihi,]iJl"$ ~(rds; and God murmurs h~ approv,ruj he addresses his reader as 'fbJ1gi~':

'My s0n~ whoever 'has suspicions ,ag'lOiut ,th,~~ unve~nn~! does so ~t1:l the s~$p'ic,ion ,of aD;J;thropomel];pRr~~m; be ~. not ~ttaiDI unicn :0.0(1" achieve results, t1~.uD{tI,gh he scent the ftag~1U11[,eS of sanctit'Y and, inftim~Y'. These :are the exp~rience~ of dl[~' ho]y) the i~~te<~1.da[ns err '~e sublime, ~u~d the ~:Illtion;s .of 'tbe ttansaE;~deJItaJs,~9J 11(m~{tg the, l,erfec:t ones, Tb~ :people ~f f.fdigitm 1leCOgnivf; that 'they are liO'iidilly 'comma~ds.l' lijppea[-' anoee- of the ligh:ts of et'e1"nit1(', and q~alitieJi of fl'u~;Atttribute8 b:y' means ,of the .ActifOf]Jj (§B4).,

'VWSJli1!:H\S are nd't the ,resu~ts arc an'"opam,QIIRhic theJQ~ but the 'producJ[s of divin.'e fmw(f:,; Those 'who -reduee ~n,~eilli:l1;~, to fb~ status, of abstract dectrine are; in, :Ru zbiha:ll' ~S vi,ew, inc~pab~e [~f

• ~~, .. 1!.. -~

lex~enB:nC1~ .. ~ 1!J,.I.'JJeU.~J..,

Vi8~,on;jJtry c!{pen.enoe is :not, however; Just any kind of bizarre in®et11ru ~:K:Cti'rrerH:e~ Rij1.b~il\l ~]p.]ayg a keen sense ,af diHeW:M 1ci~ting' kinds of ]nt~n]aI e)fperi~[:);f;.:e 'chait are to, b e ~ie&ted because 'their source can. b6 waced tOI 'liow~:r ~y€hoilogic$I,eo "":rllis . di~ffnnifla:ti.on $tillle~a8 him to a. p{;sidve: eY~llu3,JUon. of vru_$~DnSi and UkeDess¢s, ~F Gnd, ~nQ~' kno\vi:n;g- God as ~fes;t tnl'ough th:es€ 'Ve~B '~s neOeS5al"Y' be[QIot one can. ~I~W 'God. as hidden.,

One mght ] was con.fronted ~vid~ psychic imagjrJJl;Jtiouf;, ttlivial imaginations .and spiritual imaginations" I 'tore. their veils land saw theiw w~a~es) and I tho,qght about SOme 'of ~heir shapes, from the sigh I! OIf which, my heart flledL iIy breast was. constri eted by the vision of some of them, and I was. astonished at my pow] degree" untM the' btauty ,~f IGO!~ appeared to me suddenly ~ and there was such loveliness and beauty that I cannot describ "t I ,s;aid~ . fMy God! 'Nhat are 'th S ,·lik,eness in ,.vhilch 111av bel n 'veiled before w.ib~u~s~i'n,g?n .R.' said, '::Tws. is r:QI~ one who s,e~ me 'in the first un'ei~i'D,~ ,~:fmy ln~esty" until he kn,aws·m€ thr-oug~ these veils andthis :~s the s~a:ti,on of gnrnds; one 'w,no does know file.' through them is net a [~ru:ej ,[nower of me, This is the: station of :Slt~~i,ving of th people ,of '\1\Jjtnegmng'. ,;~ Then he made' me enter 'the Vi il~ of 'the' hidden" and showed m .. ' hws attributes .. - ith mos,t of the ,clothi~g' of majest~t and beauty., Then he hid, and I abas d .mysclf bero~ him:" because I found the' sweetness of union and the pleasure of longing for be,lut}.' (§ J 80).

Once a.gainl. velling :ms inseparable fro,m leI,viNe ma:nife$ta'ti'@n~ as transcend nee is 'runse:~\arable fro,m, dle hidden.,

_ _ ~h~ ~pple,arM~e of God in vrnstonaLl1' forms ex~.ended ev n to Ru~blh~n's lexp€rllente of otb_T p: 0- -je;;rtd indeed of the whole ~'Orl~., Jn a characteristic meditation involiing the romance of ~o~ph, and ,~~y~ij (as, told in ~:ur,a 12 of the 'Q.uFin), RO,zbiliin 18 :~m'mlened In a, theop.hany of divine beauty.

Th~w _ his oeauty appeared to min. djft"etent kini~>s of people. all being, ,kind to me due te m~y s.ullsis'tene-e afte.:r anniMatlQm,-nr in the qua'litile~ of pre-eternity, Hie, wined me ~-rmth the '~ne' of intimacy and nearness, Then he 1.& and I ~aw him as the ~~rror 0:( crean,o'D wherever] faced, and that was his, saying, ~I~e~soevle~' yo~ turn, the~e ws. the face of God.1I {2'., 1 09).. Then he spoke to me affuer increasing my longing for him, . and tbat was afrer 'I" had, it ifh~) and- said to, mvselt III

_ _ ,I ~

want '~O see his beauty 'without '~D'~eITu:pDon.,u e said,

'!'R~member the condition of Zv]a.y,kha and JQ~eph for ZuWaykha depict~ her m;r.rn t,o'Jo~pfi in all six directions, so' that J~,p:h did ~BO~ see in a;ny. ~~e\cti~'n 'Mtbou~ Sf'e1ng her fon:n .. ~~~ei . Tllls. I;S YQ~r condition w~ ~~h.~ abode of my maj'esty., I saw God from every atom, thoug;h he transc nds


incarnation and an thropo morph ism", But he is a. secret known only to those drown-ed run 'the oceans, of u~rlity and 'to the knower 0:[ the secret of the .aetions of'eternity '~n, the station 0 ., passionate ]]0" (§1191).

V hen, Rfi zb.iha n warns the reader against interpreting this vision in 'terms of the heresies of incarnati -':n and anthropemorphism, he inds ates that this, is instead a vision of divine b a'uty inaE, inspires IOVie,

Wid]_i:n tIle: overall context of lllnV'ri]ll1g and clothing ~th div,j,nity ~ Ita zbihan interpeets r.nY'stica~ lexperience as ex.clusi!,ely a product !pC divine grace, '0 ameu n t ef thoO'rizing about divine ." uri' utes or operations ean bring about vision.

This is a spiritual stare, and its s cret is not ffiijde p,ossib' e by th ' articulation of these lordly s eceets, the producuon of the Atlribu~e, the appearance of gr:ac s, s.u.ffi,cing mercy f or restful blessing. .: e arouses affection in. his. servants. who .are &nostiies and levers, and were it Jl{lt f.ol:r his :mMoir~ how would they comprehend th ligp[s of the sublimities of his fiiu:e~ from keep~n,~ ~o~pany 'witb .. the accidents of tetnP~T?ility? If he alW~a~n:~d with the perfection of: his power, all of creation would ~e consumed, Do. not be; concerned, my 'in,cnd; the Uk:e. Qf these unveilings have descended upon most pm,hets .and the sincere' ones, but. they have not repor . d it except by the u terance of 1~lcJo['hing wi'ch div.inity",,'ji H;B transcends anyone

eonceivi . ~ his, Essence and Attd:butes by 'the atrributes of individuals (§ [ [2).

The reports about I , od from prophets an.d saints are nor deceptive, b cause they are based I~P genuine un,re~]mgi transmireed again dl:rough the forms of prophetic and 'saindy reports that are theophanic ~'!cla[hings '~dl div.ini y~11 :u:hOLlgh these reports are admittedly limited and ~] Dot by t'he.msel:ves recreate 'the nnveili Ig for anyone ..

So markedly did unv"eiUng domina e:~llzbib3,n'$ inner Jirc tha he !evidently abandoned at a faiF],y , ilt"~y' s.tage in his life ,the Jpi9cific, meditative exercises that the jSU:6$ call "discipline" (1'9i4a) and m~ ~triv~ug I (tn.,.gnkida), an~~~ the' dlikr chanting ~\r ~oo~l_ec_b0~ _ of the names of God" tn a ,~hJy lJ]'llU~SU~ passage, he recalls having ~ bandened ,th~,~ practices for over ,twenty y'earn~ suggesting that


~his ~\~:ru.p~. departure :rrom standard Sufi esereises ~oo.k. place 'when

Rl1zbi~ibl w~. 'thnrty-6.v~.: ' ,

~ ~~a1],ed the Clays of dliscipJe8:hwp )anru the requir-etn1ents "of s1:n~,ng '~hat overwhelmed me, and 'their :falling' a,\va:y frem my' heart ·fQ(f· it space of ~we'Eu:f l~JtarK I :~ai~td. ~tbout dj~s.~ip];it'li~ ',~)r stri~ng; and the chants (6l1lrlrnr) ,of the masters ,~ndJ dlewr ma,ny ~pfe~eding clisIcipiIl.aty eaercises :feU ,away. ,from my heart, as mou3h. 'dmd net a:plpro(~ Oif d~ m in th~ court ,(),f gnosis, For gnosis, vviili. THe makes U~ or grace. and thli1~ besides, ~IOO ., [i:'e., besi!iles dmdpline and stri~n!fl, for ~hat, ]S; m~ g)1;O~~ J~.f the 'C~'mill'UD pe~ple,. ,]B'ut "' "~~ct-eJd. nl')!' th()~ght m mat~ and 'was, coneerned when~¥N ;3, tbought

occurred to my hea.t'lt A 'visitation of the hidd~n befeU "m"e ,~nd ~?_d. 'w,s tllj~€d '00 -rae 'lvliff1'. The :figt time was in ,tlu~: form of b;eauqr" and the sl4cond lime h~. th.~ tOlrm O'f ~3\tn~:s;.s. I ,~oQ~e~, aJ.t 'the be,I[w:lY of his fae~ Mtb the '~re of d~!t:- .h,~~"~ a~d ,~~ ~~l~ 'to !D,e', , "How can, tbJey reach me by grrhiin~ and dlsc~pbneg~, If :my noble. face remains veiled 'to th.~nl1 ThCS;t;, ,ar~' '~,e e~[~e a~o:ng 'my '~G~len and the near ones among '~:OOf! gno:s'~,?S:; U~e~ 1~ llQ' w,ay t'O''ffie ~ept ·thlftio,ugh. me, and by 'Ole unveiluIg, of m~ ,,,be~!ll~r~!~' "·,~er the ecr.'tasru,es, th~ S'prunmw sta(~, a,~d t_Q,e ,~sltaoo,n~ I 'returned t9 -the creed. 0,[ llmty and th;~~ election o:f: ~:ms. iJ1vO't lhrO:[lg~ 'w'RatJale '~heg,,~ ~o w:hom, he Msh~,. as .he: i'Wlsh:~~,~ ~ ~i(]race is 'm [he hands ofiGpd~ . .h~ gj.'V'es it m 'wh~o(m ,h~ 'MJJsn (317:: 2g). And the sw!e)e'me,~ .or that l~rrfa~ned, ~n.tu. [ s]e,ru (§ 164)., -

.Even. as _ Ru z'bihin recalled his unusual depalttrre [110m. Sun. practtc~l: he rbru.n~, this; ~OU!h1t '[OJ be a distra€tt('jR' :~,om his q~.~s~. \ro~non~ and 'indeed ~[tJj, ~he ~ubse,quen:t. ~eri,eflJCl~ 'God spoke :~~I@~t1y 'tD ~h~ poobl€~,. of grace in relation to &on:' and Tbe ~sw'~r. ru~, lllla~bigud~s: graee~ a~ exp,~rieD1~l)d. ~hrQJ'U~ the erJ~t~D~e .of mysacm. ~xp~denas, is dle only a;venue' to d~e fullest expel1ence of God.

B,t TIteop,h_es 0" M'ajesty

!h,e 'fnanjfes;ta1ions of 'th'~' div.iJn.e Attributes iU'C cli~ded .in(o 'MO basit categories~ rnaj e,sty· (j¢ft~ and beau~y ~ma Q. T.1~l~: s~alildJud l~ami,c div.fusJio'ri afmv.Wtl'e: as.Jpeces can ,also :bedescrlbed in '~eruts of


wrath (qalu) and grace' {ludJ.6].'1 Though dUall1!Sit~~ 'ill ,~pear;, this is a wa:y ~f portr-ayb:Ig" !God~s· ,acthiity· in relation to the wur:ilid. '~n tem ~s of ~po~a'ri,'ty ~ 'This c~assjfi,eatioID of divi:n.~ A'tJtriblllt~s ~ll~O ntad esty and beauty is well kn.Q'Ml ~amoDg' Su:ijs~ and was 'p:robably d.eveloped itliiliaUy in .sun eir Ies because of d1ff ex:peri,entiru ,resu~t:s, of -rtl;e,dru,Uldlrtg on di.€ divine names. Hujwirl links m,aj esty· Ute' experience of awe' (A~Oa~ i>ud, be~uty· \~tb. the experience Df ifltimauc¥J ('UllS). He states that I~th:ose l'Idl!@~ wimess in gnosis is the beau.ty of 'God ooo:th;m;uatly IQ~g for vision (m ;a~~ 'wmle those who$e 'Mtr:U~:~ is the ma.jl~~ty of God can:L1nua!:y :reje,i;t- their own,

d '1..·' 'iL' ,. ",-'I-. :U' 62 B' ,._. -

an tlL[~~r nearts are m tne. JS.t2Ut.~ Ow. ~a:We'E II." ·'~e:g[nnt.~g Mtl.t the

theophfliuies, of m~Jes~, [ hlclt1d,~ under mis: heading several iof ·q,;ul.veiLil1g8~ all '~h-e' visions ba',Mfi:g 'l,j} do ,~th ·~uJllho:Jjity~ including the ~nruti~6c 'WSi'Q1fl3 ~ealing' dl.@ status of R.u.zhihill; '~slon~ that d.eS~1,fube the Fela'ti~n$hip between ~ainh1 :and 'PF€tP.h:tts as :~phit1l;]~l aum..©riti~s; and pUf£; th.eop'banies. of divine power,

'It 'rna:y seem odd al first ,gmna~ to devote ~QD rrmeh tim'e 'tQ visions

b ' l. ~ R .bih = d h ,. . ,,-ii!..,

a out ene status QI 'UZ,ilJ~a.n, an ~)'L er 89;in~.~. smee 'Lwwey

;app.aren. t~y concere humaroc 'b emgrS r~ch~r than '~hie d~,v1ne' At[rib,tes 0f'm:ajest~l'. At~et all, th~ Mtl1essing of the Attributes of majesty is supposed t~ erooge:r.rder ~ll. ahhorrerrce ;9£ flaw,ed human charrac.[~r.i~,tit~i In. ~la;,~ng R:u~ bih,i:n 's initiatic visions under ·m.ft heading of theophanies ,of 'maj~g;ty~ I ,sr~st that ,the k!ey to his, rhetoric of sainthood rests on eXprnel1}ces that ~ak!€ 'OoU the divine qualities of au. tho ri ty ~ Far fl30m bej;n;g fal']!.ci~ul p\oodueu, of

• '_cl'-[ • fl d ., ;;:.'il.. • • 'k if:' .... L

(;osmu:;ru. 't In- - ate " egowm,~ '0 iese 'li/tS;lom, pa.rtaJ .e Ow: tile awe-

~Ilspirin;g maje" of GQd~fJ '@Wl1 ,l:u,th.@rit~t,. S,uli tnimbon has incllrpof(ared irn'l'fO its e~-r]~e:S:t diaJO'g]~at .pl~~'nouncements ,the rhetorical (~.3:tu,re~ Dr the Fo:e-Ishtmic Arahs" bor~tblg cont~s!t

( ~,e, I;.,l., '\ 63 e di J' i.' AI h ~

~n~ fl,A,ift~'ral,;," ~,t;ale7ments r~gal"'" ,- ng one's spm tual au t .~ o.nrtgy

partoek 'af the. :r.i:I.UR~ fGm~ o.f the b~asting COJ"lLt~s~" eve~, ~s they ;~ef'l'~~ ,as,Ge of 'o\lle:t3 g,pirituM stat.~:., Tfuis '\\'el~~'e~,,ed ]J1terpr,eftive p1nuciple \~ bMje to: th~ undet$tall,{ing 0'£ ecstad:c' in gener~ as wElt'n 6~m]ij~s mctlLlLm. !JI1,am 'the Rea:] (dl~

T ... 1 ~I ..JI~II'! d' d ·:.1l11 A. Ill" h 'h·'~!· .Il:rL.~'

,~UY1~ uO':!, ,_'~ ~'n,'_~l:istO(j" ,as ,eVl:o,ellCt; 'o~. ;~.e aHln~:ha:lllp~ ,Gw.~!-i'lS'

lego!. Fo Etl.lzblhan '$ V1~J@ill~ ]node ,®f le&(J.) €n.e noe',. ther,e .tan be. nij' :kn.awlit.;lINie of die ~ra;nsoell,a,en't mvlllle :Esse~ce '\,,(~.:,

~' ,

c.j~)nseqtlend.y,thet\e ,can be :no knIQ~w~,ed~ (>~)ii G~d vrith9U.t

, ' .. 'DL.' 0, _~I' '" , 'k n ,..l b- • •

'\!'lSl'On3i."~$., Jl~ IS ~,cwi tmlu:v:em~~ It S;ld)U £.I, )lot _. e: surpnsul,g

that :m.ysucs "la·.f t1~,e' rUDist ·cr-.u.d'sl role ~,th]n iL As ~,th Ibn ~Arabi,. 45r

drue. creation ~ ~nd above aJl the saint - is <es;serl'~lal to 'the milmrefttati£]lJ:l of' God,.

,l.ifl"-atll~ Visions

RllilhU1]j[iJJ"gvis:iQl1)s, record :bffi spiri~MJ:ru au th flcity' in, Vti(f],ed forms, On,e: [Otit:' the most $ttrildng visionary s~q [ru~OC~,S on. the' ancient cosmic; ~~bij[lism oaf ~he ~rld-\mUs, or poh~, t(j'U~J, w~i[ch, run S\lTI ·thought is ti]l€ 'tid€; of th~ h~ghe~t o:~oe ;[lWJ the hrrisible ~~il~!ra.Flcl1Y of 360 ~m1'ts~ Ri!1i':;tbffibi n. has himself e~a.bor:~ted ,O;n the nature of the

hi '[L,.' '1- 'f h- •• h e • " ~4 ] hi ,,' • "

.~e.ra.reww.y In, 8€'~F€m '@I", ~ ms O'b - er 'W11.0n~,.' 11 t , rs €:alif':lIi,Y 'vtSl,on ~ 't)N:O

n).yS\~ericn.;u! 5gurc$ dressed H~~ Sufi masters, b~t l09~;]_ng jus~. :Hk~ Ril,ibiha:,n, prepare for him a, meal consistingl of pure w'hit'e bread bunered \vidl the oil of the' Litd€;' ,I ear. T~~i:s protl:Ojul1.te~ent is n.ot so ,e;pjgrn~'(ac M it Jin~ ~ppeaTS; t]]J,e C!cn~t"~U~li~f:ID of the Little Bear (U rsa 'Mjnor) ha:pp~n$ ~~ 'be the oo'nste~atl,on. elosest ~Q th~ eelestial n,@rrth pO,l€ (aWsQ -ealled qil'i~:b in Ara'bic)) ~round ~vhruch the heavens ,l'\evf'lv~. 6~ the idea of ~ ~diIJ£: QH of 'th~ Lit~~,e ,llear]~ WS a:pp~1rently th~t ,of ' a. ~~ir:rut~aJ oi[ reduced as an essence :rrom ~h~ milk of i!n€ L~:tde ]B'e,ar.. Her~ is me te~t) r€l~rding a vision ,se,~n (~tn dl€ roof or Ru zbihin 's house:

I saw' 't'\~Q handS~lme, shaylW1:s: in Sufi dre~l, who l~~kie'd lifk~ me, I $~l;W a ke~Jde $~spend~d, ,run the air, a~d the s,u[cJm, of the tvw~ sh~;fkhs bpmed 'M:th a smtbrtle' burnrung~, without smoke. ] saw a ~~bleJcloth ha:ngi:ng from ·th,~~f" tent, 1: pe~,ed ~h~m" and tn€)' s:~nhled, mcm.g me; they were go~d-loO'hing sh~ykti~" One of them ,took his 'ttd)lecioth. and opened :rut up" and, ,in the tabl~clotJh was a lo~ly 'hawl and some loaves ~f pure 'whi"~'e bread, He btrnlc~ sonre of the ,Inalv,es, in the 'bowl and (l;ve:r the bowl he ~pendoo fbi [contelIts of the] ]{.ewe" which was like a pate G.]l~ ~}~ha~ss, but 'Mth ~. subtle spiri,'Lual s~lbg:~nce:. Hie' gestured t6 me, ind]i,cafing that I $b.o.ul@j, eat, $.0 M ,a~e ir, They ate a lit~,e MUl, me, until.I ate -it ,~dl. [On.e ofthem said, MrD(J'D~t you lumO'lIv 'whaill. was 10- d'te lte~tl,~?~" I ,s;ajd,. ~ 'J[ don ~t .know, !~I Ht! slid, UThis 'm the oil of ttu~: 'Litde lBe;ar; ~ g[ot 'it 'fo[r you. UI When I g'Ot UPi I dUdugirot a_bcriJl)Jt it" btlt it wu [so:nl,e' ti'.me Eart,er tha~ ] reru__s€:d ~hat t'his 'Wll'8, an alluSID'll '~Q. th,e Sev~ill pollies (qu#;s) 'wn the an,~~i~ tJe~dm_. God Most Hig~ chose m,e fof;' the p01l]jre e~srence of their $m}lti.'O\n_s"~, ,and that is tbe f"aflljk .of the sewn


who are on the r~c~ of die ea:rth. Then I turned trerward rdue stars of] ~he' Little Be:at~ 'and I saw ~,at they 'were sev~n wind,O'ws~ from all of which God 'manJfes4J~~d to me, I said~ 'uM-y (~od~ 'Yhat is tffiThi$f,!n G'orl:;t, who; ~ra~~<:endS' ~v~ry :imagination, :fHUQ; "These are ~he Sleven, windows of 'the d~r~ne~1 (§19).

In ,th]~ vi~]on) t~e synlbo~Blll "nly became clear tel R~'Zbi~~.n 'a'rte~r some thonghr, Tbe entire iraaden.t sho\VS, him ,abtor.wlg' the' ~pirimru essence of the' seven stars that i"ndicak th~ ·sewn. ,-n~b5 or p'o·~,es o:,r the \~~~kl. In th~ sequence 'r:~~o~~g tThl~, vlsilij~ ~~J .' 2~!) ~with 'pola-r lflngu~ge eoho~d 8igairt i~n §Q5·~~6 ,and §.185)~ R:tI;zbill~·~

1 .. , . , " ""';;11 An' tfh- rO;>f<;e. ~,P: .... iIi"!C' '~~' ~ h'ji'IoII'Ii'llClid' Fii~"'~·· to heaven, and God

,K,eeps \\1,~p, y I", ,,!!;.~~t.:A!Ii,o!! _ '~U,!I..l,,'d~l''''' -~ '!i

mani!fesfs, to him ftri.m, the [ittlle B~a:F al1Jd causes him t'~1 undergo u~,t(Nld tl',Rnsformabgn$~ until be annoaaces, 'I halve c.n.o_s,e~ you, in,

_. II TL .,~.. "h t

your thDe, 'fQ;~ t~ $lta:bO'D or~let '3ll .10~eat)ilu'\es, .': -," .w_~e_ Lm]l.''~n,~_~a_

'bega,ml '",ith the heavenly :me~l, a,dnu,nu~tered~f ·igu.[€fs ~~;~o~u~_ng RUzbiliall.'s inner $,elf; f111)]minattf;~ wru,~ the affirmatl'Oh O~,h~, stalt~s as the uniq~,e ,8pm,1!(ta'~ 'fig:ure of ~h.e' -age., The arcb~aJ,~ 'cO~rnlIC subSU,aJt1llill '['P' the '\d)iO'D rdnf(ifce,s '~h,e importance of the' visual

'\<y{):r1d .as the locus of spir:itlud mamlifestt;(Iltio~,., ,.' ,

The in-~tia.ti[~, of Rilzhihan actuaJ1y b~gttl :ffQUl the ~e:ry first 'tlf~i~tiljn;g,. rmm[ed~2\kly after ret:6'Ut;lA!ing his., 1J-Qjoum, ,in. P:asi, ~w, 8hayk_h J ama~ al-Din, Ru.z'bihin records a ooeet revelation or his [~\im ,spi.rituaJ], -9ulliority.

I SalW God on t~e roof of my hou~} Mth dl\f quaIJ,ti[t~_ of might, m}al~ty'" and, pekmb,c~ ~ 'Saw as it wl~r~ dl,e wor]~ e~tire-, a resplendent lig~ht~ ,manrufdldl. and ~ell\t And ,h,~ called me 'rvo:m 'the midst af the ~ll~,t? in ·~e 'P'€:r8"ru.lU] ·~o~gue:,~ S~~ri:ty trumes:: '!'Riiz bihan! ] ·lulv;e ehesen yo,» for saintbood tlmli~l md selected ,ou f(1.r love. '~ou are my' fmndl (~I; ana, low~., Bear J),~:t nor sorrow, fOI I [am l100Tt (;o~ and I k~eepl w,atcb ~,ytt you in y;(),ur e~e'f.Y' ,~dm. i~1 ] was lweeJi~g, and I 'm~eltd :~eatedly~ Th~n ,~teatl"$ j;;jf It{!sta.s:le.;s[ Sle:tze+d m,e, I "w~ ',o~~~~,~ln1ed 1;)' sobbinig and increasing cnes; 1 rect:l''hJ\ed

mu£h b~essin_g ,(mm 'that 'f~ 4).

As iChodMevnt~ P, ~mt~, ,~u~" the i~JUD€tiOn. ncitb!@;f' ~' f't_ar n[n~ oont)w is, aD aJlusi0n ,to 'the Q.url;a»i[t p,Hsage ~ 10::16,2) " D.l0~!t ·f[t:oquendy qU9Jted, In, rer~~n~nf;e }~@ sainmG~ d: UTh~ friends 'o.f: Geld


have no fear over Ith,e~ n ither do I[hey. so.rro'\t\r..llmi From the beginning' of his spiri,uual career, Ruzbihin. is certified as: .a ufnend

f rl ..Jf'!I! ('j;,jlVilttt •

0' IY-OU' .W."-~l or S81nt

Ruzbjhln's visions frequently allude to. 1,js. 'status. as the unique saint of his age. '. owh re is fh~s IDOl" dr.amatically aflirmed tha:n in an extended seque:rtlJc (§47'''''''49) that curnmina'tes in. the: j,defuj]i~atiQn ,af R_i]-z'bwnan as the vi ·e.gcen!l!lt (IrJUll:ifa) IQf God on earth, ,t is importan.t to realize that this o'ffice is [0 'be distil1gui~h,ed. :from. kha£f{a as \4oegere~t or SUCC'fmSor to the Prophet; i.e, caliph, Beiog '\fie. ·geren,.i of God is a role that the Qurin .assigns e~pHcitly to

Ada~ (2;30~150 ~ii~~n is. here. singled o.ut for a.particuhltly cosnu role, IllS '\Q,S~Oll begms '\;w,tb r.evclatJJJns of GOld s beau:ty in a scene of great intimacy; alter tender oo·ttviBrgatru.ons, RG zbilian recalls~ "he g~n!e IDe to drink 'MIles [.f:Qm his presence, lWines that I am unable to describe II (§41)" At this :pOitl~ R.i zbihii n inq uires a:baut the prophets, and God informs him that thW haw been .annihila~d in di.vinity. N:One'tbdes~", tb,ey appear. along m:th the first fourcaliphs and a I] tbe ~uJ,ge~s" and God sbowe:rs everyone with roses and pearls~ After Ru.zbihin. receives a, kiss from all the: p.rophets~ angels, and caliphs, God ann unces to them all:

'1 have Ch6SJel'1 my's' rvant Rfizbihan for eternal happ,iness; saint_hood (~ya), and 'bount¥, HE,d ['have placed in him me r ,eeptacles, of :my Ikn,owlle~e and my secret; ih_ affai_t;$ of separation will nor befaJ]68 him ,af~er' rhat, . haw preserved him from ,disob:eying me a11er ~hal and I haYle made him. one of the people .of s~bijity· and l'ectitu.d.€~ He is my vicegerent (/tJialffo) in this world and ,tillj worlds; I l'orv~ 'Whf)BOe'fel' .~o~s him, and E hate whQ.~~Q.ever hares .him~, .'; "one ms.ob~ys my

J·udg~ln·.;Sin't·~ and none reo ~~I't!>C'f,t, mv · ..... rder co" '.-. I _ m U "11'100, who

.' : ,,,",, " ~ " I~, . - . u '''"''',..... j v . k')' 'or !£.I'll: , .... ' ,. .u II' ii:I' Q.I.:.... .. _ .

acts when be wishes" (Qur~',in I Oi:::[ 1) (94:9) .

. his br,e'athtak'Wng display of divine' authority before the supreme leaders of heave'n and earth serves to Indicate o':nly one thing" Ruzbihin is' ;lppo'!n.ted as. God's iiep~t:y Over creation. ,Ha:v:i'~g received the djvine lmQW~,€dgle and secret 'R'il z hiha n is also (in .~angua,ge reminisoe:n t of the attribuJtes of the. Shr"i imams)

~"'proheur,+·.:.d-II ("o!"Il"~;!!u"it. . -~ + d t 'riI!u.m'\ from sino di 'L.l~ .

". '-''-I.Ij.:.J .. ~, \ ~~M'i:'c; f~U'j, rela ... e'. "GI' mfl; ~Jifr"'1 Ih..Jo.' .;Iilli. ' .. 'or '.' ]S:OUileUte.~ce

to God.

On one other occasion B:ilz bihan .~e~'I1lrns to this same statement of his selection ,a~ vic,egereot over creation. In this case th,e.


lRu.zhihan Batqli

look U~OD p.\a~ with ~.Gllging for the meeting "vi th Rfi.:z·bihin U (§96)." On many occasions God caressir gly or ~hunde;ringJy taUs. RCi.zbi.hii.n by' name (§52'~. 94, ] 04,. 183, 1.3:5, 204). R.uzb~h[n joins. the'p\fopbers and .angels in fJi.ght like it :falcon; rerurning to th·e· wrist of God to 1'\ ceive Iris endeaT.rnent~ (§] 'g' ,. 'God sits ""rl":h him and. weeps Hke a lover ~ assuring bi m hac he: helps him and watches ever him while he sie.ep5 (§.~ 98). '~'HI;e I was th' below d of God~ and. he lQv"d me and "Vas, kind. to me ·\Wth a kindness that none ,of God'~s creatures 'could bear 0 hear "of if ill: t'old them, except what God 'WiIlsll (§1-48~.,

R;iizbih~:bl '8, authority is further c:anfinned by the'r-opbet MullaJlllmad who appears in many vlsm0n:s. On several occasions; the Pro,ph€t (fonlow'ed by other prophets and sain IS), kisses R1J1ibihijn in scenes V~tlli strong iniriatic .associations, some ~1111eS also givilng .him a date' to eat and a 'tWlban (§2'9, ,491) 20'1). One [engU1Y enc9unter. takes plac in the 'deserts of etirn~.zy:.

I was seeking God in, the deserts of the .hidden. I. saw rvruhammad en the paths. ef those -deserts; his staturoe :~s like Adam's, and he was 'l¥eari'ng a whlte shirt 3J1'd a 'Pure 'white' turhan; his face was Iike a red rase a- The AttrIbums announce him; s:m~ling-, as his face ru:h/an,teS upon the wor~d. of eeemit}l' in sea:rch of God. VJlen he :saw me, he drew near me; we were Iike '~Q strangers in til,€, desert Mdt the same destlntt'[l;on and purpose.He was kind 1IQ' me and said U! am ,3. str~n,ger, and so are ri• u; come with me in these deserts so that you J.nay seek oGod}~ SQI \'V~ went on th pa·th fOf jOJOOO yearrs~ sitting at certain :pla.ces. 'vo eat and drink. He fed me and treated me Jdndly~ like a stranger t:lealing compassionately with another stranger, Wl::l,en we approached 'rbe curtain of eternity and 'the pavilions of pr'~eterni~), we stopp ed rO'f' a lOll1g nme, and did not se Ood, '\T·e were concerned about his absence, Then ,God appan~d to ..... u1)ammad, and I saw

1I!..·~m"-· ' _ ,ilL 'p' 1 ..... J ,,,, aim ~'I.t7i;.n'~ but '''~.'11~ 111~o' 11.:!:'_g ~;t . II"r .. Jl1 - d

l!Jm :, pe;rll.~a;S .He .I~IIi. , .1' ii:Uv"'~I!.r~. '.I...l~ ,".'·a.~.!!!v KllI ~ '., '¥IU an

how hie dealt with his b-'~Qved. Time passed, and secrets QC. urred between them -of\tvrucib] was unavvare. I ~bou,ght in. .my heart that I saw tn.e'm. both, and d'ley both have accr pted me (§~, 20).

This, vision :~s _ more ~~llmb~ot1s,; ,Rii.zbi.ha:n is present ,P:rl_ITuui!y as. a wittl~:Ss and foUO'~I' of the Prophet 'On an enigmatic itine:r.ary- in 5Q

,Sle.;a'h IOf"'God~, 'but 11ih~ end, resuk is dla,t h . is accepted by both G(H.iJ

and. the Prophet, ". ._.'

Ru'zbmhin s 'wn:i, scenarios include other pr!oph. t5 besides

Mu'11,ammad. In a vision that recalls the vision. of Ezekiel in the Hleb~. w B~,ole (' "·zekiel '3':.1-3)~ Ruzhihan receives the humy boob of the major prophets and eats the scriptures, ,~gnJfy.lng his complete inte l;alIDza;tjJon of ih: ir in~pira'ti:o'O:

.' sa:w in th e hidden world ,3, 'world illumin,a:ted. from a ~~'hinln,g light. I saw' 'Gad in the clothing o:f maje:sr~r., b~a~l~";' a-nd glolry;; he' poured n16 a. drink. from t~~,e ocean ef affeGtw.on, and ,he honored me mi!h the s,fation of intimacy + He sh01\t\red. me the world of holiness, and 'wben I passed through dw.e a tmos-pbe;fe ,of eternity, I stopped at the dOQ~~ of pcrw, r, , saw ,all, '~>e pI\op:hets F,'rescent there; I saw MO!il~SMth the. ·~ra.h., in ~·~s hand, Jesus '1\it_h 'the Gospel in. his hand, ,I'a;v,[d ¥11th the:

Psalms - in his han.d) 31)d Muhammad 'mdl, the Q,ur',a;n in his hand, Mmes gave m,e the Torah to eat, _'esu8 gave me the Go~p .. l to. eat; DaVid g,av'e 'me the Psalms to ear, and

" uhammad Gave me the Qnr'in m, eat. Adam gav~ m . 'the laos: 'beantifld names [of God] and the Grearest Name to dnnk .. Llearned 'whalE lear, M ,of the elec divine, sciences for which God sing~ s out his prophets and saints (§.s'2)~

The kinds- of knO\lVledg~ bestowed u:pon Rl1zbihill we~ by no means-to be a degree i'n~b:riclr' to the kno.wlledge 9~the p~o,phets,,:. Ie 'Saw' IGod Inanifest to him as God manifesred. to, Adam. In. paradise, and to Muhamm,ad at "the lotus of the' bQlund;ary:~1 (Qur'itn 5,3~: 14)· (§ 1 02)~ Replicating tll~sle prop'b_,e'cie exp erienoes i,~ impW ied by Ruz' iihi.ns, sta.teme:n.t that "the oceans ,of sainthood and p'ropherdlood m:tlerpen.etra.te each adler ~ .. , ~ n (§5)m This principle' receives farm in vi.s:ions s~·o'Wing th.e prophets and the :a:ng,els dressed. as 'Venerable Sufi masters, in the comp~ny of great hiS'tori~aJ Sufis) bef,ore an of whom Ruzbihin peri'af1llS as, at lure

:pl:ayer or an intoxieated dan!cer (§ 130,) I H8)", ., ,. .. 'c a a

:R.izb~han eYen goes to the €:xtenJt ,~r cha' his, '~n~ ding

by the term "revelation" (lVO/g}t a term mnudlly f\e~e~ed :fo~'," ~he ~!Kper1enoe of the propheu <lJS dist~,e~ from, t~ie u:wnspiratm~~' ~i.~{j~~ of the sain ts, In a rare aUusI0lR to ,hIS poetry, Ruzblhall characterizea ,~t as a 'b)prqdtuct of this. revelation .. He ~,es on ,tlo Cil~ a 'Qpr)anic. :passa,g~e that :refers to GOd~~l 1(~lvil1g overslght of the


Riizhihin ,Baqti

abandoned infant Moses, implicitilly compa'ring hils revelation. with that of the Israelite prophet,

.~ Ie agitated me so that I would compose poeJry . and applaud, and weep, "and. ~e made 'me pass alway." M~y 'God. endow us and you with abundanr great miracles and "exemplary! The source of this, the encount ;r with special revelation (wah.)'), aft 1" I awoke hut b. lOire I arose from my bed" He said, lUI' endowed V'O''U'M'1ib a love from me, so that you would he nourished in. my sigh~q'j (QJ,u~';'an 20:3'~). I kue\ - that be lNOul;H, come with gjJr.s gf secrets and sparks of Ug1:-rt t§ 83).,

The visio,n concludes Mth G-'Qd $umnlo.l1ing Ruzbihin to the. eel stial pole again~ another jl]l:usooQn to, his ~piritua~ status, EI sewhere (1,18'1) Raibiha,n. consoles himself tor his s,uffi 'ring (the death ofa favorite 'wife) wi h a. Qutinic pas~age (6H: 1-,;) addressed to MU~a]1]]jlnm;d~ reassuring hims.clJf [of divine faver, .: lone ofthese pa.ages gges. to' the 'ext· nt of me strange announcement at the beginnhlg of Rfi . .zbihan's career, that identified him as a proph, t. Still, ,thilit unsettling camp :ris()n reverberates at a Qi'stanc: . in tliese visions where R'(iz'bUlj n _ doprs prophetic qualities, Th :~~tion between propb~cy. and: sair:rthoucl '\Nill 'be taken up ,~n mor .

d .-..~1 l' '

I ater on,

A fiirther set of'initiatic vlsi[o'ns show Rllzhihan. in relaticn to 'til great Sufi sawnts .of the pas aad to n_gun:!s such as Ali and Khidr who. play speciaJ initiatic roles in' Sufi$m~ There ,is even a ibri~f appearance by th~ fourid~rs of lh' foul' Sunnt leg-Gal schools (al~,.h,ifl ~j c, Ab'u:.anli'fa" Ma:bk. and. At}mad ibn ~,allbal); all with slnJaiveu heads tik,f Sufi. noviees, to congratulate Rfi z'bihin (§'1 [gg). On initiatic vision portrays Ru,~bihan fi,,wnuning across an ocean o:f know]edge th,a t had previously Oldy been crossed by ~.Ali' (§ 1 7); as we shall see below ~P" 1. :23)., trus. visio n was n~inb~trplie't€d by Riiz bihiln l s de~enden~s in the direction of ~ Alld :pi,easm", to become an instance of the [grace of ~An rather 'man the attainment of Rl1z'~ihin. Similar i~ .another ea~iy vision in. 'W - ich IEDe' immortal spiritualguide Khidr offers Rit2lbihi:n the Jii: ral fruit ofgna8is:'

At that time I "vas .]gIloran t of ' the sciences of reaJitiesm I S3\V' KJUq'f (peace be UPQ!Jl rum.), and he gave me an apple, and 1


ate a. piece [o.:f~i!~. Th.en he said, "[Eat] all of :wt" flol'" that is how 'much of it I ate," , , SB,i''''V as ,~t were an ocean from th,e throne to· the earth, and. I saw nothIng bu this, It was Jlik, the- rad~ance of the: sun, and .m}" mouth open d involuntarily ii and an of .it entered into my mouth, Ntit a, Clrep remained but I drank it (§·].16).

Here. as Ballanfat poiUb out- the image of the apple recalls thee fmit OIf ~tl'~~dige ea;~n. <~ ~dam, but '~or-. R~_2bJh~n .. i~, ~,~ '~'ffie~S~l~] fo~r attarull'ln.g pIDusu, of divine truths rather ~han a. fartndden .frul't~ In

both these visilons~ die initiation. presided over bv the esoteric , . acher signifies the _ transmission of a. knowled,ge {ha~ :~s truly

•• 'L. 7'2

oeearne m Cw~' ra ter,

" ot aJI of the initiatic visions are clear a~sertio.n~ Qf R'ilzbihi n;' s authari,ty, er a.t lea$c we should stipulate! tha,t the roWe he is to pbl\y was not always, : ear. Lnl~S .is. tbe case in a disturbing 'vision 'that '~n.'[(s Rfi,ibihin with the "figures from the invisible hierarchy of' saints known as the [··~bs,titutes (alJtia4" next in imJPO!r~ante to th cPole, Here is how R,'ij.zbihan :saw Thlimfie1f in :re~atiofTh to, them:

I ,p,lung£d at fb,€ track of eternal d.a\W1 'WD'tO the blood of lb" &U.bS.tirule5; and he .maniIe-sted t'haf to, 'me; and Twas dyed in 'the blood of the Substitutes, I said [00 myseJ~ 1!"Jl\Tho am, 1" ,~l'mong them? :Pef~]apS' I am on: of them," I s~\'w a dye· mQ~ . delicate than that dye, above their dye" and. he indicated that that was my blood. I went into ecstasy [!10m joy) and cried 'Out repeatedly (§-158),.

This certainty ,d~d not remain, for on, reflection }ta zmhin wondered if this vision might be: rela ed 'to an. earlier experience in whieh he saw himself slaughtered by God" so that hiis blood fiiI.ed di!re'hes and tbe ~ul,ge15,ted themselves in. it (§2H); it was possible thar the new' viswn. '~[ a :por{en,t -of disas~eT, as the previous one had tum" ed lout to be, But he asked [aud~~,. help an~ quickly lost himself inthe stations, ,of mntilll3cy·. This, identifiea'tLon of R:uzbmhlrll vrith the rank of the SubSri.tul~~ 1f1.0€S 'not seem to have 'been of great importance, glven his other visj_nns ,reIDating: to the Pole and. , p~sition~) but he later briefly records seeing the Substiiutes in tl e company ,of KhiQr and Dya,s and dle '-"un Bmnts~ perlo~ing curious, actions (§"173[ 181).

As, discussed above, R::ilizblhi,l'll makes ,sca:rcely ,an.Y mention of

living' Sefis, but from all early a:ge he bad 'been drawn to ,peri'r}r[1U pilgritnag!e to tnE shrines, of the saints of old. Ax the condnding part of ~LlIJis. reminiscences .of yOlllth~ we find Ru.:j.db,j hin rel ati ng' a series of p.ii~gdma.g,:s to Sufi, tombs in the regidn of Fars (§ 1, )., These were not e~ui,cdy weU""o~all'JJized tounS1! trips, as be, and his companions sometimes lacked transport animals, . and at other times got lost at ni,gbt in frigpteni'ng places tile '~i. ae pass of' the, jinn." During' this joumey, RUzbjhin. and his companions were

once; saved by an apparition of a tenth-century Sufi named S.haykb,

1 a,tis Abu Muslim of ~i, and 'wthJ,eh ,they reached Pasa they went to me shaykh 's tomb to ,ask, pardon for some unspecified tr Insgression.. "here R:iizbih~ln. had a vision, of 1 the masters of ,-bcr ',', azld," evldently the masters of the great €ady Sufi "bu Y az'id Bistiml; amDng . ~hc, descendants of tit < $haykh 'buried tben::.' his led to a further series of ,tis~o.n~ in which Rfizbihin saw himself ide-n:li:fi;ed. as the "camel df :God,I~1 of Qur'an 7: 7' 3." ,R 'p oint c'Oim:ffi.nned '~'n a vision of Sha:ylih Fins and the most [amJDUS saint of Shlrn-z; Shaykh Abu 'Abd Alla'l ~bJ1 Kha.Rf. iYili ,'ugh the, content of this unveiling is. elusive, it is. s~gn]fica(nt 'that famous SlUns of earner centuries come forth to affirrn the status of &u zbiliin.

he role of 'the local saints, of Fars was ,exwemely ~m,pOi1a:n~ :in di~ certification of R..,uzbihiin~s position, but the inidadc visions reporting' these affirmatiecs pertain g,.nly to! saints of the past, :111 0:' instance Rn Zlbiha n rep orts,

. saw myself as though I were in Sbiraz. and 'thee doors of beaven opened, until I saw th.e throne and the footssool. I saw 'the master Aba Abd. ,AUih ibn Khafif and sll ~he ,masters. ~~,parating 'and gath~ as if t}u~y wtte antici,patffin:g tbJaJ' 'God 1<VO~ld summon me there, God l11anifested to them and they were sighmg ana moaning in that moment andall of 'that was fwo! I tbeir lo'nging' for m (§ l03)m

This gen.era1J appF,eciation ,Qf Rii,zbllian ~y the saints of Shirae had a. particular gjgnifiGanoe when he w,a;s Jhriing in, and, was thinking about mOMing to Shiras. ,At 'that tune 11 confirmatory 'vision involVing the. saints ,of both places testified to good auguries fgi the move .. "ilzbihan saw' himself in a graveyard in Pass, and saw a saint leave his tonlb 'wearing red. c~odleg" \vith a red hat on his head. 'VV]1ien he s~oQd~ wi 'the masters ,of Pas§. stood ~th him .. Tb~n they came 'with him to Shlraz~ and when they drew near


The Inner Structure of S·amthood

Shiraz .. ,ill tbe 'masters of Shiraz arose from their to 'welcome them, 'until 'they reached t~e town (§ 13 6.)~

;,eyo\lld the circle of local saints, Riiz'bihin relates striking' visiens tha~ show his ~[attrn1ship to ·the most famous of early Sufis" These visions partake of the rhetoric of b03SUmig' 0 ,R remarkable d zree: the a ssei tions maude here bv R OJ zbiha 11. are :80 e.xtrav,ltta'fl t

- , b''''''' ' , t'! . , . - 0)' , ~ . . o~

that they deserve a tuu scrutiny so that ,an the [[IUiI'DCeS 'may com,'

out, Here is one:

Then '. S3!\1\f 'sh&ykh Abu, !',AJb d, AUib. ,ibn KhaJi.f~ .Ahu lsnaq Shahryir;. Ju~.ayd R'uw'~¥111,),.' ,ayaz:-d al""Bis~ami) and an 'the masters, g{)' on horseback together to God. They were s[,anding before GOod, andJun:ayd ,and AbU Yazid and several great masters saluted me, 'wlshing' to come nearer to God than I was. Th~' all longed 'rOff' him, and 'they' shOltted)'urned a\wray~ and ,,,gj:tatecl sa toot the world trembled from them. saw Gui on a, holy mountain, and he made me approach. The mountain 'W&S: bigh, and God had me sit ncar him, and r,pea~e{l.y pour, d me the wmes ,ofintimacy. He graced me in. , form that I c anno .fid m any of God's creatures, and he was unveied and there manifested' [ro.m .him 'the ~ights of his be,autiM attrib~ res, T1l1.e Sufi!, were on the 'fr[:)othID 'o:r that mountain, unable tID ascend the mountain, and God called that: mountain Mt, IGreatness. The ngh!! of the wo,rId of unici~ were join d to that mountain. I "vas,xii.:ated there, m such a state m~~ the peeple of tlr world would mel I frem tbie ·'extreme beauty 'God d,ot;hed me wirh the $ubUm·· ·of his de~ript1(]n, and he' wm scatterirrug :red roses j))n ~my face. and tresses A rose feU from my :fa,C€ ,jn me, midst of dle. Sufi'S; and 'tney shou:~ed at that and 'began to dance (§ 16, I ~2).

The names lof . be Sufis mention. d in. this vision be oag to the inner circle of ear1Jy Sufi masters. The pi,ctun~: of them rid~ng around on, horses, vainly a's.king t-O approach 3!S, close to God as ,Ra zbihin~ is "faintly' tiCti,culous", The culminaciQll comes WhllU God, as. in m,any visions, showers Rfizbinln red ro~s; when a singi,e one of these falls, 'among the St1lfis, ch·:1 arm over-co-me with ecstasy. ,As will be seen later~ this particular vision caused $I@im,e' contr,ov r,s.y~ which in one case was settled by a dream in which B, confirmed the truth ,of the ,8;Dt.OUOt (below, p,. 9'5).

An »e,~n, more bizarre. account of the j e.alou~y of' 'tble Sufi saints 5,5,

toward &ij,zb~ha~ QOCU:r,sc in a sequence tha.t sbo~ tbem ,tt'G'tivcly at~tking' :~i.m ul1:ci~. Godl inklV)elles;.

I s~w mystelf as th.ough. I were ']11 :m"'gfres'bing;. states 'm the desert, 'T.he~e tn.e: m~B~r8 S~DDd vrith, 'their je'.weled croMmS and their couches, and m 't~~ ,band. of each was a" filling pan, 'With which they tirun~w stones at me o9ntinu,ously'~ M dlDugh they tlu:-~'" stones frorn. a camp~~J].t. Our master and leader Abu. Yaz1],d (may Go d s;an,cvty his s,pbie) Was the ,aeti1l(tt in, .' " ;i;'L.:" 1f)' ,. d h d[ :melting trus, lD[mt ,my .momel1:taq~ s~at€ consmcteo u ere, :a:fi' ,

oou~ht Go.d~s h~~p. God ,ma.nireStt~d ~aJld cast gvfiat stones ,at them, and they 'Iill. ,s,topped. and d"f15W '~way !their frying pam. T,ffiler approached me and were :kind, to me, and at tha~ mement I reached the pa'vi~i~ns: of gfe~;cn·eis.s (§ 11 'li).

As me scene unfolds, it turns out ma,t iDhe poo.phe~s also begin :~u8hju,g and shoving frern tlleir jeiJ.'Qusy· 0[' ·Rm;bilii'n.

I saw all the ,p~hets,; messengers, a~cls~ and S';UnltB., The 'Ol1e farthest. al~ng to Gad in the pr-esenoe and '~!;[ Gtns~t OL them te God was our Prophet, Then eame d:w,e senior prophefB, such as Adam, IdriS'~ N'o~~ Abfabam, :Mose~, and their e~ua~s ,among the P'fOP11€rs. They pushed me, ,M thIDu~gh they'\!wsh@d 'U} overwhelm m€., Ond ,ap'proacb~d me from, the: lef[~J" and he 'w,as like a. c~~umn of re~ !'o,)ld~ He turned tQl me and. his faee wrm :£igh,t. God l1lani{e$ltf}d; and IGod :malgnHied me drreir'~'. Wh~rru. the, saw' me in tbe; f'OlTO in God d'l~' tt.lns:eendeBt had cl!~tb~J~l ,m" by the doors of pow~r" EV'~'

h ....111· 'i!~ 111... driuk c.. ",I... ~ f ':iIL.-

,pm,p et and smeere one reos ,~~1S • !i~. lif"'G:m iLi!l\tie 'WiDe' 0:' ~ tu~

presence, Sho'Wihg me 'which of ' the-iTO Wf.!fPJd drink (or tnt and for the lo.v€ ,of ,m~., Then I S~\"V GG'd, \'Vim 'his clrlti_k~ and he showed them drua't he took 'that for ,my ;$~g ,and (or love of m~, and dUs w~ tb~ :p~l:-1ectio,n ~f,hh; gra~ to hb $,erV~t, I awoke in the; ll'igtit 'mfffiJ d~li,ghr a.ncll. napptn,ess, sin_gin,g spontaneous sounds ,like :tht blJ.l'Z~ing .of bees It§ 171)~ ,

Diwn,e; f(t\N)r causes aD to a;,i)n oppositien and drink to the sainrheod of Rfizblliin. The cl100mg reference to 'bees :retrul~ ,the g"u:r;'a 'ml ie, F(Sfer-eXl€e ~o bee-$] as redp'ient~ @f' :~ela;l,j,oo (16,::28~ :in, the Siun G-illtld ~~The Bee$~~).

The i]]itm,~'tic 'Visi(]ns Q.[ sahl:tly' ,aumarity i:re c"Omprem,ented bly ~ class, ,of vmi~ns duu :illu.stra.te 1ltijj,~biha.n'rs a:U~h,Orily '¥lith images,


based on :kingshlp. This first appears tn an e~r)F·f vision, in 'whire'h GfjJd bestows d~is rank on. 1.:u.:diJhan spot),ta,llleo,u.sly ~

In the days .of ] used te mtep 'rigi~ in the midd],e of ~he' night, 1 :pra,~d .one nrughtt" and Go;(], passed me by in the lTl.;[~st be;iu,t~ful or rOlfmg" He ,]~ufgbed in. my :taee and threw me 81 b~ af m;!J-ikf I said, IIG,ivt: me s(),membi__g gre~ter .than rllat.'u H'e said, '!IIDO'Itt of them are kings ~ but yO"u are the king ,of

PeFSia.I!' (§:2 2J. 73 . . -

The .imager! ~or kin,gshipas a~pplliied to' the spirihuil. au tJ1.'~rhy ,.of the Sufia '\!J{,(,t'S 'by no means u:~'pn~l[,~dentecl., ,As ead.y .. as :3i-4/984~ .an important Arab~c tn~:~tis~ Q:~. Sufism by ~1 ,anJiOinymous, ~uJlmor used the title The M~tw}s r(,rmg~~ iu Expltmation r/,me Rta111wl of &tflsm;. in it, the aufhor 3!fgued. 'that ~IITb:e ~ufis have :re[jrgunced. all 'nhe paraphernalia ,of 'the wl~.r]d and he{5al1l€, ki~s .' . '. H:,~!w s!tijuld the'Y' not deserve the rt~e @f :kings'bip, wben tner have no wspir,ad.on: otber than God?~'I;:1~~ Th€ invisible hiera,r,e:hy 'of.snUnh wlet~: the real rulers, Had,er m,e gu.idanoe of God~ in the centuries ~bll~,~n,g the decline 'of the Sunni oai,pha1te" :many Sufis us~d tit],t$ Ime 'SAi! and nd'{i:n '\vith their names,

-R.!i.ibrnhiirnJ'~ visions of rayraA and saindy authority h8l\lie· .a Cha:ra~~e~tir.aUy :re~&ian ~la;vor (he sometimes even uses the Persian word (OF ki_n.,g~ . sMA" rather Ulan. the ArabiE ~qwvaile-J1t ma.liJi). One :elXite~ded p;;a$~ge shows rum ~pp~QaChlng ·dte -eourt of God, which ia (!larded by .ange]$ and prD'Ph,~~s:, 'Ustanding lljjk'e p(rin~s at ih€ '~(}Qr of ·cl1.e angt~ic realm" (§J I ~,~]. Rii::dlman. sees thre famous jurist a]~Shi'.' ~i in the ba,ek ri'i)~;), 'JiIDk~ 'iil:. 'beggar~ but he proceeds 'WirUhin th,~ dO(),f .and til;oo1!J!lil, 'th,e :r:Q~Y veils mart surround the inner sanctum ,oJ" the court,

Then G~d called to me itt '!he world. (D('f the i~OSmO$. ;S,yin,gl' iiMy ' N,~ one llib¥es him, U' Then he arose and called QiUJt, and named me '~y 'my' name, so I. loved. rum,. 'Then. he shewed me dl,€ speeial nearness dlat he: had, si~gh~d me out fOlf, ar:Q,if):llg a.Jll'[uma,r:liltty on 'the f~vc-e' o.r the earth, i\n.d. ~uring those hours I ~ to the saints ']ike: a king (s1Wb) , princes, and, ,Iik,e ~ red ro~e in s<,(tin,g a~m-Q~~ ,8Jl], ~th~ :fragrant 'herbs, :;ill in mws~ In ecstasy, r~dd~nM and d.~ed in tevs) dta~ e~tertd d:ru.e deserts, of tl~u~' 11'~ddM (§ 3c3).

rn liijs 'pattic.ula;r 'Vtsiun} the 'idtent.Di:ealion of :Rllzb1biin as a" kin@' oS"

am,' :prlnres shows his s,t:atJ~~, ,,[n r~]atw<;ll1l to the ort~,er saints, M,ol1e' exp1ie~.tI.y) Cod ali@i tens, ,~im;; ~!I C!Ji!1g;r,~ ~~~ !O:U~ ,Ib:r you aXle, Que of th€ emperers of my samts and one of these elected fQJ,. ,m~ love and ~osj~ U ('§:] -BS). Orber "Visions us€ the irnagery of ld~~~lip ,~~)r i[s sheer e-s~"h.6'lj.C 'powe~r; .like 'the vlsionJ; ,Of angds: to be ~JP;I~\r:ed b el<),v~ the ima g,e' 01' tlae king combines \"ardike' pof\tver and authority mm a fem:im:ne ide~J. of b~~Ufy .

] ezperienced a moment ,,@if 'M'tTI'egsing ;£rom jn~oxi,n:~tiion, and sobM,ety, 'w'e;arin"g' the ,ci®ltiJes of' brides,,, \~d1. tEt5J6Ies, en 1n:)' head Hkf the tresses, ,~f w'Q;men mth lllnveil.ed. bead and bre3JSt~ like ;a, belu.tiftil ,king (:rl~a-k) eme~-ging fron'ID the bnda'~ bower am;~ng his b OOD eo,mpanlQnSi {§] f:~).

The kin!' has 110~ only a :t~;ini~e retinue b'ut, also 'Qiffj;cial boon oo'mparuon~! (oo~m~ pl. nwdwnfi1 as' part of the eonrt .r:h;ua~ that 'was tm~ed back te Cyr1k]Js and Xerxes, It should not be :f~'rgot:reD, I~lwa;t this, Q,oofr ritual r;egu~a:dy involved 'win~~ 00, that the fmqillent scenes in wlliGh God j?DUliS, '~ne :fU'l" ,iJ'(i:zbiliaa :should be seen ~ in part n~callin_g mat ~a~ 111@tif 'The use of :rnya'i ~ymhQj~m, reUs uS litde; however, about Rn zbihi n~s aorua~ relations m'th, n~te court -of the Sa~rgh~rjd AtjJjegs in Shi.r,a:z~ The €a.'wy rt;r~F,en" he makes to e:ar:thly poHticg, in The (jW)~ of Secr~tJ eomes, c~riQ~~,;I}l . as the 'very' final :rem~lrJk in tlu~ '1)l'j()R., in rhi: form bf a pr,a~r unered ,after m,en:tion (yr the :plague that Q,@'v;a:sta:ted the ~ci,tr in 5~$1 ~ m,a9,:

Then ] a5Ik'6d G~d til81t he free me le'l'l~~rin,g til@, ceurts ,of priaces, Mb~r dawn, one' ~f GQd~s, (J'tde:rs ,earn€: ,d~" ,and 'hie ff.€ed 'IDJ! fr:~'m ~eeimlg ~httt'l or ,assooialttng ~Jth. them at that time, God is ttaRso~nd~n.t) I: ba,Vle, hoW from, rum" ~~d by :his g;w,ruee he makes me :ind'epeIDlden;t of , any ,@1th~r. tb~n he. I seek his aid, and he ~s stnrmd,~n;t :(\Qr~e (@2Q9:)~

his is doubtless formu]a.~c in ! (}f dDJ€ saintly ideal, so 'the disc[ru'sslon of RG,zbihi1J _ spo,~ruticm. ~r.,lali,oo~~jps must be posJtponed until! his 'biQ~phi'fS are ~m~ned~ below.

Enoulh ques'ti.lns l'.M;\V,e been raised about the r~latiQns"hip hew'e!er:t sa~n'thOQd and pr~phet1ro@d to make a more detailed ,o.[acnlln;atffi.on [9!f this to:pi,c worthwhjt...,;~ 'The de$cr.~pt1QnS ,of .tbe ,Pr'Qph~'t


en 1t_()urage.

. he Prophet was in me midst 'rJ,f the prophets and n1.e&«:ngers, mod his <l(:ompa,ni~l)l1S stJQ cd in. !i"-Qnt of tlim; and in, front of the prophets 'Mere the Sufi masters, I saw' .among the~ all~S~ri ,td-S~qa41;, ,and he 'wa~, the gre'atest ,among them) like a chamberlain, and he wore thre robe of princes, ,~,th 11'1 outer garment o:f blae sjllt, and lLmp9fi his head waS' :~, .p~t~he.d hat, and ,1ft his h.a1Jld was a, bow '!j\~lth an arr.Q'1\J in it ro drive people :a.wa:y fro,m in fm:~t 'of the p~p.hetts., He 'was the chamberlain of cQur Prophet, and they carne a1t.ltol,edll€FJ, and the Pr(bph,et stood beneath these r@!OinJ;S 'Mth all the people .B.Bd 'raiSicd his hand as tfiough inteooeclil1g with 'God (§8f;)~

Despiite th~; :pr~senhe of tth,'~ ~earLy Su~ saint aJ·,Sah al .. Saqa~J (d.25;31 ,(}67) h)J[ the f1ol€ of chamberlooi, the IE]}epbet MulJarmmad retains his unique :ro]t::' as illteroe.$sor for his :p,¢QP~e~ 'in another vision (~':l '19), it is ,M 1ll1,am'mad 'who pe:r[OJifflS the' role ,~f clla-nlberla:in in relation '~O' God, 'Prophethnod and th~ Pm:pihet Mu~~_atnn,/~d in pa~~~.ul~.r

, "~. R· - 'b"I,,'" _:lI. exne -"em.t'i'o:::.

remain cenrrai Ill':ulZi nnan ~ ·~~F,,-,in ,!!~""'II,;,~

Although he a:ppe,a~ briefly in, marlY of'the vit~Qns~ Mtl~alt.ima.d is the special fot'.us of several, 'whj,t':h e'~~!bor:;ate OnI ilt~'~C~51 ?f :~is. prophetic fu:ptbon, One of these is.. the 'I,ght of ,~u~~a:rftmad~ ,th,~ we]l-knorwn doctrine ,gf his, cosmic aspect as the fjn~t ](~l1.t created by Gop.,'n~ Ru,zbmin describes it d1US:

I Sa,\V a g~at ~ig~ht frOi1l, 'the direcci,gljJ, 0.£ ,M,edin~. A, "quart~:r of the $Y and the eam, wa_;; seised and j@,i.n~d to that 1i~ght) and 'whiD I ,~a"N' tb'3!c I ,kn€w thal't tba.~ Ug;h~. was the []gh t of Mu~ammad. It 'W'a'8 in the midst of a diw~n~ li~b:t I ~01[,]ld 00'[ ],Q6k at it from '~:ts ov:erpo'\l~eril1;g m~jesty and awe ~9,gj.

The- special status "of' Ml1~~Unlnad is mdicated 'by his :]ig~t ;~el~g surrounded 'by the ]igh;t of God", 'which is, UJJ,e primordial .1ight. 'Ot~er comments on the nature of Muhammad's pt0phe:thood, turn OIl. 'the inteqD'rttatiD[} 'Qf Q],lrl:i,nk passages 'Iih~t re~~'t~, to the Pn)ph~t; On~ such crucial, te~t is Q;tU~"i.r1f 17::7tl~ where 'in the CUht~t of reoo'liun.ending SUp1erel"oga;tolty pra.\yer and, vigil by Dight~


mention is made or a 'UpmSted s,'tanonU' (maqla~~,· m~mudj that Ge;d may g~al1't. R.u.~biih~n ._,H'~k8_ thi~ concept 'With the light of M uf;tamm~ :irt an extended visiQnary sequence:

It often came to l111niJ, in the past \Nba"t'Is the ,meanin:g ,C),f ~ 'the praised stad'on Ii (1 T: 79)?' And one night I saw a ,m'~g;hty oeean wn the clivin.e pre'renee without ~ujJ,o/ sh~l'e;, and I Sal\-V all the prophets by' themseIDves in the €lct,an ~ RIlid also the ~ainb aRQ the a:;-ngcl]s~ :1 ,s,a;w a thiLk veil ll~1,g "over dw,e ocean, ,and I saw ,Ada'm Jn dlE' ocean, and the' eeean 'was up to h~s c'hest_;, Wte persotJr r1,e,a.~re.3t to G·(]d was lJ,(:a:ref' 'than that veil, Adam ~nd the gF-eat ones ,a;mong t'he 1Tl,€-ssenge.;rs were in frent ,Off eRe ve~, ~(} I \~eln~ close to ahe \f~ii~" since ] wanted 't't) learn whfi1;t was b~YDlld the veil, and ,I \:.v'€u~ to me end of the veil, When I rea¢h~d :hj I salt'! from 'b~1on.d dl~ ~cll ,3: gre~~t light, and] saw ~ penon Jib- the moon frem bead to foot, His face; was ~ik,e' th!e' face of th~, m.ooll.~ and he >W~S greater than dl,~ ,~t;~v€,_t1S in their entirety:.. That :p~r:~n ' 'taken all the di~l1!~ presence :SD ~hat. 'no place as 'big ,a~ th~ :he?ltl 'af a, piR T'~'mai.n~d~ but that it was fiUe~ with ~~t. There was upon, his faee a light con:llnUOU$ 'Mth the mwne' p~e$enoe and 'lul:irr~er'ru.pc,ed~ I wa'rIttd to J,P in beyond the veli] but was unable tJQ' do 80., S,~) I said to, m}l$~']fl HWhat p~a\Ce is th~s? And '~l\d1o is thi~ ~H~tSi('J'n?~j! And II can came' in my eonseieuce, '~!Tbis :~s t'b,e ptaiised $ta;ti6n.~ and that is, \Mll~mmad) and that 'wm,iht you see 'o,n his, face lS, ehe figbt of mani£es:tation.~, If y,ou had b een able ~e ~n:~el"~ you would halve seen God :M:os[ :ig~ \Vl.tbQ~t a veil," ,And it was said to n'iIH~ ~ "This station i:s exelnsivel y ,Mubamm~1£d's~ find no one e.~8e his access 'to this, stanon ~ ~


One: imagtDe~ ~here a gr~'at vet[ $u~e'mded like a curlain" -sepacnl,;ttllg ,d, the :p'Foph~~~ and ang€Js .bl. the ooea;n af the spirit if'Oro. theJ divine presence'. 0,111y Mul1am:mmd m, 1$ y'~nd ~he veil, s~, tlla~t :he alone can see <G,od, ~'drout ,3. 'Veil; his -nl:ti'nmi~"\ 'to the !clffi,v1JDL€

('" "

presence :ws e;mphasruz~, br 'the ,o'uitponDng Qf' iglu: fr'Om him.

,E~se,,¥heJle' C§ 17g) Rfi,2b~'h~ll'n relates "the ])r:a~.a;ed station" to, Mul"ammad ',8 run.'~(jtn as i.nJterce~lr fiJ(f hum~uDqr.

Mtwt-~ul1mad,'ji~ spe'E],a~ s'tamt"Zt$ it, prop,het is particular:ly In aow::unu ,~f his ~~e[]Sii@n~ .ill which he sees d ~.h.e ~~gtb and fffile :prophem who are ,sfat1on.~d, in. leach. heaven,. :Rn zbihEh]j :frequently


alludes to ascension "9[S, the mode by w'hich he" in TIJmi'ta;ti'Ou o:f dl,e Prophet, jOlU"n~~ '~O S~~ Gpo d (§,18,.l 2:1), ,516" 135,~ 1.5 2), In one place he re~ijtes, a. vision 'ar '[h!e P~o,ph~t in the angeliG realm, where he heard dle Prophet ,gi:v-e: this report or hrus ascension:!

E saw the saints and masters, and ill Si3kW G®lbri,€l and :Micba'el~ and 'the poles of t~e: (he:flub~" Then I reached the gr€1l:test angelic realm ~i:ld sa:w ilihe 'thr;:)i:Ile; ,and 'the €o·O''lltool; I saw ,fl, world Qf \;\bite pearls, and God we']eomed me in. tne.Form of

,. 'l b ,f:. • ";1 ."'I!..:' b il~'· 76 f-' .,~ .

maJe,ay ,anc : e:al1Ly,~. :t~eurg :Me \WI~~, ILU,e c. n-6~!!;'tnes;s, - 9' U~e

Attribuu:es~ and ill! the form of sa'l;i~&cttij\n. ]b:e vteiled ones of maje-sty and beauty ap'He,a:red, and 'he showered pearls and

j ewels ,from t~e lig;hl s of blS power, I never saw ~ayth:~n_g wh~t~'f than rbose jewels; .rf@lID \h,e thr;~jle to, the eart~ {§], 99}

The rhetoric and desr;;ripti.ons in this aceount to, be sure, are closer to ;&ij zbihan's ~Lyle< 'than to the ,datS$icill ~tMlilk reports bn the Prophet's ascension. Stil], this p3JS;;~~ge points ro the irrruJp,c)rtan€e f):f the' motJie~ of ehe Prophet :for tb,e int€ri~r as'<;ension 0:1' tb~ Sufi.

'On a more personal 'l:ec\f1el) RG,zbih[n~s visions J~f MrlJl~a:m:mad illu -,I~~te the role that 'the 'PropbJ€'[ ,pe'rforms. as the. ma~r~- r ]nit;iamor of the Sutis, This is. revealed in vi:sions that show ,Mu:~~m.mad ~S' the leader of e(.-5,tatic· ri.tu,aJjs", :perfor.mrung :sry,mbo]ic atetions as th,le celestial winebearer,

I saw one nig;h~ ~ great ocean, and 'the sea \VM. ~f rn~ lti]ne. I saw the F~o'Pb€t sittin~' ,cf1oss1"'legged ,in the mi,tb~ of the deep ocean, dfun:k~ aituJ in. his ha.l1~ a ,cup '0'£ ~n'e :f:i"G,ul that Of'£aJU; 'whi,eD he droallk. 'When he saw' me, he .ladID~d. out a Ctwp, or ~t.!e ~U1d ~vle' i~, to me to drh~k. A.R'~;r that s'@lnednll1.~: 'wal 't~vell,ed to me, and I ,kn~v he was .abave all tb~ 'rest 0;[ creatien, since th.ey die' thirsty and he is dru!]k in [he tnidst of th~ oce·am Q:f bealrry' (§3D).

This takes the imagery of Mna~clnnkhlg to the 'Ifmit Wine 38 the .syrciboill, ~crf [hi~ :fQrbidd!En had been tm:!ls{el'"red from ~he realm dr profane pit]~~r-y to the mystical by s,t:iUld~Jt-d]'zed an~g{m:icaJ treatment. :R'Cizb1ban explicitly ~osseg, ili~ ~i!ldrt[nk~Ulegs!II' of the Prophet $I) the: app:ropiria~e res.pof:Jl~~~' to th!€c divine b~au:l;y~ preSeMtDJg the, 1P'ooH:~e['~'s !Ilniq,ue S't~tt\lS and. dlus absol;ving' a ~tatem,ent odl€nvise ,c-on;s:tm:ab~e ~, bj:3!~h~]ny. A similar s~Jle (15 2) :d~c;ws tHe Ptoplu:='t ,and 'the chief ~n~].s, turning in ,an ,ecstatic



dance ,aVg'Llnd 'the: K~,~bac in M6~~, invIting R,tlzibibiu t., jein them .. as ]if t_b.e :P,roph€1: ~~u;tre an ecstatic Sufi, master,

()f: all "the ocher proph~t'8 l:h~s~des, Mub~mIn~d~ it iSI M,oo'es who, p,lays the role of mosc 'S~gn.]lica:nce for the 'Suns,. rt Mos~$) known as "the speaker with 'God~'1 (kalfm Iltlal!)" .is a 'pa,li~g.inati~mys·6c~

'~igu" '~ l..@ .... ",. ~r~lc~ ,n'f' h" ~~ dram '-:-:J; ~,,,,,, c- O"lIint::ro' mtatien ~':Ji'~ rih- .G" od Oilr"il 'il ,if ill'

,iIl_~", -_~, 'V WJ'U""-""' ... .JI:.:t!v I!cl'\ ohl]I I!.]jJl;!L!l" ;tit-nIL ,!u.ll'~U, ',' l\l!bR-IL1'lLll, , ~'I,,['Il,. , ,_, ,:11.11 ll>'J,l!!, ..

Sinai I]] other tQntEX~g, Muses, can he: the &'t9 ci. :Ii~n~ of the person taken in by appearances, as, ,m i31 seory ~ha~ RU,2ibH]jin relates 'in a md,raJistic fttShloh (f.14:'7), odily fii11fn.g mto the mode of the Friday :p'rea:c'her for a the mids~ of his umJveilin~" M,o:re typicatl" hOWe:V€F', if) the :fullomng meditation, \'\ihen :R_,u.zbihjn. asks 'God why be cannot have the perfections o:fMose;s"

My :mil1d. recalled the S,Wl1" ,of M~~.s, up to his, p(rQxitnhy 'to' Glod, his vj_si'~n of him, certain loftY' ~,taci.o,n:s ~nd nQblt, 'miFdC~eB~ as is handed dD~ in :b",adi.'ciQn~lr. My' thotlg1htl v~rsbed~ and. :. ~~d~< t~(Jod, y0'lt trau,s;cend r1;lation;shi~ 'with Itr,eatures. You grave to Moses ,thea~ mIrooles and Utese S;rJuiQRS~ and 'Y<lU th!]~e him for p~ecti.on~ VVb~t is, the -relati,o:nsmp between you an,d him, i~ te:nns of nearness? I roo ara room the sons of ,A~run; 'lll.har ba~~ y~ gjv~n 'tOI me?" And he ma:nifes~M t;Ol 'me .in the 'f@lm of :m~je.str land 'be3ltl~r, and 'Said t'Qj me; "Moses I~,me to, ,~~ but I CI~e t61 y<Ju. 7'Cl~OOO times between the time you lay d~.fTh and the Dm;e 'fOll W'0,ke up. EKh thD~: I [Wnvm,ed,the (iOVering' ff\tm1 ~il)tlf 'Faoe while you were :d~tp~ng; and I. awmted your ,aw,aJtin~3,!'!1 '\iV~el'l I heard that, I W~ ~,eized. by da~~ing 'W~V6;S of the

oceao of lInipy C§i 1. 5c2'Ji -

Goa ~s respoase to 'lllis demand. dpiI:s net rlimctly respond co the qUCStl,OIfi. of me S~fi'~'5 relation to this prophe't; it :~s' instead an o've:n"h~lmiJll:g sta,tetn:e'mlt ,of il1~i:m~te ~o"ct;;:r.n ~fo'r Ru.zb~hj,n~, r;,eM~~ning his, special status bfy God~s eenstam visitation. of him,

M~s alse has an appealing' hum~ ~a1me~ss~ ,eviclIDTht in h.~s, ~WOOfj. when he' sees a mountain elimntegrate, from 'cl11! l:n.allJif.~s~-, non of G~d" From tfli$ perspecavea Moses becomee the type 1):' the

:]nttD:xi~at~;~f:,d S'ufi. -

] :.' n,mh .. t C·· m,_J' ,,.., d"- '"" ,'I i'1'hl~'i!l' -,'. hr s: -::..l 'h~" - --:' 1 .. , ' t - .. - '" h ' . :so~, .... uU all: ,awn, O~] I~ . :I.Q "l.g'c-' .i,.~ an~ ~,re spoLe 0 me as . e

Sipoke to MO'15,e~ there [a:t SiDm]l~ and several mj,~~uf]tain~s spmit open,,] !S;aw'w 1ft ,Sil1m a 'Mnd~in 'the m' wtsclffoo,m.

rhe east side, G'od manifested to me from 'lihe vnndtw~,~.~ ~mld. 9;aid, "Thus I manifest:ad mys:eff 'to Moses. II 'E S~TIr-V l~Qs,l@s, as 'th5Ugh he :$IW God" a:l1,itl he feU. from thc' mQ~~taih'j int,cl~C amd,. '00 the f.o~t of 'me mountain, I saw a witnessing' of grace more be~u~~C1!J1 thaJ.t this \vi~n~eS'sing <§'145);

RUlzbihiin~~, v.aria!tJ1()u ;gll the. stQfy of M!Q's~~ has Mo~ecs ~ctlJ~Uf see God, someJtthl~ that ,~ev~r happened, 'run the Qur'~',ifii,t account of this pruphet. In a.opcber '\f.is1ol'l~ he sees himself in ,R landscape of infinite deserts, f~lHng naked in. 'the dust ~if!fore God eM, a ,si,gn. of rOlm.pI~[t ann'lhila,ti_l)-n~ f~UOMng 'me: ,~mmp~.e Qf~' oses,

"I ~v, him in me deserts or ·.the hidden, and I saw m¥self rolling :01 the dust b~bn~ him in me~~ a.~sem:~ and I 'rn"'o]lecl. before him from me ,nl13,t desert '~O the last desert, more than a 'thou~anld t~mes" God. wag looldng ,al me Mlh. the ¢'Ylt ,~f might 3:0d :ma;Jesty., Theil. he said, "Thus did Moses; ,rolling: in the dust ,~th no elethes on, ,c:v,ert 'Thursday t bumbling' h.imse[' hefbr~ IGDd. and submitting to. his mi,ghen' (§ l.!fl),.

The :frul1'al nature .of l4:ocses" ~~pe~n.ce remnruns, as ,alf]jlbi,gn.ous, :~,O~Ve'r, as the anJlihi~n_dO'n €'j.f 'the ego, If Ute ,e«er ,of Mioses was annihilated; then who d~~~D,ded ft-OHl, ,lvlt. Sii;n~?

:1: alse saw God [Glory' be 00' Him) d€s:ce~],d (ve'dl 'M()unt Sill;aili, :run the dress !@,f a ~ea.t ,~harldh, and the mountain. melted \Wnd,~r '~h@_ blo:'~, df the' PQw~r' Q,f his m,il.tIl" Then he' msa;ppeaood, 'the~ be appeared, ,tben he !cllWsappeal"ed, ,tn.en };U:=' a\pp~Qr'ed~ ·tepea~tedly. Then be gait]" "Thus I bav~ done to M~S,'~i (§~,S)3'

The intenlrilttent :mani£e~ti\don and withtk9!~ of Gpd In one's e()mi;sc:ru!oi~srrJj,ess ('1!lDJ!e'~her prophet or aaint, £O<:f tibJe '~wo are 'CQl1ii.nuous) makes a 'SaaID distinction of ide'!tltity' ,imp~S'slble ..

'7'L"",. Po~ ,0' Wr-a'd,

~'_1Ie __ "_-_"' ~'. - ~--~.- - -

The th,e~ph~ni,ea, of: majesty :rnncludle maJai!festa;rttion~s of d~vi~,~ wrath;_ '~dnch can be a. vrunien't 'br:Qe' unleashed agattnst the persecutors of 'the' sain.t:s, or a sheer 'rev,eila\t!pn of',(;_i;'\eadVIE' p-ower tilart eonsumes even the saints and pr-opl11~t8. :R.'u zhlhi n, had a ke@.~. sense ,0£ the ftagfulity ,af fbi€: s.phitlUtJ], Hfe', (l[Wd bis leRb11h.y ].imn-y df the


perseeutions Q,f the" .~ufl marty S in his C:Oml~mrfllry on .&stalir; -Sayings furnishes a good example of t~m ~ensitiviqr. 18 Certain of ~1is. vi~~o.llS· se~ forth eenaries ,of eli vine retribution for thesecrimes against me saints.

God, appeared on. the steed of'pre-etemity, mtb a urJk,'s bow in his hand, and :r e was ,ang! y at people who P eif~isred in hunting his servants, I saw ~J\1i ibn, ,Abl Tilib came out from a mountain enraged ar those people, and he atta;cked them, for some of the 'oppressors were his descendants, Before this chast~~ement they had oppressed the devotees, but tho . rights of their houses were Bot abrogated :§134).

t is. pa,rd: ularly striking chat 'Ali, prince of the martyrs, I. omes out to~ av¢'~g'~ these of hiz descendants \rI.~ho .h,rar\Ii@.' persecuted the Sufi saints, This suggests dlrat R;uzbihin~s fi ferring to offetnces agawnsrt SUfi8, commlUe,d under 8111 ~i authority ~ possihly dlur.mng the period

or B·u yid rule over , . 'ars (9 32~:[ 062~. .

.. '~[",:~8 in re~e~ting~ ~n th persecud,Qn. of Sufis such as l:bHij (d. 30'9/922,} 'that Ru zbihan. becomes most indign,ant. Th affair of

a:aJHij~, which" invol~ lengthy trials and entailed con:sjderabte political maneuvering was the most sensadonal and controversial of the persecutions of SufiJ},. 79 Obvioru1S~y alluding to "hi51) R:u'lbihan struggles to fo,rgive the p rsecutors. He then sees in. a vision a yellow dog that punishes the' slanderers,

One 'C~a.y I eneounr red the story of some of libe Qqein reciters and Q,ffic~aLs in the case 'Of the ecstatics and ,realliizen of [~th among the g;nosdcs~ the unitarians among the unve~e'rs.:t'. ,and ~e sincere ones ruTIon,g the wimessers, Tb '1

. attacked the c~31m of the masters ant) their spiritual s'm't[olls., I .r~g ,ette,tj tl-~at and asked God to Corgi\' dlem £ol.r what ~e~:d from his sa;~ '1'9Io:rnpensatioIl. for ealumny is to ,ask forgi,~,ness. from those' who are offended, ~ ~ Thein I p:rn(y1ed the '~re~ing ~pra;'er~ a' id I S31\V a yelLo\" dog in tbe deSerTIL I saw ,~ the.' sland ifefS \-vi·~h. dlcir mouths op"en~ and the dog with ,hIs' tongue _ "vas puBing~ the tofJJ_gue ,~f every one out of his ~' ·u th, and ~le' ale au their tongues in less fhan an instant. I finished Mth that, and it was. 'm ' mght before the 2'Oth of Ra~nlaQa.n. SQ~eone was saying~ "This dog' is one of dw,e dogs, of h t.J];, every da:y its food is fh€ rengues of slanderers, I he


fasting' of aDyo'lJ.e whose tongu.e is eaten by this, dog is unacceptable to G~du' (§146)~

Despite R,llzhruhan" s ,¥.ish to fOirgive~) he stHl sees the p ~r$lecotors of ~h.e '.·;.u6s, receiving their d served punish-men-t

he embodiment of divin vengeance in the yellow dog has a powe'r~lll m~ti.caJ parallel ~n 3,\ vision of a lion, 1:01 which. R:iizbihin provides the interpretadon.

In ~ o .rtain revelation I sa"," a ttavmy lion of 'mighty form; clothed wid\ :migbty power) lW'aJking on 'EOp of Mount IQal:. He. ate up ~h<t' prophets, the m(~~sengers, and the saint~~ and their fl,esh r€mmned in. 'his mouth, and 'tbe blood dripped fm,m, it I thougl1.'t, ~ vmr' were there, would he eat "me as. ]}_U.~ ate them?" And I found myse[fin his month, and he' ate me, This is an. allusion ~.o the: 'Wrath of'th . confession 'of unity and irs auth®nty over the eenfesscrs ,of unity. God manifests from the quelities of eternal greatness in the r()l~m of tb: lion, The significance of its realiti ... , is that the gnosdc is a morsel for the wrath of unknomn.g in the station of annihilation (§:57).,

This consuming lion serves as a vivid v.i:suaJ ID,e¢aphor for: the overwhelming divine power that armihilates created limitations. In The ~?irriti Fo,nl" It:ii'zb~bin categorizes this vision as fOU~\¥B:

The visien ,of '~> e liigbts of the ~'.tcibutes of might and gre,atl1ess in "(he clothing' ,o,f the: lion" iOO lop of l(t. ·when. it eats all the prophets and the saints. .By s ,eing' this station, from the eye of'the clect conscience, the great successors and

,. brok d .. 'iI1.. • ". f' th '..

sincere enes are broken, ana tne spu:1'I:s 0'· tne unitanans

vanish, The gnOSblC says"" "1 saw' ,. hat Hop, when it ate me, and I became mote. pO\Verft 1 dmn the. 'w-orld from joy ar that. uSO

In a s!1ign,'tly vision (§, lSI}, 'R1izbihi'o sees a Bon 1 "clotHed in, 'the greatn!:ss ,of Gnd~ ~I be:fo(f,e 'whidt ail the prophetS and saints flee; 'Riizhihin remains st:a:nding, however, and th£ lien aU:81Ck$ him and leaves. him for dead, He 'regards these manifestations o:f power as pa~m or God's resting (im~;u) of the saints and prophets (§J SS)..

~'i 'Theop.anii[es of :Be,auty

he' nlai)'[festaci.ons .of divine powl~r, wrath, might, and greatness would be incomplete without tb.e tlieopbam:nJi'eg. ,of divine beauty, and the concomitan t: qualities of gr,a,ee.;. kindness, and gen. ros~ly. God's beauty appears to R'uzbinan ab ove all in visual forms ,of lush and intens riJch n s l<vith showe .'. of roses and P' ads prQvidmg a suitable side eff . t, [God appears, moreover, in beautiful human forms of prophets [ike; Adam and Joseph~ as well as move obscure in.di~du.aJs. Given the predominant anti -I:a:Dthoop'CH,ll'(lrpmc emphasis 'Olf Islamic theQ[logy~ it is at first sigbt surprising that .Rfizbir~lill can include such visions within the Jimits of 'what is acceptable," ,Ru z'biha n rakes, us to visionary landscap ·'S of, ndless mountains, des. rts, and cceans to meet angels who embody ar once feminine beauty and the ltVad.lke· qualities of Turkish soldiers. The visual manifestation of Ccd in these fQrm~ ·,of b eaut.y underlies the eentinuity betw, . en human and divine love.

, . he rose. has. been a-symbol 0" gre;aAt impo'rtanc~ in the Persian H.terary tradition ~br ce.ntu·ri~s~ sa mum so that the p':r.~m,o,:rdial tale of the n~gll{ri~~e:~s hopeless love fQir the rose .has been turned into a cliche h¥ countless: second ... rate poets. I have argued elsewhere that the most pow 'rful SOUf e fo u- derstanding metaphors like the rose or th~ _bird in this traditio: lies in: the writings of Sufis .. like

R~· bih - 81 ·I·-h ·'· ... 1 ..J,:. r'" h h ,. "n

llJ Z . nnan, . .n e €Xp eN€I1i-'tlaJ. 'u.uiJI'lecm.ess 0 ~ .. e metap .. or UJ, s,nllJ!

fresh, not yet theharJm.~'ed convention it would later become.

In the 'middle of last mg;llt after-~~ting on. 'the earpet of devo ";011 in search at' llu~ manitestation '9f hidden blddes" ~.' 'hen my conscience soared jn the reg;i;Jli[ s of the ang'e1ic r alm, I' saw the .rnaj~sw. o:f -od in the statio II ,of.clothillg with divinity ~ in the shape o.r loveliness, repeatedly, It : did Dot saJis:t:y my he art " 'until frora it came a revelatien Df the perpetual :m,ajesty that consumes the conscicusness and thoughts, .1 saw a face vaster than .am of h ave- and earth, and the ~hrOrl and me footstool, scattering the Ugh!s of gUo!')'" and iJ transcend ',d analogies an'. similitudes, I ~. aw I is g~ory \wth the color or the' red rose" but it '\¥f118 world upon worllid.t as ir he were scattering red roses, and I ~l~~fV no limit to it. ,My


heart remembered tl~e ~aymng of ' the Prophet, "The red rose: is. of the gmory of God.! ~ ~l1!d malt, was the ext, nt of my heart's

'II!,. fi {§71):B2

Icompf€~~wenS1ou. ;" JL.'

'The eonnection between the divin.e beauty and the beauty of dle rose. as an emblem 0:; creation - is unmistakeable. This L~ couched

.lI' r.. ., hi h" hi

as a, visionary commentary on a Prophetic saYIll:gJ 'VY' .]c._. In . -. ws,

Q1)r-an comm.ent:ary &6zbihain relates vID.a tb.e'.ady 8' ft. al-V RS1;ti

(d. 320/'9'3q2).8~' _ , .,

The 'many' visions of G~·d surrounded by 'roses, red or WhIJte,. underline the celestial 'srugrdficarl'oo of the rose. IQUtpOU rings ~f divine gra,ce are experienced as showers of rose ~ as we see in this vision ,of an epiphany in Shiraa,

I saw myse]f as if ] we~_ 0: th roof o~ my rib'i,~ in Shir.~. ' looked 'M/P, and saw' God in our market in the '~orm [of m3Jes.ty· and be'lilly .. By God, if ehe throne ~aw' him. in tha~ ro-r.m, :~.t would melt from ID,e pleasur of his beau.ty. I eutered the. oceans of ecstasy; spiritual states, and gladdening V]SltaDons \veigh d with ~.ongmng~ . love, and passi6n~ Then .~ sa~i"J myse[ siuing on the 'patio of the riba.~ and God carne m that fOllm even more of his beauty and with him 'were how m~ny red and white rosesl :Hr.~ (;{{SJ[ them in -front o·f me, and I was in the' st~tion ·of intimacy and . , ~pp~negs:> and the ~,.iri't W.~!i in a place 'such. that 1 melted, Wh < n the beauties ef his attribu~~ and admirable qualities wer .,' unveiled to me" then he bid from me (§:~ 43).

As a variation on iliis tlleophany of beall.ty~, God sometimie~

, -'L.,~: ' ..... IJl,.. . In. br 'I 'Ill

a.ppe3X~ shm\?le:twng pearls, i)t even "white r:~s~s MI~:W. 'pean .:r'()c~~.e,:

(§5.8)~ Pearls, Iike roses, have an a-ncieD~t .hist,o,ry ~s a symbo;l of dl1vin qualities; in this case ,I beauty' that ~s render: d more pre'~ous by its inaccessibi .ity'in shells under dlt~ ocean. "Then I saw ,above. me an atmosphere of white. .ID~g'ht;, from which _caIne ShO,wtl'S,. of white pearls, That is,. from 'God~'s bea1,1!ty {t and he 'was ~~ttering fhern 'on me" It is beyond exp,f\e'sslon, nor can ~n1>&.lleQt~ 'comp(rihend it!! (,§i 6).. Prophets l~ke Adam a'~d :M:ul)amm~d

. artake of the divine beauty' and are themselves messed m

clothes. of whit:e pearl (§2Ullli) .

TIuJ' ,BO'dy' oJ Revela:rirm.

Jtuz bi'hin fsees a particularly delicate problem wh m he attempts fo describe' V]S~~(llS in \~hich God appears :]Jl human form, In '\~i~;ua[t we know as lll,e'lnain stream of damic tJle.O-~Dgy~ the severest critici m is reserved for those who assert that God has the' . orm of a created physical being, 'here have always been tensions, however b Jtw,e . n the i' onoclastie impulse and the desire to, 3,'CC emo date: 't'h apparently atl!uhtbpomorp.hi,c descriptions of God in the Q.ur''1ln. How does. one understand references te God's face, hand, s:hting on the' throne etc., 'witho~~rt a;ni. ht0pom.()rphi .' m? While some theologians hav,e elaborated positions that treat these descrip;p,on.· as met~1P:hors, and others hold to an unquestioning literalism, it is less well JmOWl1! thai during the' 'ear y ].' amiccenturies, there wer many enthusiastic relizious ,th~l1ter-s who asserted di'"t God 'has at

'. ft I ~& _-

human :forrn .. -' , \'\'hile some laf m~~e :ma:y bav£ been. theoretical

positiens, ltu\Zbwn s diary is. fill. :_ 'With 'vis10ns in whilCh he sees the face ~f God the hand of God, and God explains to him the mea:nin.~ of sUitting on. the tln:'O~,e. As mentioned at.uve (Pi. 3·5) in oo:nfiie~rion with the' doctrine of "clothing Viith diV1m.ty /i! statem nts regarding ~he dleo'W'firphru:c nature of humanity can be found in. the 'princE.pal. ~tNiftk collections, especially the saY1tqg, "God ereated Adam in his form, n In the passage that: IbD.ows." Ruz;bihan reflects on a Pfu1i.cularly pGw@liti[ 'vlsion of 'God" linking "ne theomerphic nature of h umai ity \i\ the scene in the Qur~an where ft.t,ept'Qphet Joseph 's brothers, recogniae him and ,(a[] dQ\VIl pl'Os:tTab'

before him, ' ~

I wanted to describe some O'fhis ,~uributes that I saw,. ·fM my disciples and s:ineere aD~S~ but I could not, because he: appeaied ill dl€ form Gf'th.e garment in which hey concealed. Ad~. ~£ dl~play,ed it eo the cherubs and 3piriwal b~ngs, and nTll.ey feru prostrate before him no'S .. ph ~I (Qur 8in 12~~'1 00) h1lfvolun.tarily. Thus the Prophet said, "Ood created Adam .; n this own fGl\rni ... ' . .. nderstand, 'were h not for fear Jo:F th .'. ignoramuses who accuse us. of' making likenesses of the created, I would have Indicated something' of whar I have seen of 'God: the Ji,gb~ of his gkn7y~ the _ brimliacll£e IO( his heli Bless his ~at .majesty 1> and his gracious beaJu:ty" and the qua~i:ties 'With 'wbi,ch he clothed. Ada - _ .'. ose~' Jo~e·. p-.:' h ,

"" _ ., ..... ~" ..... .., ; ,

Ablaha:m~ jobn, and! M·u1;ta·m·mM., :By .. hese qualities, of


",ilhich they inherited the. most ~uininous~ they stand ~b ove the wo:rld and its creatures .. \lVherD! the g]ory of'the lighming of his Attributes, manifests "in something, ,am. creation and temporality submits before it (§ 12'8-2'9).

Riiibihan reveals here ~as, at §$9} his reticence to descd ee .fullY what be has seen, for fear ofthe accusations or .heresy that may' be. mild ag.aiD:st him (one pauses to wonder what he consid rs to be' ~xhibitio . ism), Yet he: feels 'thal the power al1:d i. ruth of the inves itures of the ]~~ro:phets is indi ca red. \~th certainty by the universal r cognition of their auth ·l1i1y,

R:uzbihins:e~s God manife'St in the form of Adam (§89.. l 66)" rec,apitahi!tirDJg the primeval 'manifes~t};tiJon or beaut1 ~n. human f<,ul'- .' These visions constitute ,I lik··n ",9, (.mtltAa~ to. God "'hich in one place the Qu:r";i:n rejec;ts: "There is no likene·s, unto him" (42':11).. Rliz;bru.han. sees here, however, a clear 'con n ecti 00. between Qur·".ani,c referenC'es, to God' ~~'bighes,t nikenefosii (30:21) and the ~'signs.~'~ (iI~~ which God. shows the faithfum vr.idlin the ''''6r:~d. C'ontinuing the metaphor of' 1'I1dOUJ:bl;g,,1I the form of Adam becomes the H'I.armien~i of G,od.,

, saw hirn in the fbrm of.Adam :facing, the wo,vld of eternity, and he was in th~e form of greatn,ess and be~U'ty.,.. . ,God I[ ma~ifested] ~\th the light of the beauty of pre- . temi~~, and ·y,viiii it he .Alli~ed ereation and temporality·. A light crossed the r;egUions 01 the heavens and· aJ1h and shone 'up'9,n the likeness, "for his is the highest likeness" (Qur";an 30:;27)? like . he' radiance of tJh.e red rose and. red g!O,ld ,.,.. E\lterydling !~)vif;:FWhe~med me, and I said, I!What is dlis?" It was said '[,0 me, "This is the manifesration of ~he garment (Maj, 'of 'God. I Then he cast in~o my mind. his laying; !!W,e shim show them

th h '" d i L..... ~ II' hi .

our signs on e r onzons au . ~.nb:m;ms~J;V€S;l tru,,·w.-· s sa")i1;ng,

Uil ruly he 'vAmesses eVle:rythingii' (Qt.;le,in. 4 ill ::),3) (§ 166)

It is in 'the human f()! O\f the pitophets that G :d's beauty is most 'fuDy disp~ay,ed., Th.en:! are: tim ... s when R(i'z,.bihiu reacts against ~he :~mage·; f\~peatedl:t his visions are followed by disavowals,. and by the iiiJNlenc ' that God transcends. .all form, In this connection he returns, to the Iquestion of !God"s uh'ighest

li~l. . .-' - 'r~ K.en.ess,,"

I saw him after :midnigh't as thoug~ h. ~ppeared in a. 69

thousand kinds of bea:d.'ty [; 3(mo:t\g which I 8a;w a ~],Qry ,of hl.g;h likeness, U fgr his ,is. 'the lri.gJu:'s~ Hk,e;ne~ [in ehe ,h.eaven:s. and the ~arth..~] ,and he ']S. the mi;gh.ty·~ the '~DQmlnanrur.i«'! (Qur'an. 'O~l'7J. It was· as tho~gh he were JIik·e~ fh'f;' ,glory' of mJe red rose, and this '~$ a likeness a. But God fqr{bid that he have a 'likeness - Uerh~rt m. no likeness 1llTh., him" {42::1 1). 'Yel I cannot describe except by an e~l"ession., and lms de~ca.iptiQirn .ig, from the perspective pf' my' \~(kness and iWCJ~~;PIaClt¥ ana nry tack of comprehension ,~r the ,quaHtiJ~s 'of eternw.ty (98,7) ..

> -

There is no easy' 'way to reconcile the meed. ~For V]sl@'R and e:K~).regm1o.D MUm the U.tJtte:r: transcead.ence: of [God,,,;!cij~ ~.~ the p.~phe~ JO$,pil;. the piru']acl,e o;f human bea~ty ~ R,uzbillin re~aJIcS ' how created thing.; are related 1,t) atmduwres of '[Qaj.esty (I l51). In lJ7(S\wt,: 'God tlPCit~iS; (-rom the Qurtin. (12: 31) 'the 'words ,of Zulaykha. telling] o8f/ph, to go out b efof'!€ dI'€ WQm~l), 'o:f Egypt at her banque~t} '~~hej;1eupon they cut therut ~~_ftcls iml, astC(ij}l:shmrerlt· at his b~a.uty" Thus GQd.~:s relation to Lhe creation 'is a 'th6i)pJharmy of b~',~l!]ty, JUJ;t like the ]J~rophet j~&~ph p(a;r~ding beforr€ 'the ,adoring women.

G~ d. does ;n~t only app>~ in 'the fonn or the p'rophetsj thO[ljg;h.

~ - he emphasis [on bea,l:l.'ciJtiJ·~ f~lCOO as the manifesta D~'n or 'God. iutder~f!.'Cts, ~th. anollu:r sal~qg 'Qf d1e JP,~pbe;r.~ I~'I ,~~·~V :ll'1y Lord in the mest bea.utiful of fOlm~,~'r whh::h RiiiZbHltiln ci!tes flttquelldy:;, :lTI mest wf$iQns'j this I.!adith d~scrib€s 'GGd. a~, a~:ari,Mg in tht 'ttwrn of' ~ handsome ynung lna(n of Meoca. :Rnzbihiitn,' (f VD,~io])]fs indu.(ite' celestial enoo!Unters ' God, :run the {D'rm, Of a, llanruo'me Turk, parallel t:o·.~~m'6 (af the visions of angels discu8se~ bel()w.

L saw 111. th~ desert of dle ,bidden d1al Gad arose, in 'tile ferm of b~',ajl!]Lf¥ in the shape of ~~€ Turkls, a'pd fin. his hand was a ~ut@ that he bt,(MJ&ht near. He "lay~d that lute, and], h 3o@i~ated me, inc:r'1!a~n.g :[l::i'Y',ou aJ:l.d langin~. :1 b~~ame restless Crom the ~c~~tic plea:aJU.r~ of b~\lU]j,ty and. the loveliness of union (1:[ if'S; c( §36).

S:i:n~ ehe time Glf g~]:talrn 'Ma~id. at Qi~ena, {:d. 421/:~O~O)" the Turk~ particmmd.y the ma]!e T~rrush mimitazy sla'V'e~ ~ad '~~t'ome the· princi.p~l idol ill. th.e niii~arID ()fb~'a'u~ ;ce:~ebramdl in Persian llY=riea1 poe~ry,,8l As· 'Mulj;fMtlmad M.u~in hM, po.~nt~d out~ RiQ]zbJhan)s use 'j)f tht: ]1ll,~gery ,Qf Tu'rD, (path in ,poose and in verse) is· fUII'y .in '~u__n,e


with the poetic ~adition. :ft~'Qm Fauukhi 'UP' (to, ~~i86 'What is su:rp,risjng here .is,'s ~~p:~li~it idmtific:aci.on Or~~m;g imlgct as a concrete 'my-sb~ ~~Kper~~n.c~. T,h~ imag,f:: ,of the Turk) U:kc' the rose, doubtless was, fi'r:Jt 'L11~ed in lyrk~al and secular :p@eti.c contests, R,uzhittan d£monsttares h0wfill.y lb.[ese :imnges 'were taken ovt~r and u:rt,cci.orized <~n 5~5. cireles, to serve as the :r£!fT.wtiye lenses ~r visionary axpcerienc--e,

These 'reflections 0'11 dl€ divine 'beauty manif~!j'ciEtg in human form :wne·vimb:ly raise dre q~€stion of the: l~c~adon ~}ebvren lru]m~n and divine Iove, We can .. Qin~ briefly a~~.u~e to tbis here, since it forms a 'major top:illc'p;nm,arily 'iM o:dl,er 'wQrks, 'by ,Ruzhifiau; ]]1@t2tb~y The JfUmi~~ Q/ .I_he l!Jufr.'$,. Ceritainly tb~ ~~~ie!tdok c@acernin:g R.iizbi~!a.n 's n-rrSt serraon in -Shiraz, when .he "p'mtes~d a yocun,g woman~s villng or h~'rn .rac~ S.uggC8[S the funtblmenfal~ tenor of Riizbm~n )s, adlgratIDQn. ,of b~.a~:ty. In TJ"e; (/NJeiinw, iff $ec:rtts~ on. several l@ceasw~Ja:S he uses the irna,~ty of bridal mysd.cwsm to cenvey his ' vath GOQ~

saw him surrounded by all his c[[rtaine~ canop1ies ,mn Vieils" 'saw' the assemblies or intimacy \-vithin these eurtained ca;n.opies,'87 I sa! on e!vewy carpet, and. he dkpl3iyed hi.tnSe]f to

me with. me mos~ beautirtL~ 'quwity. He poured me the' ~es of PI!Q~tyj ~t was as dio1Jlgb I w,as in that p~.a,ce ~ikie' ,9,. 'briclf .in the presence o.f God. What took. place after that cannot enter. into ,e~Rfessj)ahs (§91l.

The contiru.d,ty 'b~tlNeen. human and 'm,vine ,love inciu@1i n,O! only the lover and belorved :r~lationShiJ.Eh but also the love of':paten:t and, cbU~; these' re~tiCJnsih~p~ can ewn. stull h:uo '~)ne aiia~hrer ,~ls' ,a:rt of the; kaleidoscopic :mmremen,'t of ~h,e ~visID.onary ex.ptrienc€:! III was, Hk-e a "child in 'cffilt room .of hi~, ,mother., :H~ caressed ' the caress of th~ be1Qrvtd ,tOf' ~ lever" (§95j. RuzbiIbJin 's d.epjJ:t!O\D pI' ,anp as bddes (ffiscussed 'be;lio~) sitolli1ld stand a'S a remiiilde.r that the br idal metaphor is 'One ~r the f1J]nd.~l'l'ta1 expressions for mrysdt;w experience as u.nveiljn~., When. refer.ring· to d)j,~ p~~cd.ce of mediration, 'Rijzbiha:n ,ae5lc3iibes himj}e~f' a:s !j~S~\l:ting' on '[he ~al'f¥ec o:f' deViation irDJ 1l~a~th ,~f the' 11l1Sl'nifestadon of hidden brides" (§1l,). And hi~, m.ystic;;at comUlentary on. ,tht Qu~;',iU" Tic BritlJ$ if E,Jfr,l(ftUZt.W~" by' its, titllt ,invQ,kes dIe ~n~eilirng of th~ brirde' in 31 loving e[)J'cQ'~ntet" la$ 'ill~ mvilcl Cpr ini:tia'ti,on int© the eS.0terif: '~ll()wled$' of



The visions <of a~d taking human form juxtapose the finite " ess and Urn" tation of a h uman being with the h:dlnity, and. 'tHll1;ScOOlldenU1e of God, 1. ,may be paradoJrica~, but .eo Ruzb~hiin it remains an experienee, I', ere is an example wher . he sees God in the form of a tornl' r reach r-, an intoxicated Sufi 'who was a, N'sd[_ blamei"I! (,malam,ai):1 d€miberat ly ,acting wn an outrageous fashion to attract the blame of others,

In my Y011lth I had a, master, a gnos;tj,e master who was inro-xicated all the time, ancl he ~ a se]f."b[aming' master 'w'bose ap'rp~',aranJoe \V~~ unknown, One raigil't I sa.w on€ of'the deserts of the hiJJddeio 'wo,rld~ and , saw God I\1os~igh in the fo'nn "f that master si'~ting ,at the edge ofth desert, I went down 'to h m~ and he indicated to me another desert. I went to that desert, and. I saw a master l.iite him, and that master 'lIVaS, G~d. Ie ind~Gared. eo 'me another desert; so that 10,~,lilDOI deserts were unveiled to mit, and at the edge of each desert I Soa,w the like of what I had seen in the firs~, (§,34),.,88

Tbe encRess 're'fie,ctiOD of 'this. divinlzed master in the deserts of annihilation leads RG,2:bi~~tn to, reflect Of4JJ God's ttar;.~endence, and he realizes that these ma'ijJifes~atiQws, ,~]ude to the unlimited ,Attributes ,of God, Although at ti:mres, :R.'il~biha,n doubts m1e ultimacy 'Of his visions, he sees ~haJit theapo;aArlry '~n human form, is. a, necessitv if humans are '1'01 comorehend - any·-:t~,i~nlClF .. ~ iO~.lf.-'G .•. · r..d:-

"';; ~ .y' - 'r - -- - ~~~~ I 01 ,. u .

Then I was astonished in the prinl.onlaLruf)1 of God, and I saw him in "the m.os'tbeauciFllll of fO!rm8~ II I ,tho~gh t in my heart, ~ ~H:OiW did Y'@U fall :fr,jl)a1 the world of un:~,l)jf to the station o.f 'symbols?U ,e came near and took mny p-rayer carpet, s81ying, "Standl What 8X'e these t oughts? 'You doubt me, so I ,di,,]~yed an image of myt;elfin YOiUf eye, so' you '"~ould

.become intimate with me and, love me." Th re were lighes of majiesty' and beauty upon him, the' number' of ~vhich I could not count, Then I: saw.him at every moment in the beauty of another [peirson] ~§T 1 7)..

This is a '~ondetful examph of vision justifYin.g itse~ on th grounds 'that ~. u~n nature is '~lllcapable 0,( - seemg the divine , " sence, he Iangua:ge of this passage is, rich withass eciatiens. he ' "fall ft@UI the wodd Qf~ni,ty to jhe sb.tion ,of symbols, ~mutasnahiJifl'~i'l uses the Q,uea.,nic, term far. 'th,e. "ambiguous" or "allegerioal" verses


ilia: contain anthropomorphic language and other di{ficuJdes, requiring interpretation, God:: s announcement "I dispwyed an image ,~f, 1l1yself (tt1wwtktJuJtu) in your e.y~e:, ~ Ii recalls 'Qur~aJl. 19:: I '7, where,. in 'the a:hnuncDtru.011 to Mary', 'the angel Gabriel ~ ~~S' dis:p~ay{:.d in th ima~ _ (tit1ml1h0u.Ja) of an 'Q:~:night man. II '\tVnen God tens Rui' i' it:n '0 !!lqocome intimate (mstaJnas:a) '~Ni'th m ' and Iove me, I, he invokes the famous saying of Dbu, a} .. _:_un an intimatcy

• ,._'L G- d h f L. 'l r' .".JII~ L. "f:: '] ~].,,' 89 Tl

win l . . -,'0. 3!S t ",. ca 1(;I)se 0', tne ,ove 0' ,M J!!Jeaum[i1 __ , uilflllgs. , , ae

result is a, continuous revelation of the divine be,a~ty ,run a "Succession, of different buman 'loom.

The rheophanies of beauty' finWly include manifestations that take: place nO. cbr'ough visual Conn put 'm words, Th SuS, tradition from a v. .'ry ,arl.,' date has emplo!ycd poetry, including poetJY de-rived from secular literature" aLS a medium for the expression of mystical in' rng]l ts Rllz bihin relates all example ,of :paying a wsit '~[D 3" seseion for li$m~1img to musical recitaticn of po 6U¥' (sa.mi "] where 5O,m"· strange '''Ie~S '~n the style ot the ~Abba,sid pinet .. Jhii

.... uwas ,"v. r ' r .' ited en the subj,ec: of hangover V> rses which were undoub I. ,dly in ended to be humorous in their original secular context, Ru zQihi.:n was imtrens'tly affect,eJd by th Ro~trY', but in. a one-sided and su ~Ieo:tive fashion, and upon reflection he, realized that 'he had, ,mrus~ed the presence of God entire~y during this assembly,

One day it happened that someone invited me the day before, aft. r the last evening pray r, ,to an occasion too included listening to music {sa1na ~j ana the singer recited:

Does. one appear in the' morn ing with bloc dsh.ot but 'the wineskins' nosttils had not b~ed?

Wirnebeare'r, relieve those souls who have risen up with fb.e~r worries ~D thea' coU~u.4bollres, [i.e, :p,bUf a. g~3lSS, _f,~):r

":11.. h I 111 ,. d 1:'.' thei L ;1 fJO

tnose W,' 0 nave nearJly'-xpu~ ." rrom t . en" hangover].

Ecstasies, kindnesses; cemtnunicenons, an ; , speeches from the station of expansiveness overwhelmed me, but thers was. nothing ehere 'f!xoept the visif.a't~Qn" the ,ecs~~,y} and certain gleatni - and :illumlnations. The moments of., mcoanter were made happy by 'that interior WSOQillE'S: ~ \I\:he:r I became ·conected and de paned, I passed the night uncia 'the next day. J mcaDedJ,Q] these states until night carne :a,gain", and ] performed prayer between 'the 'b¥o eV~f:lin;g prayers; saying to


my8(:~ IfWh~t W~S gpiflg O)l? T~'Er hi.~denw0n~(jrs were ~"@t revealed ,]11 Ul.e muse last n~g;hlt. II And I sudd€;rJ·~W ~aw God ,at d~ '~fidows '@f the ,ang'e.lic realm) da~]ing on me with the ,ql!J3jj:ti~S, ~f beauto/ and m.,Jes,ty. ] with '~p;al1Jsl\1ient£:ss.t UWhetTe 'W~ Y0U when y,~u hid dluing the musk}'!! (§o~5)..

In the ~u bs>equep,~ a)nv~rn~tion) God rev,e'a~B to R'U,zb~ha tJJ tha t he was in ·fat~t plr;f;BI~nt 'throu,ghot1~~ and Mth dru~ Fe'.a~i~a:tion new reve~ati~l':S 'ral1~)w", until llu:zt1ihi,m 'finilly ~'['ge:ts th~~ j oke" and sees God ,maoife:cSt f~om "the s~atiCl!n of ]aughter,. II Th,€ appearanee of appilti~en:tly ,profane verses :in these $'tifi rt.H.1MeM seances shows how even t~,e ~s~es1t peetry eQJ~]d be in~erpretoo in an a]leg~rical s~se; m. addition to the ll8~ar ~un, ex~.gesis of wine ~ divine ~ove; ltii ibihin understands the erude humor o:r the: verse as a n~al1ir~~tap.(~Jn of mle' mvin~ quality of ~augh~ef,. Seer it bco@ttttc& a theophany,

,A TraKStle"'en.,.1 ,La'ItJU'eap_

~ - be: visiens presented 80 far have taken place in mag)' U~[ocad.0ns~~ ~ though .Rn~'bihln, 'mj~t ,agr~ that, 'their truce place i$ ta ,,,,bat he calls the an~~~e 't-ealm., WtJJi1e some of ' these (to be (HSCUSSltd 1,elo\iV) GO,n.ce~ vision~ of th!! ~d~~rs of paradise, and 'Qthets, occur right _in the: :hcn;n,! and hospice of ~ilzbi~~htj the majnr.:iqr ttdte .plate· in l~and'ScRnre'S, .far- :remQ,,~d, frum h:~.n:na.i£lin,ij\' and ~Jt~ urban ~ii1r- -~--Aifi. - , .;i,

it:"" - - - -- -- -- '"I ", .... l!JIi_ ,."..~,_w.[\i1Um~nll.

Oceanrs of: unlimiied el!ttc;n~;,_ filled ,\vim s1!l];rgjng w.aW$, :~ndiea:te 'the ,po:w.e:nul psychic fQoces unleashed in vis.~Oll&.· A good '€~ampl,e: 'ws the

:OO]]G1VV;blg: .,

[ was; seeking GoU, in d~.~· hidd@~Q. w!a'r~d),. but when I s~!tt[ht Mnl, he avoided G:rt'i\b@ifi and certain ima.girra:t]ons" I'lought GodYs h~p in th~r~ and ,b.e madt. me Q~(lllpreb~nd his gva,r.e' and expelled my l~lJl11CiOUi~f9J~~'5 :from the regjo'[IDs of exis~e~oe ~ so t~~t I :reacIh:~d, the OOt;3,]] '®if love, It w'as, wrid~r th~n dIe worldJ~ _'but I ,c!'Q~~d :~t until I ~~achfid, 'the 'Ot~eOO1 of gp.{)~is" I erQ$~en that and then, t-eac&~d the' ocean ,~f unily. M JCl'fi(j\$.secl [hat until " reached ,the oeean of 'U.~kno:MJ!r :8.]],0 mi,gh[" I 100fiSS~tl that until I :re~chitd mJe ' Io;:~au of ,Attribut~·rs. The:F1l :1 :[~ached 'the otean of' '(;he Ess~n€:e., I was, astomshed ~'t the "ab8e:noe ,of the reality ,of IGod;; I· r,~ma]ned $Jon faf hours. GQcil atpp~il>1'\ed ~~ ,me ,in t~e FG\ml or J"lruaj~ty ,and beauty, a:nd


everything I salr"" in oomp~ris0r<Jl, Mtb. IDS ,mmJe:s;ty w,ars Hk~ 11, drop '~n. ~e €jeeln (§'7 g~,.

Here the eceau serves as 'the best awnaJJl,e~ meti:phor ,mr tt,anst'eltding' spaee, Som,etj,me's he sees ~im1~relf: S,Mmmrung and divilirtg into U1@ ocean's dept·hs to reeieve divin.e :mt)w1edge, but at other times- he is o!Ve,_n~he'Wm,ed 'bry the VlaVe,9-~ droW11ing: in their 'power.

- e Jhid fTilM me ancil, ,pltilt me in oceans Uk€ the air, :hl~('Vin:g n.O dirn',etnS~otJ$, The might afC'DQ enocroo.p~~e4 me, I saw m,ys~]f

'I' - ... iIL. - - e , .... ",.;fI.~m- '1,~1,.,.;E!; ,,",,,, ...:iI--"""'-p = _"' .. L ii"lIA ·~I"",,,"~ AT ~;m'hl"* UA b tl'!':t~,5i'\i3J!. ~

m 'YWeS -,' oceans ~0 d ~_f'Y', ,') m 11',1;1 no )!!'~J1l ~ - :':'~b:' II);,. ~ Y: -"",,[I!.OJi ~ '~.':

'behinc4 110 up Or dO\\\I11,. I s:~w no,thing 'but. glonr upon giQry) power upon :ptlwer l' .m~Jesty up 1111 ~m~jes,ty, might llJP~n :might." greatness ~flQn g;r,t',a,Jtn ss, EMl\ntty upon 'ete:mity ~ posteternity upon 'po~t=etemi~t. The;m he said, U From t~.~ w, of tbe h~dden,~ ~i~ is ,mtlJe55 etertld.ty and '~,e:r,petl.laJ

b· '. _. ~'I t~'~11 ~I o· .} subsistenee \'fS~.~ v, '

Inlltiatruc visiens ,sho,w &il zbihin, drinking ,a,n ocean, or n;c~Ving a

11. ..... ,_ .... t!; - - - ~ - - n - e~n ef '~,tii "'.1 il'OQ"e""L£i!ri'! • .'iIl..""" n ..... ',j;;'''!Ii1i'!l ~;;O'I'II,~,~ .... 0['1 ;i,hPo vast

,g~ lrom an oe '';':'' . , ~I' "~.I!~""', .fUll; -.Q_ ~IU!~"';'~' !;,!IiW!!;;! V,~';:"~,I g!ll~,",,",m'!L~~ Ill. Ot.' ",iII,.:;-

reservoir ar 'sp~rit 'that reveals it!ti]f in waws, of' ecstasies.

The o eeaas in 'tum are rin~d by v.ast: mountains, ,a:mrHlg 'W.hKh m ust, 'be counted 'Mt Sinai, 'th~ :SQ~FCe Qf :r:'e~,n~:latl'~ln, Q-11d M'L 'Q.a~, th~ CHympu& of Persian :mytilaJogf,. It is (r,~m the mountain that GQd~ 'or ]\(o~es(;. nc' a 811D ma"3:t€f, ot a, ecmbination of ,aill_ ,tlhr'~~,j, desc~nds~ brin,ging revelation. T~ mountain is the n~j~on of divine :inac.~essibj'lity:; ~ome,tiro.€'s; R:'Q,zl:'inin is 'the 6flly o,nt 'tm be im;rited 'mere.

I saw .God on a haOOy m.ountain~, and he made 'm.e approach, The ll'lQUlltain was high) and IGod, '~adJ me sit near him, and r~ated1y wined m,e '~th the wines of intimacy. He ~a:C€d me in ,3,. fauu that [ eannor ~,!IiU t.Q any of G(]d.~s creatures, and he was um~i1.~d and there ma~if~sred from hi[f)ll lli€ 'lli:gh,ts, a" his be'ttiutifui a;tJ1tribut:es. The. Sufis 'wen: 'on the fo.o~hill of -that mountain, una ble te ascend the :m'(liuntru:n,~ and God. called 't~at :moon.ta;ED Mt. Gre~ln!e~s C§ 162)"

The mountains are tbe dgrea:.tes~. and ,m(l$~ end!ll.uing of ,earrh~y fbin,~; wh:en 611gd 'ma~lfesUl hirs power tQ ·them; 'diey 'Shattter ~nd lnldta~y.

lBeyu,rud Ole oceans and the Inoiu~tairts, .,..~ ~"Z bih.~ He fin:ds endl ~S deserts, which ,signify th e em puneas of annihilation. This w~bi(}lism was Icomm.o,:tl i~ the \¥.~rings. of .aru.~~~~ whQ ~poke 'Gf I~dle desem~.· (mqjavl) ·of the knowledge ·of re'arnlty . .,~I' . . he desert lik.e'Wise serves, in the ~ymbQ,jc recitals of the Illuminationist ·p.hUosopher Suh;rawarm as .dt}e location for th.e moverru nt ef the

] .....I d 9,::;' T'h d Pasa was eh

sou . towards transcem teUlce.. . 1 ~:.- le.sert ... ear . ~·a·sa, was me scene·

o~ R(lzbihan~s earliest unveilings He seeks God m "the hidden deserts ab eve the seven heavens" (§ l5)~ because ~-he' desert is. where God may be roun~t .Rfi.z·blihi.n emph_es, the psychologjcd nature of this land!cape. ii' rff manifesred t o me in the deserts, of th~ hearr, and he indicated himse·lf) saying, ''I am your lord" (§7'7). There are no diS:tracUOrllS in the desert, All 'W! emp'ty, leavmng only the' :possibiity of encounter Viliw. the ,oue that Jl~ sought. Wh~n. RU'2biJian speaks of medita.tic~ he: descrlbe'$' it as fmUarYis,: "The rDie~f' of concentration weroe extended over the deserts. of me hwdde:n to trap the birds of the lights of might and the aDge·uc realm I (§ 1-6'9'). If the: desert is not the ,s;~te of a. rendezvous with God, it .1Nil1 be' the place ·of annihilation of the soul, "'I'D. the river bed of 'preeternity there are deserts and wastelands in who ch dwell the snakes of \'i1"atlt If one I~r ehen opened 'its month, none o:f creation or ~~~~H)ra]ity· would escape" ('87).,

.Aug~"ic B.ctnlnt6rs

Rfi.zbihi:n frequently sees the aogels appearing to him in the' celestial pleroma, ,onm the angels simply ~;uxo.mpany the prophets and. the saints in whatever they. are doing;, an indi1cation of the ,oonfinmty ,of spiritu a~ .authority' in. ct-eatioH.;, just as the prophets are dressed as ':~:u1i shaykhs, so the a."g . Is. can. be seen \-vearing 'patched robes I!ikl" Sufis - (§ 1 eU})., An early vision that b~~ieAy describes an ascension to heaven give'S a, fairly cor ventional ~CCOUl1.t of the activities of the angels, as gad: 'erled in hosts around the throne,. 'praising Goo ..

] passed with my conscience du~ougIh the' regions of the created, and my spirit ascended to the beavens, I saw in le:Vlety' heaven the angels of God most .higlh3J bu 1 passed them b\· until I reached 'til . presence, I sa~w dl~t his ,ere.·atigim; the angels, were' greater tha'n his creatures on earth; they were

- 'he Inner Structure of S~flthood

perf(')mUng; prnyet ~w ssing the nearness of Gld~ "\rim vlmces thru:u1Jd,f;ring, hu\ prai < (§20).

The a:ng~ can also be present 0 the' vision of the m.ysdc· dtwrjng ritual pmyer, as in this scene wh ee. RU zbilia.n sees God ,rut his ril>a:~ in Shiraz, m.eading the prayer.s::

I saw God on. the' roof iof th·· tiha~: facing the idiJn~:ciltio.II. of prayer and giving the tall to' prayer. ill heard God say:; "I testify that u~La'mrnad is the messenger of GGiclL II The earth was fi·~Ued. '\IYi:th angel5~ and when the mogeis, heard Go-d~$ call to p(raY'er, ~bey '\+vept and sigted and. cou.ld not keep ehemselves fro'Wo c:oming' : earer 'to' Ood~ on account of his

I I remcndousness and gI" In. my conscience the- saying of Gcd was recited, "They drueh~ lord f~Dm, above them and they 010 what they are ordered" (li Ill·: 5. 0) C§ 113~m

In. rhese vis:kn1JS, the angd.s appear pr.ima(rHy as celestial beings wHo contii . ually worship GOd.

For both angels and humans, words are an appmp1riate resPQns, . to the presence of Oed, These woros can 'be.' formulaic, eestatic Q., in timate and conversational,

Wh~u he .app11oa,'ched them) 'they were overwhelmed by intoxicadon and r,avi5hwng~ and intoxicated words 'fan over their tongues, soch as bossdng (1nghtJ" ecstatic expression f!ha{I!.J, and unknown expressions such as I say L ecstasies ~ of intimacy, So I knew th meaning of his. saying .. those who recite a recollection'' (QJJri.n 37':3)., That :w"s. rhe station ofawe in. intimacy, and happ~ne:ss in ~~ve~ and longing in, sweer union. (§:[ 0 ').

In. tl;H~ 'Qur;inic phrase ,quoted, the term "those who reciee" (t.a~iYi~·· employs, the same root used i~r the recitation (titawa) of the I~ur).in) and "reeollection" (diiJri) hall. of course a tD chnical meaning in S'ij;, to. designate ~b~· recollection of God 'by s.ystemao~ repetition (silen;t ,or' spolf'~) ,of ,ervi ne names and a.,ther sa,~ed phrases, Ruzbih;irDj here assimilates barth these ritual fOir-nls of ~pee,ch with th; . ecstanc spee,ch that he and the ang 18 : mploy with God. F€Jf him the transition from ritual language to ecstatic speech is one of emphasis on y.

Olten, however, the angels are of oo,ld~erly appeara:n,oe as 'he



discovers 'when meditating on the fuller Qur'iiD'~£ context concerning them.

My heart heard t~e criers of the hidde~. recite his ~a,yirJIfI~ II ~By those who are s ,. ' '", 1 ranks, and who driv ,away with reproof and who recite arecoUection (dltikit' (QlIr an 31: 1-3)., [I considered] its meaning, b\1t I Wid no ' know 'what 0'0 d in tended! by .this sayin.g~ I saw ~h -' p:r sence 'nned ',. ith ange[s as ~ho:ugh l~hLey were made ofhyac~n"h and ru·t)'Y~ 5t'a-:ding in rows ]ike Turks, before sultzu:llis,. Thus I understood the m,ean~ng of "by those who are' set in ranks" (§l07).

I 'he. reference m Turks makes lJ cl ar ~h~u the angels ,allie illik.f Turkish military slaves attached to tb€ courts, theugh in this case they have the luminous jewel-like ap:p, aranee that indicates their heavenly otigin. The resemblance of angel to TurkBh soldiers includes th.f'wr performing milital11 music as 'well, as we see. from ,9, vi ion of the descent of the an,gds during dl '~lmgHt of parweru in Ra_mra~n that commemorates dlC de~ti nt ~ f the Q,uf',aruc revel a1i'Dih mentioned i~ 3:ii.!ra~ '97'.

I saw the regions of the' heavens opened as far as the utmost CIlliyyln [the .high.est heaven], I ~~~w in it the cherubs and spiriiual bongs, as though -'they \-ver'€ sigh~ng from their descenti nte a world T sa,w the clamor in the gardens; [the ,angel] RiQ~~an ordered the, hQuris of the garden, and he' sa."f 'them stain their hands and feet llik,e brides. I saw some' of the angels ho.ltHng drums and bugles and military [b'and] i'~strnments. I saw at the door of'th,e presence: 'Turkish drums, and 'hey wece about to beat them '{§14.Ji}.

The solen rly a:ppearane€ of the angels., and tl eir function as J2QJ,lrt ,a;tt~nda_nt'S,,~ makes them to this extent m.amfestatl.t)n.s of divine authoriry and power. But this. militant and authoritarian

" '" f +,1.. ] • ... 1, • ~ d '. 1l b ih ' ,.. b

aspeCII., 0' :I),U€ aug-.": IS cu':'\<\rays m'IDg'ate,·· .. , In " fi:Z;~'1 a\:n's V]l,"On,SJ

theu~ e[lu~i~ides 'Q;f feminin'~' beau ty; th.e angels are also attraeti ve beauties, adorned like brides" This fe'minine' d~picti.o,n of ~nge~s, should not be surprising; it recalls t ie eng-haired angels in tb,. sumptuo u s Tim urid man U SC'ripllU ill U,~ t~ral~ng the Pr01P,he t Mub,ammad; s ascension to heaven. These paintings have a ClentIa! ~·':··an flavor, bu they rfle,c! a long tradition 'Of portraiture \vi~h Iranian mots. A~ . > arie ... Rose Se.guy points out,


"The angels" who look lik~ young women, have ro I nd faces, large dark eyes and arch dl eyebrows; their hair faUs, to their shoulders, except for .[\t'I!.Q braids ~rranged i:n loo'ps on top of the head in the Turfan fashion. The manner of their portrayal goes back to,

Ir_ani~ f.:ic,t~ri,] . tr~.dit~on_ ~a$ ~~xemp'lifi 'd . by . hie, ." bba_s~d schocl. u9 V"lith their combmation of ''Ilarbk.e and beautiful

,a5pe,c.ts~ the ange~s combint the qualities 6f grace and wrath in a way that leaves them intensely ambiguous"

In v..rhatever f~l)nn the angel~ appear, they are especially prominent ']n the nfThi~bt of' power" visions from. the Rama4in ,S quence, As the'menti,ons. IIO'n ill [th night of'pnwer] the an,gti~s and the spirit descend, with the 'p ermissio,n of their lor.d~ 'Yfith every command" ('91'7::4). For R:ilzbihi,n~ 'dl(! annual atriv,aj of the night or power was a special occasion for contact 'Mth these €missades gf God~ b"ut th '. channel of communicatien to paradise 'is, a tw'O-,W'a,Y street; the ascending mystic can then see" the angels. in th .. ~r ~ea.venly habit

~;~ ot a\ year passed ,~,thou;t God Most 'High} 1.fnV\~iling to, me the night o:f ,P ower ~ sh~]1g me d of the ange~s in ,th. semblance of a man, laughing, gr ~tin_g one another, Gabri I was among them ~ber,e, the most beautiful of the ange1's- They :ll,ave tresses like ilie tresses of WO(Q1en, and their faces are like red roses, and some have 'V2em cif light on their heads or jre'wded hats, or & of pearls, I frequ~ndy 53:\1\1' 'them. in

the fonn. 01 Turks, I: saw' Ri'~'\rin and the ga:r;den'J and [ entered it, lay the 'houris and ~lavlen~y youths JUSI: as 'God described them ~n ~.he IQur'a.n] J. entered the castles and drank, fOO:ID streams; E ate the fruits Df the garden and. I ate melonsin the garden .,.;>24).

The princi:pal mes$ag~ that t_he angels bring 'b) :R:lizbihan is one .of beauty, love, and longing;, This is true of the archangels 1iie Gabriel as VfI· 11 :3:5 minor ngtU'ies :~lke the interrogators of the dead, . _ unkir and NaJcir (§31)~ and the :r.eoot.(lling a;n,ge'~s 'W ,0 obs rve every deed ()!r humanity ~

I sa\v before me the ~o noble recording angels, as though ,they loved me and kmged fow me, ~ik,e two. Ibvel~l'YQ~gths, iW1 th . semblance of drunkards, acting w:alj' and afraid, 1: saw 'Gabriel seated b fore them like a . ride gro om, like the moon.

,Ruzbihin Baq1i

among the ~~anets; h~_h~drw,~tre~~es) "g~~ 1~, t~.'~_,tr~~s~~.e~ women, and he was dressed IfJJ rt5d, ~lodlll)g_ adorned ~th

gr~en silk. He wept ,rO'f' my sake and ,[onged .r(J,r me, , n the same way ~ rall mhe ,aagieJ.g: were ~;a;~py ~o see me as rh!ol~gh tbey IQng,ed 'for- m,e' and rejoiced at my state (§68) ,

_ hether as handsome ~rlike' - urks or long-ha~r- d maidlJens"" the angels ~,c:t as one more channel for the theephani es of beauty,

G· T'iL.~ ,Fr.n- "Ii\a,-~I;:DP' or SlU:r'Bi~\- as a, Ute:r:i:Ii.v T~t

(~ .. :~ U1 ~',sr·'°!li"r.'~l U ..... ~ . _ -~; .

AutoWop.p,6.ic.' Aspects of Riizbi-haH' s s.eff-Pre'$,mfatioN G,an The', ,n1Jeili:ng be called ,autobi.ographical? 'lobe sure, the term II autobiography" is rdatively recent, and as a Iiterary geW'DJ_r~' it is. most funy, applicable to, modern memoirs of the: past'mro' centuries, 'hough first-person narratives can b tta·· ed back. aver several millennia, it "vas 01l~Y in the nineteenth century that autobiography became '\;vklely accepted as a SOUf . for b,iographi,-, cal and historical if:l'formati'GI1; as 8L mode of repre: entin,g the sd;f, and as a: form of H:tel"aCtlJre~. 9..1) The ioitial and. easy answer is, that sixth / tw':dft[h,-I]entury Iran shared few' of the :h,ist,orfiog;ra:phkal,p,sycno~ow,cal~ or 'ij'ter,ary coneerns of ni:netelenth~century )lump,e. Rllzbihtin WllIS, not attempting to draw a portrait of his, times, or tOI reveal the land of" ;5> If thai would be recogmzabl '~n modern Western culture. Despise a vast biographical litera tu re In Islamicate countries, lUlItiil reel n[]y there has not been a recognized pHn~ of first-person narrative ,~n. Arabic Iiterature, ap"art from the more concrete litenuy cart~gory of :rIle travel allJd pu,g.r.image: narrative. First .. person narradves do occur in a. valiety' of other Jiter,ary con t,- xu, but they ha ve no acq uired sufficien _ gravity in

..... t... ~l h '" d d - f . . 9fa,

UJ! mseives to co. ere as an m rep n - ent type. 0 t· t,

As mention~d Move, there are only a few examples of 'fil'st-

., .. h ('iI ,e d" . ·'tl hi L. R- 'b·h- , "'rl.

person tm.3!rrat~.ves m t . e ~UiL trac mon '\iVW 1 \'V ,K~~~ . - U:Z ' 1 : i,n. $ J ,ie

lhwri(fflg ,'I' S«r,el.s can be co m.p ared, One :fl Of sibru(t ~,rec~r$or ,of R1Tz bihi IDJ in me self~di~closing narrative is the early St1:l1 al ... ijaklnl, a~-'Tinlli,clhl (d., ca. '932), whose Beginning of tkellfau, (Bli4uWW ,als/ta1rt} discosses, hi· s.pwr~tu~d Hfe. This a____dfers. eonsidembly fro'm Ruzbihiln~s writin,g, '~n that --I.'irm~dhi reJH)trts. few '~f a.ny of ' his. ;ovm Visions or dr-earns,. The b~]k of this sh~{rt W0fk of reports of


the dreams of .others (principaLly " "irmidhr's Mfe) about his s.~atu8

• ' '1 .1.. 'u - 'iL" ,- h' , ..._ I'H -, ~I- e , til - - -. , 1-' '. -, -.f

as a samt, ' ,"', ,QiIJ.:.u"e1' aut:QJlUHlgJ'RP' icai W(i!1r,~ IS _e ap~' 'GgJI.a ,0,

~ i\:yn. al-Qudat al",Ha-m'~ ll.i, '"~tte~ '00'_ ~~,'~~st h~~'_,fersecuti:?,n :fCIf' heFiesy shortly before his: ,~eculion Ul _ 525 J 11 :3., 1 ~ 9 - That, like ~,Gh~zall~s, D~lirJl1'afu:, ,.ftr;m ~1) is, aa inteUe,ctu:a[l}, p.rogrammatlc work that defends Sufism from criticism; neither ,a~=Gha'Zili ner )\yn, ,aJ]-Qpda,t uses an aut'ob~ograp,b1cal format to re~~~ inne _ experiences at a ly length. _ We' _do know of: a, tr,~dltmon o:f aU~Dbi~igraip:hieal 'Ylriting in, ~; orth Afri,C~l1 S~roJ~ that fOCUlS!eS" on. visions or dreams of' 'the P,ropbet Mul)~!iUl'mad., J €)ijathan ,It~![z has a'rglu~,'d that i, is teadition ~'D an ~rteg1l1ar fas.hion in ~le l~te seventh Ithirteenth cen tury ~ and later became a, \¥.ldespread social,n j, visions of the Prophet confirmed 'h, sainthood of the visionaries and certiiied them as. ~Jjtereesson 'who could aid

- .. . - _.. - '~ 99 R ~l.._ ·'h - ,- . - " . - - . _ f':

their own followers to attam salvation, .. u.z~) , an S 'VlUQ.ns are 0. I,

a di&'n~lli~, type~ hewever, cO'~SiStiDg' mosdy, 'fir visruon.s, r- of ICj.od" although ~he rophet M'u~at1D:mM as weU ,as, ang,els-, o,~~e~ pn)p:hets~ and saints also p:~ay notable roles, and.' '~~e 'iochm~al demity of the vocabulary ofthe visions Iie$ltri,c£~,~, ~th~m to elite disciples rather than the broad IPU~'ici, W,e. ~~), h~~ to', look elsewhere to. find literary' p'n~JCedl,e:nts, for JIliiz1O\lh"a:n ~s 'vtSton_sc.

I have: s.ugges~ed above that in -[(aem ~ UnlJeili~ ~t! Sec:~1s is a, combinatt,on ,Of a, 'rt:(r'O~€ctivt memoir and an OOgO(lHg vuJiona:,y di ary,. 'he s~gniftcanoe of 1the wurk; judging~ fro~ the reasons fo:r, t~ composition as, . t~ ted by Ru,zbihin~ is to _p1"o~de .a :reco~", of his spiritual experier : es £~f' the edification of a friend, most ~1k,ly a.

~HsqpJ~. MO!Sl of these experiences are so extravagant ,by mod€:r,~~ standards that it max 'be tempting to, '~'e],e-gate them to the ~a.tus ~or dream and fztntasy. ,F or Ru.zbjhin and his ceu!tt,emRor.a:11ies the: \vahlng'visions that iUed his days and ll~ghts'l\fe~"e fa', ftom fantasy; rhey 'were 'pro .. · f ,of his sainthood On,', of R~:z~bih.i ~'~s visi?DS 'has been the' subjee at an a:na1ysls, from ~Ie, p~:nnt of VlJe\>V of ,<;ITeam '].l1telEp'ret~1!1,on Oi)l,mparing one of _hi$. iWlid~~c en,coun.t~s_ \1Vl:tb the dreams of modern Pakistani Sufis, In this, Katherine Pi E'Ar1ng has made -a ,good case fOT> tThle:. shared ~ulturaJ ,u ~,emp~ate,~1 tj~at can be found as enduring elements in Riizbihl~I1,~s V~Slon and m the dreams ,of contemporary P'alcistanis; s'lite has poin.'~d D~t striking simU3J;nnes, het'w"een R:u,zlbihaR's iniclati·c. v]si'Oln of the . ~tt1eB€at'r (§'1 [9-:20) and dr,e,a'ms 'reported, bY' :modem. P.a1lci,£tarrnls con~ieored, ,r 0 Sl1!n masters.. [00 'While she ,re~ates the P,aJtistant dn~ams ro con:lbc


The Inner Struc~ufe of S~intho.od

sim~th))]s, deriving from posteolenial ,dilemmas and ,idiosyncr,a:tw.G COrrt11i~', that g'enera1te the 6ttaUl as the icenlJe.r ,fur a new selfrep1:e8~n'tation; she has reserved jUld,rrnent about Riizb~ha.n~s Jn~rso'naJ. 'Cocnl[[£li€t$,) n01tirug '~'nlY' that ,hi& vision. "was ,cl~ady signifieant fUf Ri z'b:~ha n ~ s g,ystem of Kif re:~If~S'entatiO:llS, and" ultirpately his p[ljbliC s~girifiGan~e~' as a. saint, [.I .. l That ~wl leaves open me qu€stl],Qn of \~Iihft~h~l" O~ not to :b]t~rppet l1fi Unriflili~ rif' Statts as a" 'trallstripno'n of :idiooyncraci,c p~non~l we events, ]f we reconsider bri~flY' the v181011 of the stars or tbe ulde Bt':ar Cabov.e, p, 46), it i$ impOtftarit to consider a 'p@lrtk~~l. of '~ha~ se,q_ ~~llC~ Oll7llif;ted. .f(0)]], '~h~ earlier discussion) the experience that fntlO',wrs~ upon G'©d~ :manifestati!}u from the- ~'r~nd.owsri ~ of the: polar' (ons~eUatiQrn':

I 'passed '~rl\l :my ,oo'Hrsri~ntie thro~gb the ,r'e'gip,ll~ ot th.e created, and my ,sprurit; :a~n:~ndbd to the heavens, I saw io, '~v,~ heaven the M~ls, o:r God ]l1,Qst )ruigh~~ but ,M passed them bY' until I. reaQh.ed the :pr:~;s,e]}):n;e,. :I saw his creations, ~h~ mn,g'e.js, were g~at£:r than his creatures ·,~n ~lu,th:' the'Y were P en0ir-millg]Jrny'er~ Mb.1J~~ng' tie nearness or: God, ~.tll voices ~hund~rll:tg bi8· ptai~e., Then I rose up to w.e world or smning 1ight ro a5l about it, and I W8}S t:01d, that this 'world is ~lled the thr~nJe", I trembled through" all. 2!1tm.Qsphere' ~th.ou:t: space; UD'Jtil [1: reacbed] the dL~ ors . of ete1:IDJity"" There I saw deserts ;i\wd -'() ceans; [ w,~ being annihilated, 'be,,~]dc~d~ vall1shi n.g '- MW ois:bed,~ ~01t knrQ,wln,g from where God a:ppeared~ 'beY(Uld p~~e ~Rd dlr~c~on (§2'O).,

This is, a, narr,ative of an ascension, '~:th ,d ~he.' classic elements of 'p~$in! thoot1J;~h the 'liea;v~I];8~ &ee']ll~. ~]],e a;ngblfr~ and reacllrung the tbro~e of G~d+ It is, ftu; Foo'm beil1,g a unique ~ev,'enjt:, part of a ,].Ql1.g cradiffi:tiqn of asoension, [ireJ'Q.bnre ,NidI roots loing b:~u;:.k to 'the ancient. near east. l02' "'hlle there 'DUlY ru.noteed be idiosyncratic .a~P~sts to Itfiltribi;n'~'8 v.i~]"naty d]ary." these may bear a lml.~n$ significance. in, oompari_son ,~th the o'Ve.rridin{{ themes of the Mcen:si,o,n, t6' b~vef:l, aJS, aJl attcirbute 9r$ai~thi,}o.(i~ H, is, ~d$@ n'eJ~ess~ 'te' consider ch,~ diffeTcpoe bet'w~en dream and 'Vjs~oo" especially if InYBoc8:1e%:f;u~ri~n~ r,tq~ires a qifferi~n~: hetHlre;~e1!l:tiiC than d4Des 'tbe' dr-e~tl]l. ]O~ In. _$h,Qr~t" ~!~'ThiLe' Wi€'. :maf :regaX\d[ 'Tlt~, Ml;U~ ¥ff-Sef/f.el$ as a se.[r..:pres~.U'~'ab'EiD~l,~ ib, lit~rfilr;y ,fnrerpreCttuQ,n. ~U be gtc.ardy aided 'bry com.iqg to ~n und.el;~tklndi~g ,of' \-vhilit kind ,~r te:'~J!: it is,.

Having rt[ormula;t:ed ,th~: (~u~t3:tiQn of the ~uto biogr81phicam,


statJB1!S ,~ 1le URJJMli1Jtt ,V Sscuo, I would Iike t~i :pir~S:S fUrrh~r tb~' "a nt,gbiograplti,cru U aSJp eels, of the te:~t in the most ;generru sense l! to examine the p,~8e[[ tati~n ~f self that 'etlterges fn).m th-e:se ~l~j)in~,. This w111]nvol\l~ especially a consideration of passa:p~ 'rull wbieh RJu;zbihan sees himself as an ~ctor~ aJt1JLd. WSlOi[US. relating . to, h~s f~mi]y. The ~~\~u]]'~obiQlfa:phj,calii tidbits :tiuw: can, be e3<ltract~d :rro(rt these: pass:iL(€~ ~l lDeirnJitt some further reaeccllo:n Q'fi t1~e ,~iter.a'rr g:e:rrur~'or The U1ifJei:l:i~ rd'SOUits especially W'~~H they are J'U'Jttapio~d wt~h some re:a~tions .to the t~~t 'by ]Rrij ~hihi:n'\~ ;tQnte~p~]<raT~es."

11be o ccasi 0 ns when Ri,zb~hi,n .sees hi'm~e:lf il1 visrudns are ctDmmon~ per.ha;p~a '~enw, of the sequences in The Un.~' OjSe:crei:S'

.. ,..,1 . .iII,._L' ~-I elf II Y " $" ]i, ~ '.

include me phrase, I" ;S~W mysof"·., e ,.,1, et in acne .O~:hle~(;: ,ca,s:e$ lS,

the v.~5io'r1 ()'t au~ob~QgF,aphic-a[, ,a~pects ,of hi'm~elf Q~}ectified~ SI() 'th~t he sees, himself i\\Cting in an e~te:Fnalilized, w,ay. T,ht vision ,@if himsejf orben serves as an ~1'J:twductio,n mal [ocair,e-s the ~~k")in i~. an. :mt,ernal landscape .a~r ~piri.tuaj station, but it 'quicldy' shifUs :~J;;ito s.ubjlcc1ivity, recP'OOlng' his p,en:oep,tiomsl," ~ttl'DnSj aJTh,Q m~@pres~ Here. are some e!xam~le~::

T saw my,s€lf beneath the ~arth; i~~ an a:trnasgbet;e or light.; and God ~ppeal",e,d '[1[;1 me there, Then I. sm,clj, to him, liMy' C'Od, I

.k· Ib &u 'w II ffl.('!i<'''i)

mu,g,t'it you 3. 'ffite ~'i(er~,. "3IJO"'l,;i:e .' . ,0 \~'~ r e

I' saw bim ~n .the decserts @f ~he Hidden, and I saw my,S'~lr r@J:F'ng :~n 'th,e dust h~r'dn~: him in, these deserts, al,1d I :r:'oUed before 'him &·.om tbe Jlr~t desert [0 d:rue last desert, more 'than a thoesand times (§157)..

Then I saw' 'fm~ysdf in the abode ~f majesty on tbe carpet ~r intwm~cy ~:tih t;odl, and, be 'poured '[me a 'Moe E can.nof describe (§ I5H).

Last night wt was as th~ugh 1 saw' m.yse]f in '~JID,e desert of

Chin;a~ ~an.d GQd arose :in 'the fann of el,Q'jdling ,~th d_ivil1:iIDf~. in 'the, fonDS of Turks {t I IS8) .

'It h~p'pened wa~. I sa;,\<\'" m.y~e]£ above M t:. S~tlai" and I saw G·~ d ,run the J,g,atdeni of pre-etel;n;i'l:y' C§~~04).

In 'the visions wher'e dies.e ;.sent,ences '~JCCID"~ the 'mention ufRIi~lnhi:n &eein,~ himself is meant to ~~n'vey 'hlltx):eWa.:t!f:~, I":I;Ot @'bje\~~ficaliQn Oil' ,dlsttim:ruce. & many 'of his ~Si~HlS .of th~ ,~dl:nien, of pax;atise ,~u~st) the m@del :[0<1" mystieal vlsi,on ~s [.he vi&~OIl ~f Otld, ~ha t ~]S. Fallted tfr the' ra:itihf111 :in '~afadjs~~ Itll:zbih.a.~n 6'Q-serves in awotb!et' 'uT,h.e ,~,'ren.'~ o:f the taithful in '~almclise is ,d 'visi.o:n" becaus.e spwri,t


and body l~hev '. are a st~gle lhjng~ like 'the sun and its heat One

. .,' . ". r.:::. 1111'04'

sees 'God with ,all the lim bs .:

, -. ., h-' L. R ,= IL. ih - '" 1..... 1.!, 'b k ,i,. -.'I,'~

Y~t there. rs a sense U7.I. ,\V . ~Cn_ ~. UZiUl.' an IS ruO'b,J]l,g " acs ,cn,ttCmtY'

at _js earliest .' xperiences ,of childhood, and in these recollections he speaks as, a mature Sufl10tikjng at 'the experiences ofa novie a- III was in '~lIy 'Y01Uth, and in dlr' days of:my i~.tQ,:dcatton" extr~tv.agan,te, and effervescence" (IS}. Although he had even in childhood tasted certain experiences of a spiri:tuaJ order, n€ ob!e~d, II' did not know the reality of what happened" (§.8). ,80 Ra,zbihin in:tel1'reb these ineheate exp· .. eiences as -similar EO the results o.f the ~ Sufi practices Qf'r:eC!ollecting !G:od and m,€d~tating (§8-9).. A few oilier ti~ .. , s (§], ,5, §22, §'34) &ilzbihan refers fO experiences from, his Uldays ?f yOU~l.,~: but \-vit[hout any criticism or dJstanc~ll,g thaJ w uld 'uidlC~:t~ that these 'were incDm;plete lOr mis:un:cteEstoo~", 'V'nUke Augustine" who reflects in his C()lgessirJW. n the true mot~mtiQn and s;igniffica-1"u:e of' actions mat he understood diffe{rently at tJ~€ time U.=o L"h-

~~,Z~U(l, an ,as. a narrator does not stand apart fr-om the. protagonist

of his narratrvi '.,1.05 A. furth,e-r distinction between A.ugt1/~~ine and

&~i.~jhan ~all. be seen ,in the' cenversion experience. For Augu~tirr" ,i~~ is a pj.vot.~ point 'wn the book, whi¢h dcliberately invokes a literary model, tb Q~)n version of St.'; - thony. Ru"z,biha a ~ Icon~,e'rs~o11, though dramatJc, irS not 'mQdeUe4 an a' h;agiQigr~pJruilcal predecessor; an ~p'ParicnnaJ figure s,peaking words he ha\rdly undeB~nds sen~ds 11imv into a rapture tha~'t causes lim to jettison his belonginQ'fl' and head to' dle desert If there is aJ~yth1ng conventional a;b. ut this conversion narr.'at~\7e; it is that Ru.zlSihan interprets each vision 'by the ~angua. Icl'lat he uses, which is d nselyfilled ,iVidl the ~e~hnical ~tef.n~s _o~ Sufi ,mYSitical ,p~ye.hology. ' 'he resulting mterpreranon IS d.ebbe ate and self-conscious as also, seen fr@m the constant employml nt of comp9.rlsons. beginning '~,th the phrase, ~ '~t was as. . ~ ~ ~I The narration of 'the visions has the ,dfect of i.~~ginative],y recreating the vision .(b[r tb.·· reade'I" withoua ,any ,medrnatmon other 'cllIDan the 'words of the if', but u at :m,ewatruon by mys,deal ,al1j{jlys,i~ sets UPI ,3, mO'de;] of mystical €Jtpen,elnce vltrucb 'the: narrative is m ant to illustrat-€.

Anothe~ angille frorn which to esamine the ,aut~b~o.gra~hical

f '71, r ." .1:~':.,i;. "'If' ~ • 'ItJ, ',if'"

aspect 0 .1fM' '0nuelRi~g 0' '4tt:reU IS n.uzbihan·~s, con,ee'pIt of se~t: Here

'we' face a major d~fficu~ty that deriv s from Q(l1;~: of the priPJ;a_ry' topics of Sufi mLysncism, which is ~be ,elimLnat.ion ,of th,e se~t: res If .. limin ati on. of th~ self' ~s accepted 'Mthout fu.rther qua!ioc:aJnon as


Riizbmin~s goal, 'th~n .any intrusion of a self would appear to be probl~nnlt1c" the remnant of a false' self One would suppose that it is above all in the station QfannihUition (f«no" 'riliait tihe ~n~lf or ego is, eli minated, ,.'" glance at passages where RG.zbihan talks about undel~Ding a ll111.ihilbnioll. indicates UU1~t d1- matt,~ ms. not so simple, . 'no" hilation of the self occurs primarily when a, powerful

manilestation of divine: Auributes overwhelms Rilzbih~ln} 'but typically the d~alQpe with God proceeds after fUThnihllatioo ""rfu;th no

.. I

in rerrupnon. tere are some examp esr

I s-aid, "I want to. see you with the quality you had in pn~-, eternity," He said "There is, no way for you to [knO\v], II I A.nd I imp]Qted, him and said; 'II~I ;.vant 'th,,'~ .And the ]jgh~$ of gl1eaJtness appeared, and I bee a- ne vanishing, annihilaaed, The temporal does not abide after t~at ~hOgWl of greatness,. Then my eonscience was addressed ~, , ,. (t62)

In. other episodes, Riuzbibj.n aanounees that he has been ,ann~h;.81ted; and that ~s the end. of the account, thoegh it is fummediate~y ftino,wed by

'Re said, 'I!E¥ecr;ythrnng is perishing but his face! II (QlJ.r",an 2'8:88}.. That is the station of sjllgleru~ss and annihi~ation i I remained astonished and. was annihilated, and I do nQ.1 know where ] 'was (§ 'i 09).

Then he approached me unti~ he dreli\t near, and. d:r~w near,

till hidd d ·' d G...J . II!.....J •

un . \YaS' . l_.· ien ,an! anm~ ( ate ~ ..' " -on IS; IlIJeyonu: Ie very'

fancy and indieation and espressicn (§ III J.


In other- cases Rfizbihin is nearly annihilated, 'but :retJums to no r.mality ..

saw OC ans uipon oceans, greatness upon ~ea,tness,;, fields 1JJIpon fields, and neatly was annihilated in the ,ac(:~n\lulal'ed oceans of pre-eternity, \Vhen be realized my inability to bear the weight of the calamities of unity he abandoned me and left. I returned to \",her€ r was (§ 1 '19)

I seems: to me that th€ 'key element common te these' paasag€Sc js the sense of ,9, dialectic between dlfferent movements in the ,mv.i,ne b:. ing as ,defining human identity, The tides and surges of divine. m.a.nifestatio(Q pull the human se.Jf:in'to e.ddiewor hurl i~ ,asho(re. The self is' not desuuyed III any final or abselute sense, but it 18


comp:~et¢.fy dep nden~ for' its ~d_ n ilty on the ,mea~~flm d manifestatilon .of ,th Attribu tes, while .an e~c,e:ss of divine presence ~i\I\~rwhe]m:s and scatters the self ,for the 'time being, The self that is exhibited in these. visioas is the S 'IDr O{)ifl$Q:l!Uted by meditative experiences,

One account in pa - ~_erular- claims. 0 __ f' in t - rs - f'O-F the way if:' shows the protagonist in a most .: ramatic role In, a passage where Rii:zbihan imagines his own funeral, It is an eerie; vision that is partly a ,d,emonstratioln of -Rfi zJt)i] 's sainthood,

I m,o,ugh t In my- heart about Iny death In· the middle of some nigh - ~ My heart 'was happy a t the ,jig~lt that befcll :"t, and my :~imbs open d up, and my hair and skin weI'€; lumineus. - saw the people ofthe angelic realm turning their beautiful faces to me, we:arin:g the clothes of eondolen.ce, in a form more be a!utiful than I hald, ever'seen. Then I: saw Gabriel~ M],c~lael~ Israfil, and 'J\zri 11 ehe bearers. of the throne" and all the aJ:fi,ge1s) wearing (:) [al-A?;FtJ o:n their heads, of a frightening aspe~f. So also was our ·-rop,bet and all Mle prophets and saints, I sa,w God manifest to me in the :€Qlnn of ,dothilg with divi"niry, and h c appeared ~o me as though he were ~Ving eondolenecs, Then he Came' to m,e~ and ~:th him, were an ~e p,rapihe.61, messeogers, angels, and. sajnm~ and he 't.().ok"rQ~' by the hand and brought me to the \vodd '0,( majesty and beauty t 'in ,3, presenc with gardens an - happiness. Then the houris removed the v i~s feom thaI" heads, and passed cups around, in which \va·s wine - 3(' d the a,ng-e,k 'San,g. God said to me, M1Th~s is how your death 'MU be" (§' 18< 1 ),.

'I~ is, a. strange combination of a funeral and a parlY, Aa the ,angels, prophets, saints, houris, and [God himself are dress d as mourners, and Ruzbllian has ,8 body of]ight." -',er the cer many; all ,adjourn '~o' a paradisal garden ,fo,1"' celestial wine and music, This sequence foUlo'W'S another vision [Qf armihilation, in which t le lion of [God'!s,

.. .,11!... h ,. - 1 A R'- 'b'·L'= ~f': d d D'·· h I." • '. ,.

"Y\l'J"alU1~ ~as Just en ',U Z - unan lor . ,e,a, '. A~\at :,~ ,l~ke aa,ruh.]lan(l'lJ~

Slee~· to be the ne£es:sary pr~e~ude to a season of ,~ntimac:y with God ", The self mit dies and is resurrected is the self of vmsio1nary' le'XIp.n nee,

In ,any 'wIiting considered all'tobio~phk one expects to find a presentation ,of the authors primary Ioca..tion in -sudety., the family. ,H[~~~ Rtl zbiliin 'provide3 an u,ne_xpectedly :n,cb vic\v - of his


family r-elations in his, ,visions. F'~i:r the moot part his visions seem tOI i dicate t.b,.at be enjoyed, [e~tt-em,~~,y warm relations \~th his family'" Despite the ha' :wbrdcS he: used 'to describe 'the rcla't:iv~ a:mong' whom he grew' 'up ~ Rib:'bihan ,evidently had become reconciled to his parents at least, as we see rrt:nn. visions in ~vbich they appear 'tra\nsijgured :'0 paradlse, .alongside his wives,

I'hem I saw what I saw of maJe'sty and be': u:ty', 'which the t,onporal is unebl e to 'hear. I f .aC~][,ed a world '\<\rhreFie l OO~OOO threnes are smaJIe:r than an -,atom ~ and I ,saw nothing dJ€l~ but might and. power. When' I departed from 'that ,I ,aaw a grea - hou· e high iii bove, and. ~: saw' my family sl'tting and ltallcihg abo; ,-, me, re~iting poetry, and it was a happiness ik.e that. ,of the first encoumer, I saw all my 'wQmen:fol~ sitting happily, and I saw my ,cl.tild:ren there, and a group' 'Of 'people. Then I la~w my mother, and $l~l€ was a 'woman 'w-ho kn,e.-w~a-nd

,_.... --0 £"i'--d . ,_.j 1L. ,,;.lh,, _...,.1~, h - - - I ._..;a '. , , --." G;- - - :,m. ' ~l , ''IL, ',,, ..;.- ...... ..l iove :,_ O1fU.'. _) ane Sue. ZIot.-YlJ'Ii" er )_[emQ m m y la.m!llill~y s nOU~ ,;t;J.-JR-l

'..:Ii ., P , .. , di II . ·Il.'''''' lit'" '.a,L· _, I - u - - - _ ~. " II,-'~. - '. ---

sam, ill l'aa:Wl..· ialect, 'ItZ ,_l:~_# WlU U, meanmg," tnere lSi no

god, but h -..'~,ud they wen recalling their weddings, Then saw' my fath_l' ]~id~l1[g a red horne, \viea:ring 'sdk brocade and a w, Ite tU'rbaln on his head, Mth aJll.~m, alon,gsid, ~ :returning fr,;am a ws~,t to God. H,e 'was an up1r.igb.t mal1, a lover of God - ii, 'r God has his smuts ~ and he was jnclsned to- '\~ieepi'~' and

• - ;to ",tli" ':::hf ts:.6' 9 'J,[nl)

sen~l!y._ '\r:I! ~ 1 \}J" '. .., U .'

This Icharming domestic portrait shQ,ws, an md_ ,H~c setting of a great family house in paradise, where an ~s harmony, and the grandparents . cham sacred phrases and visit God hke ,3, neigh~or. This appears not 'to have been an isola ted eoncem, for in. another passage Ruzbi'b5n uses ,3, g,r1ani~ text to enlarge on, the, importance of meeting one's family in paradise.

Then sa,w my ,,,viti', in one of: he gardens in the presence of God" and she was leaving him, And I saw the qualities. of God. in the ' of Turks; Then I J3;\'V ,m'y' family among the g!tat! trees of the gard~1l in the pr,esence ,ar [God, and those trees were of red ruby. MY' :famHy w-as sitting near God in a row, as. though 'ID€y expected 'me. Then I hard fro:m the hidden his divin say~ng~ ·''With the righteous ,am.long t-, eir parents, and their spouses~ ~~ (Qp'~"[I1 ']_ 3 :,~3). S G I 't11,!(];ught about this message, and return~d, to


the begin~inj of the: vel'~€' wbelr~' '~t s,~ys:), l~'Gairdtns of lEd~n which dley shall I!Hte:r~ with the tIDgh.t,e\~'~s among their pa'ren~s,~ ,~~d t~~dr spouses, and 't~eir chi~d~n"i (l 3:':2 ~)., M,d I ,krlce~\'f lIrhat this was good. news 't:'o,,. me, atnd at d~wn I salt medi"~atiQg on tn£ day"hR:a:k 'Q:f ,emertAity (§8:2J.

t?0mll1g,·~n'l going' vvith God in the gar-clen, ,,e; manifestations bk!~' Turkish bdoveds"" ,R, gaJid1e:rD: tran:Sfigured like jew':~s - 'chm is a fiJlttin_g env1:r~~m~nt in, whi~h. [,~ ffjjedlrtate on tbe desdn~,es: of looe~s, family in t~e a:f~erJlfe" .RG.~'bj]jifi takes the: Queauic ~~:t as, a pe:mQna~ message, pe~rmitun:g him to see hils :familliy a:m'~ng the S'i~?"'\F<oo ..

, . 6,t .. ~vJ!~~hl~g 'was, rosy in '~he 'fa'mily ~ WI ~he t~rue; Jik€ aWlJIYG,ne e~~~~? Ru~bW_haT:J had: to ,fRoe' problems of .a filllUl.dal nature, and ~:denfl1f. ~e came in f0r~,:m,e' criJncism 0o!:,a;s1onaly. A len,f&:thy VlS1GU (§174) reco[Wn:t&' ,aRer,m¢lth, of a family quarrel. Ru.zbiham?s

:~spo~s~ illitiailllly Hi, 00' s~~'k solace in mediEa.don~. and he grows

impiltimt for a divine :response., -

It hap,pe;ped one night ffiut my bn~:a:st W&S constri,cteid on a~ooon't ,of ;~ qual'nd. , _m,y fa:mily; and. their,t ~bOU:ti ~~J;tawn Illecesmoes,. r a woke ,Mle[ :m;]dri];~lt, and I ,degpan:ed about ~he @'P!!~i:n~, .of 'dle hwdde:n," ,My crouscie)loe s:ettl~~, ra'y in:tjma,cy rolfitrunuedj,~ and my ~pirit \~ag gn'hcM~ I awaited dl~ wonders ~f n~,v,e~Hng of the 1\>Vndd of ~ a:ngclic r~,BJ]m'.l' a,nd I saw G~d 1)] the fQrm, of,cto;tbing vn'th iCffi,vinh'Y'~ ill an ~sre:m-b~~,. Mrmom,entary state wa's j~yful, :my ,c,Qr:ffiscruence 'm,g, _,ali~M('t:el4 my ~.ortging increased, eod my ec~tasy mul'ti~

plied, I was cE_is;~u(-hecl and ~'h~u.t~d" .

~ PG~rr'Ul ~€~e~ of v:isi~ns ~nd ]1\IJ~ul:ifeSJtati(>n3 ensues, c~]mina.t~ng '~Il ~e re'V'e~a\beln of a Que in:ruc verse t~a.:t premises 8ustenanx,e) pns~bly :I-e~o.~ving the practical dwfJictd.t:i,es, faced by R6ibih,a,l1~S fanlil;y;.

Th~n be ,hid from me, and op~D~c1 the world of 'th.@ ~urug,eHc, realm, I saw pc€am 0'£ fresh pearls, and :ht roO&j¢ from, ~etn aBd Sh.Owel~d., them over my head 18epeated~y. 8~, also dld, the fJ.Fop~e~~ and me' angels, until I reached ,the 'world, of '~~l~ity~ God 'mamr~~t,e.d in the form of p~e.retoity.; and there \V~ the p~atfe of anmhilation, Then he ,hi.d £1ic':m me and

I meltesl itl th€ 'state of pulveri~ation ~ "where the frojts 01 every' lliing' are brouj::~t as ~U$tenaHee "il"om us;tl (~.g:517)"

The wsi@u does not end on this 'positive note" th'G)U,gl::L, G,od 'then man~ft~m as PQW~' and au.dlOri~~l~ proJ]ouncin;g' ftigbtful COl)- 8eq uenees if R;uzhihitn is further critieised.

Th~TI he said. to ~J "Is it nOI[ [ti'U~] f;F'om a Dove the throne 't~, the sJt~bi:e: ~eatthj thar 1 am the ruler ,of cne:i1.ljture~';1 and m my :~mn,d are dlt keys of .ev,eryw.ingr' T administer my kin_gdoJJru as, irn~icared. 'Dge511oe. the ~~' of fates ,u:;sue' from 11f1¥ '~ll!' Slay. ~h.~y are meddlers and compla'~nu.8 about me; let ~h,€m, sil,ence their complajnt .and - g!V!3 ~hanMi to 'me fo~ the' ~quivru~n.ce of:QlY bout~;'ty - Q~h~l:~w~e I Mil destt"o'y ~m. I,' I. was afraid fllOW, this :reb]]k~" for he had '~mon·s'lnted a,tlth,OllJty.E awoke in the night efter midnight, near dawn, and Iny ~,e,p' had been a sw~e[ ~~,e,~p.

Ru,zhihan 'Wag greatly oo:m€ij}rted by thws reassertiea of his PMl. aud:~)GHi,ty .

DHneu~,6e$ of' a mere Pdi;gm]j~n~ sort are revealed in narratives that ,sil,ow RiUIzblhiJfi awake late ,at night· 'Wi til a, sick child, His p:~ers hmught 3ff :m¥sfenol'l;$ ,aDg'~c 'wmt(;J~ who healed [h.e DOry and blessed them bot~~,

It ba~~pened 0D.f! 'O~ght I was eoaeerned 0:11 aUC00Uf.[t .of '['lily Sian AI,mad~ whQ was su:iJerin,g £r,om d:yB~n tell", 'This constricted 'my breast gr~'ad¥ ~ and I asked .. ·lJl.y heloved 'to make a, sL1bsQ.'tL1t~on ![tot my son's 'hllne8s] .,~~07 ] dept w]r.ri~e.

i\bt1:tad did , .and a\\vQk~ at his &hout;, I carne te him, though I" was between wakmg and sJt,~ping. I saw a penon It'avi'ng from the side of my house, saying' in ,'~&a\wi Persman ~ ~"May rour 11~gh~ be a, saf~, and blessed n]gl);t.,~]08 Then he smd, [to

r[1Y- s~n.]~ '~'T'U'nigh.t he: descends 'lO!f' your sake and for the sake of your £~tth~:r", ao'd~ He, .]S' rOyrs. In' I te mys~~f) liMy breast was CQl:lstricood, at this 'lime, se 'how ~n tbe lllnVtd];]ll,g be pr~pared fbr mt?~1 I ~urs.u,ed the verses ()f good news from th,~ Qur';a~" ,'\tv~dth annOllll:1{'£ the opening of W.e gates ,~f the Hidden, For Jt:bat reason, Rome '[divine] ~lpe:ech is" from the Ac;tiD~s, ,and some ,frum rnspiratioil (itMm) {e122)..

'The significaDce of this eceeunt Iies il[i, w,e, mlgelic e:01CQunt~r:" and


tIttLe MU].OU~QemeIU lhae O~d h~s de~lC€inded, for their sake, IOn.C~ the 'boy has heen bc·,~~ed". R'uzbiilan :i~, ~or>JJo~m.,ed mainly ,ab~ut how his nest !mygt~ca~. -esperienee will be 'bntHJ.ght abcut.

S~me:,t.h;):)e.htter~ tbe bQ;Y .~md \VM ,si~ onee a§tin,. du:rin\g ~bct

p]~e 'that m~cted Shiraz in .5B,5/1189"

It ,h~ppeml,~d tlla~,] sat b~fare ~rmdlt]gh~ 'l\ ,my 'sOn Mwat1.~ wb~n= be had a severe £eve;t·., AJJ. my ll . eart mre~ted· fJ;1@([~ concern, I tiat,,~ God s.uttdenJy in t~e ·ro,r.m of ,m~ies:ty ~ and he' was 'kind ito me and. to. him~ tft'Qugh he' was s~,e€pm.g. Ec"stasy ,and a~tation o~envhelmed me, and my soul sttt1ed dO¥n1 :frQtn disturbance, so that it g'll!W llla.tten'(ive" That 'was druffi~ul't'fQt me, said, "IIMy God~,'VVby do yidlij tese me, when I am waJting' 'fhr your he1p?flll He [aid, "De \mJot SQrro,w; am yo,uxs~ II I said., liM,. GodJ Wh::y do Y'o'~ 'not sfeak '['0 m,.e as you $"poke '~O' Moses,?" Hi~ {jaid~ II'Be siad'S'fied~ that whoever loves you loves me, and 'w:boe;ver sees you sees me .. u W.he,n I,hear;Il t~a.t~ ,many eastasi,~~ ov,gO'Vbe~med me, ] stood, and Go d ~rulecl in the 'w,g'm'tis of t'ffi:1te Hidd.e.n and s~idj: u'Remedl'!i~' A, remedy Cattle tn him, The 'tQ,~ '~<\'B'S filled ~:th the ,srudkf unlike aqyth~n.g 'we ever saw, ]But the eure was nd1!ased, 'J;.Q the town" and it sp,tead tfm01u.,qh()u.t ,aU of Persia. 1 was 'oon ecstasy"

~r~~s(§2~,,~Wng. He was kind tom,}, son, and gave

Agal~". ~ tniraculo~ ,CUE co~~~ from diW1U!: 'runtewven:tiqrjj. W:hal is ~:triking is that R'U;zbi~i.n f:re~ly oo,~p~mD~ to God when, help is not forthc-om.~ng 'q,uicldr I~DO~gp~ and that he simu~tarDJeQus~,y asks for b oth a, plague .eure and. a rr£V!~rl,o:n like ma~ rof" Godl's; :rqilrv iW this request eomea elese 'V~ the needs of the hagi'()gIllpner, Pli:o';nUs'in,g that those 'who love ~n.d see &:11 zbih~lI1 ruov€ a_n.d site God. This pr.{buaUnceme[)J~" ~'Jlm,ch. liele~s th.e ouze of' the ~eral p.~a~r_~e; f'uts Ruibihin rema~r.!kabily close to the po~:ti'~)n of the P,rophet '~u~~a:mmad~ who had said, uOnle: who sees me has seen

Ce •.. d II ~ ~o I 'ilk .'l ... th ineid l' . ..;all .'~I". d 'H, II!-.JIL:!! 'I 'R

I.. 0 ~ • 'n UO'l\l1 t .. e' U1C1~ . ents J US~ Oe~rnlllJe· ", ~il;ZWJ!ULllin s, t'O'UClJJng

,O(lllQm'T:Jj fo~ :fu:is, '~6n is relevant ol1ly be(~a1lse ,m the mvir.ue ,~~pon8e

~bat it engenders, ~

RG,zbihan ~8 peroon,al COf]l1ecti,ons "can aJSQ be, eN:ammeld :run siw~tffio,rm 'wh,€I~e ,he had to ,cope ffidl ~h.e dfeaTm ,@f ,a In'end. In one ca~e,. he $Iees .hi~ rfJ:end 'tt,anmgured ill. paracli~e~ ~ntl God m~, th~' i'ulgels, pel'fGm1 his 'fiu],eraJ servk.,'f,.


One ,of my o)mpampns, died, I :saw ~ de'S~rt h~nd. ~ .se>V'f1l heavens, mad.e of red clay;. 00,00 ~fu. the dead, lying CUI their shoo uds, I said~ !i'Nha.t ~s thjjs, desert?' ~ Ti~ey said, liThis is the p,laot of We 'warl:ffS, of God and his puree ones •. llf~ I saw a funeral bier game on the :a;h~i!,UDld~r$ of the ,ingels; they' bfQlWgh~; it and :put it d,o:wn. I saw 'God pmy1I:1g over i~~ - Gf~:d. Mt~~t- High, was p'Ea:yin:g 'Qrv,e;r:all, of d1!em .. I .Mked~ "Who is thi1 p e:r~on?~ 1- They said, w~i'~nr co:mp~nl!O;n.,'~1 I ~~pit bitterly~ :filllr' he was a, yuuUt rr-om a:mofiog: us. Then I saw him Oill a wall of the ,on:.ha:rl11s 'in, paradise, ,and E ~aid~ ~'Mas:t~l'~ \N'hat are rfJll (3loiHg?LU He spn~a(~ his hancljj and built a w,~ from bl~e ~m.era!d!:" $ayi&g~ I!] [am pre,plari'llg] .you~r house and y:our orchards in paradise" (13.(0.,

This eenneetion "~main~d s;,tron_g' e;v'e[DJ afber d~aJl1;h., ~ Riizbihil1 sa.w h~B 'friltnd working to prepare him an abode in b~av,en:; tnau,g;h' i~, is a ~p~rimaI fri'f'ncbhip mra-t rests Oln 'lite stEil;WS. of tbe cempanion as one of the: chosen 'ones of God~ Ritzbiban alse C~'19S') records a vision of~l~othtr compa[]i~rn \vh9 had. died, hut evi:delld~~{ 'Qine °whQ~ though a Sun, did. 'O()[ achieve the states: he had c~almed in Hfe, Riiwrnin sees him be~ng ~ndern.e~a:dl a house filled M£b ~ig:ht,. along mill the vest of humaJl:ity and thf!~r rulers, Tbe fo-cus, of both these wis:.wnns of departed ,comp,a~i,~ns is on. .dltw spin t ual!, :S~N~ :rnthe:r than th.eir personal ah"~~tCfe:r as :frlell!ds~

Ruzbih!n shows mort' e_pvon when he reveals m~ de:~r~si~n he feb afrer the' death of a .f~vo,rite \!l.~f~. - h~~ ~s reealled on. an oeeasion '\l'JIhefJl he bad pu~'Ch,aiS'~d an DfCh-aoo 'run Pa~~ ZJfte:r' her death, but be W{Hldtr1ed desp,t)nd1en,1ily how be could ,enjoy it i.n heir absence (§ 1 09)~ On. ~thod]er occasion; Rmbi~~h'li thinks ofb~r' a.gain after he' re0ei~ed. a. vision 1@lf :~. of eDstenc,e retl1il,e~d, to ~p~cb :Q,n diJ,~ head of a pin. This l,eft ;a~ his facu.~~ties, stunned.

Then. I th6u,$'ht in my heart of my 't<Vi[e who has clred (maW 'God have m,(!FC¥ on he(}. When I im-p'lor~d. him, ~E s~aid '~n ,my 'cb:(;)wgbt, II!i,My God! Do f.'QU see what you have done to me, when Y'OlU to@k her and left tt"J.'e' ~dP~" He; _~pOke' to :~e in.

'1)' d _.' e..JI Ii L .... CLO .. lfj - - :;;;'<1\'1' <3itiA .1.i.=·~.J:~N_"""""j. ~, I. I 1 ~A'iI,A'OiI cr"jj.l. J....,;,:r

,.II ersran .an,·· s:rt:!U" . AWe iliI!~:r ~j,i 1~·-AUclI!W(.t~,~~j!i. niL .!!:i!!':!iil...~ ... 1,. ~ l

thalt IDa,t he r:te3:Fliy tmw{~.~d ttl ,m~ tbe w0rld ,Ol[ 'tbe ange~ic :r-eahn. and madl~ m~ dweH th~re [1. e,u;" he n~:a'~~Y :had m~ !dlie ,also]., So I 'tm.d~r~~o>@d th~tt. Thm "aUer :ablumps, 'God $poke


to me, U'Rejoice iln the bargain you have made'' (Qu.r'a n :9~ 'Ill) (§ 131 J.

Here eoo, as ''A1'th the .death o:f' his fi:iend, Itiizbillilin feels free to chaf~eflg~e God fo~ ~altin~ ~is wife ~nd leaving him distt,aught " he oons_o~~ttQn, he' recerves is that '~od could have kept them ,j,oHl,ed in death but has decreed otherwise.

. ,Ril~biha:n continued to think of tbjis unnamed favorite- mfe, Land VlgOn~ of her k~fJ;'t recurring, again in the form of a, vision of paradl~se This 6m,e the vision carne at a 'moment 'when he 'was wandering about how to prcvide FOl'ms fall'JJily after his, death,

I th;aqgh:t in my heart aba~ut my 1ivdihood and certain pieces of land; h.0~! they \vou~d Iare after m}7 [death] ~ The ,garden

'~, unveiled to me) and I saw its rivers trees and ~ !2i"mer I

, " .;>,,. ~~ A<OlI!Ii.llI;l!" .

saw my '~e weari/ ilg the Iclo,thmg ·of the people of p\ara,dise~

,~nd she was in the same form as ~hey were: she was, ~aihn,g at til do~r o,r one of the cast1~s" as thQ'ugh me '\'\1 ·re ,e· pecting my a.mvaJ, ,an.d my delay in the wlThrid WB$ to 'her but a m,o'~nt I s:~~ a grOUPI of my Wives:; sons, daughters, and

relatwes; ,a~d.1. entered 'e.cs~.asy~ and :my heart was hapfpy' to'

.... 'hem (§1681~ -

A finaJ .vbion s:h.ows Rtuzbiliin his ~e and :family mIl a paradise ~~ with ~Dgar. a, bit 'Qf which she gives to .bim- {§18,1)., & the VJS10~ cOJ'],tJ.l1l'U~s) God recites to Ruzhinin a. passage from the ,Qu~ an ~68: ~ .) thai,! speaks, of the character« f the Prop:het ~utta.mmad and the rewards promised to hirn, and. 'then Rilzb~ban IS ,ellev,~ted tn ~ su~b-Um"~ positicn next to God. He seems finally rl~~on€]le~ :b') Ius. ~fe'~s. d:,a th, thOM:g~ she is, accompanied ill these ~o,ns by her enure fa'lnmy, many' of who,m were presumabJ¥ sum ,~Vi]];g.,

. ~ nat do these accoums oi'Riizbjhan',g fanlily ten n;Is? 'The details indicate such personal items ~_S ·a concern about f~m:ruly finances an~" d~8pit" :~e ~~as~~n~, dJisagreem nt, a sUIp'rj~ingly po,sitiv,~ ~alu~;ll0n. of ~illnily bfe~ e sees all of hJ1;, ',' :zunily 'rfswdmg in ~a.r·~~8~ In bliss; ,evien_, the parents whe InU!U have been so nrebgious a\Coording to his earlier account, One ventures 'to 'think 'that even medern p.sychologis:cs. might find RuzDiEtan 'Co be' r-em~riably 'w'eU~adju~;ted fDr amystie .. His., fondness ,f,i)r his \\!ife~ in particular, forms. a strong contrast to the behavior of Ius ulrra-


ascetic predecessor in Shh:az;, Ibn al~.Khafi.( l B.2 But all ahis in'fOirmatian about R.uzbmhan~'s relations ~Yith his (a:vorite wife and lSI concem for his sick boy has been c~nveyed only in 'Q,rd~r to. illustrare 'his sphituSll unveiHngi" I. his ms especially clear ,]11. the ~t,()~ of his deceased eompanions, who are described primarily in ~~nns,

of their spiritual ,attainm~nt8., .

The lhl7J8it'i. 'qf $QClets can. only'e called autobio~p~licaJ. :~n the broadest sense of' th.e Ii,. rill) in that it is wri tenin the firs,t p~rsiD.n. and has some mimi, . d references to the life .. events of' th~ author, These are, however meant tOI reveal a self in a ¥ery ditie.l"~nt sense than what 'j" un ·.e, tood bY' that term in :moderJliif ~~\ture,'whether' ,aut.obiogr,aphipa~ or pSYGihological The "self" diselesed ~y a Sufi like eon· i,ts of the ebb and fto\<\.r o~f experiences ,cabegorn:ed, by the technical terms of Su:~sm. ,~ manifestation, annihilation. Essence, Au:dbute:s. The P - sonal and, family llife 0" R'u:zbiha no is su bsum d inte visions of 'p;alrad~se~ :from which it would be hard t'Q extrapolate much in the 'wa;y' of p$"jJ!cho~ogi·cal analysis, fo:r th 'ttu· ~ubiecit is ike vision ~tse~: Readers and interpreters of The Urweiling ,9/ Se(lfetJ; r, 'j'ectid or accepted 'Lt in accortlance 'vlWth their -O\~. notions of sainthcod and meir relation

1 t1 ,. Bro, d . d . . ~""". .A . .JIL ",I!;;..

wnn , ae .samt, "~S' escen ants '-n parQcu~r tenci]etJ, to, resnape Ili~.

:te~d to conform, '~t) their -own ideas of unc.tity and religious. devotion, in th. 'P110Ce.SB ~aking :R'u:t ibill fit tbemode~ Qf a, '<un saint to serve as; t:h~ 'rIjjC1ll~ pf a. moc~d shrine cult lte.ading Ruzbihin's t· st aga~nS't U1 .. e inte·rpf. lations, of h~s hagi,s allOW$ ~s to hear :~lis vOIDoe a: llitde more dhnl:netly 0, Like the brief ecstatie sayin,gstbat Rilzbihim has explained in his COmm.enlary ,(jn &mtic. S~J.s" hJs lUlviell'in,gs are framed b:y ,R transcendenral rhetoric of hyperbole., HJJS astonishingly powerful visions sim:pJy and. straighcfulrNat,dID.y peesent him as the recipient ,of unparalleled mvine gra,' e~ prophets, allgi~s, and outstanding fi, ires from earlier Is]~!'mic u~dkcioW1 appear only as 'Witnesses, b), acknowledge his transfiguration, 'or as in .. rmediaries to QGlnvey' divine blessings. Most of all, hiS! v]sio,ns ten ef his encounters ~th God, expressing [til .. , m in distin0tively JPer'$ma\l1 metaphors. o:f intense poe. ie lushness.

Ecst.tic' .Sfl8,eela ,.00 ,Asceasion N .. w"tlve'

The au ,ab,iQgrapbioaTh. paJssa:geJS, just given from, TAo: 1[1;II1&ilisg .tf' Seu.ets ,dQ add to our 'pieture of Rii.:~d)ihan:;s, personality, but ehe


'.~:...1 • ,II!... ·1L:f· ieal dilL..' h· .... :n

'maderf a;utobiO\graphl!L~ concerns MtJ!l'w U]s.t9n,ca .an' .1iiI'l!ograp_ leal

infoTlna}t1(H'l and pE'€snJatruon of 'the self are net really the su bj~ct of '~h~s text, On' bas te read against .. ne grain. and son ,through a large amount or visionary materia] to extract a fe'\\!1 bits of personal :;,nft:Jrma~IDIDl. If we- \;\~h to have a be~ter. ~ppriQx~ l!l;u~bcnl of the proper literal,. ca,tlegory'to apply to this work, ~V . will have to move outside the mod m eat'egDll' of autobiography in itS str ictest sense'. Two categories of literary text, both well-attested in early S'Ij,ftsm:; are t articularly suitable fair urul vstandin;· The : nveilitw' "If Secret£: the, genre of '~csta\tic s,p,¢\edl (ska~~) which was, a sp e daill mte rest of Ruzbihin) and the ascension. narrative ,as.·~SScu;."'ated with Aba y a2:jjd ail-BiB,ti,m~ ..

.A quick. glance at die references to. The :Unueiluw, rd~ 5,cr~t! En Rijzbiha]]J C s hagiographies ShOW.5c not surprisingly; that readers understood this: to be a book about mystical £xp riences. As Sharar

'[ n- TI,..".- h'- b i~'Th w b ~I~ "'"M:. r t . s: ..I" ;(l

all. '~'_ . m J;,J;jr~ . nn O~SQtvest, .',! ,el1bre'oo~:s. :I~e unM~'~ .'!J !.J'(!t:f8ts~

wbi, h is "one of his.writ~ngs~ is the., essenee ~f ecsta ~,~ speech

,..:r.. ,~,i&~ I!',~ r:;3: A "~ It - · ..... ~! ,<r iL.·b ~~. . 1 :r z, . 1'"

\$'!~a~h' rol a er ate true :ror 'tUe"OOA, rs sunpl .y vnUetdtlgS

I Vhli - "" ~ 14 Thi d .. 1!... • 1

vA6J",UyQ' r;J~ . ~~s I Oe_,S ',not mean y sat e'veiy,on€ ~lmlP' ¥ aeQ~pted

'[he i entente ofthifs 'book, as valid, Severa! steries ,lielat€ examples of p eople who read :RlIizbihin"s, ecstatic sayings, 'th:et-e and deem d that ,~e was a deluded heretic, I 15 In one case, a certain Sharas al-

in eah encountered some of m! se sayings, and as he' put it nThI08e 'w,oms \;V~ difficult for me and I 'inwardly rejected them (irtkar tnrdtl1u) .. II He toesed Rl1z mha ~ 's book {u~a1' in' dills,gust, but a 'vi&~, :f~o.m the Prophet Mu1;tammad in a dream soen.eonvinced him rhat he had msuill,ted one of the [ri.ends of God, and he went ~q 'the S~?~Urf ,_mIOi$qu~ ~o _ fi:ndRllzh~h>an and .apo~l?i,ghl.€ personally, 17 be' hagJ!ogntphers F'€Ja ,e' tha~' a C. rtam s~Qia~'

frem Iraq doubled these sayWTIgS as wen" and he went to the: extent o:f mocking m p~, .. ne; ,hi~ t\¥l() SO:v.LS d~td as a result, j, 1,8

~ here .ws also a, story' of some Sufis from Isfahan w~ 0 heard R:uzbi.hil,n '5 ecstatic :sa;yin~" They resolved, "Let .us go and remove his Su~ cloak as a penslty . or hese words, and extract. justice from

h·" I H9 Till ~-,' " .• ..;\1 " ",.."

im, h. ~r nus~utled :leaJ ended en their unfortunat deaths,

'Nhile these responses could not be said to display very sophisticated interpretations of Ths Unr1tiling qf Secrets~ the,[S classed them. as reactions to Ruiblliin~s s-tatic sayings., A m,CH:)e nuanced, ,accoun~ is attach.ed ~,Q the :name,;O;[' one of

. uz~hi.n,'s farmer}' I;o:dllh: tea'chen~ Fakhr a1- Din ibn ",: a.rymn (d ..


5,65l1169-70) :120. ,rvh.en .asked te, resolv' the sm;tns of R:G,zbihan 's Unvcifings", he s[ud~ed ehe book and ro~nd i~ quite stimula;tin;g, until "lie read it ']OJ.l,g vision (§ 162~63) about the status of JR:ii zbihin,. This is, the vision in \vhic'b 'God, feasts 'Mth Ru'zb1ban on a mountaint-op 'while all 'the g"ea t Sufi sDayIldrus" led by' Abu Y at:id al~'Eis;ta:m~, mill around on horse'ba,ck in the fbO'~hi1b;~hing they [could join. the feast' they'afJ.· finaUy permitted to '!go into ecstasy when int"O their midst falls just one of the marry roses tha;t G\od has showered on


One day a gro1!)lpi of deniers of t ie shaykh who. were among' my students brought me the Unutilints of ~b shaykh, saying~ "lie says 'words such as these; are they rigThlt or ,llQf?'I I said, !! .et this book be. ·with IDe until ton~ght so I can see .wl" and tomorrow I 'l1\ill giv.e an answer, n Th>ltt, nrught I Mll~, busy 'reading' it, and from each un¥e,jUng I understood a subtle malling) until I arrived a tha~ unv.eiling "'bat .m£ here ~ated~:

"I \o\I'"M on, the top of Jihe monntain (!If greatnegs~ and, red roses s"t&uerod from, my face and tresses, A rose from my face f ,U among the shaykhs; the}' all cried out and, danced." I wondered and, reflected over dllS, unveiling, and ] did not approve or it. I put the book down and went to sleep" In 11 dream I saw 'the emp'er(~,r of h.e shaylihs Abu Y,a;zid) 'who, said, II 'That sincere one speaks rwghU:y ~ and lDy sense of smell is sWl perfumed with that rose," The next day I set the 'l_l1a:t~~r befor-e the' deniers . .AJl ,of th m left the desert of denial for the Ka ~b~ 'o.f acceptance. TI::.e beginner was astonisTh~u~d at this unveiling, and the' ex_Pi. ·rt rec.ei··.ed, 'the fornmat ~ key to the

d- r ,. 12l

I, onr 0' gnOOls~

.Although F,dhr al-Dm ibn. '-, Iaryam only hrl,fly summarizeid the ,gi~:t of the vis]on~l1>e righdy seized on the issue of R,uzbmha,n· s authority' over the early Sufi masters as th ' by to the vision. His doubts were di$pe~led) however, w'b. "n o~n~ or the masters from 'R~zb~haDI':s vision appe'a.r.ed in, his own dream to ecnfimr the

power of tll. ~. rose dropped by I.U2:bihin.. .

V\rhatem'~s from this review ,o.f the inte[]l:retation of The ,UnveilintJ' of Ser;~ets is. that it bele ,gs 'tp the 'class of literature th:a! makes a claim to its auri - or~:s. ho~1n~,. GTaIlJted~ re,aders \r\~ d~f.fer in w.ha t crite:na they 3e'~ for the de:moJ1strati@ml1, and SQllletrumJes 'this \Vill :involv~ ,reJecting or redefining ilie claims o.f a ,pUi arrive 8aint~


U:nveilin;~ :~eq oired some kind of reeponse in the lslamicate soci~t¥, of RiUz ,jhan~s dayo" and ehar response W(ltdd be die > 'ted by the reader's relation to' th"e saint. The longes~ singl,e 'bieatm,en.t of 11, UnveiJ;,w of S«rels is the' summary' and translation ' f S, iams ,a~, .. nifJ ,-Jbd ,a~-,La~~(~ who ,in his biogr,a~pb.ical sketch of Rizb~ha"n. Gites,

aver 3._, dozen sections, of the 'veloXit.~' 22' As shown 'bove,. he fel oompe~~d to SU,ppress: oenaln elements that rdDjd, not fit his portrait oW::' Riiz bih! n t S sainthood, such as the voice that c-a1led Rii.zlbihin a prophet, and the inexperieaeed shayldl under '\~hom R:uzbihan a.,tlu,eve~, his i_IS.l uDve'ruliflJ!g', In concluding his uvW. W· of ' the text, h

e~tg:a a~in on lJts importance as a demonstsanon of saintly authoriry, parallel to the authority of prophets: uB ware, lest oitics, talk at ~en~, ,of spiritu~J states, profaning' the results ofgnosis, and so. fall m~ the oeea~ of destruction- Faith in dIe uD'vai]ings. and miracles of the gnoStmcs is required, because Ol1~ wh. . Macks faiUl m the. u nveiH~gs and \\lit[leSshlg~ of t~,e sain ~s. a~S!G ~cks faith .in d16 signs, of .~he pro~,:h,et, an d mess agel's. IJ 12 s In support he ~uoted' Rfii Zblha:.n.: "The oceans 6.f" sai nthoed and prophetheod .1 nterpenetrar , each oith er" (§S). Probably the best de ·,c_n.p'tlon of the purpose o~ 11u UWJeil~ of &fAi1:S. is a pMsage' fr()'ln the, text that records a ~hO'rt s~pee'th 'that ,Ruzbibi n had delivered to, his liisc]p'!'es:

It happened one Thursday night dla.'t I diSCllS~' d with my ,companions 'the realities of secrets, I. "aid to. them, "One 'yibo "gets revelation Irom Gcd 'must be e.mthet·a;n atlge~~ a 'prophe:t, o~ a ~n -. Revelation comes from him after unveiling and ~'tJle:ssmg'., The ~Ilgelg. have a, -farm that, when. apparent, :re~ove.s suspicion == it is, seen, The ,prop'h.~i·s have evidentiary miracles; ,~~'en these appear fr,o'llJ: th m they remove the doubt .regarding the truth oftherr.reve1ati,on,. The saints, have charismatic miraeles; "",:hen these [miracles] ,app ar from diem, no doubt :r mains, about their :re' elation either, I am, not in these three eate,gf.l,rie$., fOr' do not p .. rmrn1 charismafic m'"rad,es. ,c~~ y purpose in tbat is 0 reveal the truths of gn os is, and the rare divine sciences that God bars ·cho:se:o. me '10 r,ceive; wllJ.~ch take' !adv-an age of the appe.anlnre gf God. to tecael~l me by a w~,rd ,of a stadon 'beyond 'rb'e' station of charisnla:lic miracles'~' (§~40)~

This ,passag 'COll ta~ns ,a, dec:lara'b,on ~ hat wntdd b" litde to th, Hk~:ng of ltfi.,'zbihan's hR;gi,ograpnerrs, a bold Uatonent that he - d~~s


not perform 'the charismatie miraeles (kari'ma,~ of the sa.i:n~, though it is an ardele of.'faith with him that these do, take place with others. The bagiQlgraphrn have reserved a, majlot ponion of dlclf' lv'Orls to record the miracl s believed to have occurred threugh the blessings of R:u zbihiill. Ye:' he told his d'~sclpje;i ,that his, pu-' - ese was bi,gh~r' ~han that: to reveal 'truths mdicative IlJr a sta:lion beyoltThd tllal of miracles, 'In the end, TAe Unn~lirw (Jj'Setl'ets. is design .d to achieve

'" 111J1.., ,.,,,,'j]. ~i~' f.' • 'I' ... I

prelciS.e~y 't~lIJat g'o.~. It 1$ .3" ,cQiuectruon uw' mysnear expersenees t nat

demonstrate sainthe' d. fur the benefit of the ,eli, ,disc~ples whom

h id ,c. .c T'IL haei L,:, d he rnirael

"J€; ~I es as a, :~Un master, a ne . ,- a~JH)grap.l.ues an, _ u ,€ rmrae e

stories they coatai i, 'were intended, to the contrary for a Mder audience of potential devot,£)e.s wad piillJgrlm.s.,

In its own day~ 11w. Unue:iii"W rtfSect:ets. was a work best viewed as, be'lo\ngmg tc the category or ecstatic sayings (thlQrJpjya~)) 'whirc.h are' the prerogative .of the saints", W'e can, however, 'e.n~~,ge upon. that c~teg@f;{ by' a thematic comparison 'lNith one of 'the rnose powerfnl imag'es i-, I early Su"~'sm, the ascension of Abo 'y'aL'zid a]-Bis~imi. Aba Yatid w,as the first Sefi we know of tn· re-enact the' ascension (ltU'T~J) .of [be Fr,ophet Mu};tammad in his own mystical experience, The subjec~, of the Prophet' s aseension is a! vaSt one). since f[,om its origins in a fe," enigmaticpassages in th . Q.1;I:r'i:n '~,It has formed the

iLb:. • f' . b- 1 ml L....JI + d I '·n

sUlblj,e(;t. o~ mnumera '_' e eWQ!Do;rQ.tlons anl~ commentaries, ano ''W1.

not ,~~t,emr~t~ ~~ap~,tulate here i~ main .rel~ltul:es· and _div~rg~~t b',aditlOns.. " I~, DJS important, however ~ to reooglllbe the' oontll1Utty'

be ween the I slamic prophetie ascension narrative and the long tradinon of ascension, ,~te'fature beginning ,in the ancient near[ and continued in Gn6sti'€~ Je-wish~~,. and 'Christian mys:ti'caI tex;ts" Muhamm"ad"'s ,3;SCeOOOiP1 also made au impact in Christian circles, through the Spanish. Isatin, and, French translations knownas "the Book or the Ladder)!" 'which may well have served in turn as .a

d £" ".L ' • f 0- Ali'" - ,', hi · 'on... n,:~.': rr ~.J 125

me _ ~ :~'Qr tne ascension 0:: _,ante ,', ,g 'len In ~d$ LilutrJe 1L:(l(m~m '

...ll • II!... 'h .. L ,"'. b II;.. "(,.- •

There are many !alctat s U~at sr GW' me Oal1ttnulty ". It:\V~en tne mlia)

and i~8peciWly the J ~sb hckiltfJm teats, wbi;h dep~,c~ the ascension,

- - Iestial . he vi ., r- h) ,,..C G' ...JI l2'~,

throu,gh. celesna = RUiJ1Sl,(iiOS, to t e VlsaJ.on 0', ~. ".e t arone or ,Qu.

One :~iores as a ,~'ic~l examplie the numb r seven,ty}. e~eciany in. the 111a,gnitiecl, fQrm 70,000, [as a cosmological motif (ulrimrat~!y pI' BabyliO.nwan ,~.)rigin) denoting the cre~l'tiv'~ a.cJivi~ Qf God ,in the celestial -realm, wh:~eh recurs. constantly in Rtlzbwh~ln.~$ 'visions as 'well. I ~li One must l~cdgnize dla~ n'JH!l,c'b of lthis lit rn\'ture not only oonwns ~p.eculati,oRs about 'he cei,estial pler,on;i,a ,and 'ili,e afterlife:,


but also is Ji nked to visualizatkm practices mao made th se recitals Itllived e~erie_l1Ge'l! in Ioaa 0003.:. u's phrase, ]ZI I sugge.s,t that in teems. of both the visualisation rechniq[lle and the con.t~nt much. of ~ ,U71,M!ing qf Seents can be understood 'as h.elo~gj:·,.g to, the tradition of ascension literature .

. bii Ya:Zid.~8tS~J)ension is :known ~prirnaxi1y from t:eXit'S transmitted by SaiT.ij ~ H'UJ\lviri.~ !; Artir, and Rijzl~]haIL These versions all shn~r' Abu 'Y'3;zld .asGe'l1ding 'd}vough the heavens in the

t: r" u: ..JI;':;'j..,::' O' - d 't...""- ' ...... ..l~ .

rorm or a u[[Y. ' .. ~Q _ ~ ~~mvm,g IIDst unoi 'Ig visions, but in the

end den.O'WJncing ~h.~ ~$ions as a dle~it. The firs~ three "O'f these teJftS nav:e been oompar,ed by Zaehner, wh,g pointed out that H'ltiwin and ~~:~~ar intn~~,dJll]ced new' elements :~ntO their ver.sions,; .t(D'lling down the aud.i\(':irmU$ ~hara1cter of ~ht; narrativ,e by inserting humble rer.~n~,nGes, ro the P.rophet at thle ,culmination of the ~'CensiQ'm~ II). compariQg R:u.zb,ibibl s version ,of this, narrative with the others, I was inioa~~y puzzllM by his aunbiguoQ.s attitude as .preserved :in. the ,~e~~atn .ICiJm11lmta1.)1 an .EGsl4tic &~' he seemed to r gard the

. ... th 1 L:" L ' ~.1 '"

wS'~on~ . 's:mse' Vi~S as U:rugtil :mysJDcl.1ifJ. expenences, b~!lt at the' same

tim~' be ... approved of . ··bu '.' az:id. . emg through them as

ill.' .., 129 "Wh" -

. u~uons.·· .'~ en IOJne years la fer' .1 .g~;t access to me. A_r,a.fu~e

or:'mn' ~ 1 ofi' Q·"r"7.'b·1Iha- nl'~ """of'!i'1i'!o"'i·ji!'ft4I,iI:Io .... +n'lnJ' O,'Ii"I, •• 'n....:D same '~~~Q;~u· • - "T1.. __

'. ,~.~i.; ru ""= Jl'\J1bJI.& ~" ., - I, I-il ~V~~,UjLW~_&La: ... j., ~.,W!! U~'IJi&. ~ I" L r}~~~6" I·' .l, H&-J

L1.11g8· ,f.)j &r)1tfci"u;f!S:~ lit was striking 'to see the diff.el~enoes betseeen the 'oeadier Arabic v,et:sion and the quite :independent comments in the Persian translation (see the tabular ~ompadso,n. in. App. ndix 8). It beco.mJ;'s clear', 'for ~ns:tan.e~ tha:~ in his P:ersma.n presentation of the original teoXt RllzbJha;u ~a~ inserted :his O\\iTJli interpretations of the tree (Appe.ndix. ]3." line 3·.5'9). Overal], the Arabie version stresses much. more 'me li:mi.mtrnt)n$, of ,]al!owled_ge and visie ·'8, In th bonte~t of(lo,d:'·· ~e_mptanol!l. er 'he mys,tif.!with a. ruse (maier); this is. SGU raidy close tOI the eatly i~:teFpret:ardons; ofJu:payd~ wllo is quo ~ d here, - be ,'ersia,(1, ,C,Q'Uune:nMry. all the other hand, omits some of these standard COll!c]usi1GW]SI 1nld · Ut$te;,ad a dense a.nd. highly sophisticated m.~clitatirOfi on the problem of ~Slon.ary experience frnm. the perspective of radical transcendence: AS au z', ihin rei ter.a.fie>s, d'uvu.ghQut De lJnvei1i~ qf Swets"J the embodiment of Gcud in visrn.b.~e form is a. necessary feature of revelation, thou,gh. i' is in essen0~ .nnpos,: ible. This contrast .sM~~ests the im:po,r.tance of ,a critical ,ao:nl:p·ari:son ·ffitjletw'ejt~ the :fun . t~x.ts bf 'The utJ;gUIJII! rI' IQjnsci&1f;Cf}S and CommMtllry ·on Ecstatic S~'§f ·as a p'ren:,qluisite for;andJng· me d.evelop~ment. ,of


Riiz bihi n s thinkbl,g on the '~a', ure '-of my, symboHsmlo But in. irself this glance at th~ h¥~ commentaeies 'on A:bu Y.azlLd 's vision does not lre]1 us more aboui . aseensior narratives in. gen' ral ~ 'b ecause o'f the ambiguity, : f Ru zhlhan~ s ,Q,Qlm.m.enIS and his. fai ure even ':0. describe this as an .ascension; DO'1r. d.~JH~S th~~, material ditectlJ,y shed. light on the structure 0-[ The UTt'rJ'ciling qf Sea:e,ts in. particular.

It is only when we tum. to ,a,nodler ~e'arly version, of .Abu. Yastd's

ascension that th relevance of tllis 'topic :lio, The Urweili~g f S~m;ets becomes apparent .. This version is contained ~n an Arable b~x~ called al'_CLQ;J!d ·ili alll1h [7111 Sealch.for G9¢], attributed to Ablffi alQaiim .M-~A·rif and. dat.ed .395.11 n05!., ~.30 This account is much

closer to the main Iines of the ascension ''If' the Prophet MUc~arnln,a,.(~ than the 'brief ·wsiocn., •... f .Abu 'VaZ'id just described, Here ,Abu 'Y:azid in a dream gOres dlrou:,gp a detailedasc nsion that stops, for a l@ok, at each of the seven ~~.eavens", The entire y]g,j.@([i ·is a kind oftest, for at each stage Abu Y.azid is. tenuoted. 'by an amazing gift or ~'l'Wlgelic: kingdolu. 'He sees innumerable .angeb ~~rnlllndtd with Ugh ana power, butt. he continues to ,ng: for . od alone'. ~, the seventh heaven J· pa~s'eld the tesr, Abu Yaz':w:ti is transformed into 8.; b·rdj as in the shorrer version ·me·o.tiGned ah CD,ye'~ and 'he then ascends 't'fJ' the ve~r throne I~rf God, This, ascension narrative offers a. 'way tig, unders:tarmtd some ,of the 'principal mo'ors. of Ths U1m~ Of$er:rd&., Like RibduihiR, Ab!ii Y·~id. sees. the an,g¢[s. in forms b()t.h b~·.alltifid and. '[militant. He cross s S~B ofbghit) unci. II al. between cbe ~mpy:rean and the IOMst depth. - . the Cherubhn a.nd. the Beaters, or: the ~hron ' and. ,am. "diers whom 00d h.alth, created .in heaven and earth - seemed less than a. mustard-seed betwixt heaven £llld·arlh to the ffiglt .of niy inD'lC1siIt heart in :IU quest ofHim.,~il·31 The c~arison of'all creation to a mustard seed, ~ favl),rite .~r.nage for Rijzbihin~ is an archaic elem nt f-ound in, stories of ... ' ui)ammad's, ascension preseeved in. ~o.dfth. God adtke~s :~ 'bu Y'a!z~d '~endetly as his chosen ,one, echQin.g the sing:~illg out t(.lf Muhammad before the other prophets, but Abu Yazild~5 phras~ng ~s r~ma;[kably close te :Ru,zbihfin:'s:

He said, 'u r ••• Thou an ~y chosen and My belrQ¥ed and My eleG' fr,om am.on,gst My cre~'nllreSmll ,And th.~r'e·,ait I was :melbng as lea.d ,m,eitl. Then H,~, galle me a. draught from the :ronn'ltain of .gra,c.e in tbe oup' of 'friendship; then He .changed. :mle to a


state' which I ,hav'~ no power ·to ,d!eslCriJbe;. thtn He brought Me nigh unto Him and brought the so nigh that I became nigher ~'O Him than the spm.t ro me body. 'Then] was met by the'

~~:irits ofan.,_t~e ~rop~lets, = ~bey sa~,~tred ~le and _~rified 'my case and spoke with me and I spoke with them.]

This is not '~Q say that all of 'The· ,Urm~ ·o_fS(Juets is reducible to the half-dozea p3!.ges of Abu Yaztd's vision, but it is undeniable that som of Ruzbihint's key 'm tapho' ,'\; figu~t~ rof spe(:'-b,and themes ~~~r p,rqmi:neni1y in .Abu ¥azIDd s ascension (]D the example above, one can note patti~ulady t e melting fromjoy, me' ,indf~b]e states, .and the CDf1lfi:rm~ti.rQn by the proph,ets}. ,Most :IDl,~,.rta n~ly ~

ba Yazrd's lengthy dialogue" with God as report~d by ,aJ1-Sah~a~gi (d.. ])003») \Yhich. rnalY be eonsidered as the culminations of his ascension, are the clearest. ~Jr 'cedents fOr" ~~ie_daUy r, n counters \vim Go d reported if) The UniMifil!;f rd SeC'1Jets.. 15. 0 ther elements in

R- -b!'ii! =" ,,,.. 1·~1. ,-

uz (U:la:n s VlSlOUS, l~U~ 'the heavens, pf pearl and the ,ce.~estllaI

oceans, are found. in the itlfc'ffi1:a.ja; ~ratJith versions €If Muhammad's asce~~io'n, itbougb. not mn E,:is~imi s, Elements :]jkie' 'the '" vision 9'£ paradise as 3;;. roya] court: con ueting festivals can als : be found in

J ... ~~l . ¥..,4 'U 1~~ ...... ]L --

t.l~tlJ;~ texts, ~ .1·.I.l.U::, un ~ Arabi (w,' ,(lSI" own '. sceasion is nQ~

modelled on 13is~i mi) s) li Ril1.zbiha.n in his ascension did not make use 'Of t_he Hellenistic' "aditio:n that includes the sev to' planets in 'the

-.' hes ;Ii,'l;;: ,E, - - - used 135 a- b- :1 ~'L

seven ' :u:~'a,'\ ns mat are traversed, - :' U Z m 1 a mil, seems '[,0 nave

seized on ~d:'DJe visionaOI charatC'er of the mi'1fi} that ~r Je~,cidy :rec'~')!gnized in early inteIpret~tions of i~ as a visiOrnla:ry rather than ,3.phys:i£a1 journey '&'we have seen in 'the case ofR.l1zbiban"'s, visions of angels, their appearance is ~de f recorded in the miniature pain:ti:hgs iUus.trating the ,asc)en$"~on of the &.opllet,.j.- P. Guillaume has commenred on the paradoxical character of th,e 'QIigina1 micraj in its use of vision '1:0 sU&:,~S[ ~he transcendence of spa'ce.. ~

There ~s something like a third r-el1ll. b~fiv'eeo the irrepressible and spontaneous need to represent the sacred, and m,' prohibition agam~t doing so· :fJeacr of'viorlaJting the di.vine transcendence, by de,gr,ading it to the; level of Sfensible realitY' the rep:resentatiomJ of til! thing ~plies at the same ti:m,e its non-representalDili.ty .. Her, ,the l";:;OmpromiS'e is not just an, ~oO(ll1mo.datiiDn dictated by oonsideratiC!tls or purt' opportunity; i~ op: tlS ~P' into the vision of a rad~'aJl]y :-'iBVi' space,


splendid and be;~~dering'., On thru.s v.ijsion· rests ~,~ ,~' the ostt, po""ye[fidly QtigfuuaJ esthetic effects ot the text, ~ 36

The' same may be said ~f the visions of Rilzbihin, but i~, bis ease the ascension fu~·<·oned as a, resource av,ailabJe at an~' rtlament rather than as an unrepeated paradigmatic event. ThI ,U~veiJm& p,f $ecrttts records rQn a da"ly basis 'the ascents and descents that RrnJl zbihin .expenence d in his prayers and medi lations, typical~¥ du~ing nigh -time vmgil .or .BJ~ da\VI1,., .. 'hese are modeled on the example of the' Prophet Muhammad but seen in th'e Eisti~mian fashi~~. In his visions. Ruz'blha,n vivi i',}r e'Kperienced the truth of the Pr'®ph~tic s aymgiJ' ~i~litlJal p.ra~r is, the ascension (mi~~) of the believer.1I1S' From th~s,{)r;)lint of view, we may ,say that The Urweiling if( &aeJs is writtea as a series, of eestatic sayings that :ruu¥-Qk~ the authoritative model o,f th~ vis~onary jiourney to the throne of God, the m:ys,tieal ascension 0,( the soul,

'I '.' 3°'";7

... " \V}.'la~ p. -.0 t ,

2'. Janet Vab)er, GuJlI~, ~~Autobiography,"i EnrjCkf,~a: ojlk!igitm, :2:7-:~O:

notes the faiity or $tudies ,€If 0.00- W'e:st,e.m. aUllIobiograpme~,.

3,. MaI'SlbaU G.S .. Hoc1g$to'll",. 7le irt.mlt~t6 r1.1:sIsm,~ Com~ (In,d .Hul!J~ ,'n a Wmid CWiJiz.a~on" 'Vol. 2'~ Tit &j1ansi()n r!f lsl<m.t in; tJire Mfd'dll Ptfflrds

, ,tQhiICft~,:: T,~e U:n·~~rs~ty of"~D~~!gQ.~~s?_ ~~!4): ,ppm :,.8~9~' .. __ . ,

,4 Cf. 'and J~bire~ ,}!SSQl {, ,qUfJ ~ Ghaqili: Con,tnb, ~ l tturle de la

~ologje d'e·Gl14~ali dans. ses :Jnint:illtU/ e.u:vr~ges d ~"f!x;tlep6fJ'n d~ T'ahi:fut" Erodes Phi1~~plh1fiue8 e;t Soeiales, 51 (Boeirut: p1[Jmv,ers.i~e :.f:.ib~l'JJaise, rl..(l)~ pp. ~42~ 1 ~ W]]]!~i~ln. Chitti:ek, The SUfi P_~tk Df Imo~~: Ibn· al-

i;',>f ;~l'~' ii,4.,,'Iil .... iII., " ,/, :r. " ,. 1,\,lrb· 811 'iflro.,;fi..j' ~p '~ntll'm' ,..;1

"tJirtw~:t ~¥~~;p'!SU$ ,~ ,iV.~t2~~i ~ru.,~n,y: ,~"l,)l.'\I I 'Ji"es),~ ';:lO..;r.)~ ln~e:x,

'II '::11" II

s.v, lUl-~ulfig.·

5 G' ~.iI,~ IIV :1<-,[ n '~fr2 IV·' . sse ,n'9' (]. ,if'i;7-:-'l:"

'" • l-aJ.~t.~ ",ii;.,as~] El<lII., , ., , 'U;;l' r-;g..''i ,I!! ;:)', t}j.

6. SA,(J;!lr~' JJ~i£wit'i p,. ;l(ri", T.h~ ~n;( s~nten\ce rcv.f Rfizbihin '5 de[in;~tlron renders h:l:bl pr~~an the definition =:(!If Sa:I"ri.!j" '\\Jho l'n'!yn;=eve.r adds MO'

q uetradimt~; '1l'Abu lV[u~amma', . al-J 1IJra:yti sa:~a, 'One ,~h~ does' not trea ' his Itlaciomhip to God witlh ..,~ety Mtil. me,dit2ll:tiol1 MH n,G''t reach unveiling and Mh'lless~]f);g.l~ al .. ~· un said, "The u.nv:eilingl of I' <: eyes are 1ihl'\Q!U,~h vl!sioo, 'but 'lIt.. 'itt veilings of hearts are dl}:'Om-gh union ~~~

(Luma'~~ p'. 3.f6). _

7. In Ailoslutlh al-~r,Wi~ near.:~y :~ity ,~r dl,le ] 00.l smtes ar:e chara.'Gterize.d

as Visi,ons {m:ya)" \lY'hlte no ·other .general category is used reven half,eIls

frequenuy.. . _ _

,-, I 'U" • h I~...." U h . h U - ~ -, , 'II'

8,. ,n e.!J,005~n.g t're rat -Ier t. ':a.n rCa]];:SClousn~~5

(wbii~h has .an Cl'\I'kw8.l-rd ph.ual in . [1 ~ish). I am folIo~ing m,rt; F:['\encb us.~ge' of' 11M.11;$(;'1e;uJe by (JO(l.~bln aind. ,o~heJ,s'i wb~h p,t'r€'serves


the archaic sense of "awareness," tbe ncetic faculty, called bY' 'die ~lcho]astics f}mwesis (from 'GlL-eik: m~()idq" cK Larin t:omti~); I do not int,end here the ]a~,eT moealistie sense of conscience as, ,~Judge: of gCUJd. er evil aetion, For a review ,of th~~e 'te\l'nlS~ see C:,. S, Le\--vis~, Studies. ill WOtdf, 2:nd ed, (Cambridge; Carmbridge Univen;ity Press, ]9IP9) pp. 181~214

9~ SJugJl-i ,Sho.tkiJ!Y'lH~ p. ,~ri' 4,"

,[ 0" One' MS is"1\{a~hJtad rv, 2'2'0 no, '93,:~ ~ ,MS~29, d~redJ1l1:m. U '] 0641 " -ay [654~ conta.inil1g fiUy -ro~~os. I \,vo,uld. like to, thank, Prt)~ James MQ({T]S! and Dr, A.m~;r Moezzl ,rO'f lil\lakiDg ava~Labl,t copies of this MS and ' , _ ambo. 's unpubliShed p~nia] ,~~jllian (oo:vedr~\g' up to §8 7 , appfaJdmatdy on ~rrd, of the WO~), whtch also ,refe~d to me MSS;, of Ma~$ignon and ,'wyb. The ' 'of t e MaJ)jh~d MS had been "[lumbered by CQrllYm up. t,o § 12'2; and the l~a~~er (ending at §2'lO) is nembered ,i.CCQrclil]g ~p ]il"f own dlfv1s:Lons.. 'The adler US U,

...iI, .'~...l' M' ~ it"'~, 't :r: 'iiI AI =- 1 ~ ~]' . l'~ ]'·11_ -

aesenoeo In,.' ,t3JSs!IJ,gtlOl'1JJ, LXI ¥ j,e,' pp. "'jf5 -,.,},J.'" W'OUW _}_IN,'e to

express my gr,adtude to ·,r. Dame] Massignen ~fo(r me '\~th a copy of ~ ma.nus:~np~.

l t. ~C-o.rbrnnl' En lslawt iJJaniG.,~~- I I" 45-64. 12. lbid., p. ~5.

,- 8, .BU'!! aI1'ma~~ p" '[ 68· wber'e (~n Persian£lat~Cln of §; 1 0) RiizhHtin. i:S,

made tt'o ,Say oIllj~,. Hl:a1t he heaf1d. rleat voices ,v.i:tLh: the ear of hlS soul.

1.<1 R ''i!.. • ( ... "' .... JI' ... l., . ..:Ii L '::Jl . .;a~. (J. - ~ .. 11. '" .. :L., ..i

"'Ii. , -' avtSJlH~ ~'~J :a:n!t'.l, .1e'¥u_~rm,elJt 'l,f~a:m,Quj are 'U,I,e mntn ac:nlru

tend\), of the' eleven stages. of human love as described by~~~Daylami:;;

which was expanded by Ru,zb.ibi~· to inc~ucle levels of d1vinc love; cf. "The 5tag~ ,D:f to,vle ill 'ElUiy Persian &ft5~ n

15;, Maskr«lJ al:'tl~j,p.'- 287,

116. ,CO(fb~n h,:andates~ ~'n ID,e semblai e'tr~ dans qudque' taLvem~lfi (in,t:fiQducci6.l1 to ~bMf ,al- ~shifrn~ pr, 34)~ but ,1iA€1;ra/; here soe:ms more :Ii'kdy to mean JlIJ iiLUO8L[]],dO,o00. ruin rather than a t:a;vem.

1 7. Re~dil'lg niin ~l-ithlila b 'F,a her Ulall min' ,(It..,t1!~ fS~lr ,cr:. be. P ersian

- - II ,", - ::..J' ",_ .II. - J.).~~ ~I, ,.Ie • D _if;, --~ •• p - '~ '6' 9

tmmliiL1(Ul (JZ !4-","fI~ .... >ll.'u-~am:!J 1'I:l ,rt'i~~ at1VJ'at1~ p. 1. I'i.

18. Ri~ ,~/-Jin7i11'~ p. 16'!l

1,1'\ 0' - A. sh' . - ~ - -,;],~ ~ ,-,~.,_""""" - d - 'IL..,:,_" - --'I n: ...... _ "':~'. ao. di 0' 'I' R'"'''' ~

::1'. ' n ~ anlSffl My. ounsrn see: oC~.tlU.'LI]J,~bJ ~",f'k'lfWns;. (;UJi-:::,I!1 '- ",]tteI~

Das Meer t(er Seei't; 5-9f6-'9 7; and to. creed of Ibn al-Khafif in Dayhll1li Sir:at Ibn Khajfl SJ1.f1il.'~~ pp. 28-4:_ 3 (Ui.

,r;.0 A'b~ ,"~'I n:.-'· oI:A-' bd ~~i 'U' - ;:.'1 An h ,- d u, 'IL" 'LL..'

,.i1.". . .1J,,1 aJI"'x.~s:rm .nc ,~-.t'!'!o.,a:nm, ~,-'~s~ay,n "fSGTI!llJIe:s tnrs :nlulS

"Complmo;t Qf the $uJ1!fliS ,(JJ!D.ou,t the :Pe~secU'don they lave. Stllm~ed, ~n

in aJ,-Rasa ~il al- (&slmy.n».a" ed, and Urdu tran. NO ~ <ul)ammad l:Jassin

(KaJa', hi: ,Nuh ,at ~,had. ,ilJ-, , ,a~kazi I~~~Ab~3th aJ.ls1a:m~yya~ 1364/1964), p.p. ] -4'9 (AE~bic te;xt), '[ '-3J3 to rdu 'tt'ft't'JJs.)..

~Q 1. M(JSiak al~t.twJ!iitJ. ed, B,aJmanfa:~- fr3", -

II ! :rJr

22 n....d. .

',.,l"llJIt ,_.'.,

Oq l-iIl,.'_..l 7

,&,_Ji. . IY:lU~lIr, ; II

24. 'I'echnicaUy. il' is ili~' v,i\ldted canop.y s,mspcnded. ,over the s~at ,or platform which is :the kHrJi; but fih,e ®enns I~tbron;ei~ and 'ii)foo,ts'toe,l!! ha'IVe' '~ec'Qme fairly entf'en ~ bed~ .s.o, they ,~ retained bere. See ·W. M, Tbac~t-o:n~~ Jr-., 'll'"aflS, ~ 1le T"4li$ r.f' th~ Pro_pk,ts of 0:[,. iru(J,1., LiibratY' of


The mn,er Strl1ctoifie .of SaiD: ood

Chmica)]' Arabic ~®erttt\" 2' (lJOgJjton: Twayne Pl)ib]rn$hers, 197 S)~ P'; '337} n. 3.

25. It)id.~ ppm 6-7.

26. M~l,mtl~' ta~.og~ p, 2:5,5,. 2'7 - J,bre, P:P" 2 U)" 256-51',

28. Rii&hihin deflnes ~f.ffb as IIth~t which the heart sees of the realm of the af~e3?li;[e~n and Utile hid,den: 'Glf 'tb·· h~d.d£~lll (gk.qyb .{1l~gIM.Jb) as, Uthe: degrees of :bl,mYledg~ in dle bidden ~~ (SJ~tJ,r~"';' 'SJm{J!;frjj~, p. 63])..

29. MaiaKid can be derived from mulk 1I:Id.ngd.'om u so ,th~Ul' e.;tfnto],Q~caUy :rt WGmld mean somethiR,g; like "dondnion,'1!' It can aLIso be d~dved from r_naklk~ !lange], ~~ b.owev£:r- and I pr'efer using 'tll~S sense M a be' eer reflectiO'll: !Of the. way R(iz'!bibill. f'e~:eH 'to' bits visiens of angels and

other supernal bein;gs. -

9~. M_a:skr.ab (ll.-a~~, p. 2 io.. _', .

Q I J-'b- P J!~~ L G d 11' ~L.I\. 1._, u E'I!'2

oJ , ' " a ~ ',n ... , ,. .":t,it!.il! '.p. ~U·'.,e I!., ,l'!'i.;LaJill, Jl •

32., Mal/tfflb ~l'l-aru;fO;~l~ p. 2: ]:0" 33. Ibid,~ pp. 2IB,-Th 9,,,

~4. SJmrJt.1 slMtki1Jll4 p. '62'6.

:li, F Of' ~m, ,ov;;;;vi'ew of s;m;tes and srations, see S chimnlld} Dimiensiim;s~ p~;, [09-30~, $lee ~ro "The Sta·. es of Love" 311td ·11 ., .' y,S,ticaJ ngusge" ftn" further, ' taas. of_Ritzb,jhin~iS understanding of cState.s and station '. 3:6. Sl~14'.oi' ~;o7i~ p". ,S,51.

3,7. Fb~d.~ :P'. 51~B. 38, Ibid.

39--' Ibid IP" 5: AI A

". If' • E. II, !!!' ,T,;:J

,40.. Ibld.,.. p. ~5..3. 41" . Ibid.

,42m Ibid. - p, 556,. 43. I bid .. ~, p. 558,. ,44" Ibid.~ p, 5'57. 45 !bid.j. p. 569'.

46. Mm&rah al--antffiih P: 2'2'3,.

47. bid., p. 611 j, cr. S~j~ P,. SS3,! line, 2.

48. SlwIJ~i -sk'{J~9:~, p, 5168, Accor(1in,g 1'6 S,anij (p'. :349)~ tb~is, is the highest state oftlie "sincere ones" ($td'di(jftn).

49. SIw~-i IkfJ!¥JW,1:, :P" 506'9. Rfi'zbilin has .Wl~e[ed. Sarr,~j s definition (p. 34'9) by subs,1ituting lithe G:raceful FG'rgivert~ '{a#!(-i ghqjJlu, for '~'th~~ <?verp~w~ing '10n,g~F ~al~njalik ;Ql-;jabbir)j' and. by. ,~d,ding the phrase about 1fl.cbgence.

50. $IAarljri !ih1Jflj.fJJ;'i~ ,pp" 55l3-54.

,51. ]b1~,.~ p .. ,j,54. "

.52. d/~rh;-i ~J!fd~iP;· 63~ 435. In cemmenltinr, on ~ifs pr~~emtati,ol'l orrbJis. bl 'the :ra.fl~ ,(J,l~al U;a'i,-i1liJiiJ (ibid~ pp. ,508-'9~ .513),. R-(ill'm,]]t'in u~s iJtilills :~n 'the sense of' lIeovering 'rn:p,~1 or' uco:n;(g;s~Qn~" ruluding t1J the htypocnSiiJ of'lb1is as be pre1-OOts him~eLr as the b1J~ lover of GOld.

:5 3-. BadI~' a!=Za,man Fu.m zinfa:r; ltIJidil-llr-i mtj/{jft.a'llii ( 13341 '[ 955)~ :p. 115~ _. o. 346 (khulnqa' tlithu arJamtl ~lli ~1tltm). Ch~ttick

translates this as '1lGod ,crealted Adam ~,lpon '_ is, Q\VO Ibr.m" fThe Stli' P'oJ1~" W KnlJwI8..~ Index of Haditlrs and Sa}1in@l~ p. 4371J.

,54. On this saying ~~e Ritter Des Mw4ier Seek, pp. "l454l'6 (r~ 'czJtu rablif}i Q4sar~i ~iimtm):; Sehimmel, ,lA:tncnsUms" p, 290;. Henl,. OOmJb~n) Cf~

l . , ',~;t:. ~ {"~,.t;:' ,.,.( ~1. ~ :I~- It' ] h M' 'IL' B W'

magz~atwn;!_R me o,;J.iy~ f{/ .I.;,in ": raU~'J trans, :'_:iIJ"P' ,'I" .anuelln,,,I 0, ~n,geu

,er~,e~, 9' 1 {Pdr.u::eton: Princeton I_ :n~~e['S~ty Press, ] 916,'9), PP" 272-81.

5,5 Chitr-ti _:I~, p", 2'o't,} This, savi'~g-' .'~<,~.,Ih,~ J'J"~,,,,;:!£;1:_.rJ,I~!:.,J!'; a ""1'ia.I.~ """";1"11 li-"", ':'1'11,.,. ","'m;

_ [II. .. liK,. . II IQ~ il _ I'._ 'I ~l{l.~MAJ~ tllO umrl"(W~ ~' it; ~~.J(lJ.ra'1Ll,~~ O~~.I,

untzanslatable P-jlY On '!it\lo~lrds ,ailudin, , loo kJUlltj, "creation," and. k/J.ulw(I" ~Nq!J.:u~JlmitY', ,etilQs.~'

~6 "' ~ . - if • C" ii!-.' '," ."J;' 'h II lI.. ib 11'" '1'1'

~. '. lin trus r~Bpe,(;t J, quesnon I. ortnn 'S uS' VI: ru,e tertn rampm O'l1,e' to

translate ilfi:lias. (&islam iraflUm:, Ell, ]'8~ 5 ~ 58'1 7;5-76, etc.)', 'mea:bjng by malt an 'i:intiffr1~orresp()(Ij'd~:ceu between tbis 'wotld and the divine' rea m, in which 'e\rel1rthing haJ,S: ,iii "double sense 'II Thi seems ,art e~ces'Sively ~!bs:tr~t overtranslatioa, and ~t fails i!JO convey tL'lJe sense of the [ioot L-B···- M "clothing, n ,I' ,qumify ~t as "clothing \1\ 'II, h ,ruvinjty~I'

when- dlt· context makes. ii[, clear ~haJt ilt'ilili-s means a, tbeoplhany c~oiliie'd in visible form,

S 7, See Corbin, ,'- 11 Islam irdn~~ 3,: 3,0 I - • BiiU:anfat, [ike ICoil'lb~ prefers ilii(l...] "~: l~iL I 'I'~,- d '. ., :r & 'I';" _,J'~ l~ - me ,®lll~rn.a~ta1b;e ~ltiv.' ~ ,,~~,,;tUl~, rene ,enng rt as ,u uvre\~J. "ef~nll,(l~nmi£

du ,roer~~ "The Book of the 'C]on!ding' of the Heart,"

58,. For aM, .example rhere Abu Ya.z1ld a],.Bisla:mi uses. the .sam,c; image,

Sl1~ 'WorM t/' Erstav,~ P 27'". -

5~', This term 'uns~dsfaeioci~y renders th¢ phrase alii oJ":llflJiy~ "the people of jJnf~ga,d,oill~ii \\rhidl might be' translated as "apophades n in aJ1us~~'ll tOl, rlte p[,actitioo,en of the neg!~tive theQ~()gy WhID deny created ,a~tribu.te.s ~o Oed,

[QO. Cf C1utJ:at;U al rs'a,liM:n., P" 94:~ where RJiiz bihi ,- criticises these weak and deluded souls who mistake the]f imaginings and pb¥.sical visions

for urnveiing'S. ' -

[61. ,CC of'&j,tafY~ p., 761.

[&;:~I H .. I' -, ,-, 01!1:."12',,, [. '~',""",,' ,,', he ~I . , , ,,;008 . h ' ~n _ itn II (_t.":;;. !:,;;1I'It

u.:::.. uJ"I.1\.I1l"1I ,f', ";;}.';,J, c II, I!,;J, ans, 'Ie " ~il:s:on:.'! p.,. ,'::;:(:,1t ~ W,_ ere' \-;n, . 'ess. \Jo1mi!'~:Mi-~

is translated as "evidence." F' rther ,QH majesi1i.y and beauty, see :Rjlm~, MatIJmm.i~ ed, ~,ichf)-~son) I" 3991, fHB~ 159~ I "} 4H8~ '203;6,:; Ibn f, l\rab~) Fumlfii ~ fi} 13,3~ 1. O-12~

16' q; 'i', l ::..~~.;- ;,,'(l?",!!'illi'Ai 'n 3::'9

. J II I!tI!'W'~' :&~.J,~IhIJ' ~.. . , . i!

64" S,til:ill:u:oel,; J)i~#'()fu, ~Pl~ 20D-3.

6,5", The dosest consteMation ~o m : c'tdestia! north pole is the Lime ,Be~r (U rs.l Minor, (lJ~dub,~; ,al-ftlll/;{rr or l;~nl,(d na rm, at-lqgJuu),. n~r taned tbe litt[e Dipper~ 'which, in A;r.a;b lore ,is composed of sevc;o' stars (Ptolemy cQ,un~ed eight), It ine~dJes d e star' :no:w ,e,aied Po1arls, u~'ed for mmewaL fo~' na~g~tio.:n~ and dte 1\\1\0 g,(~ caUed by the ru,~hs,forqo.di~~ ~~fuilc:h ,atl'e syn,onymous 'With the pole, ,Rfizbihan generally {:ans~tJust h,~t n:a:~j) which could mean 'either the Great Or the Little Bear" but . n one p~ac. ' he lterl:'rs tn, it a~ the Ot~~ Be·ar (bana~ 1l~ .t'Sfl, al-kubri § 1 9}; ~h~t is piN)ba,~Y a 'CO]'S erro(fr. ,aJS that co:~s1e:nai,tion is £ardler f;ro,m !be. p~o~e and ,ha'S, T\v;enty,,:Se\ren, S't3JfrS" See Abu, ~illJ .. ij,tfts~y.n "Abd a],,., Ra~nlin a1,e;~u'fi, ~uwat (ila}tI~kijaIy'de;r,abad; Di '~r,a& ,€lJill, .. Ma'iirif at"I, 'thmin~yya~ 1373l1954)~ pp., 2'1"':"29~ InUr-sa ,M~jor~i and 1M, 'net


Mnn,ol' ~J EnfJcw:i~J'j,",,·A~!'~ .~tio<J·l'JcnU€l f] I th ed . ew V':,...NL11. ] bl'~ l) vel n,~ p

> '~ • ~~. rUM~;~ ..... ..t.l!'/;"'_Vll,!.>. _ - '!rI" ,.._,'. j ..... ' I: """.1, K1. ,-;:}!!, ~ t "-v • ".f ~ '.

802. Corbin (En .lj,f,a,IJ; Im~l;im, ,111~ ,27) ref-e:r:s ,'00 '~t as, the ~at Bea.r,

and though he also considiers, the lJttie Bear and the Great Bear :;1S a sj:rlligk' eC!illst'ellado(D.; me, editors 'of the :Engli.s.h translatton of n,r Ma,rl. qf !i,/d have correctly placed ,31~~llfi is. M[11JJSfnOOn of the Little Bearas a froptispi,ec'e"

66. Mic.llle], ChQdlde~vicz, L S'ea~ des t~fllJ;~ :p. 5"l9~ dti:tlIg " oca 's edition of lCdJl(tlt-Mlo.,1; p. 103 ,(this recension dJfre:rc s:]ighd· from that :f,ound ~n '~le Ma_££isnol1 and'(SS~ and in [lJace 'of the 13Jst two sentences quoted above we coatains lines from the encounter with Khi<;1r in §~, 0; in ~' ilidl. R'il~b'~hin. drlob ,an ocean ~f ~o~is).

611. That primoroia~ rnnvestii~ure '[ook on the 'qm aJ]t~es of rStli:llthend, mer ~"danl, and Eve ]eft lilO ;:ardeoj when they were told (m ] '_guag,e Q,lll,r"in 10;1&2' on "the fn,leiL'l.d~ ,of Oodn);!! 'thaJ:t ~Ir~moq who folmv my guidane,e have :[10. fea~,' over them neitl'ler do they sorrow" (10: 3 8). Or. 'Ch,odJd~~ icz; p, 36,-

[08. ,BdJIoMng' the' reading ofNv.rylliCl (~nl and Hoea {yqjnj;, the ,MSS ,m;ertcl, li-,i~n.

Ib\9. 'E:f. Eigmai G~m, p, 225.

70. I be number l'OjOOO has a tracllfionw eesmic sigfJificallc'e~ design~:It. ing for instance' the 'number of angels w!UJ d~[fy~ ~l'l:~hr the irih!ou_I¢ of life" (~,bayt, til~ ~mU11.,~ in accounts of m-e Prophe 's ascension; cE ''VVmsinck, tlj 398b.

l' ~ .,1BaUa'f~f~uJ L 'it-in<b,air~ pro 48~, n, 2f8,? dling ~W6. is ~l-Mft~~ MS, Jlerli:ll~ f;ot 420"

72", nt"'rh~r on Kh;i~r see Sch." mmel, DimerMitJ:ns" index, s, n,

,'g,. C,orb~m, (Efl J:;Ia:1Jl ~'~fti!itn, UI, 58) translates the ]aslfl phrase as "ChaJ,¢un. d~eux est un An,g:e~, et toi tu es nlill Ange de [a Perse," r.ead~ng 't1i1ktk, "angel," ra,tbe;l" d1an fllli-lilc.} "king. n In V1e'W of the strong 'imJ,~~ge~ of Persian kingshm discussed belQW'~ 1: p.refer the latter- reading,

74. iJilatJ al-mulik ft h~n ~1Jf{i 'iq {Ji-~' ed. Bernd R,atk~" B~irure· .exte und Studien, ,:l1 (S, lruc/Swttla.r.t: Fntn;. Seeiner Verlag,

H1SH) lJ;. 7 .

.,. i;!, S' ..... 'lilii,j otii'iim .... .'1 n:~. ',' de -- ;;:;. - - ~i • ' ,f,' [~,. ,- 'I!"Wc\I,··,,,...J1 ~I

l":4'. :' !LJI'u'I,~"" ~~ .uune.wllllllJlf." run·x\:, a.. v,. _ JJ!!l!.- 0\1 ", ,'([!I.'lam~.lW~~"

71fi be ~,'~ S app·etflcl" ,to l\e~d here ~a~b:Jl Wllllich :can man 11 a barren p[~n~1 (LaIne,- [7+3c)~ bu t I emend. this, ttO [tiIJllifq.,'J libri.ghtllecs.s~ beiluty'}'

77. '0. ~C. Ana~vati and. LoiUJ~_S G~~dJet) ,kfyS,tirJU8 ~l,~:U$u;lmtlRe; ajP'f);/S el. t' upeWnr:cs ,et t«lmiflues, Etu~les I\, usu~manes~ 7 ( ,th ed. a:ris:, Libr.i\~.r]e :Ph1losO'p,)lJ]que J, 'Vrin 1986)" PP" 26 ']_ ~ 11.

1,8. ShArlfi ikft{lM:iltt, ]?,p. 2,3-21" 30 35 ;,' . ~dJ of &.lwy pp. [3,'~ -32. /'9 W~rds rI Et$Mg, pp" 1 02:-] n Q.

,BO., MflShra'b (l~-(1milJb 'P. 2g0.

£n. ilThe Symbolism of Bircb) II passim,.

82., eo:rb~n (En lsmm irtlJ:!kn~ III, 519) mi~-l~ads il~,:fa, us'htrpe',- II as' IlIJyl)a, urasp~tt nunline:llX~n arid som<;;i1o'w renders M~nt(jU~. [1~'CQ(I?S'l1mes, '!1' as nlembrue:.~~' :(le:rmps realwng '~t as. ,~tu.

83", Masdgnon~ P~n.", nIl. 2a7~ n. f Ruzbiha,n abe ,c~tes this fti;tN1A in :4bhal' ,al- ~asllitpn, :p. ,34, nOT 77, and SI.ttu~-i $~(Jji...lYa,t, p. 15,3 ina", 2165;


~f. S,cll1mme"]~ lJitwtiwim;s'i PP'o.. 222', 29$=n9'9. ,&iu,er (M~, p. ,458) d'U!s, =T'ru~inQ (Rac~o~, '1~ 247 n, 2; lfJI" 29j'~ 302~ as Sl~ggt8ti:ng a :~. e@platook orj~n f~[' this metapho'r~ as, d:ev~lDftcd by PseudoDli~ny~:ij$} blUt th~s. seems unnecessary.

84. J eseph van &~~ 1'/J,:e Ttm'liy'itl Grm: ,A1ifh~ffbrJJltiism iJt :Ea\f~ lrla~~ ~funch Annual Ullj~~ity Lecture ill ileiigioo (Tempe, AZ; ~i.wna :)tavte tJnivers.ily, ].989)i; pp. 1-20.

85. AnLne_ota:de Schimmel; ~11~urk Md Hindu; A Poetical rm~ge and its App:Jioati.on to His~o.ri~~ Fattj 1~ ill' h~ ,(l~J' CltituJ';ai CII'aR-Kl ill. _ th~ Miilrlle ~,f~ ed $pe['~i' 'V'~Qni5} J:['~ (\IV']eSbilden~, ,DUo, 'Hacrtitswm:lz~ 1'975)~ pp. U!rl'-l:2'6~ Ehsan. Y~h:it!we]"~ 'ilTh~ Theme of 'Wined.cinhlng and lih~ (0Qllcept of the B'eE(1'V'~cl' in Ead}' ~Pfimia:l~ Po e't ry j ~~ Studi4 ls~mit:a xnn: (' ~ 960j,., pp, 4Si"""~4 ..

86 ~ Mu1n, Intra duc.truQn. "to' ~ll'h\t!r t:l_'i- ?ij~fli7i, pp. 9~99",

fl'1. - .h:e, MS$,J.lf~re ooad f$ltijflj ~~p,x~oF~ ii "but it. s.e'~!1~ mgre ]~k,~J,Y' that ~~s is

L • To -"I • 1" jf' u:: J ~, .... ] .it; ~ 'iii," e ..!I~

a repennon H'10rDl t le preVNJus une ~JJ: i~" ~,~, ff(jJli'~f'"tuneu

canQPY :Car it @ride.,~' .

mao lit is difllcu]t bl kn(}W wh~t to make of Ri1:lJ~~h[n~:s reference to the i.ha;ykh as one uwhose ,~pearant;:e WitS unknown" (m1jJiiU ,al-~. Corbin (1£n .Islltm irallim;, Ill" .116) translates widl & g1G~~ !ldOlrl't l~. vraie ftgltR;. ctmt ig;otQre~ dn commun des gens," 'Pel'halps the,oIl: is dla.~, ~he· :sha~1cll '~V,8JS ,~ eecluse 'wh'lllse ;~ppeat,~noe- 'was a:nly mOMrn ~o hl:S, cljst:ip~es.

89. Fur a, diseussien ofch~ dif[tlent ¥ie~3jj'j,ns of t.h:~JS' ~¥i'~';jr ,,-vbicb :la:~er' authQifS aHiiibu;ted. to RU2Jb]ha~n~ see IIlltii:zbihin Ba'q]i on Leve ,as "Essentiw] Deshe:~1

90" The vt[J.·. e, wlUie'h h~8 ~vtTal_un~tlsJ~t~b."l~'_.~un~;~_ = .. ~~s::. ~~i1~~_~a~~ $U'I1~~ mfll_t~ aiz,~~~,.!Qql Iwa lam ki:J ~ kJw,YflMlWl n,f- #l4aq,l Ii WliTirit

~Jitf tJI,:iiUfi ~~; 'I m:mqllllt §il~liumim :tla at .. tttli;~ii. This sU(~sts mi.t. if c·ne $:\'l!fSlrellS< '''Kn~h blo~dshQt e~$' at dabV!nl~ it is 'Smny t,o :m;aln!ai]] . th~t th.e "vinewn did not po~;r ,out b10~uil,~([;:e([ '~v:ln~" f90, the ~~n.ebear"£:f'

should a\liert the drinkers' f~,~.n ,of imminent death by ~dmj~ist'erinrg his wa re 5., I -am. ~'refO'] ('0 :Pn)f.. 'WoU1hart H'e]]1ric!1$ af :Ha(ftl,jjm I. :ni.'il'err,s~Jty· ta:[[' ebirllylling 'fhh;, verse, :in which" as h~ Dla'mes,~ I!the (~guSitilfi~ ·'mJlg€ry ~~ '~frm~my ifjjJt,erlJded 'Cuoc· illnS {lomicaJ :elT~~t~! (ple:~f)~;a]-, rottI]llllnicati,cul,).

91", Fo.nGDrwIDng 'MaJsstgpore's 'iVI$, ttsJiZlMrtu. r,~];~r' than Muhhadjg: 1aiQ'/:(WlU. 92~ f.iaUi.,~ lfitab af{~~lh ed, l?~u~ N~;a;~ J\_felan~~ ij~ ]'Un~'v~I:'$ire' S'lilllt- JOSlf:ph", ,47' (Qelrut: .Imp~'i:merte C~th,o:J1q(ue~ 19721, r.S; ct ,~]~6 'm"1 1 [1'1 ,", IV'· il

~ • .11, l.i",,;}'(i; , .,,~ '"

93" Shihi'bQddin Y.~hyi. S:ohr~~vra~di Shaylkh al-Isb:riq~ L'tJ:rdang;e IlmPfJ'l~rjwJ~'ltt? b:aiMs- et «tiM .mJstilt:.~w~ '[r~s. Rg-nry Corbitt (P,~ri~ F@.;~:rd~ '[ '9:7 5J:I! p. 215-j. ]1. l:l and ]nd§;~ "5",V. udes,e;t1. ~~

·94., Mra'rie- Rose Segu:y, 1A'6' Mi.:uJlCtdous J~~J,~ qf .Mdh~,n;te$ .. ,M~'r~ Nrii:rJi, trLl1:S. Rbiha~d r~~~r t;N.~w Y'~rk:~ 'G~ooc:ge B:ra~~~, 1{f77)) p, 2'5,: I ant :ll1de'bled. t~1 $~"JII( ~Kl)J,g]e ~,f :Drr,dt.e 'n~'~I:'Sity, [Q([" pO:~IIiiru,g 'o:U[~ the aigrtmta.H£'e of the asce,nsj,on ,rninla:tuFf-Sr .lOt RUzh~hin Js, angrdo1ogy.

95", Wi]~i~m C. ~pmg~~ll_rJJj. Thee F~fmj: of ,d:~w.J),wr~/lhJ!: Ep~dS 'in; 1M'


llisiiq rd',~ l~ry ~~ {N" ew' qaven: 'Y,ai]e U:niV\e[Cs~ty f'f'eSS~ l 9BO)~ pp., 175-,89..

9"6, A survey' and ,~]'l'th,oDbt7 of 11JJ,'io~g~p;h~eru types, of w-n~ing. in IIdaJm~~c .cultul'"le is, lforthc~mru~g from, a .~up or ~h.c~~rn in~]Ml)~~ng .Michad Co.~persQn, ,of H~~['d I 'nivers.ily,~ ~~, h •. d!~tu$s.ed 'some' literary and :ps¥chG]opc~] aspects of bW,grapby ~nd. ~1JJ:tol?:i(J,gr~h~y in ,Ar~bLle (~!ddi a bow to 'Fr'e~d) in "~:u=Khi~ifb :flr~yib~ ~an. ,~~~ndtir [D1~~co1tU'Se lRep:l~entil1g the Other]," lfl~Qiiili1a ~aL~h ]gj~~,3), pp'. 56-6t5-

91',,, I am indebted 00, 'Miduld CbopcersDEl Ear, S:harl~g ~:tb me his ~rllpub1ished t__rart~'Lfttillon~, ~~,A1'-~hlm aJ.-,TirnUdlbI-: How it ,All Beg,an.,I! 98,. zAbiil al~,Ma'ill ~Abcl ,iUlih ib.n. Muharnmoo ii)n '[tU ibn N-,Hasjlfj ibr.t

- ' - ._. • = ... _.1 . _, = II! ~ " ~ AI .. .JI = II :0:' .. - w~ . ;, ~,~~ •• ~ .~

~ AJj a1 .. ~ya na~ l w-Ha;matdi DJ, !~ ',8'yn ,~]-~¥1( .. ~}l,t1· ~~~m~·. _ £I~~,~ a~-

gllMrl;~, ed, ",Art! ~Usay[a.:I'1~ Indshim't-] Di~ish_gi·b~], T'rn.blii:[1l ~9'~ (Tohra.n: f)a:njs~h, 1962';, tnlO~. _A_ .J. Atl>~trY'~ A. Si{fi M~~ Tlie

= I~~ "t.~4itrl.-HtmNUlhii1i! (boodo:m: Goorge Men "

99.Jon~than IG. ,K.a'tz" "The \'Ncfddly PYf$U~ts ,@:r a \tVowd.-be W~:

'M1i~mmad al,-ZQwa 'Wi aJ=mij3,'~:i {d" 88:2/14 'I Tl~ II Al-'~\U~tl X].[ (l 99'1)l pp. 4-9>7-520;" id.", ~~V:~]gn3li1' Experienoe, ,Aut,(lbiio~ap,~~y ~ and Sa:i:n~h,QQcl. ,in. Ne.,ml. ,Africall lS!hlm~1I Pm;(;eUm: Paptt:s in ,Near ,E,.twll

~mdits 1. (~9~2l~'_Pl?' 8,5-,[_ I £t . . ~. _, . ".., '.'

'[ 0.0. Kathearte P. Evvillng~ "The Drcem of Sp(lnmM I11I~iI:]a:tl;iOU and ~e

,~j;rg:aMi.zaclfln ~,f Se:tf R.ep~~enJ&~tion. ~mnfl:! 'P~ti(m Sufi~,:"" A:w~i€all .~.t (1990}~ 'P+ 5Ji=74~ esp'. :p'p., !§1-453~ titling 'Catb~~ "The VL'SJlona:ry D~~m} ~~ PPi. ,390-=9]. 'COlU,m~n. elemenrs il'Jl Ruz'tiihin"s visio:n 'and the moirle;r:n dre,~m. ]ID.dJtld)E: 'the ~ppe~raill,re @'f t\~o i.mprea.siv'~ f~~res,. yobed. 11111 l\NWre, ~nd jhe I~·t~~ntad,~,n. of ~oQdi the modem dft:a;m also has flC::-a:tures ,~r the pre~ day $Ju,~h aJS I ·te[eph.ene lJOOltla. .

101. ]bid:.~ p" 64,

lO:t I~lan :Petm, Cu~i~tl" lil~ecID.$ion/' ,E.'~djjjJJia of Ri~1! I) ,4·35--41. 1 03,. R:iizb~hin only J~"t)fers w dreffitillS on a eeuple of occasions in &its/( oi/-

itS'mr (§.SO'-5'~ ~ l5, '~); in 'QIl{,; case min'king' abiOiU.'~ dreams leads :111m lD'tto a, ,,~,g' WS.Jd(t1 oflhc' :prorpbet, .and in rhe other. an e~p~ri~jfjJce h(fgan Mlli a d_re'~m~ ,~1l~ ~e ,~~kie ,~nd i~ 'l\I.rned 'm'ta ~n. urlve~~i?~. On dr'e~m, iltt,erp~ta'ljon II] 5ufismj; ,2!lJll lI:npg["~@iU;1t tG'O,l ]]1 novioes,,, ~€: Rjcl~6ttoo 'G'n11nlid'[~. 1M 8cJt;iiti(d~ l}mwisc.hfj~ Per~, vp;,.~, 2', r'>/'afi,'o.e U1:1:l bh:rc Al<.~b.~j:ridfhl:!n(F)e:n rut" dj,e :Kund,e deS!

- ...... ',11.,. ~ Ui._..... ~ ;Ii.!~~~ :a

Mo~g~n]m.'Ydes., ~~ 1'2~4 (\ijits:~ad~n:, raD~ Steiner) 1 g~ 61 21 -3-1 ?'~

)~ ii"\A. R=' b'·h- '(Ii. j' - '1.. .;J 'D"",'II~I .. .f.i. $::rq'",l'

1I.'!jJ~r:. ;llfZ'l sn~ .;;l.~. a'V'a~'~" ~m,. D~~nJl~a.t::; ~~ '"

1,05 .. , 6pe:rD;~mii]][1~ 'pp~ ,5- t6. _

[U6 .. , See Wards qf EtJ~j. }Jp. ~5-2,~t

lO7' .. Th'e OOiXt roa;y be - CO:f.rtlpt he'n!j 'b~t appe~~ t,lJ. read ~lflJftL ~ jiii{ftm; ftrrm. [__;_~c?] ;~- "u4~11, l/.f:ilii-bi, Fo:r dli~·1.p~e~ttGfn!. S:ee ~ue~s Le)tii(X4)j,~ !ii,.V __ ~V:Oj~ B~h. (Qinn:.

~,ott The Persian It:alib~ast ,r.tml .slm.!J-i tifg S'effm:s [ll,a;:ilier E.G :nl}e~n~ I'~t i& IDoVe'" -, ~ 1iftIi'l,;:;,d 1MI'i~~'iI' _ II

an,u :a"":"'" ~~~~'~,

- FlUIf!i. T;(;._· " ..... nl ,)" , iii-.., " d .... ...!i.i,.... • D.:"~ I ,"

Iv~'" lr: r u; R~ss" is ,~so ~ven) '\!VI,iIL~1. SOmt! improve; :re,~p, m olIlWJ! Q;('\-, p. 350.. _

110. Fu:rlli2infa~\ no, H)~" p .. 63 (frClw bow, Bu~hiri and M:lllsim).

111 ~ RQ'lJghJ.y~ nD,oling thi:t ~~.nGt t:Q be done" (?). ,N\-vy1a (no. 2S:) reads, l!ar JM' €in ~a ~karii(J,*-(!.dy and tr,a,ns]ace~ it as n'\lo~~d thst '~ru ,eljd. to

YO-1!lrsdf as ~ done to YOU.,li -

112. }\J1DU ,a,] .. f.lasa:o D,~ylam~.j1 5ttfJl"'1: $l~~ykk-i tal'lx,' Abu ~M .Altih ibn IIM.jf $lirm6~ :Persrua:~ trans, itukn, a[,-Dl11l Y~yi ibn J unayd Sh'i:r,~~ ~ '00", Armemarie Schhnrmd {~k.a:_t"a} 1955'; g,~pri'l]!t ed., Tehran; Inomit.iU=J Bi..'baJr~ 1,363;11J~\M)j pp., 2:2' 25; o. SlC1Lmlmcl,. D~tls!, P .SI6" (ID. di1'e 3.DiDl-=::famrul.y atti.iud(:;s of tO~1n ,~s:cetics.

113·. Tu!ddl tfIr:l ,a&= ~tt p,. '1 05~

114, TvbJwl ~l,~l~~n~ FJ" 3t3; Rii.~ aiejifii'n" .:p. 2B2.

1.1. ,5. It mighr ti~ supp Oied. dta~ these &~Gr1et tl~lJe to reac ions to R:-ur~b~hi;n~s C-dm~9' I~~" mto~ $~"it1gs, brut .thQt lMO.·d:; COl1.$]sts ,of his CQ1~m~nt~.f1f 'OU the ecs:tt3;ti~ say]ii:gs of Qth-e~. 'Wldl,e we lJ]e'\!'i,! of al1],other w:riti:ng' O'f R!jiizbihin r'haJt prowked oo:ntr'w~r,5,y ($;a~~'

i ~~/OC.~ {," hi 'Ii ='1 - -' • '" ~.iL ,'''-

,~,;- -(JuUf/i, ~~ Oil W IC~l; '~~Uf one .q~otatJOl] sumV,~-5,~ ~n ri~tf;t ~t~tJ,~n, 'iPp·

195~i61j it seems liilkely tha~ w.hmever Illun'Vefin~'i or irile~s:t~lic c,sayingsll ~f R'u::ibihiiil are moott@r.b!sd w]1tthoflt[ furth~r qUJdificilti01l:~ ~ .il" II: ~,=:','I: ~rf' ('. ." d d

~'ltlJ IJn~", tf' ~~ t~ m~,en.· e ' ,

111~i Tufdfl~ ,aN' ~l-~~iJ'1) :P",. 3£t

111. Il!iil§. al-j~ilcJ pc, 214" w]lef€ a fum~r v,er:S]Oifl of the stQi1Y is given.,

11 ill ~ .l. .1'. '- .. . ([II ~ () tt 'h" " a . " - - · ... ,~'I" wW" r., 'L .... , . . . "~ ... " . ,;;..;.J..:oWi,iiha· 'f

o. ,ji~~~ tltjtfli(lil'liJ p. ~ lI,. 0 ~~~:e: '?[[])tnS1V¢' ~p~~", _ . - e nave ~p{~l~en ~JJ .. -j 0,

rau~n~ (itattffl and tradfbonW. (~aq!ii) wards" 'r.l'O,w W~' want ml~ ll!l:;ar the

'wl()~;Gl~ of BaqU,j·j).

11'~~ Rrll~ ~,l-j'in'il.~,~ p. 21 r.

l'2iO. His ,&adJJ dil~te has.been rep-arte1dJ to be ,~nywbe:r.e fr,om ~Mi!) 00 a[OO1"

Cil"iiA 'ii;..,' th ", .. -1ii: - .;;! .... ,",'. . . -, - .. - -.' I"'I~·' ~ '" £" .U _ .... " ,- . A QO

,~t ... v" iLIIU~ tne e;m;.tU:1;;r ~ ~,It seems more _l~e~y~ cr. ~ oc,<"j;f,r m(1~'fj p" ''1}.;.iIi::.

n, ] 5lt, This "Y\~uk~ place Fakhr ,al~,rnn.~$ d;ea_th beroi~e the O~l1l~,O$iti:Qin of: Kasiif' al-{1.sili'l~ but, the~ s~gni~lcanoe iQ:f the s~ is

'ftGt ii"l. Irs f~~icity. -

1~1 Dl:':~ I·' _, ~qfrl~ Q'Q' Tl" ,~ f:'1 '11 ."" . .l.lI'L_ - ~ .~,

_:,t'", j;~~f1' (k1IM~· .pp., ~'.;i''±-:J:;J,. 'eI., :]1~S :ac(')a;lJlftt .]$ :t;Cl OrWW [jf a qUQt~ID1'on 01

the Ar,;a;b~E [ex~ trf ,KasfJj' ag~asi4T; §~ 62~t):~l~ ~t1:t @in]y minra~

dfu~r~llo!ts frtlrn the MSS,.

] ,0'.:'11 ip'w,~:I'..,(T'~~~;'!"'~"-~ "I'll[) ~,'6u"'',._~-A. eitin ~ ~~,-~.:if . ....;.r~iiN'''·';;;:;\~ ~9-] ~I In n,Qe Q 1 ~(8'

.,!(,~ .. ~~-1.:(' 1!iI!~;,fN",rl!,-!:'~~:t,..r:lF". ~. ,'I ~"':f., ""II,U_"~ ,HlL:Wb!' ~1' ~"""~I!iIi,~,,:::.f~ .T:" ,d'_,. t.t:;:., , ,;:J ., 4'~

·3,O~ ,3'~' 3:5, '~'9~ ,~,j'~ 39.

1'29" R'tl/J Itli':imi~~ p. 114,. _

1'24. B,. Schrieke e:t al., 'l'I.i\m;,'ri41",'" D.,2~ 'W} 97'-:M)~ (1'9£H)~ which \UlfG'l1{U~~t~]y ]a~~. di$cu&~ruon ,ofP~tsim literature 0]1, th~s 'k:rpic;, (L

'D " • 'I I'M' it _, '. U ,iI']" J"ij,.,J;.~'Or ,D'...-J,;;.,d - ~' ~ ~f1i. 5t::. tn nCii,"'i!,\

.uj~flfl!g~" : Il-raJli ,ll-l~;01·'-.r.w.~a l!t: .tW["~lIi-aPl, .Li.'!I..~ ,J.di'~-- U '\,.IL ja"l ~.

125. Th.e ~la~iE7; '\-vgrk on this ~Jl~'®ct is Miguel ABb~ P,~laQm) U ,&i2~~ mu.mlimln'& m la Dimf~e ComedW)." Sfouuid().' de ,to; A:?:Sf,tJiI,~ ycr;r:lilcn; de ,uoo ptJilniica '~,,!rd, ed., Madrid: In_:s,-nitu~o Hjgpa,'ao Arabe de GU]Jwr-al} 1 9B liJ. ~,e@ most ~(elld~ Gise'~,~ B€~Qn and ~:id]Je~e :BrQ~~rd~ D,am~:rej ed, and ~F,a.Jl,S,"~· h li1;n Je l'ltlM:lh' dI ,MaIJlm,wk: IiJer g,nk Mat:jlfmftt~ Lettres Gothiq ues '(;Pam::: Le livre die Po db~:i '[ '991);.

126,. lean r~ Cou1ia,'DIJ [m¢]) ~Im ,de FeK14se:' ~w~. ~IDlin e:t red/,



I ". · alizi S'1 f 0" d

nstituuonahzmg a Su 11 I / r:~._ .. r

A. Tlae ~ .,iogr.apmes, of :Riiz . iIIan. : . 'aqli.

One of dle most prominent aspects 0 ·th~. history of Sufis Ii. is, the process of institutionalization that tl}.ok. piace beginning from, the eleventh century ~ who ~ tea-ching lineages and hespices 'begau to form around (nu;standi~g Sufi masters, The' general outlines: ~f this

PliO~~ ,~~~~e' ~~:n freq,v .'~·clr sk~tchedj a; for ]n~ta.l1c~ in ~me' ~ase. of

··b~ Sa, Id-i Abu al-Khayr, Through his ,c:hans.manc teaehing he

gained a large foUovrin.g and set U:P' a communal hospice or khinq.ih;, ,a:ft,~r his death his, mm.h becam . ,3 place of pilg.rima~e

d 'IL ill' , e 'L • hei d h"' Hf:' . I" ;>,. . ..;'1 il..

tWI; er 'tne m recnon OJ![ ,wD!l8 .. esrs, ann ·~S·· 'be was :r:nemonJ!aJ;ruzw luy

them in. the form of h~o,gr.aphy,,, Hls good relations 'Mth political ngu_;n!s~ aJS portrayed in ha,gi~l}grapky reinforced the patronage of the shrine as .an impo,rtant '£1Jucti.on of govmmen~. . ·bi Sa' d did net become 'the focus of a Sufi tariqa r(f "order," howev f. Sufi line ages. began. to take concrete [arm as distinct spliri tual genealogies onmy in the 'DNe:lfth .and [especiaiy ~he thirteenth centuries, when we see tb . emergence of difg:unct group, such as. the Qad1iriyya, the Suhrawardiyya '- and so ro;rth~ Various 'reasons ha;vc' bee I .advanced to, eXpb\in the ramificati,q-n .of Su~S'm in this .{as·hion. As a - popularisation of what had, earlier 'been a more J',riva:te form of piety, the Stwfi orders be.came a pu hUe form of S'Ufn,nI Islam that attracted the support of rulers, [ike the Selj~s and the Ayyfi.bids. TIl se rulers,t.1y viewed Sufi, m as a. so rce of Ishunlc legitima non, as an, aUy in re&isting the: attraction ,of Shi' ism, and ·al a direct condui to divine grace. The Calipb al, .. ,_;.,i~ir Bponso~d. both Sufi orders and fiituwwti guild asso ciations,as spiritual orgaDiz~tiuns f(Jr revi.vifyWng Is]~rm under his leadenhi,p..

I&~amic socie "y ~~as severely strained, however, by the ·Mon.gol ons,;tlt of the thirv.eleJl"tb· century .. Not amy did the' Mang'O,L'3, overthrew the ICaliphate and deS"~oo'Y many ,cities ,of t:b..e: Islamic east, bu also ·~h.ey ovenvnelmed the netvvoiks of patronage: no support of religion by pulling many ~ocaID M~s']im rulers intO'

l[ ]

submission to pagtin oVler:~ords,. This, t~'ta~trrQP,he did not, however, retard the puh~i.c developmenr of 8uJ]$m, Per-haps, i~: was in response to the: spiritual vacuum created by the end of 'the Caliphate that Sufi orders ,aoce~erated their peaetration ~f the social arterrua ~t his time" ,Nhate'v:et the cause, 'the Jo'Uloctme: was that under the new Mongol overlords of Iran; the, Il .. Khans (12'56- 1 ,l3,j~,) fhr.e Sufi orders became more prominent ilian ever under MOlng,ol p~trorila_g€,,~ SI'tandard histn,rie~ of. this era, refer to a :fe\~ weU-k~D~, fjgulies such as ~;,A]i). al-Dawla .$roDl11i~1 wbQ bad, cl,~se contaet ~th 'me Mo"__g,~l court} b:uJ't these' accounts !art CUfOO'ry; there were :rnanY' p]aiCe~ w:h~fi Sufi '~trdets took hold abO~it ~\vlli(fh we sti~l ;knrow' 'Very little in terms of their social and po~itica]

3 '

devel'Qpmen,t, -

It is j:]jjj ehws context tha~ the reli~Jou;s and ,sDcia.~ lltg~cy of

fi 'k. • h B- (1: ..JI 'b ,A .AI Th hi I .' ~ .....

,.t~fl~qlll__!,~tn c,a'~,JlI neeas to be '!In!1l,!@rstoo:~;; .,,' "eiO,g'r~pue.s bel

RG.:d~i'h~n ,vrinen, 'by his descendants are the main sources Q,r infarmJool) ,about the institution alwz,~tion 'Qf ~.he Rlo.zbihardyya Sufi order. Mth.ouih the Ru:zbihauiyya \LVM .lirm.t~d 'to four gen~nti()ns ,of the fQunder~s descendants, the l\V3y in which ,it dev~d~pied illustrates some impo,rtant themes [)'l2Lt are WJlJrth 'oo'l1sh1ering in a.llY overall, i1l'terpln:tati'~ln of the :rns~ of th~ SlUlfi, orders during the thirteen till 'centulij". A'~]j examlnarion of h~giog;raphie;s, 1tvntt;e:n 'by Rii.z'bwin ~s. descendants docum.en'bi, the pr, of "the ,rou.tinizat~on of charisma n in det~,]1. Ra:ibiha n was an ecstatic m''Siti~ and pro.Jific aruAtho:r 'wffil.o Cwiil1ed the fo~h~ of the !i!'odu;(;(illto'I" may~.n for a. number ~t elliit¢, di8(,ipl~s~ he also. had a p~blic rele 'f~ir llUUly' .ord~l1ary flel,iden1s ~f Shrur.a;~. His 'pious, descendants were in, -contrast ~~llIm'~tted t~ pillblicizing the cuJt 'Of hls g]lrin~,. 'which they' :pur8tlJ,~ tlu~@ug;h. estabHshing close llelatioins. Mth first the S:a~gh.udcl At:i~b,~gg ~f ,F,a rs and ht~r '{h,e MO,llgoru goy,errnoI's of ~hf' '~o~ .. r 'V,e;t ~onlehow the' Rijz~~mill~W31 did not ~urvl¥e, 'w,ilililJ@ other S'tdi groups in the .regi!~n fl,Q~,uisbed 'for ceD;fiLLries; it lacked, both th~ h~n.y d,ev~loped t;r,ab]ir.DJ~' courses of the K.ubra,\~~· ;and ~be far-flung .pla:too:nag,~, :rrebvo:r!lkB >af. ~b~ Kiza;ru,niliyya .. Atthou~h Rlllzblhan was an ew~ri~n~~d Sui, t,e-a:eb~ who \Vf-Qte ,il, Rumber of trea:tls€s ilQ IDJlide' dle m~l~ID;;~ilti~(fl Q,f ",oV;ice$~ krns d~s~erJjdanJts in t._h.1! &Ji[i~bili,a'll~yya !did npt gustain this ,asp~eot of $ufi,p,[acti~e" 'The' at~empts of we :bagtogtJfphern toO furnish Ro zhihan 'Mth ~ fleper:tott-€ of sla.wntly 'tnlr\ac1es tnet ,~th ~ liwait~tl ~ureess in. ~'ttt,ai;li~g fol1~ers, N~')ne'theless, the. fOfl1}, of the


,hagiQg;rapl')i~al :rrut1ll111Idive: that pO'fuarys, 'rihe d,e~'s ,of Rn zbiLbafi, and 'his descendants 'f.esJtifies te the ,ch~'ging I'c1igilQUS situation 'o:f the ,post-Mongo] period.. Even the example or such a sbort-lived instrutution shows m~o,w urgent \1\'35 the need ~O .e8tab~sllil local ce,w.lliUYr~ 'where divine ,gra~'e could be m,ad€ pubticly- a~ai~a:bl,e through the ,~genc)! o:f me saUlit.?s tomb,

The two bio,gtaphies of R]1zbih:ijl 'w-ritten by his two greatgrand1j~ns illustrate 'the a u~th()irity ,[}f Riizbihi:n and dle]Jc~ of his tomb as a focus of :pilgrimag-e, 8ha.r~f al- Dlin Thrilhmn and Shams aI-DII]) ',Abd, al-Latif were both sons of RUr2]l,ibin.~s gr.and~~n ~,adt al .. Illn :Rii zJ,ih:in 1M' ta, 685/12816'.. $har,~f al,"",Dlln Jbra him '\tVl'lQitie 'the fir,st of these h~ujogri..phies, under the tide Tu/ifa~' ahl al~ 'rrta11' [Th~ Gift flf the Peopl, rd GJiQ6itjl in '10 [llI3,OO; while hws, brothel' Sha'msa]~Din compiled Ri~~ tJtjinlln [Th~ ·8pJ.iri~ rf tJ~ei Garmr~ five ,~e,ats, ]3;'t,er ,in 705/ 130,5, 13'Oith bi,~)graphif$ have been published in Iran sorae ye,a;n agD .. ~

Sbaraf' al-Den IbriJim ·re~a.tts. as :[{)n~,\cw the ciltCumsta;noos.

di hi . · f !L - 1· b· h

surroun ng', 1:& 'COm,pl)$Il'Cmgn 10i' tne earnee I. 'logra:p :y:

Tll,e s~o.ry g,f his lJ,tuz bihin "s] miraclfs and m,ysti~~ "is famous and '\'¥eH known throughout th.'e w'orld. He has, Vvl-1;tren :many book, on Q9r"a.nic ex'egesi&~ dQmrnenta;n,es; ~(JJ f¢ti1Ih~ and the prineiples of jud.spruden€e~ Emt the .miraeles and, 'WDrDJdtrs firms h],e18~d states hiil'lite not reached 'from, spooc~, 11!.O

- , d 1!..,~, 'ru,."1 'iIl-.." :u......] i! hi ........ h

'writIDg; anc ms ,nOIU:J' ,e 1~(Lograp~~f lQa'ung '];S' great states . as

not come to m,t pen, Some [dJ.lelty=fOjury~ar.s after his blesg~:d, ,~8i]]g' It\iV,Ety ~.,e.~ in lO@lTh 3QQ], a, ,group' ofn.Gta.Jbites, ,otjCe0f!;

, '. , I - ... 'b. f' :n:.. b 'm:r

of Sbkaz requested this ~.e~p,less one, t'h.e :a,'!1Jlu'I}Ol;' 6' ~,~ us ,~bnt.."

the: least of bis children and grandchitar~(t1; [S,'h~m? ,a~,-·DimJ] Ibrahimmbn Rijzb~~lin [IIJ~ m 'put tto~th,er 3" b.h:;~graph'f tafthe· master, A c~UecilDn, of discip1e~s and a gm''OU;P ~f sincere lovers af the reve~ed great master w~re desirous ,of dtis, .outeome, '. · ·

This ~e~m)li~s8. one was net ,c~pahie of this ta$k, for how Should an. eXpla11;iilclon of' the state IOlf the t-oyal thtesi.b.~ld. eome about from ; bd1pJe-ss sbtvle'~' Wb,aJt dOf;;Si the ',~·es bu~,zirtg 'h~v~ t!() do M,th tile cnantin.g ,~f ])~a];ms? Finamly' ee.nwn masters of the heart~ w:h.I~) bMieved in, 'lh,~' ,~1J]Jtho([' of wm boO:~, ,and wh~S'e' ntnk Is s,oeh, ~ha;t ,they ha~~ nound abiliding pleasure ~n.d a icomp]~~e :t-Q'1'tio.rt in Gld ~ p~'tn, ple'aJded '{Olf 1this 'result. ,M®er setmng om,eD, llUd .11elp, r,es,IaID:v:e a~,e~red from, ilie


] l4

,~ \vi(h an €xamtple .of each of the lam,QUS, i\!\rrit~lJ~ of' the~ master, as .~ memento ,fJ~r the '\iVay(:a:r'€r;s 6£ the spiritual patH a~nd, :reaiit~l'. But m mad'e' the- :prtt,ense "of ~m;aibe; and ~perhaps~ [to wait and Jet] 'what wpuJd eme~ge ~Rttwless~y foom b~nd

'the Ja:idd,et:] veil [of the (uture],? .

It 'was only 'when be 'went to attend upon the throne of the' Atllbe,g of Lurista», N~~l'al ~.l~D'in ,Ahmad (1'. 696="7 3-3l1296-J ,3313)~ that Shams al- Di:n, oonoeived of 'wricing the book and, presenting .it to that ruler ~ ,clothin,g his dtdica;ttion In. a fulsome prose' tpat M ,-rill refrain, from translating, The contents are: as Fonows~:

Introduction on. Sain'thclod.

I. Op his Birth, C4ertain, of: his S]Jllritlual States and U nveilingsr" his Teachers ms Ma,_St'eT8J, lWit1ru Re~erepoe' to (h,e Source of d},e .Af[1Jia'tlon ,and ilS Rew;~,~'~ and. the Injtialic Geneal~,gy of his Cloak.

11, 10,n C ~i~::tUn Stories, r-eg:a;rding :~is MWaeles and s,pm,tuaJ

Stat~s, I[ eQ~,t3Jimn;g 'forty s:tori~$]I"

m,. On his V\fiijoo~,,~, with E'}ttr.a.ct~ .from. h~, S"yinlg~

W,. 'On his SOIliS, '~vj:tb, Ce;~in, Vir:tuc;s~fh:is Virtltl,i()ut Gmncllsan Sw al-Dtn B.uzbihii'n 11,

Advice to t.he Ratmn ~ru~:f,1lt a'~-Din~ atld. Cond:1hJJsiorn

ltis. nrd,tg:-w:orthy ·tha~; ,tVhUe Shams td-I}j_~' does e:H.p:ress the confidel1.'c-e thaJ1r. the' bGl~;k will be ui~ful ~'O travelers ar the ;s:piritual J~alh., he th,e;1l in a. sense 5epat,a.jre~ hi'mseK' ,and %.h,e d~dirn'~,ee, fr{,m (hat endeavor, .Ma Feferrim_g to the: seekers ·©f GodJ, Shams, al""DID r~maJ;'kS th;;lit he hopes they MU r~me:mber tbI'tt e~ll,eJTO(f andl himself 'M:th their their sa:Ving p(ray,e:rs,,8

. Both bicigt:apn:i.e~ ale schd~&dy and :p'ft~sewe signifb.::mt Ror.lions

f '13J; 'Ilk ·'ILL. -, • ,. .' '-]..l~: k ilL. •

o ~l~j,ZI~'l!J:.i~n S''nW3')J me ,uurung some v~rfU.8 f)t~:J[€nVi~ec not

avairuable) but ,their audire:npe is more, dhrvotiona1 -diaD ~oo.nternpla-, ,tiv~, If we wish 'to ,oo,ntrast the emphases 0(' 81,€: Mn bO'Qb,} 'w·e C!ou~d say tbac S:haoo ~-:D1'l!JJ 's 'T/w' JGgl w tIw &pl~ Iff IGu~ ca frills "-vTlth, .it more o.f the intimae]!" c,f the close eirele 'Of the 'r~01~~ classes (;)f $rutaZ;i wb.o ,a;ne,'f neMly a C~JliWuty srtiU ~rega:m, d)e shaykh as a e~htr:a]j, ,rrugure in d'u~ir :rwgio'~s life, $'~~t1ims - ,all",Djn.~ -on the ather hand, couveys in 'D:, $piir;it: qftJ~8' Ga7rikns the ,siIQittlt)lrl ~fthe eourtier who regards ,te~i~,Qn -as an ~mp,ottant ~pett of Uf~~ b~1 who ~eg.Rticls ,suns (e:v.en his own, granclfa;the~l as i~IQ'l11ltll 'prirna~ly fBI the

~acmclJ,,$p.trlt of the masmr (may G~ld fresben his sp.iri~; and I collected this, blessed book, ~ a gift :fqr the' o.f ~he be-art", Mam[l:JJg it 1le 'Gift ref lki P80.{ikJ l:{ @nom,; m M~ry of t/ie; CliJt/ ADs"Oo/.tM W Ofld' Rfi.tbihanc.;;

The olliline: of Sbaraf al- Dill n 's h~gruoFa]lh'):r' 1.8, M :froJlDW~:

I" 0$1, ~,e Birth af1JJd, Ori,gin of the ShaYkh.,

.}I. On. th.e Grqtt Sai~ts who wena @is CQnte:mp,oraries,. Ill. Smri¢~ and Mirn.c~~~~


,W. lCQmments of the Shaykh ,~n Scriptural Ex.~g~sis and ,~filJ:if{fh'

mom a, Myscica], PemlP~c[i,~~~ and Comrrr:DLen't1ary on. Ten

"SayiE1jgs ,~f the Sh.aylth. .

'V" Diverse S,ayillgs [a, blbJiogr.aphy flIf hils wri ti,ngs" 'With

e*\@.erptsJ . ,~ .

\iI., On his, C,hUdren and Grand.chi[d:~~n~ .and NQ,te~ on Savdr

al-Din Ru:z oruha:,.n II'. .

''\!II. 'The D~ath or ,th~ Shay:kh and Mi:ra:cl~s ,at; his> g·'hrine,


The' 'pd~}~ry motiv.ation fQl' this biography i8lppe~'u~s to h3lv>€ b>ee~, the .irJ'terest of devotees :~n h;a:ving a r~rol~d of 'm'e' m~er~s miracles and. spiritual s~a.bes,. ,A$ ~be exp~alins,~, "The ~uJh6r has compiled these blessed and [g,rJ;una;te w,ords sr~ Ml,a~ th,os~ whe n;ad this blessed

:bi.Q~~p"h;Y' ~srl'~l u~m~, :may .obtain a fijU pord~n. G~' m.'e, bill~$sing of his fen tunate words,

The ~e,cond b~Qgr~phy '~ry Shams a~,-n]fi hag, a: ;difTlC:ten t appearance" due t~, its :h~gh]y t10rld J\r,a'bitjzed slYle and, its

. dedication te a pomicieal 6.g!ln;,~'. The ,a'd"tho[ relates dlat aJ\'e'r 'much travel to msmn:ll ]ands he, had eneountered ultany ;gr~t and famous :p.eqpl,e,~ \lvho', to hear an acconnr of bis gr,andfam,er'~ life H'axrrung told these S[Dne.s;, h!3 conoeived the idea ,of w,ri'mmrg th~m down. His OVtre~pfP\StUe tp Gourd" styles of ~~pre!i&ion can b,~ seen

from, the '~~Uov"ing~ -

(fiend~ w'ho: 'wel'e extrem.eliy re!]jable' and pure adt~d this weak 'on€; 'to \'\(rwre a book an the lite o.f ~M sultan ot the gnfJsti,cs ,o,f the wot1d~, Shaykb R.ilzl:D,ii1in (p eace be 1J]fil'OIl hifm)~ in whi,clI tbe pearls of useful morah, sboluld 15e joined tog,e:therl a.nd on [h~ 'field ~f wwth ~~ 'W,()ud(ours banners or his ,grt@s1S1 were djspla}ted~,o,n 'which the steed of expressi'on and e1oquen.<;e ~ho~~d t~arg)f; o'/er ~he' plains, of d¢toric and

RUzbibin. Baql

b: n '"ts, they bring to :society and above ,an its le ad ers, The ~e-xu 'overlap to a considesable degree 80 that" frhr ']n~~an&e, ,half' ,of the miracle &t,ories told by 'Shams ,a~-Din can aJ.S1~ be found :~ll Sharaf al .. Din ':;J eollectien . Both texts rep:re'Sell~ s:mgt;~ in th.e instirutionaIization of R.u:z bi.hiin'~s, SWlsm"

I would Iike to trace out th d tails of that institutionalizing PI:roC~SS' by examining thre e. t1opi.· s that the biographk s treat: 'm"St) the· r portrayal of 'Rti,ztlihi:n UU1)ugh stories of his miracles and spintual Sfatus; second, the picture that emerges or R.u,zbiha\n~s descendants (M,th some s~p.lpIDem~~l'tariy in fbftl1Jla!tl on: from, other biograpbical sources); and 'third 'the relation of the R,u,zbihi.n~yya with polidcal power,

Most of the stories about Riizh~han 'in bis hagiagraphies Jo~us, on the spirinra experiences of his disciples. R.!uzbilia,fj's dhcip,les, t· .ll

b .... ,. . fi' hi h 'I "''' ... ~I bl

a out, rece:iv.i:ng visions rom mm tat sorve ,splnbJru pre ,ems, or

, b' d ~ h Bi ~ • ...:!III' h .

Just \15 ,a: vtee t, at exptams events OC01.tll'Tmg 'uu-rrng t 1~Ie1r

m,eruta.n,On. Many of his discip[,es relied on his ~gm,idanee in ~ndertaldng retreats, and 'fOift3r-day seclusions, s 'Rim ~bjhan, :himseH" Qft,en 'b}ok refuge in his own private l~etreat room.10 Di5ciplles describe him recei\in:g vmsjibl from KbiQlIJ [ or levita.twng in the air n~om, JOy when some street musicians passed by his rioa~- J,2 One

d" .' 1-' h h b 'h"' k ill..

ISClP' e went Into "a trance 't. e moment ne . ,egan to i I nn ':c anour

Ruz,'ll:):Hlan~,s status", 1,3 Those 'who ,dlS,f)b eyed &i ~bihin's instructions suffered intensely, especl3JU:Y if they revealed their experiences without permission, ] f Se'ver,al relate experiences of seei~g R'uibilll,ij] in his old ag,e borne through an immense crowd in his palanquin and Mmmg di,t-y could speak 'to him:" upon w ic 1 he stopped and summoned tbenl for an intimate contact, is ,.' HUm, er cf dlsciples on pilgrimage . o . . . ecce. 'were saved from 'the perils of the .desert, such as Iions and thirst. 16 Ruzbilian also, '~n~~rvened in the lives of

lor~ndaryt.,peQP~7 ,~~,(fing Ii:ftscltl) 'l;W;l~1 aff"starv,a~I'I~~ 0J.'f fix ud·_p a

rumen nouse, - - Jl, nese nnrac e stones ate' m-oe!IJalJ,\t y mo .• est,

demenstrating the 'mas er's s.piril u~d and hy~~ca~, care for the welfare ,of disciples, oolmbmi_o;g '~ aching ~~th authority" Other stOlrieS :reqount fh·. :refu~ti9:n of dOl!lbten~ whose 'verbal or :memmJ incredull,'t1f 'was sha:tter~d by demoostmtio,ns iof th,e divine. .po,wer


given to 'Ch .. saint, L6 Although the content of these miracle stonies is ,pretty much what one would, expect to. happ en ~ n the atmosphere of a charismatic saint like 'Rfi.zJbihill,. d1l!f fun,ction of 'the stories in terms of hagjo'gt"aJlhy is. only intelligible as part of the cuh or the saint. 'The primary audience for these tales was th circle of disciples and potential digd.p~es)'O\r whom the stceies funetto '. as vabdatioo of saintly authority" Frequently the stories conclude wirh the remark that '1IIm:any ,of those present became disc iples, ~" dearly an enoouragement far wa:~tering listeners to do 'the sa.rtu~" Stwe:ra.l

'. "'...] 'g .~'UIL. ~ b ~ c. . d f R-' bih - )

stories are' ,rumeild specmcauy at t!["~e noll. :'ilJJlg 1J:'1M.S ei ,: Uz 'i~~an s

d)isdipl'es;, initially rel.uctan't t'e' accept him, they were persuaded by

. ..::11 'b L":...· L "~.::' - .,. ....'1 d'ffi" W· H~ E-

nreams or ~""l ms aJJlJlluty ItO reserve a spmtual rn 'I Ie. Ity...ven

people frnm remote regions became his Ii Ilowers throogh

- - ZoO


A, s~condary S'ubj't.C,· of the stories about Ru,z'bihin '~$ his ir:npa,c~, 0]1, ordinary, Islamic r~,ous, scholars. On one occasion, RU:lbihi:n was. awakened from a siesta by the Prophet ,:in order to greet a jurist

h -. L~.. 21 I d- 1;" 'I!.. ],,,,,, ~ 'b........ oJ'

'iN ,0 came to meet mm, marns anc r:eugt,OU$ SCu,OJa..fS 0 eserveo

him perform miracles such as p:roducm,g water for a crowd ~o perfarm ablutions with or sendins a messenger '\ ... th a comb in th,e rr~gh~ in response to an unspoken wish, 22 'fVe sec a. q_agffi: becoming enchanted '~vidl Ruzbiha;n. afuer hearing him :perform, dJlikr" and in the same. wayan imam, wa.s SQ~ iml'r'essfJd by- seeing :Ru~biThli.n in


ecstasy that he became a disciple, . . ,One jurist e~', .n told of how

Rfi,ibiban, miraculously resolved a, domestic clispute between his, p.a re nts. 24, This class of stories portrays R:iizbihin as an ecstatic saint, ·n.o doubt, but one who closd!.y ,Q bserves the shad. ~i), and has warm relati€DDs ~:th IDe ~tl~ami,~.

A smaller number of stories relate teseimeaies about J;t,izbilian from famous Sufis and. scholars from other parts ,of the Islamic wO(fld. V" bile th ' .. : are not 11umeVOU$,. they are §iven unusual prominence by being placed at the beginn~ng of the chapters describing ,Rui;bihan~s mirac es, These testimonies sometimes tak;.C' the (OI!7ffi'n of 'I I floating-III I narratives, in wlli(n the principaill figures and struCNfe' 'Qf the s~oiy remain 'the m d]dJe,_!fe.~, versions of the tale .. but signiFican.t details have been altered, 'Com,pa'risnn between the diffen~~nt versio . s of thes ' u'floatingU stories reveals the ciI.iffering

Ill.. " hi 1 dl r"' R'- 'bO'h "b'· II.!;.. h

u~a_gJ!,IOlgr2lp .. tear agen j as 0: .... fiz I, '~allS _logra'pulers, :S'O ti .,IC

divergences' are 'worth t:xpLlring ,1D some det,ail. For in$tance. ,~n l1w Gift' of the Eeoplt of ~ a Sufi of Shiraz .named N'ajib aI-,Din

. -

'] 11

R'uzbihin ':aq I~

B~llJ!ZgJU~!Ih (tt 6'1B'/ 1.'280) tells how one day he: was in Baghdad with 'the great Sufi master Shiha.\b a -D1n::lobrawa\rdi. (63,21'[ 234)1' !11th" axis .(]f the age, II when Ithe subject of RUllbma,n came up arid some (lIn e began to' read one ·of his books aloud. Irii tially Suo J7a:w:arm doubted the worth of Rfiz ihan:'s, writings, ,calling them. "strange and estraordinary," but the n-~t day he: asked for RG.zbi.han.~s book and to 10k great delight in it. Ylhen asked: about his change 10'( heart, he repHed thai in the night he: Vilas con:vinooo. of Riizbihan's lofty status by a dream ofd1e assembly of tb.e saints; in ihi}l dream Ba:ya.zid Bisltami was named 3B the one

,-.. ,. d .... l.. G' d R b h 11' d-I th- .~, f

Who. IS uratec Muu; '. '0_" ,iliz '1 an was-proctaimed as:' e Iover G.

God, and Suhr,awardi was hailed as the kn.'~weF of Go d. Suh:ra,\va:rdi explained that .anyone ,80 honored hy 'God. and the' sain ts was worth reading. 25 his vernon elev ai' s the status o.f by having it announced in theassem ]y ot saints and attested by th I Si~e authoritative :6gure of Suhrawardt,

The Sp.iiit rru Me Gardens gives a, much espand .. d :VI rsion of 'this stoty' as narrated by a Syrian shaykh, named ·Aibmad,. His account specities that he was the one who read aut: from 0)].(; of the writing;; of RuzBjh~ln from a, book d\U,eti Sa!wa'l ,al-'fJulii$ (Hearts)' CO'lSOlati'OI1), a' d the passage in. question contained R,a zbma n',~ boast that he had surpassed the stations of B~lyazld and F;l'aJ]].ij,.,2!) VVlu~n Iquesitionoo about this claim Suhra\vud!1 rcpti, d, UIt is the talk o:f the inw~ea:' . '.' ~ cast it aside, and attend to th,· talk of' the so~b er, ~I When A.bnla!d. pr;'orested. that he found l\ij zbihil:1~s. writings to, be valuable Suhr-a\\fardI b~und¥ told hint ~I!IH you. do not abandon th.e words Qf'RG,zbihan, you \;\ "11 abaadon our cempanyl u' The scene 'was. then sYii.tch,ed to the drean1 of'Sruh:r.awa:r.m.,- where he saw all humani ~ assembled at the n surrection. A crier summoned s everal sa.ints;' den tif:y ~ ng :' h em, h~r their eharaetenstie; Bi.yaiid, the one 'who 'W~ united \vim God; Junayd,. the one who describes G~&;" bu. :Isbiq Ka;zarUnl1) the one who has realiz d [God;;, Riiz'bihin :Ba,qtll., the lover of God; and finally, Suhrawardl: the 'knower of God. Suhr,l'war)w' related that of these five saints, ,aillID. were on the ground except Ru.zbihi\n, who was dan,lcing in. '~he air, proclaiming to::IDJhmvtarm his ability to transcend time and space~ the ne-xt day Su~hr,al\.ral'dl summoned ~ma.d eu fi: and requested him to read from the book. 27 This version has several additional fea uresnot :found '~n"lthec·6rs,· Vie.n~on:: th,e Shiraz~ transmitter is, dropped and. the narranve switehes eo a,


participant in the Sto'ry~ the text that disturbed Suhmwar.di ]is. quoted in fall, and the issue is stated in terms of the opposition bebvem intoxication. and sobriety, a common Sufi theme though often ov~rsinlp:HfieeL~u~ Fu nih ermore , the scene is not si;mply the assembly of the sainte but th.e final resurrection of all humanity, and RtlzbihJa.n ,rug depicted in a triumphal eC8'~asl' beyond all otba: saints, The author of 11~e. SIJi:ril of tke G«rdetl$ finds confirmation of R,n zbihin. i status in. some of his 'erses:

'When I found his, beau[y from 'the a!~ra\€tion of his,. I die pur~uin:g union, beauty" and gruOl~l. \\!hen [ sigh. in union from See~ng the pre-eternal

un : ,lling~ I blow bubbles ~th a hundred threnes on rthe pre-eternal carpet.

his is ,3, (O(ml, of textual proof maE Sharafal-Din also resorts to w',,_en he quotes the :f.oUe,vving verses:

In 'Ullf age" 1 am me upho:~~r of the path of O~d from. the .farthest east. to the threshold Qf the ultimate, How will the \l\J.ayfaJier,s 'of gno8is see me,

'when. my station lies beyond dl,e beyond?Z9

This was. considered memorable enough for it to be repeared by

the later rs Ibn Junayd and Jimi.,3'O '

There is it tbird 9!CGouwt ~t homage to, :Riizbjh,an from Suhrawardi found in· mu..tiir (A Th()usami' Tom.h,'S);. a, local hag.iognlphy composed around "91/13,89 and ~nt:ooded to 'be a. guide for 'pilgrims visitin.g :the sainrs' tomruiS, OrShWI~aZ. Tbere 'we see a much less impressive dream related by one Ibn. Qa:ntta.d ~n 'which Buz,ghush, Suhraw,a.rru, and several saints ef Shi raz, along 'TWith th ' seven hidden aainrs known 1fLcS, the ahds l, ,~all appear as visi&o.:rs p'a~ng homage. to the tomb of Ruzbili[n. .. 3,1 This '\Ii . 'sian. t - tains 'th . ' . ement of 'b~smnony by various saints" inel ding but it' remains on ~he level,of the dream of an o.r"Glin~ pers;~ln, and it is concerned. \.v.ith the cult of the saint's tomb rather-than 'Illu~,'v.a~lJe of tis ·\i\rrlnogs .. AU ttiree versions of t iis Hoa;tin,g story pertain to the questJon. 9rt~e saint's status after death as debated. andll(o.)nn~m,ed by Sufi au~oritie'S not directly oonn. cted \\.' his shrine. There are a number of similar stories invo[ving confirmation of Ruzeihin s

, ' , ' ,- - 32'

sainthood by other wel1~6\1vn Sufi :iigure~,.'· One can compare _his

HOaJting narrative 'to other hagiographies, such ,- s 'the biogrllp.h,· of ilie Egyp·tian my!Bcal poer bn a-l-~, irid;, HI whra is b ~ginl1ing to look like a standard appe:aJ. to aumority',. 'hen~ too the name ,of


Suhrawardi is invoked in an incident testifVing- to the sainthood of

~ ,

the S~ bj,ect ef the hagiography. As in the case of Ru.zbihan, Ibn al-

->~a'ri4".s _ bioorfa<p,h,y' also pertrays ll;,m as the fouruleir. of a Sufi

g,$ 0'· _, ,


The Soaring narra,tiv€S seem to have a purely hagiographical pUlpose of g~orifying the saint, This hagiograpluc fUHCtlOD U

;;;._ U! id . 'I;., •• d d I' .. 'L,

,esp'ecJ.alillY eVl' ent m stones tnat !exrust me epenc ent y in versions that

have nothing to do ,~'th the saint in question, As an example we may consider two versiens ,of a st~lry ef the m}'sterlous :fiJ,gunis from the IspHi'tual ht.erarchry 'kll.'~'W1l popularly as "the seven I~ (~!;;.«m'ilfi). 34- The. Gi.fl: qfthe per;pk of Gnusis relates a story told 'by a corpse-washer named Shams al ... Dtn Muhammad who was summened by :Rtlzbihin 'to prepare a oorps~ for Iburial in a gr.av'eya~Fd. eutside Shiraz .. ' nlder awe-inspiring circumstances, the man' observed Riiz bihkhl and five impressive 'persons p~edo:rm prayers ,ov'er the dead man, Shams aJ .. 'Din ,kept vigil at a 'tomb prepared on a 'mountain, and in the morning' R.G z1jjhi~. him that the dead man was. I~)n . of "the ,seVii n," at th ' same tim: swealdng. him to

d '" ,..'1.. .t, kh 'j.t:. 35 T~h b~I' ,n ~l!' f

secrecy urmg 'u'i't snay ~ s b1 '11m .~ .. ~,e 01 r -'VIOUS E~mp~catIon 0"

, -

the st~I).lt)f is the Ruzbjhan was also one of 'the seven .. This .appea.~rs

to 'be a reworking' C'if: a" p.olpmJa;r story told in ,A ''T/U)lts(ilul Tmnb;s~ in w'hjeh i.n anonymous sa;i.n~l', cot])~te-W,a~dler. tells of be~~ng summoned by a, hea.Lutm£~] youth. 'to pl'ep~re a corpse for burial The corpse-washer fOllowed th youth thmug~l a ]ock:_d,.dty ,~te to a house W~,_ fl· be sUlddenly],oun.d his guide 'was the dead penon. Then 'With the aid df six ,other youths be perfOirmed his, task, and 'they departed Vllitb, the cerpse. The corpse-washer found hi~ns,elf alone in the desert prayed and. fejl ,asleep,. and then ~\-VQ!ke to find. a

b b ·'d ill.. • o· ~~. :IL._ ad n

new tomt ~" ~3ru a , ,wnm..=. ne "" ene, 8~ more ~omj~ ~"., uallY

appeared in mie' sam SPIDt. "Th. y say that they were the sevenfold 'pegs' (tlWtad)~ wbo love each ether, for whom the ram comes"

h . d- d b h blessi _,.m~. .

W. i):;~ prayer J;S answered, an~r w. OS~ iessings atthctien is

removed from the people (God- s' m'occy upon the,m).:ii36 This

a:rchad,c and. anony~ous stQry, which reflects popular belie.fs. about the in~sibt~: hier,ar:cby of smnts,~ has here p'n::n",ed adaptabrue to the' hagil~gr,aphical pUWJl1Qse of demonsttatmg &u zbIhin's :PQsition as :ill saint.

'-"he argiogtapbers ,occasionally use 11t.e Unueiling "rd Stcrtts JlS a

...l h "' ,",,1~, ..... , f R' 'bl'h " b 'h"

SOUl!~e to pau out· tl. elf' o~rUbJe 0' .'ij z. • II in s care r~ . ~ut t' 1S.

'Ilk" L.~ .... .'n' ..J:...... '" 'II!." •• '" I f" d

ulO'grap'uiciu rea.Wiwg ~u.. Cule v.~s]lonary recna out 0;' C~ire-}t't an ~ .


I-nstitutionaliziu0" a S'li1'iIIJ 0i.fl .

. a, _. II.I!U viI'uer

turns his nuernaJ enc ulltel'S to versions .of standard miracles, Shoh

· h ",",~1!.. ,'II!.. ~.J~,.....', '" .-:E'§" .] 46" '1Il.." h n. bih

IS ~, - e case: W~il;aliIJ: tne extraordmary 'YUi0n y,t ': ~ ""'" '~n 'Wnl,Cl' ,ri;.uz.·] -,3 n

weeps over the fate of the Sufi martyrs and his tears be€l(HD€ 'the

, r G' ...JI h dri k .' h 'I!.., ...... 'L. ... L ~"" b k hei e: I

wine 0- •.... OUI, t.' e ,., nmc ··. wmen me angeis ' rea. " t '~le1r 1~1t. 'n

the midst of this vision, which is part of the' sequence of Rama.<ia:n visions, R:uzbihin receives an intimate mitiftitiOill; -as the. Prop ret A1D~ad and all the other prophets and angels and saints suck his tongne. As reported by ShamS ai-Dtn Abd al-.La~If:in Pierman transl a tien , t~is visien has, become altered intn an event takiQ,g place d.uring Rfi.z;bih:i;~f~sl pilgrimage ~D Mecca, after his brief sojqum with Abu, I$a;&' .i[1J Wasil. The Persian "translation ;"j grea.tly alters 'the whole encounter, It substitutes a devotional rhetoric aimed at the Pfophet Mui}am'mad alone in the place .of the . motional intensity ofthe Arabic passag'e' with its striking depictio'il of th€ $piritual. hierarcllry and its erotic overtones. WheV€ th~

Ax 'b" . ,; ]~ h ·iIk;.l het I .' h f b

ar ie Of'lgIna. s ~ 0'\1!.r~ t~·,w.el:opl. ~ et m an '~·¥ 0.' .~ea:uty;,

dressed in the enci.dng ,ga:rb' of a warrior Turk, the Persian makes

h . 1;' ] ;1.,'1...." •. ~,f.t,£!o r' · iii ]1 1 d ited

tn Items. '01 c Oficn1u,g mto 6~'~ 0' i:runvestIJ:hu:-e, rruracuious y: . ·~I.epOslte"

y tIl.. hand otthe Prophet. inte the lap JofR.fizbihi:n as I e stands ~n the shrine of -' •.. edina .. Here is a tabular comparison of the 'MO



Th in I saw the prophet ceming to'"~J)d rn from, Medina, ~th WI fearsome ness or a T'l1r.kman:; 'wearing- a 'lobe (gaM) and a :bat (q.a;lo.l1SIUwa), 'With his. right hand sriclkin,g out from his robe,,, and. he 'had a bow and some arrows in his left hand", Hie opened his mouth aXH1 took ]llY tongue and sn:uike,d my tongue g;end.y. Then

saw Adam" Noah, .Abrahamj.

Moses~ J eSJus, ,and an t~e pr'O~, phets and messengers ooO'ting tOlAraFd me, ,and th'y sucked In.y ~'''''''n' IIP'lle' T"l!rlen-'- ~'a=w- n~bn··,o.l- ~'iI:'1i,d'

f~ 1 b'~'- Ii, .~!IL. j3 '~'. 'll'Q. " __ '~ ~LLW·

'M' • .'L, ... , ... .'1 T........ £::1 A ... , ,-,a m d- 'lin

,. ~lC,u.~~ti! btiU,'u) ~.rn.l.!IJ an ~. 2l1J.W

The. Spirit Q{t/w ,G~r,-dms", pp, 117- ',S,

On a certain im: t ., saw the

., .L' 1 f' IN'p . b

UIgl itt tra¥e~e.([' Oi I, •• . ratse ." e to

him who brougl t his servant by l1igbt'l! (Q.url'au 'li 7; 1.)~ the :dsirffig sun of Jli~by the dawn II (Qp:r'ian

9 g.: 1)37 (peace and b~essings be upon him) ext nd his blessed. hand out from the' holy shrine, He clothed me in Itt cloak (Jmft 11), and p~~~uee~. a .~la.t (til) upnn my hearl" and gave me' ,3. mantle (~ltzsa~n:) and a Bag (' ~ldm). TIl.lm he put his t.ongue in 1111Y D10Uth, and I sucked it ~-ri th a oog :sue:,. He broug111t his hand d~Q'MIn on m.y faoe,. and ,a, light appeared in

'~2 .

my ey~~, by ,\tvlliD[h liIbJt I saw the face Dr that leader of ct'eatur:~ and tha."lt happ,iness of: d'}~ br::~ast of Adam 'aDd, his children ~Q that a fnlgIll,fnt uf' me rays, of the Iig;h[ Qf his face

wade the]ight Qfth~ sun hh'" an ms~g~rlj:licant atom.

R,tj,z'biha.n. "s ,~,ri;gina[ vision revealed him absorbing the dC all rhe sp~rim,u~il hie~rroy as they each ga¥e him an intense kiss, His desceedant turned 'chisr Into a conventionalized account ,of. a. ,visit hJ the Prophet's tOmb to" [,~£eive the regalia ,of ,I Sufi, shay:kh~ retaining o,rilliy the urrto,r~[JtraJJlte: ~" tho'~gh now it is Ru zbihi~n who does the US $] ng, It mu~t be admitted that Uris pl~rriC'ri~~[' vi~ruon, ,P'aJLS'es. problems t~r the inrerpreter, '] know of no other e-~il'mp].€ Q,f a Sufi, cbiming this ~nd, of physical in;thll3.c}f' 'With the PtbP,he'ts~_ ,an~];~, and saints in ,8 vision, F or Ru zbihan, it seems to be u.nd,'~,ntt)od. pdmarily as a form Q,r ,runi:tiaition int~ esoteric ktl(~'wledgt,. He mentions, it in an early vision, (§29)~ in which the Pr'Op:true:t Mu~ban:nna~ .feeds ltw'zbihan dates, pla(~es his ro'Dgl]~ in :Rij,zbiha:w"'~ an.d t'~1J.~U puts a turban 011 his head, Both ,th'€ :r~eding and the presenta:p'Dln ,of the tUrlb~Ul are a,tal1Jdaoo, images ,for ·~nwtiaUOIfi~ and so d:l:e kiss is fra~m,ed In. this \+v,g:y', 8dll~ this er1(),'tic~d~y-tin,ged. enoQ'unt'e1' M~th th,le P.rn,pllet 'Mubaml:l"lad might we1ill be. viewed as offensi~ve :~ese-maj'es;t,~, by' some,

ltu,zbihah's V:~sionc>s c'~'uld ~J~ be reinterpreted in: ter.nn;S, Qf adler kinds of devotionalism, .1ike. the popular fnrms, of devotion to "lUi a(~d· the S"ni ~~ imams that were encouraged by ,the Iater

S I'lL. id ,iI;. 1". r SI '. 3,8, Thi ~ ATd' 1r ~. H- . d

\a. ,g,I:~[urt., nta, blI1f'!;,g,s 0 ~',' airaz, . 'IS -'.fidr·. ~}ir)y~dsm,) as ,I Q. ,gsl~ln, took mot among RJi.1zbihi~'s desoe:~d~Wlt$)~ $0 that h~s, ~l) grea.,t-gre,at-gr.allds!©uB $.adr al .. Dtn :R:azb:iha:~ :11] and 'Izz al ~ Dr [ru, Mas~fi,'cl, were beth known .co,r tbei'f:' pLtb1ruJC, pre'i.~~hi,n:g "at ~he ~ A~h,fira\ ceremonies C(Hfim,e'mor~ci'ng 'the m,a~ty.r:dnm of ~u:s~yn.,,3tJ It should 15e 'J:1e:marked in, 'p(aSsihg t'h,at devotru,on Jtg, .~ AU is, :r.MJ:t ,gynoi~.ymou.s mth Sill" ~ism,~ dlas:pite C,o,rbml's tendency t9 see signs ,of Sh1' 'isrn 'tv:er;rlf'irief€. In a(ny Ci1\se, i~ is, striking J11.OBee the tralldonllation mat bas occU'f'nd :in . on.'~ of Ri~lz.blliin ~ So vi~~orr~ in ~lhicll 'AJi: :p;i~):"l a" "art, when. it 1s, :r.e £r oct ed, tboo'ug;b the prism ,of 'Mid[ dervt)'Jtion~ :H~re ~n~ the pa;rane~ passages,::

the ang'~Js" and Uley ~~uc~d. my' ton~e,~ Si) [did] am the sa]nts

...l • E"

_anu smcere ones, - astas]ts

ov.ernhe~m~d me, an,¢[ cries and s18hs..

One .chl\y I ilJeo saw' as th,oug:h I. were OM, the mountain ,o:f the east, and I. saw a groJ1J]!p of ~fli:gd.s., and an ocean that seemed to g'o' from east tG we'st. ,And ,thl!!Y said to me, uE'WlJJter tl'.t~s sea", and SMm, in. ,~t to 'm~ west. II So I entered the .sea, and .swam :in it. ,~d \"ih~~. I reached ttl~ place of'the sun ~t eWMr9Jgr tim,e, I $a~ the rnIO\UJ1.ta;i:r11S) >sf the east and 'we~t Hke li~ift],~ hills, I Slaw 11 group of ,an,gels d~, d~€ 'R1Q1J,Ul,''' tain of th~ ~$t~ and d]J,€'Y were glowiug. widll. the light Or the sun, Th.€'y shoused and said,

U'1N' hoever Uf:'b'ill <::i''t'"oiQ! I:i:'!jj,," ~'m" "'li.'nA

., " ,~:,II. - ,.,...". ..... IJ., '" ..... II,;!!, ,u:"';';"'" ,,1,"';',11. I I, 1iiI, '~,

",:~. ! b fraid U' (;rr. 'II:... T i!!;l!,Oinl t .. e aJ~rru~, '. ~o w!lJlIJ.en. l!

reached tb~ mountain they said, "Ne one has erossed dlis ocean ~X;(.ept j:;\i, ,ilbn ,Mil Tii\lib (God

ennoble his eountenanee), and )1'Qu. ,after him. II

Tnt Gift lId/iIi P'GfJp18 ofl~, p,

~,3 .. =

In dlle ""tOld.d of unveiling I "Sa,w a mi~ilil'ty ocean, and I _wan."~ed ~Q swim, i~ tfta;t ecean, 'The' batdrun,g armies of waves would not let ,m,~ ,go. ] saw SQm;eQl1e g,\-\timmiroJg in th.a.t o~a.n W~lO creased the o cea n, ] ,(blh,:w,ed behin.d h~m'1 2H1Q .kryr (:h,e blessing or his pta$sing :1 ro-und tthe pad), au,d cressed the ocean. I 'went on diJi~ path 'L'O mi~~r:dng f'Or: 'ytaJ;fg., VVb~~ll. I :reaeh,{;d \ih~ shore, I saw the O,olmman1d,~r of tb~' .:Fa.jthfld, ~Ali. ~mar ·O(ld. ennoble his C1}ll[jtenaJlc~l. I :r:eU at his. blessed :feett" .and he c~~d me ,anflli, said,

~ ~Rfi z:bii1;:}911t:I have crossed this ocean, and YQlm by' th,e bt~ss]ng .of fbicrMfWOI lJn.~ have crossed it


Let [his be g;o<c)d .news, that: YLoor

{)IIlS,prillg' shall never be eut ;,oHp· hld God. lum,G\f\rs best,

Here w~ find all, even g.r~la,t€r difference\fe~n me ru'abic orru;~naJ and the. Persian "translation, ~r In Ru:zbihi~n IS vision; '~l appl~ars at the '\J~ry end, only to pro\lid,e it standard (;;fill:' eQmparj~oln ~'o: measure the .9t~ flus and $p-mritual ,g:re~tnf'ss o:f' Ril z,biba.h~, The version of Sharsf ,a~,-D1'n Ibra.hbl1 truncates d~,e intr'ic.ate vision ,~nm a ~inme image, in whi(]~ R,fizbihan:\~ ~at"fi,ess derives SQh;ly fm'm his devotion EO '~Mt The point of the aneedote is 110W dlriht the future ,of Rizbihill'~& 'fam!],)' is ~e(;u~~ 'th~nks ~.o the gT,ace 9f 'AlL

T~re ,are instances whe1ie- ,a_ bri~f ~IH2,ounter in. 'The Un,ul.ftirll Q/ Secre,tJ see:ms 'W ha:¥e se;rved for the :~n!spmla;ti,Cin :fOf :a ,mttch 1ll,Q(fe grandJ~o.1~ sCf:n,ano i~, ili,~ hagi.og,raphit'S,. This, Q~c'1!ll'S, ill: a ~S~Dn. d:lart be:gins MW, :Ru.zbma~ ilidclressmg iGod by ~ID1e ()f 'the div]n~' :na~meS'~ II t~;l(€ Gi,verl! (wlillm bJ:

~~ r:'l;;,fJ, i;.r:/' 4!L\O,GiD. ... ith.',.·~- itrf' e: ... ,,,,,;t-i?' 1: It.ff.r tJ.r.iJI~ 1"f} U~~ r~r~ I'(J orIit>~I~<~

p. lli4

[Gnd ~aidj,]' 'iiWe ha\tt made this ~Md lloilJlt g;()~ at d~lis time, and have bestowed sainthood 'upon you,! ,al1d have ,gj.ven. you gi£~; ~(lw we ~ve )1:11Ol, your children and granddmildrfn on the mor.rlilng' of 'IDe' resurreetion," 1 said} IUMy God~j gj'V€ 'more that'} this;) for }r,@1U alill th~ Gi'\f~r (bJ;hsh7/?nJIj'o;}, II The. n~ply cam,e;, 'W,h:Qever I(JOines m you \'\4tl1 s:inceriqr [ gW,~ to 'YOl,), Oin the'

the Hmale:5a, treasury J~f Y't']IlJ.i'"

.grace 'is open; give me, mere dll1n, th~~d'~ ~ The ,reply carne, ; 'I ga,~ this. t0l y,[JVU) and I ,clJl~~$~~, Y''iD'U in the grur,m~r[lit of n.'[fnor. II Again I ~aidi ~'nInrd~ I want

. . AI '~, '. ~~ 'Th I

more ulan b(lIJllS" I , . - e ,~p y

~ 1'1 .' ],. "1

came, -I, gru:\~ ~u your: CHllL ~

€Ire]'],. In' ,Agmn 1 8ajd~ II lord! I

'."!I'.,j'!ji'm'lll more ,;,,'ii!..'=1t.'li this II' ~-, he 'i'!ep'I~'V '¥YG!.U'[ , , " ,I...:, lLiI.'lIrdlll,~ IL ,.L.!I,. 1., G .1'-'" "i

came, IUWho~e;r' comes to you'r tomb ,after YOUi!i death, and pen'O, 'pUgrim~~ 'I gi~e to

. U'A:'iI'1I! " 'Ii' • ..a: 111I......J! I "if

you. ,~~)amn ,J[ sab.JIj" wJ:'u;, ,Jj,

want more than this," The rqoly came, IIWho-~rer hears 'YOUF' na:me and. loveS you 1 ,gJv;e to you." I' ~sked u,P [0 S€V€l1.ty tru,m,~s~ and all ,wque~f~ ~~ granted, €arnli~g' into the p,~ace of acceptance,

The' Ar~bic 'text of Tl'u' Unutititl ,fj $'ec{;(JI;s is' 'f()Uo~ mere do~~]y im Tbe Gffl; PI the Ptol#8' tt/'!(;~f;)mJ a - ])ea~t in th,e \;t~b~l echo of oodn~ss:ing Gcdas ~h~ Giv'ef, The ~hiQ. froQ) visitlt:n to hagIQgr.aphy- radit~Uy changes the ccntents of ihis dj;a~og:tlle ~ trnn:gf~t'n1i:n,g it worn, a purdy internal event 'to divit)e oe:r:rruficatio.n ~f' p:~]grl,rna"g~ to Rfi,z'b]hill~ B tomb.

An,o~h:er distinctive ,asp€ct' ,of the two h,agI.Qogr~aphje~ is that t~'e'Y

p~o~ti,~e :for thl€ ,~n.t _~m~~fuR-:~€J~~~ s.pi~i,ru~l ~~ne~logj~~ (~~~ _~e samt ~~ee Ohart 2)., 11M 'Gift If Mil.Peof}le rif Gulm describes RuZlbm~ul 3.$ the r~~,~e&e~:rtaXru.v,~ 'Of a. ISufi chain oftrausmi;s;s],@in d'lr(Jj~gh the K.izarQ ni order, lit goes b~k via ,Abu I~~aq a]-,Kizlru,][w £p the grea.t~ Shirazi master Ibn Khad1'~ and then proceeds by eithe:f of 'PNO branches (one in Khurasan, one.: in BagbdM) tJQ' the Prophet. 11M!; ~,m~ ,f!! tiLe present!, nIRl,ghly 'the same p~ctJ1kUr~ Qf the gfnl,e',a:~o,gy~ dlo1llgh both the Khu:ras3Jn Mel Ba:gbdad 'br,allc~es differ ~n ~rtaill l1ames~ A ru,g;n_~f]ean't a(lditi,~n ha~ Qotur-jed ,as subbnu~~h Il; C.{j:l~'Stil1g of me :fiISit eight "S'm, ~~ imatms (miflUS ,fj[asan '~b(D AJ1~ the sfm::nndJ imam); insertion :re:fl~tts the ~'AEd piety' or'

l1JOrnin~ of the' '~S[tfrecti"08,. U' I'

, .. ,!_,JI U'M, I' In-..,;!II,·',., -; -, ~' .. 'iI-'~-i'.

SID[J, ' Y uou" more man


mfa, for yon. are the~ (ji.V\er

(b€1khsklJ!nilaJ. Ii " hen :tl~!~r:ep,]¥ came, JjWhoev'e.r enters inte dl,e net it).f your r:iba~: and Mtt1,

"' • .,:,.,....1;': "]-' ""

,$~n~nty pc::l'C~:(UIrrns p,~ ,grlmag!~ (.0

YOM I giv~ '~O! y,®u O~~1J the morning of ~h.~ resurrection, II

I was 'vlakeftd :blfie night ,~t mklnightlJ. and was .b etween sle~ and 'Viakling", I said in m;y heart; !~'Gi\l~lJ:'111 And G~d appeared

\lVi~h. the qU."8:Uty of m'\i,e.sLy and b eauw~ manife~~, and aderned vriw, je~]s o:f ~;gllilt" &elm which 'h~ 8lc~Uered on me ~ grea;t abundance, That largesse tbat was scattered ~$ from his eternal face, He said, "Sinee you called aut_? ~G'il1'~r/ take this from the Givei:', fer I am the generous GJjV~Tu (§23),.

This aippears 'to be a, ~~al manifestation of divine qua~iti,e:s based on, a divin~ name, revealed in Visions 011\ ,cei~f:scinJ jewels, ,A, :r:o"Ugfh~~r comparable dia~.crgUie takes place, in the Thl:ig;ographi!~s as ~n, adm,lion to a s~,o~ about au zbihim, g,e,'tting lo~t in, the d,~~~Tm~ 'whf.a~e he f4!SKs, nod JID ~a:vtf him frtHn dyiug th,ere,; God t'eJ)g, ,him not to worry, because this p1atti,cubll' spet WtlS, destined t~ be tt)uch~~ by ~lis. reet.. he two hagiogra.pher~ {[iff€:]: on. th,'e quesci.on of 'wh1Y' Rizb:Hlan askfld to '~e spared fR)m de:a.tlt~ SbMllf al-Dln maintains tltat it watS bec~U,fS€' R:ii'zb~hi n wanted his FUD)U,aJ to b~ carried out in 3J[eotClance W-i'tta the Prophetic norm (m~(l), whiKe Shams ,aJ-Di~ Stug~sts tha;~~ Ru.z~&an realized 'that 'h-i~ death ~uld remeve 'die onl¥ uerscn alive 'wllo trulv fulfi~~,ed Islamic law. The two

- ,j J: '"

]]aiIo,waphe(l;s mien [,tlare the boops that Gt«d pOO!De.e,ds to ilea,p

O'~l. R,[IDzbman, gn[y nrJ\t\t instead ot being ~sion$ Qf' celestial jewd~ ~be gift 'that God giv~s !ta zbih~i.n, is the '_01N'er of ir.DJ.~lic~ssi,Qn a~ the reserrection fot his deseendeats and all pilg:cims, ted th,~ :to[Qb of R:uzbwn-an .. , AJ, usual, 11u~,$p,itie,~ IN Gtwtkns ()8'-en a, :SQm,ewhat more ~.t[avap:Dt version.

1V1e $l.i1'it IrjlAe G-arJms:,_ pp.235-,36

rf"nd' ,~ .... ~;;;] ~I I'll '/[H'ii'>' have

LU'~'" _ ~lia._~UI~J III III. ~Y"~'L .W~Wd llL;

br~u;ght you to llUJB, land at Wi$. time," ,Ut:: [Ruzbihin] said;, \1(.h~n, 1hrus fle'pl)r came, the experience became overwhelming ,ana my mpn~lieiItary sla'te sweeter. I said, U Lord] De es }t;uzbihan have th~'s; nearness a.nd d~wee in 'Y,ciur .l~H~eSienlce'?'~~

T-'h· - U'ipl~ ~am""" ny'_ "eo;;; ~, '] '~-:'JI'l'd

U}e fVI- y,,,,,"_;I,11I;,,o1l< '. 5i" _ :';"4~'~,)

i!oJd", I see ~lrat the c-al'rpet of yJQi~r m,elicy 'j s un:fur~.~d~ and.


'me later R:Cb~:bihiin~yy:al' as does the fac't malt each line is tak,en oriilly as far ;its ~Ali rather dIan to the PrephetMuheramad, '1J16 Spirit tf~he l;mdbts also :pii6Wdi!s another, ~btlle\vhat metre olt-scpre genetlvgy vAth, MtJ. branehee, whieh rests Up~rnl R'U'l bibln'5 association ~wth Aba ,;.d=~ara~ ~",'\¥i'sili, the onmy ool1~empo;rtty Sufi 'whom he names ir.JJ TIle ,U~[!m~li11,g of' $e.~ets., As noted above, &'u~bllia,n 'bimself showed An interest in dem.ollstrartlng' his '~J)sitruon in a,

'[.' 'O"r . h .. .. h Klru-' - - d' h - ] .- _.. - d

-,-' .. " '_'. 'II", ,_." ! ,"' '",' 1 I-II ••. '\ ," .. " I'." . I' "'/1 I

rnn.'e·,a,g~" ' " t II ,e m£t~te:~ In .II , e ,', .. ~ZiM'llJll or. ,er." . e' on ;y men lJ.OlrWe ,

Oll€ in. 'Ilie [/nucilit$g of Semts (I U5.l ),' the founder 'of the otd~t Abu lsbi~ Shahrya,r ,a'[-:Kaztu'i lI1 (d. ~4&N5l I 035l~ 40 His hl.ogra:phies date .from the pe-rio.d, .in which the 'possessjoll. of a 'sl]li'table genealogy became indispensable :ror'.a.1 saint, Sadr al-Dfn Rtlzbllian n was also csupplHed Vlilt]l, an additional ~inle,a~ogy ~ which p,rovidJ5cl] an alternate conneeeion to 'Ali ~d,~F,ar:m,adhi) -a ngt'l,re in one: of Rn z'bwhan"s extra, generu'~,g1es (C;ffi:ru~rt 2'~ IGeqealolg)' ,B~ Path II, Branch ]1). St9':m~' later texts gj;v,e' &tl ~b:~ha ~'s gene'alogy frorn Ibn ,K.haflf '"V'i,th ili,ghd~r dklf~teh't lin,!€s ,,4; I '~'Y 'wo~~d ,tb.~ gen~JiQgie~ be of Ei:tf],e imp1ortanoe to :R'lIzb~hifJJ ~nd so sign:rfkaf.JJ,t to his,apl:H~:[8? ,PJdl0Ugh the

. . '" . ' f ra ~ • a, ~

mmacc gepe~lagy may have' th"e ,appean11;~ (] , 8( h]stQr.ic3)]

doeumenr, i~s pci:mary significan.ce is ritualistic, Copryrung out one's initia'tID_,C ggn,eru,Qgy an the Wc3y back to dl~ ~'roph~et :had the effect ef cer.g one's sp1ritua£J connection by an unbroken transmission ~with tlle sure:st seeree ,t):f (lU,thority, The 'b:ans:lllissi()!t1 was ~1n:c~i,ved ...... ~i th u:..... r' ,""'nil •• it' t.,~,1;:- ,Ifl.. '6. .' '..Ji ,mong" . e W'J,e"S ,(;( ,~)r~ tramiSmtSSl0fTh ''0[< {~1f1J;~ uJ[mitt: lit. was concretized

as the p~ysicaj, :rir.u,a.~ ,of rhe bestowal of JEhe ,Sufi, cloak, {Id~a)., When lase 'feOO11Srrncti,o'Ds JoT 'the ,eai~y 'L,.,ans:nii~~sion 'ij,f Sufism, took plaee, based on the a,sS'I.;U11POQn. tih~t r,~~~' ,rnaster-di¢iple '~larioJ:}S, ~re necessary, scholars of ,~lMil' became suspicious of the historical accu~a,cy 'Of these g'eLfi,ea~o~:es, PQ~nti]J_g ~\lt that in a number of

- mn .. ch ']' '. aJI- -. "-b-~ 4):2 'Th- . ._

. " '''-;- I " - . "".- > '-:- ~ , . " . I I,' ~. ," '_ . , I ." . ' ••. ';.r". - .. ...' " < ' 'f ,". •

CMes t-,.~ asm iSS1Qn was . _' rono o,gw,C, y ImpOS8}, e. . , ~ q uesnon

of 'the fa,ctual historicHy 'Ckf th,~~e' ge;ne~dD,gies appel~18 [0 m,~ 1Je~'truv~~y UnhT:lporta(fl,t co:mpm:red to th"eir :n,tual a:n,d r:eligi,QUS ·~rgnitID,c.~nce. In the ,~ of. :Ru.zb!hiln" h8\vIDg i~(f claimil!l,g an h\titru.a.ti~ genewogy would have 'been of decid~dLy ~~onda;ry imp ~r.lttall~e,y espe,clally wbe;t:l co~~ptu~ed '~:th hi$ a_ss~ttion ,that he "v,as in mt:ect .oont~.ct ,It\flt;l1

G .;aIJi: n~ ,(." .... Jl 'l."£ .. '~.- 1Tn_rL~'l~~1l' I _ o~, ~ve-ry ci!ay. ,11]s l~J)e're[[jjces. to ,ea:J.~y IOU1! masters ,Ell :.1 ttl; .._., ~'~~'~

tf $iemls ,~nV\~k:¢ them, prima:rily ~o inmca.te' how Far he' has g,an~

b. ~! ~b, '. .'

(J!e.yonu Iu,n!€~r stataJo.r:IL.

,For ~he: :hagiographersj :h.Qwever ~ the' spirituwity O'f,th:-eiIt an'Of'st'Ot '1Na~ in,e:~p]]1ca.hle W'itho~t reference m the unbroken tr-anSmlSSi'Oill of

a Sufi, line~e:., Yet ,ft~ demonstrate 'th~s ,o,tnt, they had b) ap~eid '[;0 0utside sources \Witten afber me time of R:ilZ:bi~'in~ '~"iben the f.joDcrel:izatiora Qf the Sufi orcllefS had become more' a:d-Vm1~d. This is particularly :evident 'run the remarks lor'Shan:15 al .. Dtn 'Abd ,aJ],-l:J1~ir in ~ $pint rf1he ~ 'when ~l1tt6ducing' theJ~l1ea~ ott: ltijibihin" He prefaces it '0;1' quoting pmssa~~s, en the' tr:;arnsmission ,~,:f ~h:e ~rUn, cloak, ft@m TIle Gifts W O:wsiJ (5.("(I.lirif,aJ~a 'i:1ifj of Shlhiib :al-,D~n alSuhrawardl .,43' Sl\ams ;~d=,Din rnlSl~) ,d~~m_s, ,tha:t llu'z,b1h~ln. had 'ma~,Y'

Sufi lirie'ages~ tho~_g~ he COiOlre.n.ts, himself \>vtth descrlbhl~g' ~,' Tl~e pdn1/ary line a~e (gjijJ,en, in 'both. 'b,agiographi,e:os) is a branch or the K.i~lt}nl t'itdoet'; whi~, was ~rot.~b~y the thost Mdespre;~daJ1,d, pawe:md, 811H order in F ars, The Kaza:ti. mi g'eneal\1)ty, 'which, alse includes the other ,gr~;al: saint ,of Fars, Ibn :Khafj'f~ is given similar promineace in tbe priaeipal 'ha.,giognap,hy dedicated to t'h!e' ,c;p()rJJymOlm founder ,gf the oraJe~. Abu. lshiq al~Kazar1J,ni (d,. 4~'6,/1 03,5,).. This ~~t, 'Tile' Par.ridifc "If G-uiJa:ru;e (RrJ'(WJs (]J=mutshid~'(l) by ,K:h~tlb Irna1m Abu ,Bakr fviritm~ in. ,Ar,abk ea. 5021] ]. Q:8--1J)" is

. 1- !1. ... 'Lll·.L n, . ~ :il"":, p,<M' : ·.~cl.~~ '=.J .'l.... "'U·!Il'1b. ~

on ¥ avauame in 'ttl.';:' ce_niU1Jl Ill.rartiJs~auO:n. 0'1: .II.. . iU.1linU':_l inn . tnman

(7'28/ :~, 327'" n)u,ghly [he same tim,e .as 'Ra zhwhin'S haJiiO:gT,apb:ies);, it is, impQs$~lbleJ 'though; to tell prvoc]seJy when the: ~:nealogje5 @f ,~,~, lS:~iq ru-K.izarG ni became llnnly ~~~b~iihed,. ~\'hat is certain is that '1.02 bihin'\~ ~~jogr;apher-s regard~d ,a],-lCi zarunl with gt€at respect, llmld tJt~' preseat Rl1li~bihj'ft as the blhtcimr o,r:~'DJi;s mantle 'via his :~ineage. 4,

.i\lthOll,gp Rli"itbwha,D appears t~i have ,bad, G~D~LCt 'V¥i,th p~op~e ,~n areas remote :ftom Sbira~, t'he ha;giograp.hi-eso rend to' ex~~rale this oqutact and partr,a..y1t as, a fuU-Bedg-ed ifitefil;a't~Quaj, network of,cal au,t'honty ~ This g1'®bal status is deduced frem 'his ,sra.tu;s as, a saint, A.s A ~(}Jl'il 'TOOt/;I ,pu~s it, 'UTile sha.ykb has oe;rtfa.i'~ l@jvtjfs jll Ediffefrent] re~ns of tht. wgrld ,"rho recognize \th~ excellence ~f his w,ay ('f.Wiqa) and know 'the oeean Of .~is. Jr1!aJity" :f~(r Q(]d m,oslt mgib ,hI~ c~othed him ~dl, d1~ge dDmh"l~on£ (,wt~a~ ~ :i@, that the p@opille

h· .' ( ".h· L. h- I' 1~4'6,

may :ave Intere€~S~on. '"m;u,t.a~slr_,) U~t()J~g, , um.

~ii2biJJJan~s, har.~og,aphers 1J.sed 'his O~, '~itin;gs a~ pr@Qf-texm, ~o ,ie.m'DrtsJll;are his, authQrb:y', as 'm~)' be s~m 'frGm t~~r descripd(in.ll of' ill 'tteatise be ~ot~, :fo([' 8~n nov:i.'ces~ the' Ris:fi.Mt al-fU-ds ~r The Tttafi£e M Bo~~es;s. ,Aotcn1d~ng t~J the 'h~;g.i~p'~iaM, ~aiditiGn ~I th~.s, work w,as ,oom.pQ~ed for the benefit ,o:t;a mYSitlG ~n Tt1rk~$'tftn. who halS], ~a'ternru ron.~a:ct ~ili Riiibibi.n deSipile nc~r having m~~ :~im,. A m€J7!chan t n~uned Abu al .. ']Ra,r.aj, who \evas ;a.]sg ~ fo]Jowtr of


o j ~'i'~ L d 'K ,,'It. 'ill. J

. ur putp@.~e m re¥~'a.uncg 'tnese WOlf B is tu~t t.~].QS~ :ta:pp~

enes should .rem,em;ber US~ for whoev:e:r ,th.~y remember b~0ngS to m.e ,et~n'aaJly H'ving ones, w·~liJ.e w~loe~r the"y forget belDn~ l'O the oompany 61 th~ annihilated d~ad.. My .lDngi't\g for their bea.utifn~. faces cannot, 'be e1tpu:ssed ... " I have 'not written these, wrord~ ~a)]lrl~iou;sl¥~ 110;[' dOl .I need to, be remembered by you, but m.y ln~~ther Abu al- F:a,rai (may God g;ra:nt: him d~< genemsity of ~he ~o8J~icsJ mad€ suc~. a s.po([[~aUeOLlg sU~8rl,l()n ., .. requ,~siliin,g 'that I 'wri~ two 1Qr three sections :rrom d1Le staJidn ~r ,the masters ~,r love, .~$ a. .gLI~,dan,ce :f~r disciple's arid as a .remi:nd¢r for :mas~n,.~;a

V\lbe'll viewed ,as· a whole, the treatruse does DG't ,a:ffiJpe:ar eo be part af an au:th~Hit~t~ve M:eaehing addressed U~ d~sciple8~ contrary to' the' ]11l;p:resmon gir.ven. by Rii.zblh~t~.'~ bi~gra;phl~r in 1k£ lJiJl ef'AW;fJj 'f1Msis.. t 'CQDV'~YS rather the i:mpre~~an ,~t ,8. ~n~ra1tl~ gesture fro·m one Go.~~ague te another, i[J an informal atmesphere pl\edating the more rigjd (O]]strulCtlon. 6f dtl~' Sufi. order ,a~ a c!1oo~d. ~utbQ,r.-itar.;jan 00 Giem;y,. The ~tory jDf the enilll)aJlk: sOlt ,@If Turkestan .]))la,:s w.~ ,~ppea:[}anlc:e of a hagiograp~i{~ adp_itl1;)ID] used tv fiIesli out Rfi~b:ru]]a.n)8 sk'etchy to ~'he shaykhs or th~t r,egion.. .

R;uJzbili~n'j$, biQgrap]l.ers ,also dem'{}rw~tt,ared. hig ~pi.drt1l1lfd ,~uthoricy by' making use ?(' p~sage'os ilin his writin~ ,~oDcoming the hlexar~lily of :sain"~ -F ~;r 'ms-~e~ .ill ,bis Pe~an SJ~rdJyi' s/IJ.yja:t Qr CommMilry ,o.~ Ecstatic S~~l Rllzbihil1 gives ~ ~engdwy d.escr-~ption of the diffe1.iertl s,awnts thr()~gJ1 'whom 'God goVCf'l7W tb}f w,~lid. ffi salures tb,le' r ~iJOO sai_:_nts, Qf India" TUr1kestan~ Za;nziba;y) aluJ Enl:i0pia~ th,c' 400 e~jte ~ffin. litu,rn, and K_b;utasan and 'r,an" 'lbe 400 on


tll€ sei\coa>s~:, the 300 in zi~ya.~ on -the coasts gf E:~t a'no th~ Ma_ghrib, the. ',6 in ¥: emen, T,a'if, Jth.e H,~jaz ,M.d the Barfi ~~, d~,e 4(1 ]ll ir,a'q. anp. Syr~a,~ the ten itt 'Meoc~ Medina, and the ~'~ba" the· seeen '-'11110 travel the world, the three rOf \~holn. one is in Fars, one itt Rum, an.d cone am.Ql1:g the Arabs, ~lt~d dl<e lIlWitJM or p#,h wh.Q' is the "pole" Q~ 'world~~xism4'91 Beth 'Of Rfi.ibihm:n~s, bio_gr,apmes f'iDUe.w t1rcis qU!~ta)'ti~n '~with a, list dr the saints ef difftllent :f\egion~, c~lminaljng in ehe names of the 'three .gr~at'. of Fars, Ibn Kh~rfif, Abi Is~i:q. Ka1Zalf~tli.~ and Rl1~bihi:n,;?o Wh~n his descendants translated his g\'ene_nil deSl~ri:ptk~fl of the spicimal biera;rCchy inm ,an. ldetr~&atio]l, ~,f his[.0.ri,~,ai i[}divid.t]]~ls~ the ulystical o@nC6p~ 'was tumed into a . Jecal oocial and poM.ti'ca'[ order ~ Ln w1tich Rij zhihi.n 1,r\FdS .p'()s,thtlmously assigned th_.e· ']~llding .role,.

Oti, ,n MlOl'f C~~l,c~te Ievel, 'me :nagio.graphies oQl1tain fhaqu,ent .refGirer~ces b) the hospice (rifjij~ that R·ijzh~ha~n-.fiMrncted in Shiraz, andj, [rom, that 'we can f~)1"HIJJ an ructea ,~f 'rihte 'n~tu:r~ pf this establishment h!!€@ifi: ~.t became 'fIl€: center of a '~omb cuJrs, The T;~bif was Jclearly of ~a.t :hnlp@,ttance) anGl· dl.e~s·to~ll is 't'Qld 'thJ~ .RU.z·bihaJl. mira.cuJrously enlarged. a beam or ·ridge.-pole thaJ~ made ·pog8ibl~. the CQ'[t'lSttu(tiO[DJ or :th~ r,~f;' relics of d~e beam \~tt·fj. ]atle.Y'· used to cure the siclk .. ~d A number of ,dhc.ip~es who, were sfL\one masons a13srugmd. 'in

the- d~'~g a , ~nd ooOrstm~riQn ·w~r.i~" .. an1/I_ratr~c~d ':c.suuru,e se~'~~ or mcsre foUowed u.pon :ruts comp]~t1,Qn. Aa.g;rcling to an ,Al'aJbl!c

in:Slcriprit)D p~;a()'eld on 'the dOfSI"' .O'~ dIe' 'li~it." ·R:ii~bjhan. i.n:t~nd.ed thifl' buildmg ,9.S ~ peepetual trYst €@(r the' use 'Df U'tb~ Jfri~n.ds of' G,o-il ,a;mQr.iS the Sru~~ Ii ~, it proba bly :fun~t],()<n'td ~!, a ~ftst-ho~se for tmv1ldi])g S~6s. aDd dis, as \'!IcU as a 'r,n0sque and r~~id~n-(;e ·{tit dlt 8ha~ykh,~5~' One ,st,ary ~e{er~ te Rf~.ibihan.'s rusclp~s planting flow,e'f,$ in the ribi~j, ~~:esting that it was inte.nd,fd to be a pifea$~n't p~1lvte~ ~~ F:~quendy K,azbjJl:in is portrayed .$~.tting in ml~' '~lIlp~ilD' of the ribii', either m'ed~.tadng in S~Ijfi:ud6 er r~cE:i'Vin,g viruilttu;~,. 55 At rtt]rtu;s he 'wCJuld pre·ath [tum the minbar inside the nb~~;.·~16' OCGaB~.ona]ly \ve see' hWl on dl~ roof of th~ rij(t#:, absq,~b~d itl ~cs:tMYi ·~t w,as lth€[i€; 'that lr~~ som Fa1Lhr aI-Din !\hmad ~~a.w him. during ar Mft'ter' 10~l'hl;st@';rm~, mh~,a'fml€¥usffiy lbiy}~17 S(;lm~ p:f h~ di~~ip~e;s ·p$!tformed. dleir devodo~~ an: the' ~:rlt porch. 58 1.ike

'h '" R L.~'L' • . ..J l~~ 1!i d ..:a.... ··l"", i

];rm;ny - OS}':: ce~) I.U2u.j_w,~in $ lJ;laultmne.1U a Mtc~ J,€fi) a:r.t t~w~ttJ;lIUtfb,Qn

of food tOO :re$ruoleum a.nd 'visitors 'w~as .an important ;a;,ctivi,ty .. ane B('f'.!tount firua~tes that llotmally dlef~ W,(:2re ~rU(rt'y dis ci,pmes ilJl


Iti~i2:bih.i,llJ hadjust returned ec Sh~r.a2 ear,rying greletin~s frciQ,m, tha:t 1111{sterious saint in Turkesean, The 117u.1rrih.attt, t,dld. .Rijzb~han) "The ihaykhs ,of '[h.ait region; 'whetlteP 'Qf Khurasan or Terkestan, ar-e :aill l(:¥jl!Jin;g; .fo:r '}lOll) and desire to 'hear' YOUF wt7),r,ds., ni The shaykh then compesed this ~t're:a:iise and gent it back IN'ldlJ the merchant, Aldlcn~gl1 the .b~og,a~her. 'qM.otes the p:awagre :rt,~m 1M ''rnJil6se hl$ HoliflMjI conta;rul1.illg' Rilzbihin 's .g1:,t!~tings to ~h~ sainrs Df Klnzrasan, T~l1r[kestan; and TJ;'Qnfso~af;],a, " he ',a,];S![3, makes it .appear that ltitzbihan is in the 'p,Q~icion O'f a master gre~ring his mseIpJ~s. 4,. The hagjo~a:flher leaves 'out the closing pa~aphs, o{ ~'he :In:tro(lucri.nn to ne TrfJmue on UfJmle'JS;, in W11i€h ltii.zbihim. hnmbly add[;,~rS!Ses his 11rta\~~ters as foUe<ws:

centin nons a,ttenaanoe on th.· ;marykll, and when 1t f'ell to the .' urn. o 'one to supply food for t_h. ' establmshme.nrt he would strive to

_ '" '1-. £:! " • 59·· .'-. • ' ~ ...'

sMpply l~ • ne nnest ulgredlen:ts; A;_fter t'esJ,ding and t,ealiCh~ng In. m,e'

rioilf: rO'F f:ofty=six years, R:u ,zbiba:.l1 was bu ried in 3" tomb constructed inside it. He at first requested. . 0 be buried in the south portion .e;{ the ribi,~) . ut 'then changed his rnirld. The spo~' V\iher. . his grave lies 'was me site of a tall room without a roof wher . be had many times seen visions of the Prophet.,60 &_ lembern .of his family report Utal on his deathbed" Ru zbihi n said be would proteet them. [rom harrassment, and be' instructed them to have

'k' hi '''d ch h L d .-.11- h ~ . h

ainyone se 'lug.', ']5, aJ!.~ approac -IS tomu anc speak t: ,neif MS, '. to

him, so that he could ,e,onv[ey it dlirectly to God. He also advised them 00 use 'water from the 'weU in the rwll ~ for ablutions before perform ~ ng two cy les [of prayer ,at his tomb to seek his intercession, :~~n~o:mising that all sincere seekers would be rewarded .. Mer his death, several people heard him ~]~ eak from his tomb, Stories are related ef'visirors Irom afar being drawn to his tomb by its

~O'~' r \:vi~ha'~l "kn~~~~ whose .,it' ~;~s~ land ~ust, f~~, ~~ ~mb was used as collyrium ~o. CUl1t eye disease, Aldtolllgh the ribat.' began as.

a .phlC€ for meditation and instruction during Rii~b" lin\~ tifethne.', it ,lnevita'bly was transformed into a place of pilgrlmag,e ,ait,e;r his death ..

f~l~ TIle. Deseeadants, [of Ruzhi[ban

Whel) 'We turn to, .Rii~ib[hain"s, descendants we have a full picture [of them as a close-knit and highly f. 1igiou! family, R:uzbilian ]s 'q~uot'e.d as sa,ying t~::l.\'t he received a di,vi6~e command to get mamed. and have children. 6~' He had two 8·0:rt5 and 'Chr. 'e dasgh en, who are not named, Ruzbiliin~s affection fb;r hL'S family is apparent ill a n umber of His visions ,. slliru,Ch as the occasions be watched over his feverish san Al;nnad (above. Chapter I,.G).'fj'3 His -eld 'r son was Shihab ,a]!-Dln. . uhammad, a 'pious mystmc whe .fr qu ntly kept silence. He evidently 'tii:Ught ~b€. religious sciences ,an.d preached pubHe]y for 'MeJlgl yeairs, also devoting' his efforts .Q Q1r~,aJ]i recitation and medii arion .. Although he traveled. ,h1. Persia, and Iraq ,~hle di - ,I in Shiru during the Hfeminle [of the ,shaykh,.'6~ The younger sen, Fakhr al .. Din Abmad, W"U a, pious and learned man and an '~X2tr'em,ely' good preacher. He 'lis known fOir havlu~ memerized vast numbers of Prophetic ~'«lillk and for having ,mtt:en aversifieation


,of Gh;azaJli s 'W,lZ on law, plus poetry- in Persian and Arabile.1t'3,s

On the next gene:raltl.on., Shihi:b ;aJ.-,Din IV ub.ammad had a, son. named Abu, Bur who was kno,\VIl, for' his ab.soirpti,on in [tC$~a.~ and his habit of 'fasting and ke ping night vigil, One informant states that Shihib al ... Din Stihra~~ardl: had sent an initiatic Sufi cloak ttl) ,Abf'i Bakr, He is said to, have died either in ,6419/12,42 Or 6411

12'43~. 6(3. He 'was not nearly so ~m, known as his cousin ~adt al-Dtn R.fizhiba n n (b. 615,/12 I.a. or 603,./ :ru206", d" 68Il/l'286} who can p'robably take credit fof' ',contlibutin,g 'most to the establishment

f "Ill - 'IL.~!'I!..'" _,~. shrii 61

o AU2~uw8!n So S," nne ..

AJthOO,gll Ru zbihan 's children were apparently quite re igious and even ahSC;_)i~bed ~n meditative practices, unlike their [~1ihet t"hey did not leave much impact in terms 'of ]iterary' production or creative formulation of sphitual techniques .. Instead they attempted 'to reduplicate Ra,zbihin';s spiritua:-ity in an imi [a m.ive , rash'ion. Rli zbiha:n is. quoted as saying that he was veiled in his son

[aldlr al-Dtn Mmad~ and Fakhr al .. ,Dln Ahmad hlke,1Vise said t [at he was veiled in 1m cbUd $adr al-Dln .' U.zb1han 11.'68 \: e even hear 6f a gmlldson. of ~ al-Dtn known as S~w:r' ,i:d ... Din :ib:n Sharar alDin Ibrahim Riizbihi;ln III; by his names he reincarnated 'his grandfather and his gr-eat~gte~t-grandfather:; but h€ 'warS a derivafive 'figure m[own pri~a:rily 'for ~nl sp eeches a~ pu blic eecasions such as funerals. 59 This ~.m1tadv.e mode' of spiritu.aWity necessarily focused on the cuh of R r zbiliin as saint.

Ruzbibin's, grandson $adr m-D[illl Ri,zbihin .11 was b~{ no 'means a. ne~g4jgWJblie person, however ... "00 ma - y years: h . ~ one of the principal lead rs of Shiraz, viewed by his deseendants as a Sufi master 'Mm mocny ,djsdpJ,es and as a p:JJ'eaeher; other auth.l@lri,ti~t;, SiIW' him primarily as [3, public ijJ,eaker.'o ';' few miracle Stories are narrated ab ut him, concerning his SUCC' ssful pr~ayE'r fo.r rain during a ,drough:t~ and his a:bility to ,civin~ the dloughts .of IDIlle;rscO' As we -sha.m see, he had close relations Vi!.i~h. the political figur¢s of hi day ~ but his stature derivle(I frOllt his role, as represea ative of his W,e are toLd that ~dr al-Dtn 5PfJn~ mo,st. of his time: at Rij'~b~bin 's -tomb, especially all da.y ev;ery Tuesday, p.raying in t·tIDe rib,(U. particularly in between the daytime prayers, 71 He js the prin:cipa~ ' 'transmitting aecounts of visiens and ecstasies mat took place at the, s~te of his fathex's tomb" and lie etu~.'oum~~~d pilgr ims who sought.b lp with their prob ems, to perform abl U.tru.O'DS and pray,e~"s[ a~ m€ tomb in order to secure tht assistance 01('


g'uzbihi.[DJ.72 $a(lr al_:D~ n ~S @Ivn;l tomb, located n~t l:Q his f~ther~s~ later became ~ou,ght 'Out ~y p.~grims as ,3, results ~of visions thait

, 7~ - , ,

OCCUIT,-ea there,

It was, h~fr th.e~ for Sadr ail,·n~n 's two sons Sharaf al-Dtn and.

- -- 1!1

·Sha.m's al-Diu to: tale up the task of memorializing their a~,ce~~r

by Gom:~,~m~g' their 'tM;ro bi6g1rBiphie:a. Sharar 00- Din;8- Tl~~' GiJ of tiM ,PlIJPM f!! GntJ:slt rus the wrImary doeument, and Shams, al-Dln's Thi! ~pirt't JJj,i:h'e Gaf:d'IfJ'U: ~bo:~;;s C~08~ dep-eudl611cy en the earlier work In its (J]ler~. structure and in many CLetaik,~ tbough it :frn~uently ~,al1d:~ on th~. ,e:41lr:]ier text, 8ha:mf al-Dln was knewn, 1ike his faJh~r, as a :p'rf3ther,~, a:nd be; also wrote Rome tce~ts on religious Sl1bjects.?'4 Shams al-Dtn is nG't .tis·red or mentiened ,among the saints and Sum fif S.mrnz described .in H~ar ~a.eiir. & wte' have seen ~ he had 'a\ plim~my pID1~ti,caI. career, and he ,~videndy :rt'accii.vat~d, his family\~, spi:ritu~]. ,ton:~ec~iO:mJ. as ill l~sult 0[' in_rest ,amQ,mlg ,his ~'0cru:a't:es at th,e ,OOtfrt in Lurisran. T.h,~ 'h<V10 bio,gra:ph'~n had another brotlu~T~

Jalil at·,Din y,~ ibn ~ttr al-Din R~,zbjhan Il, burt he ~ hncrwn

A,-_il~V ,1C'1f'''"'''m' his ",c""m" bstone ""l']I~inh' ':,"" ,!':.:n.IIII'II'lIJd- in ,,;tc.,~ "("<'lI,~,::il"iJ' 'I·'I;~;O~· 1:5 ·i!i.·£''''DJIll''

i~fjU',i_' l1Iu,'~;· - _~ liM" ," " ,1Jl!.aUIJJ ~ IG~ ;~ , JIJ,~ I' . .._:.:) lUIL.I,]lII.'-: ,1Il_ ,-, rbllf]~ luJ,J.lUt' ~,~,II1!1 ~.\,Jr~~\;a!:

tlle brief r,e£ePtT'u:e ,to Sharaf w,·,Din 's ~O[ru R·J1Li..zbihan Ill~ ~he: order a.p~rnl:ltly ,msappear,ed., This -t'almily Sufi orde.r e~is:ted en the impetus ot the aalnJ 'wh.Q 'wal3, r-egarded as its found~tj hut; in the absence af any 'rn~sh infusion of: ~neT,gy .it d~vindl~d :run.tol a

completely retresnective mode and '!fh-'~ Du'-"'J'~~-h' ~ i"'!i'l"m~ '~~,tI'ft.':!i,_~i,,~.,

1.' ~.l'J,.IJ, . ~I~).~ Lll.~.:II,'UrlJir·~' !hI:'~'1L".,. • ~ ,Vll;Jlf~~ l[._l, (jj, rL.. ~ ~._ l~lOl.t OOlll.W,,.;" ~l v.~~~

extin~igh~dl afoot' the :fillfltb. ge:[},~rarion.

D'~ PuGtic:a1 C8.~tiDDS o,f' .,e :1lu.,zhiLam."a 'Durin~ RiiiZbmill~ s own lil~'trum.e, his, relatiens the rU][[lg s'a1gl1~!nid At~beg15 were f:a:h-.lly cordial :il1iifci;a][',. lllen Rfi,:!dj:~hi~l fi.tst came to, Shm:az as. ,3,. Sufi, as we have seen, his extra'@:~n~ ,pt€aMlng (a~d certain dpt '3!ce:'cl~ a:l"l,rl_ ~Xj[enla1m'ts '{p urge the At[beg~ Sonqur (r., 54·81.]. l ~a-5S6l1161) to ba'nim him 'l[D~ the sake ~Q-f pwbfic oro,et~, Whf{n 'che! 'sent worn to Ru~bihal1 10 depani' the shayt__h Mtcunded hm:t ·~th hJs, aibillit~y' t@ read th@ugh;m" so 'that l!e :repented alld reque~:ted 'chat Ruzbi~R 1llndertake !to prrea.c'h, mn€.€ we€kly~ in the great ~ At1q m,olSqu.e aoo in bh 0:l!\i'Jl p(ri\1at~ Plosque. Rii zbjh~;mJ 'did thi'S, for .a. time,. ;lInd. then d~pat~tcl Shiraz" but w:hen he f<€tUM1'.I,ed, a;,n.d founded hfus ribaif~ Ituibilla:,f:j o(}n.tin u@d ,th,~ Gus-tam of pr~~ching pU-7btielli~y 'il-w'te ttt w!6ei up to the

d- f h' I.~C 7iE5, Th - f 'l ,- f-

~ftit _ g ,,18 U])!!;. .. e~€ a£ie. n() 3'Cfounts -0 my ,r;;oya, pattro,na_ge ,0 ,

R,u.zb-ibavn 's rib-at ~d,e from. 06(:QiCcHlal donations, Tbe end~e:nt

... 1..-

,~01:d. construction of this edifice was appaf\endy undertaken by'

R~zbihi.n and his. diaciples without .p()l~tic,aJ .sp o,~ot3~ip.

F:nendl')1" -relatiens between Rii~hiban and 'the SaJgh~Ficls are fu;rth,er illustra ted by a s;tfj'r~r in which :reb~]S, .a,g~~nst> 'tbe,q.,uthority' fj,f the Atibeg Sa"id l.~alkla (D~ge~,e) Za'[}gi (r, 5'10/'~ l 7'~-5,9IGi/I t94) thre,are~led to' .attaek the fihit of R:ilzbiba;n" The rebels a:,p,parend~"d~cl. TaJdi. as a fellower of Ruz bman,. One 'Q:f :Etulz'bihi n's ,dDci.p]es, the same ,?ahir al-Dln Kirmin"] who~ had QrlrC€ 'b~~n punished ~1l.d, bani:dled. :f0,r n~veWWg itu.zbman 's teachings, warned it.h~ rebels not to ~ttaCk .. After their defeat by tbel ,£\:tilieg~ 'their heads were exhibited B~. the ribaJ" allegedly ~dl th€ ~~'har:kh's IltJlp'rovat "I f 'This $otG,ry p:r~~l'nnes, a elose reJ:aliornshlp be~we~l[l RuzhAihan ~fJ.d the Salghurid Atiheg, at least in the eyes, 'O!£ ttu~~' rebels but the r~]atiiQ.h8hi.p is muted 'by 'the prediction ~r r:elb'~]_ de[e-~1t being f''tu in ~he mouth of a lesser disciple irD.gtea~d of b~jng cf'odi'r,€'d to ·ROz,bihij,ll. himB~lf: The 8,tQry 'betl,ays an rumm1sk~\rt )0.£ vo'yaj '~i~tari.ogwaph'y into the realm of·t~~ ba,~o~gra.pbJy~ ,~U what is oSJtentibly a tale a.baut d:it, de;Sitt.u.CJ~m of opponears of the ~aJ:rrut C'-aftili~s. a ~u b~,extt presum'ing, that the saint gua\r,ante'~os ehe l~gj'iimatqt DE' th.e fullin,g p~,wer.,. Atto:dt~r S'f1o,ty dep~.c~s Rlwzbiha~ :u..'I· • --rJ 1~ 1 ~ d- ., 'L.:, •. • d" 1,8, ,~,eSSLng ,J!. a.~ ann promISll~:g rum ;;nct'O'ry ~)"'ew af.IJ, Ulva! ' lU,g ,al!lny .

. AgaJJu} T,ailcli .is the subject of a" ~tOI:ry' iFl, w'bi,ch envious p eQp;Le sla._'[f]jder,ed Ru:zbiha~n and' accused him of immoral conduct 'M'th '3l yt!01Jr~g man (~h;[s is '~!rn.e ~story f'Oul;a~ti'c.ized in ~h~ Brn/k' f{ iI1}j,ers a;ttrib1lll1~d to ~lr.i,ql, where the ,A1abe:§' Sa~Jd r¢p~~es T,ak].i)~ butt 'the P.kD:tteTS wer,e refMtecl and failed b))1 swa y ,the.~ .itti b-eg ~ajnst him. It .1,$ difficult 'bl (:Jon,elude from: tbese h~giographic aceounts. how Ru,zbihin and Ta:Ma, viewed, 'their f,e];ati,O(I1s'hip.. The hagiograph1~ make no, ,ex\pUci-t menrien of TaJda ~s cousin and suceessor T ogffi]n],~, who ass:umed me: thlf-one .~n !H~fJ/lI9~ bum: fought a v11.1i(JulS: civ]l Wilt ~ his '¥.(~iunrger bro;tber Sa'd m;g'f' reat¥J, u.ntil th~ laiter6ma111.y triumphed .. so

,Ao~,cnmts of die Atibeg Sa~d ibn langi (r., 60:l1'1~llS--{i~'Bl12g,.],~

th,e piat:tOll of the "pc.;;et 8a~dt';s fath€:r) fY~em to :~ndlicat,~ a teFisi@D be'l:\veen 'the :mle:r and. the shaik1l,. desp.i'ttl the st;lt-emell,t that d:rer.e w,as ·suPPO$OO (0 b~ J1Ul]!~al afft~~ b~twrttrru tn~,. At le~&t O[flli~ of

U 'L ·L 'di" 1 ,. . -" ,..],'" iI',1!.., A' " ~,'L 8 I

AUzluwarw"s_' OClp ,~-s, was a. mim_st-e,if ,01. atJtenu~,dlO~: t)iJ] '~~~e ." il!i~~~g.

R.fiz~ma.n.) unmR,~' ·th~ (;)'therrscholars ~,r t:b~ ci\y~ re£used to, Misi·t tby:

Atabeg S~'~d all rns :rewm from Irraq",82 lEirlVious ,pl~c-p,le' ~d to t~nll


the Atibeg against Ruzbihin~ SlQi that be threatened to· ·P'. irsecute ~he sha:'Ylih~, A ~()UP 0:1 ~~n'ne carvers who were Ru.zbibi n 's dwscip~es proposed to sta_nd gua\rd at the. rih.a~ during the n[ght~ in case of any attempt on the sh_yih-s life. In. the night the' Atibeg saw Itlll'zbihan ~ppeal' to him in ,2[ w,amh-wg' dream, deso~nmng t~u'ou_h the air and

b· bi 'L...~, b ~h '" "-T-' ·I."?~ v ~., -='~I~I ••

p _~ng JUrn 'Y 'tIe ears, ~a;yJn,g, utJii". );.O'OW10 not sn In

authority Mtb ur getting yo It punishment!1I So 'the fono1Wing day' the Atibeg announced thar he bad become ~ d,]sciple and persQ~}an~1' brought a d,onatio:n of a t ousand dinars to the .sh:iUykh. This jncident which probably occurred during the last 'nw years 0f'Rii2:'b,ihi~rnl:;s lifej, was. vie'Wfed asa dde,IIt ,for Rfi.2bihan~,s

....J. E: 'L..Z:, ...ll] ,83 -....1.. '. di"

opponents mY. a VlC.tOl-y .I10r lUS, au terents. " n ene s;fory In' cates

tha the ,tibeg ent people to 'break. UPI the funeral of :R'uzbihan during w~kh time some disciples W'eI"C' beaten ''With sticks and onp; with diffi'culty- conveyed tb. s]l;a:ykJh-s' body to the tomb7'~ Riizbihan. ,I biographers e'Vide_ndy reconciled themselees to the rule of' the Ata.b€g~ h.o,wev,er;. in a typical gesture in SU.ppODt o:f roy,a_J . . autb91.ity i~heo-y;: elate that he had 'met Ru:zbihafl as a ehild, and wThl~n. his hat fell o~, it 'was replaced on 'his head by: the sain t - his is, said. to be 'the ,tau.~ of his thitt,y years rule in Sh~iraz.,B5

The ups and downs of the Salghurid period finally gave 'way t" the onslaught ~f Mougol '(U)fW' r, and it '\N$S aft;er the ileginn~Dg ,of MQI~lgpl rwe in 1668/12701 that the Rfi.zbihanin~ became' fully institutionaH~ed and symbi6tk:al1y related with the government, Rfi.zhibin:~s sons apparently had tittle to do with tlu~ ,Atibegs, but his, grandson ,Sepr ai-Din. Ruzbih.i~n II 'played as prominent a 'ro~e in. cemen ing relations, with 'ruler.s as he did in lo,nnalizing the rituals at the shrine o·f' h~s grandf31ber., His, polititaJ role first beeemes evident .]ll ,3, minor 'way in the pre-1:vlongol peri d. JUmoll(gh be' lis [~rerred to as, U'shaykh a- -'WIlliam ,~ ift is diifi.cwnt t . tHo ·wh.€tbeJr d\is ]s 'mernly' an bO'fiOrifi:c title' or an a:fficial. position in me bureaucracy, In any case, we; are tQld that an: -a.Alee seeker named

.i;a.m ,a'1~Dlin':"'4w,an had been assigned by the Atlb.e'g Abu.

Ba1tI ct~ldugh ,Khin (r, 628/12,31 -'5,8/126.0) to a min-or pest in 'the d. be ,eoUecuQn de p artme nt, thoug'b h : hoped for some hing bigh ,r. He tlccordingly went fnr advice to ~~dr al..,Din. who advised him to prray at the. tomb of R:u zbl'ham.. Arter the. .AUfbeg ,ajpp<ointed him a5 chi f accountant I:. w~~lm aID-Din beeam~ ,a fI,· ,gular de\\tob'Je of $.adr ru_Dln+.8"6 Although this sitory does not :indticat~ thiaJt ,~dr aJ ... Din had di[le:etinfluen~e at the ,A~abeg's,<court,_


ilt does s'how the shrine as the resort in need 'for- the upwardJly mobile,

~adr al-Din tried t9 sti€k, to ·th.~_ role: of the: independen'( Sufi who Slays. ,away (rom court, bot he met with as much mftlcu~ty as some of dl.e dervishes. who ~e i:ro~_'ilJicallY' portrayed in Sa,cdi"'s" ,Gulittli,n, One'swryrela/ s b:w an official (amr) in Shiraz :namedJaIal al ... Din Abu, Bah ibn Khw,aja invited $,ardr al-Dtn to! his house, and several emwne.nt people inrereeded tOI p~nurl~de him, to aifGC~P'L At last d\e shaykh agreed! The , as was custDmary, prepared a reception, including s:ingeI8~ The s'h~ykh. with all his disciples and children, anived .. It Wis, a fine occasion", After tbe me~~ the a:flieia.] ,oJd a story about his :havin;g heard ~dr aI-,Din preach in the Bad~ al-Dtn nlQsque, M~ sUlch eflect that bis 'preaching' responded

-.:~[ ",'L...,. .0::: ...... ,_·1' '1. h h 'Wh' h ... ,'L kh

oneanUJJY' to me on vc.~:dJ. S unspoKie:n u ougts,,'" nen t e :Mlcty "

had! u~d people '~O change th.eir ways and pena'rID the ;good~ dl." omeia], also had decided 'to do ~ome;th;ng ~od~ A second time he had tbO'!a,g;ht th"t the ~sha)l'kh is a" ~alni;, perhaps I dlornld :In.vire him and ,cl'lCh€ him in. a 'robe. At once the shaylh had turned in, his direetion and said, 'we teo eat and wear-clothes, The official. hrad been. thrilled, 'and at once resolved to present a giltt.. iow mat the shaylh had come, he asked permission to present to rbe ,sh~ykh an oOidal court robe 'ltkil'~(Jj:) that he himself had received, p:re~nJm~bly at the' cai,phal court The cOllWpaDions urged the' s'~ay:kh, to accept it. The' offieial then 'br:ou,ght, out. a fio,dfy woven woolen cloak (~jj and a fine linen tudlan and gave them to the shai)·kh. The shaykh put ,them on, The ,,~:mcial askled the shaykb to forgive him (or the sake of God {'Or this ill-mafmered SiC,t; tM in.c~den ~ \Y8!S, ~mc~t.y due to the 'mjr,a€ies, ofnhe sbay:ktw. wh~ch he had "W1:tn€s.~ed~ not what he had heard, from another, The shaykb 'prayed :f.Qlf' him and retuflne". to the hospioe'! where he gave the mrban and cloak to his .

..... :It.. a..J, 87 Th' I'·' ~ hes i th·, .... ~I (::i =d ].Ji'1'r.::

4I!.IWreo.- _ ·Ie;;re am severat iromc 'toUE'. es II] -, .~s. t~e .. '9,i. .. 'r Ql-UlJltt

,. .' I b th ,. "/!" .. Ill. , ,II!....

un-iwiJ:to:ng y .. , ecame ' . e 'reclplent 01 U ie ,g~)y.emor S CjI) wanly,

receiving a gift that put 'him '~n:to. an in[eiio,r pMidon in bYo ways,. First" i~ was a. robe of honor from tbe caJi,pnal court, s~, it place~, ~dr aI-,D]", in 0 the role of a ,oJirical subordinate. Second, it \WiS a woolen c~.oak that at least ron.ceptua~y paralleled th~ cloak of Sufi. iniooth.1n) but here it was foncib~ly bestowed on. 'the Sufi representative by the pioHtical rulerv It m.ll£t h:ave b n quite galling Co[' ~r aI-·run to submit 'f() trus, kind ,O\f gmerosi'ty.,

~adr al .. ,Dln ',S 80m he~ples$ position. in tll· ,shrine inmtuti.on


R.iizbdlin Baq1i

is espedaltly evident in his enooun - er with the Mongol gioVerD(lf Q~:

Shiras Aniir ',ulugbin" who was a p' gan. .. One day while bun 'ng, Bu~u~~in had espeessed to a. fnend aa itJ.~!er;est in meeting ~adr al ... Din Ri.zb:Mlan~ '¥/h,B some asked ·w._y, he related ba:ving dr for three nigh " about a Sufi master '.'~' who invited him to conver ~ te Js~'am~ at 'fil'S!! by adrvruce a-Ild then by- threa mning his destruction" H~ .. guess~d that this master 'was Sadr al ... Djn~ No'vv the g~lvem·or wanted to meet hi, .. a\na. become a: uslim .. The aeim~nistra'tors ,and relig;iou$ officials of the city pleaded M:th QadIr al- Din to 'fo'rego the Sufi eustom of avo iiding the court, far this vis~t would be faW" the pU1pQse of, conversion to Islam ,'nder such. 'pressure, the ihaykh, once agajn reluc.tanfly yielded, and 'Wi,th a group of wsc~!pllles and companions in. attendance went to the Mungol~ s house, The governor ree()gnj~ d ~h.e shay'lili from afar as ~h.e master ·\¥hOI had :runvilted. him to oonvert in dl,e dream. The scene that follows is an . ironk demonstration of institutional pawlet" wertallcing the limited charisma of ani cpigone" When $adr ,a.ID .. Din began to teu! him a s~ory" the governor obj~cted~, sayi'Hg, "You should [:firs-~J] bring' Islam and tell me th ~ creed, and after that tell a smry. II Sa fur: shaykh obe ,i: ndy taught him the creed" and the g('j,viem.or became a .MusUm .. After that he b.rought much largesse and freed many slaves, at the feet. of the sh~ykh., Th.€ next day Bu'~ugha"n came: to. the h'OS;pmoe with a 'mmsl~l!tof), smyi'ng that by the gnloe of the sihaykh~ h€ ~as alr'€ady 1:1oceivin.g divine guidance tb:~o'ugh confirmatory' dreams in wbich "~ad~ -a1-DiB, appeared tobim_ T.ken he said thateveryone shou.~d foDow this path The shaykh prayed, and, Seventy more Mo.ngols became Mus'Hms. .Aft~rrl Bu~ugban sgttl~ severa~._ shops on 'we mf;kh ,~n~ h~s, sons and gm;andsons, as it charitable endowment (waqfJ,.~ Thisincident probably toek pl 'C" in 6HO/1281 or '6,81/12&12, 'wh,' n 81 r.Jugh:in 'was' ;[tIering' as thief :M:ongo:~. represemative (bam'qlt.(j) IDl1 Shiraz) thougb his refusal to remit taxes t:o cent al Mong~)tl au thoritie s brought about hls dO'lAmfmI, and rug, t 'when Mongk~ brought an 3lTny b) Shiraz -0 cerrect accounts. 89

, lldging from the ba;gmograp.hies alene, It is difficulli:' to, tr·a.oe' \\nth oonfid~n€e the 'erne! gjrn,g patterns of patronage of Sufi in'saw,nons by ~che rulen of .Shira.z,,, bu~ it is. pr.pba!b.t~l sf ... ~e ·~o M'S!lI,me a gradual. increase in ~onso,rSlhipl cI Sufism,. E~:ographical no'ttoes, o,f'Sonqut and Sa'd '~b~_ Zangl in H~ir ,maz,lir pl'aise~ them for ·'.b.eir puli]ic 'YIOrks ,a.OO I)iety, 'varticularly a:s ~videmoed in ~he, cons,tmc6on of


Institutionalizing .a Sufi Order

",", 11",'1.", If'ilh S 'I...JI lb Z' -"·b •. ' . '

mosques, ,t-'ljILUil0U~~ 131 ~ 'l,'M ,:,an_gm~s neted as ,'ewng a friend o:f

d "1- .,.. nl · ..:'iI!.., b', h f h + ' b B' kr i S - ervisnes, It ]8 Q . y In 'UHlle'lO,gtaJp '._' 0: ,]8. son, ' ,u'a_;-~' Ibn. Sa'd

thet there is. any mention of construction of ribi (os ruQng \~th mosques and madrasas; both fa;ther and. son, however, Clltrntri~ut'ed charital Ie trusu for the eonstruetion and upkeep of dl, tomb of the

S fi .. Ib Kh li'i:'f' QO S 'd " d' d ...... t, J ." ... k

u, samtrbn .' JJat~lL, • ~ 'a ' , . lS, ere: ltC·':, Mu.i ,C evanng Ute supp'o,:n

of Sufism r :' s'ta:ce ffiln~cy~ ~ayWng; "~O'Ur 3(fmy c\6.usists of 'the piOMCS

- d'i t·1I!.. d . h '1119! ." 'II!.. 111 ,o/:" '1

an. I r tne ':' ~nn:.'5:, ",' s, l' onen ieiess 'suppo,rtt was not unnomuy

forthcomi ng, for as we 'havle' seen ~ Sa d .rubin langi had, strained relations with R.,ij,z·bihin; and ~uzbiha\n.~s hagiographer~ rar.e~y mentio A 'U Bah. Since they also fail to 'mention anydlin~ct financial stibs]dy from the governm nt until the '". IQ.n.g~l period, it seems li~i~y' that the later thirteenrh century \W\lS ·ttle 'p tried when a more extensive patronage of Sufi ins.ti~utions bee ame normal government practice ungec. ongo] a:~spii,(.es .


1. See' most r~ndy 'H,SI!;Ulld D,:ilb~shru" °HiS'ro,:lical CO[[1d~tio:ns of Pel'mm,

S ~. duri ;:'lI.. S ;'·Ofi,'jr. P . d 111 ',r,j'_ -' I '9 ' ('l ~.;;'_.1. '

I UL'WU '~, unog tne ;, eg ws.. ,', ':e"no' ~. 111 ~JU'a r~r~ o,JlbW<rt~:: j~'ifNll, iis

~Orietrl-$ to Rumi ed, Leonard. u\\t[cSohrlJ ,,_ondoln: Khaniqahi :Nh1:tai;~uUahij .[ 994)~ :pp., 1.31-7-4.

2., Lawrence P:otter has pfaw.dod .an excellent o'v"E!:1VitW of the ~awth of Sufi. orders in "Sutis and Stll1t~ns, on PO$~~Mon,o, Iran," paper pr-.:e~entedJ :at the' .M~ddID.elEast "tudille,s .As:sodatioID, ICQof,'eien-ee, :N'!Tven}ber ['9:93"

3, Jamal Elias' rorcbcQmiug s'lll!d.y of ~Ali'~ JI· .. Dawla Sitm18;n1 will provide the :fir;st detail, portrait of his teac ring methods and his r·elart~on to the :i\dr.ongG'] court.

4, 'M uhammad Taql Da~is.h .. Puzh[ih~, ~ .im;;lJiJifi'n Mma,~, pp., ] -150 (TtthJat all al~''irfln), I 51-3'70 (Ri,{i aljmiin}; the Tul{~i ,tJht al~11rflb~ lli,~ also h en edited by Javid 'iirbaJdlSl'~ (Tehran, 13--49/1'970). ;\U quotadotrn, from these ~~ are fl'O:m Dinish-PU!zhu.h\~' clition.

5. 'T 'Ullfot a/"l al= 'i~'~~ PE. '[ 0- m 1.! 16. Ibid~.~ p, 2'2'.

1. Rfilt al1ini~~ Pl. ] 6,3. ,8. Ibid., p" J '&4~

9. On retr· 't~1 see Tu1J!at aM .ai~ ~~~ .p. 4'2; on fOit1.yBday' seclusions, see

'. ~fat a/~l aJ,:'" wan., p~ 3,13; Ril!~ atjilzan pp,.. 2' 1 ~" 2'34.

[ o. TuiJIst ahi at .... t(~n~ pp. 3.3, 64-1' 1fj~' a'l-jrJian.~ PP', 20] j 3,2]. ~ ~" TJjfit!. llhl ¢;_i!fon, p'p. ,36~ 6t,

~ 2", Ibid.~ p.. 4!g,,,

~I ,~ 'Ib' '. ~ "~ . " ""9'

!Ii,;;}.. ,.,[d., p. .;> .', .•

~ 4,- Ibld .. ~ pp. 411 60.


'D .";- •• :1Ii-. "L, ""'" B ~ ~'~~Ilf'~an 'aq,1lIiJ

10'. Ihid~~ :~" 4ft

1 ,6, Ibid .. , -P,p. 37" 50~ 60~ 6;2.

,[ 7" :I~)'~d. ~ pp __ 51) 57., ~,

[ 8, Ibuil.~ p, 38~ 44~ 46,~ 4B~ 59 .. 19.. Ibid., p. 55.

sn lb~d., pp.. '2'~ ~ 6:3. 2]. Ib~,d., 'PI; 33.

22. Ib]d.l, :pp~ 4: 1 ~ 54.

23. Ibi.d.~ pp .. 3r4, , 47,

24. Ibid.], p, 47.

25. Ibid., pp. 2:3-24.

26,. ''The drle olfchis, book is listed 'elsewh,er., 'but no eopies ar;e known to

, elcis.ot aside frem this quot::vtlon. Ct., RJj~' a'ldi:J~in~ p. 341 J' no. t'i

27. BJ1{l al~m{u;", P']).',. 119iJr-96"

:28. Wotd's qf &it:tl~, PP'- 4'9-50.

2§1. 'TulJlat aid a'l- 'ir/a1l -,po ,39.

,30. ljQ_{j~ 11mtilr, p. 292;, N~fiiljIfJ.,f~ :P" 2'5,6, '\;\rith sll,h:t variallrO,fD.$ ..

3 L 'Isit ~bn Junayd ,id-';hlr,azi", Hazar 7na,ei1) Persian trans, (rom the Arabic Shgddal-~ar, ed, NGti,~11 'Vf~,iH, (Shiraz: lGtibkhina:-ii Al1roadl~ 13(4/1985)" p. 35.0., On Bllzgh'!rlsh.See .H~ir m4tar. pp. 2 7 ~ l 02'~ 116"

12"'" .~ 0.0' ] 99' ~50 5' 2' , Q' ~o a .iI,I·2 41"" 1 ' J'_' - l[-,.c,.,L-::.. - 47~)

: J ~ :l eo~ , '~ .J " -:' l! -s I ,4~J<J, 'T ,':J ",J' ~ " , o_ am:u,'{tUl" p. ,:JI'.

3,2'. Th~~(_fjgt1Te$" ind~a[e" ":'~~r~~ =~1-~)11~. ~ulrra~~~rdl (RU!-l ('l~-j~i~3 J)~' I g1~a)" Ril~ al-D m ,Ah Ula, (""LilJfaJ aht [ai,,_ trfo~~ p. 2,4-:~ and Jrn &, al-

ii7i'ii11~ 'pp. 19'::' 2t10), Fakhr al- Dln Rizi (TulJ!ta ani aI,'...1{fo11Jj p,,, S O. 33, Th Emil Homerin, Prom ,Ar.a~' Poet lv' Musti.'fIt. Sttint.: 11m ~l .. ~pa:fir.k, J~i:5 Vm:sc: (J,M liis_Skn."l$.~ S;t1!Jdies in ,Campara'~jive.. 'lt~igjOlQ (Col~n)lfuia,; U nivel~~ty of South 'Carolina Press" 1994)) chap~e[r :2.

34, "The seve (1]'" also ,iilplpcar-i1IIs ,s-pi.ritu,a] entities, among the K;u ,dish, es.ot:eric]~ of the Ahl-i ~Qq.q' cf. Jle-an ·urirJJg~ '" 'he Sacred Music of tbe Abl-] ,Ha.q,q as a I:: eans of 'My_s:ti'c'al Transmission," in ,~lalj,if~tIlli(m,s tf $ainf.{M;M i~ Islam) ed .. , Grtl!oe fv,f,artin Smit.b 'and Cad VI. Ernsl ',' 'tlllbul: Editio,ns .lisils., '199t)~

35. !plJfat ah,~ al~bfo"1l,~ pp. 5,5--!~~Hl"

36. Hu{7n' pp.. ,43," :;"'

31. Btl'~ these _ -Q_1\1,r=,a1ni.c pa.ssaJgfs are ~SOG~'tt7d ~ith -the Prephet ~bJl~mma.d!l! lib.e ,Ars]; referring t-o the "night journey" dli,'t preceded his ascension to, heaven, and the seconc , ,3;& an indit,ooon of 'the ~n~ght o.f M'u~ammad~'~ as, me. pre-exlsdng l~a~ity from whkb. God, created the universe.

38,. Hamd Alli~b Musta.'~vfl (p. 507) mentions 'the stipends gi ,en by Ah'ii -ion Sa ~d (r-., 62811 2 31 ~6Sal ] '216.0) to desce.ndant'S of the family of '~All, evc'rJJ ~ending donations 'ontside o.f Firs. .

39. /la.rj:r ma{ir, Rp .. 2g7' B.

to. This reference pu'ts Abil Is'~q 31,K.iz'd.l1"1lnl in the cGmp~.y. of the [wnous S1il~fis who ,aroe ,d!tSl(runded ~ tlle rrose that tals foo'm RuzhU1in'g enc'o.~ntef' ",-vith God. ,'" a, v,~,e ,aJ_1],d brief nOt1oe o.fthe later :,i~~:ui sa-in Shij a[-Din :M~hm'Od, KhruJifa (d. 56,21/ '] l6St- '7) of Sbiraz;, Ha·zlil.' (p" 343> ohse:l1iIes. rt:.:aJ! ~jhe lad. famous ~6n,grs on S-uO&m and.



other subjecrs.~ :an-d fa'm.ous 01, n were w'Tapped ill the cleak, by hits hand, i~ bUlt of "heSle, "famous" [disdples it rOwy m1" nuons Ruzbihan Baqll by name, It: is possible that this ~F.rform;aJJ.en is, simply a. $P eculative lextrapa[a~ion of tb gene;a[,ogy found in TuI}/ilt alll al'- iJfon and Ri~ al-jini1:t

41. ,Ac~ordlng to Qaz'wini (HtU'J;"cr mo,tar, p. 343.) n. 46}, F,~~]~ ru-Kb:win: i~ his j14~md.l (co~p]eted S:':5I']. f41 ~2) gi~'es under the yea:r 60S the' fo1kn,ving ooeag'e :Fot RUozb.ihin; 1. Ibn ,I{h:a-fif 2' Iju:sayn ,Akkil~" 3. Abu h~iq Ka~zatu ni; 4: K~tib Abu al-IQaiim, 1V£~]pnjl~ ibn

"" al~Ki;zarilli; ,5. A~:mad ibn " "'bd aJ-Karlm;,6,. 5iraj al-Dtn ,V1~mi~d ~bnJ1an:ta; 1'. ltfizhib.ail ri _z ~fder, Introduetion {Piersif!!o trans, Ki IUS, J anind a 1;1) to Ma~rofid ibn 'E thmif1 fiiwarp$ al_'mursh~ytl,.ft asrQ;i al~.f~rR(uJ';M~, ed, lraj Afsha r, Ina;shiir,i i-i ,Anjuman-i ,'-~th;iF""~ MIDi. 14l;8 (3rd ,M., Tehran = Anj'Ul'nan-i Atl1ir-i Mill 1358/1980), p .. uv~ [cites Z~ayn al,-~Ab]din Sblrwini~g Riii'4 alriji~ com!])l, ted in 12:"21'].812? (l8fahan~ 13'2'9)~ p. 144~ as giVing the {,ollolMng ]bl,'eage for the order of Ru:zb]hin~ dHfering SJgniflCandy from ~hrut found in TuI:/id' (lId al,-wjibt: l , Ib:fl Kbafif~: 2. li1'uS1~y.n Aklk,i':r; g. Abu, bl)a 9 Ka\zaru m,l; 4~" Abu ,aJ;'Q~ glwn Khat~b; ,5:. AbU Ni,slF Muhan.'unad ~~n Kb~'tib~ 6" .- "'hG Bdr Muhammadihn

",hil'~ib; 7. 'lvJ ~m[id ibn. Khafifa-i' Ea~i'l: 8. Ruzbillin EaqWi. 42, 'Mass~gnnn} mi,Mj P~'" 1 '2,8,-30;,

43. ,As pointed out by Din-ish .. ,Puzhiih,. Rfl~ al~'iJl~1], (p, :Ut2) contains quotations from chapters '~2 and 2'5· of Suht'~'wa~dis ~wa1if

44, Fir.dalru al~mur£hidiJyaj p,,, 24;. also given in fhe same author's abridgemen~ entitled AniWir al:mW'sltidr;,w.',fi an;a,r: ai=¥lmaif>ya, ibid., p. ',,89, though the author nouces there a second manuscript tradition containing the names of ][1!Hi;h 'lm ibn ,AldJl:aJ.'m. wIuil'Sharbi n R.i.' instead of Salman, :FaTs~ and ,~::: il~a ,~bn Zayd .. As the ,edh.or pO']-l1fts out (p.,refaoe to 2nd edi,-' on, P" x; 'ritz. Meier~s. lntroduction p,,, viij), anecdotes and poems have 'been added to' the ,,c -original by [be Persian tr,Ms:]atO!' and by later SlCribes..

4 ~, TUlffollllil aJ:'... j'irlil~, Pl. 137 (a ,:~ ream of the tomb of al~,Kiz-ariilli leads ThO initiation by Riizbih~i'u}; Ri/i at;}lr{iu~J :p.'p. l60 ~omage ~o Iba Kha£]f and K.a2a,rii.nj)~ 205 (insoleJ1C6 at the tomb of Ibn K]laJ:flf is punished by ·Ru.zb~han).

46" Ji~r mfJt;Jiirj p. 2:9l.

4l. Tv;llf(lJ. ,~l u1"'(irfon, in ,/ruziJ.iliin Mma, pp. 19-2'] .. 48,. Ris:i.l'at a-l-quds~ :p'p .. , '9---10,

19. SkmiJ.-i sM!IJiyyi,t~ p,. '[ 0 ..

.jO. Tultfot iIh,l .at- ~:n., Pl. S; RiO, al1VJ:li~" 'PI)" 159-160. 51. ',td]fo,~ akl at-ltfin: p. l' ,; Jii;.~t Jl,ljini~~ p. '21 j'~

52. Ri~ aijin"il."nJ :pp .. '209-] 2.

5 3. Ibid .. ~ p,. 11,8.

5-4.. 'Tuifol alii al- (ir/IJll, p., trl. 5f5,,, IbLd.., pp- 2]." 35, 3,6.

56", Ihid.~ p,. 4 i "

57',. Lb~d.:, :P" '43~ 46 (rainstorm}~ 62~; Ri~ ai-ji-n'O.;rl" 'p. 2:31 (r,run;slto~l).


~,a:, ;:J'ulijfal,aiJ t"l ~tl} p~, 69,., ,5:~t ,Ib~d", Pl. 58.

160. Ibid,~ JP~ 142,.

IS 1. Ibkt~ pp. 1. ~d ---44.

6'2. Rfi~; _()J-ji-~it~]! p. ,949 ~ quobng from the' lQ,s~ wOif'k Mtmh,'flj ,al~iil,fiki~"I \-~htd:i WSIl). aontaJillS a. brief vi_sio:nary' account ,of ,~matl J$! ~lri~u3.Jl sratus,

6~3,,, ·R;iJJ tltjiJj;i~, Pl. 3:49~ d,ting ,K4ff!fal'_(Mi!/~ §202'.

64-~ T~JjIiJ~ ,~i at",'itifld,~~ p. 133~ Ifll'{{l/j' m~'lir, 'W. 2'85""'186. The author crf 1m'~ d't1~it~j, F" 34!9lj, $t~'te~ that he di.'ecl.· dll.ning the ~~fe'tim() of the $h~'ykh Ii') Rajab 155'[)/SleplI'em'bel~ 125,2 (olYviou,s]y £in jel:NJr) and i~, but1$d af: Bigh-l Na:\v.

6a. 'Tu~'i {fIll al:~ 'i~'~~ p_. 1 $3; RJUE ~ljWz1t, p. S4l9~ w'fu.,e~,e Jn~ is said ~p l!~V:e me;d Su.ndRy .2~' :Db.1: aJ.=:~jja" 6201 [Tucts:day] 21gJ~nu\1(ry' 1:2'24., Cr.. aJs~ HO:iS~r m'4't~i~~ pp.. 293....,g*" whe~ the Persian tran~aiQrn' de~crib~s :visiOns th,~t he ,~11d alloth'et perJSo'R Md. re1iting' H) tl'lle' t\'0mb ,~f Fakhr al-Dlllfl ,t\hm1trn ..

66;., J/azir ~~~. p, 2a~. _.

'Si'. ACeo:rdw", 'lD - Trm.filt: ijJ~t ~i- ~rIi~J p., ] 40, $adr ru=Dln lived to 'be s~:nty'j and died :2" Ram;~gan GaolIS -~.IQ~embe'r .~ 28.6\, 'Whi~, W~)~d. put his birth in 6,15/1,2118;. it. also ,sllIattes ~" 1'33) tbat hls J~~,bM:c relilli,!pous: eareer ~asted ~~Xt,l Y''e-ars.,

68,. !.~ o1ll-alm l,if"m" l~. 'L~,3; ',Md) ,(1I,t"in~ Pl. 24ft 6,~. !laz"flJ' m{:lt,ar~. p, 29'7.

70.. Ibid., pp..2'94-:9.§,

7"~ ., T_~J,' /!lid I~l~ ~iJfon"J .p" 1,4-1t

"'l!1f) n," ~ -- .~ iI!1;!I'_.iiIA ! z, ll!]l,h:l,., p. ,[ "'l"~:--;r:r.

13,., n~KJ.~ p,. 1:4·9",

74. ,H'aur m~.iri pp. 2·g5~IS.

75. D!:i,nish.,~PlliZh~,h'l BUdilta~rt M\ma~ Intfod~etilln~,:p. 1'2.

76. ,Rih al-jmi~j p'p .. '2:2'h2'{$,. tt. Ttikfot (11~l ,at-\tIi~~ p,. 63,,, 7\tl,.. Ibid.!:p. 65.

19., !:b~::~et.l~-~~~8e·:~!r~;';'~% :c~Htes the

,810, Ju~befry., Sliiraz~ p", 4.5. -

8, 1. Tl:~/fiJt ,aM fJ't- 'i;fo'n~ p. '~6~ calls th~s, di[;s~ilz"~e Khwija Mlln:wtaj]b .al-,D~n~ a ~1\f~1~ ~ whMe Bi'tlJ, ~~j W,. 17'9-,8'[ ~ d~ttlbes him. af 3 To:rk. named Men~n; in ba:il -s,'~:ories~ 'the mruni;5te;I~ ~Gompml1.e9 h]s duties at ',0(1)1'\ 'whil~ tasting and p~ng lrilMT: of the tJJ~,~b1i~ ~:m,u,Cb. t-o the an'J!~U1ent ,~f a doobttr-' who IS mad~ to ~G.d']Upatny MOl firir thme days. Ani;)thtr disciple, _,B~~i ~ ~l-,Din YMm, became all ~~~l· te 111e canph r:l],~N,aL~ir (r, ,575/] 1 ~~o'2'2/1 ~25))< and be. ~&l'ooa Sbitaz as ~n ,ambalssador

. a'fief" the death {)if Rii.,z;b,~hi\n (T~~t iiJl,l ~l- '7d2i:nj pf'. :18-3, ~ ).,

8,2', Ibid,,~ p, '6~.

'o.''!.l!' ~~.r.£""t.$ I '&~ ;MJ1i< ~.1 ~J·.I •• ::'.,. . .j.'!11...

Ol.?). i' 'W!/(J'~ iY~" ~~=uj~in" p. "I'i,~ ~so .nUl~ 'd~'jiM~~ P:JL 223=,2i4~ (\i"Ft~l

varla;tJiQns}. -

84" TuifotJ fJkl al~ bjiu"&,j p,. ,~42~

85. Ibid." p. 53~ 810'. Ibid. ~ 'po ,], tf:k

8,', :rn:bjd~'l1 'pp,. rsa-ss.

,8,8. Ril~ (il:1iJ~in~ pIp", 13,5,36,. " "

B9" A. K, 1Sro ~mbtoj},; iiMbngol Fiscal Admln[5:Ua'liC[lJ; in Persia,!!', Sludta

tshnr~ic{J, LXV (] 967)1' p. '[ 06,.. I'll ,tbis ~.cCiOrUn:t I fe,now Lambiwn 's :spdling ,~)'f 'the ~1on.go~ name B'u].Jjghi,:r:il i though the Persian text of

l1iJ.i _,al-j'in.aft reads B,.i11g]1i:rn", , • ' ..... .", ...

90. 'D';;r1]~ml~ Sfrd~~ p,. 309. ICE also l1u: Ta~''film'1~t;1J-t:id6, I, ~O~~ wluth,

mentions in addition a rib,a~ 'OOHs.ln:.I,cred !b~(' Sonqtll" enaehed to the

gr-.e~:~, mosque, _"

'91. ,/la.rir tntt;':~·1, pp, 2ij3--<68~ ,301-4.



1-0 the onenine lines. of ~ .. ,"I' f~"i\i,~,'~~LIf '()" Sfae:ts: Ru:zb~" !l~,an 'P~' resents an

,It" ~. l." v~l~~~~,; 9' _~' r- _, ~, _ 1I:'J. , ' ,. p~l.J.JU.,~ . ~--'

extended meditation on the difjtrent ~hitual veeations .. The 1mowID.ecillJge and grace made a.vallall1.e 'by 'God t,o ·the ,Wiferent ranks @f :pmpheB.; saints, and ~UD1gei~S differ 'in d~gr,~e but net in .kind .. R.:uzbihin portrays this as )J'n u~nf;gildment of' divine love, wmth

1. ....... ~ W '1:... h '" '!Ik... {t,"ii' h "'\..,...... 'L..

C[ll.u.wn:ltes In 'Cue; '=lg~:lIIest. type o.~: m.ysuc w. ,0 :PiMS'ts 'l:1U:wugu,

• "" ...:!III '1Ik" ·'d h ..

in.ro8ca;ti~)n atlu. ,SolUln~~' to, ~,ct as ,I gu1l' .. (i; to'ty·~

tGod urug9t ~~,e messen~ts) dl~ pfpop.b.ets;~ '~he arn,g~bj and the

• 'k 'L.: ~tr-' 'L. ,- - - '" f his si r.1I

~uunfj· anout uH1fJ1Sew': 'u'Y the special qualities et ,']S· ~gns \aJi~h'

from ~h:e throne eo 'tile e1U"t1h;, h,ec ~u.gPt ditm. the signs in 'tne L .' '" d.rhev Joved '-hiii 'll.. F- b'l. '. d ~e!l~:; anc ' . ey .Jowo. r Em necause Q\l .: \leSSilngs :an"

fave,t'~ Then, a,e was u~;sa~.s,f:ied '\vi'dl'what be' had giventh~~_", for ~Jt was rhe cause cr' d1~. "COll.wmiO([lS or seEVa~thQOO~ 8@ he disI),~a}fJed to them. the .~ights of' hi"S pre1i~hee,. anointed their eyes \¥i(h. 'rb€ wllyrium of migbt~ and showed ehem th'e: sunbeams of Ul.e '\IVOrld. gf bi~ ~tl~c realm, Now they l~rv~d.

'L.~ ,. "L .., L e., .~: '~i 'L..'iIL • 1....... • ..,. ·ml'· ., .1'1.., '~I iJ!" mm ·'W1tl . .i1 :~.I!e special .wov~, but this mV!e' In re~tY:IDS !~u.e .wOlle o~.

the beginnjng of d~,e end. Then .he unveiled tQ' rum the "subljmirrnes of his b~auty "and :his maj~s1ty) , the qUaJttf of 1113Jlirestin,g his Essence and Attrioa!te$ .. Th~ knew him and loved him, the great true love mat does not a1~'er mm, fhe chalnging ,tDlE 'b~mpo:rwity, !\ot by; the de~cen~ :Df ,amict!\om, and testing They ·~tn,e.~d him Mth the Mmlessing of reathy ~fb~~t a·~en. Then, he ,~re~~d fh~'~nd snok€ 't~~ th.etl1.

, .~

"'iIk .• ..J11·...lI11 B'· d them in th

\\\1bllJ. rare :s'Cien~1 .aD.'UJ ~$~om. ae lnSmJe't'f, them Ul t· e

incantarions "Of his, names, 3tfird h~' tlluglit 'chem the gri)i~es ,~f 'L,.," 'I~~ • d charaeteristi H ade fh .' L"", 1."", k""". u~s qu;au.:t1'fS an· c c·;ara.(;tenS'tml,C'$ ... ·e made them ~~[.l~ lb~

'p ertu:rned breeees .of d'l~ :vnSi~ of near ,e)1CQUnt,fXs ailLd mae: herbs of 'J?,roID:mities and. UII~OIl2). Then lie WaB expallsi.~e. to them vrith h~~ ,~n~!1'OUs intimate <Qijinvtl'Satiol1s'l and he

•• -" c ~1 'd" his ."",~..... . . ....lI .... - - ~,--., ~. 'ii" ". 't'l..· t'IL.·.",... . ."",,1,.. -h''''

unVeJiJ,e: . :, ,IS, S€W.~1I:lS ane was DlntlmJa ... e 'M IJ:,I "'l'Uel1!11I.t \i\l]! Ul )1li,

beautv, :H,e; .mad~:. them levers ~th ,his rnaiestv i.n these

'~/l co ~ ;iJ ~'!}'

degn~es, and they bore what they could of the weights of ascetic practices and sni~ving$~ Thei ~ becames the brid s of his pn~sence and the men of his kingdom and his angelic realm, Some of "hem are the people of discipleship, and some are the people of' sainrhoed; some are the people of smgns~ and some ar the people of sp ': hes, counsels, and intimate conven ations; some are the people of unveiling:s~ and some ate the people of wlmessings and conceptions; some are 'the' people of gn.osis and grace, and some are the people of divine ·knowledge. and wisdom; some are the' people of unity, si'Dglenes~,. and isolarion, and seme are the 'people of qlJaJi~lica;tion~ Some are the people of unification; :if 'they reach [their gnal~ and cross the ocean of pre-eternities and. eternities, mey b eeome raving dnmkards. If they remain settled and stand finn in the surging' of 'die disasters of ~be hidden ~ from unlVeiliDg~ ,nd ecstasies, they become the sober

O'iIi'lil r the 'e ...... 'b, t'lI!..~ p "0-' - f iii- - - Ai~";T; ,c._.... _.t"f'II:j, L •

,IIJ,!I£S,.. ney 1'1. ~I me ,O$.~ on I)., nrm arter lI:J~ln,g

ra.vlished; 'God 'most high. ~!~jJlues, them th~ lamps of the age, tbe' s~s of gnosis, the stages of reality, and the ,guidepost o:f the ~ous. law-may IGod place us and 'YOU among the people of these states and stations (§,s;J.

Rfi.zbihin evidently thinks of himself :as .'. member of this, most elite rank O'f sainthood.

In ne lhveiling ofS.~~ls, :R.·uzbiha:n, relates many initiatic visions that u:s,tify 'b) his sta~tus as, ,a .saint, He is the pole o-r axis (~{.b) or the world, the vicegerent (f1w.lfja) of God on earth and. the beloved of GQd. I:' is eaeounters with. tnle, prophets, partic:IJ'~a~r~y Mul)a~mmad~ confirm him as the heir to. their knowledge, and be reduplicates 'many of their expe:n,ences 'in his visions, The Sufi saints ofrhe past salut -' RillJ zbihiln and with their audlo1rity certify him as the greatest saint 'of the ,a,ge; they v..4sh that tb:ey .eou d, ,atltain his s a:v of nearness to God. These ]mtiatic visions are complemented by 'other visions tha1 use the sym·b9lism. of Persian kingship ">(~, announce R.n ibiha 11 as the spiri ual king'. The traditional elements. upon which Rnzbihan draws to make fth.ese assertions are not si rprising, and 'ind.eed would 'b: :fam.ilia~· to 8!ny of hiS readers. \Nbat is r,emar 'aibl,t is ilh: ,co8~ic scope and the dramatic power of the

! f!'


. Af ...!III , .... ..1, ,... 1 . . .€' cl-·· "1_.-. h

I·J.I;()':!lem re~"e.n a.(['C 1 118bnctiVf:' y SUSpiCIOUS o,~' ',-' .auns·; ~ t - OSt'

d b D'- b·'h·-· T' L d liZ. f"·· rill d

rna e .' f' ,l,\.U Z .] tan, ne m,Q, ern cnmate 'G' opln~Oil, SIUu ' ,r.!aw· on.

Hume's skepticism ahout 'fictive theolegies andcl rical power, and all Kant's derision for the excesses of "theosophy. ~, The insane ~yh.un, is considered to be the best location rO'r those wirh delusions of d.~Vch1Je autherity, On the level of cultural style, our society r~s,p ects the .kypornitical· virtue ofrnodesty ~ thoogb it is 1 gitima.' '. tOI

• i"!' 'b. h ,,,,,'dl d "' h "

accept :p:ratse· from otners, one s - Ottli. : ' .. (~ so "W:lt, se rrun.g

reluctance, never stepping {BnVa:f\d: to assert one's o'WU preeminence. As 'my grandmother used to say, Ult":S no" polite to toot your

ilL ii,S" h ] k .C '1!... ,",., ,. h hi 1:1 R- Li'h'

own nom. .:. 0 t ie a,c: Q,t nesnanon 'YJIt.l w~ lC,'U~uw .a~.

unblushingly announces his saindy:tatus jnj'rjally causes some

.. ,.... L. . .. .::It..... ho ] ., .

resistance 'In me contemperaey reaaer, 'W~1'701 mterprets u as; a, claim

demanding eit 1- er acceptance or reJe' tio:n, If we ~ ~ sh to move beyond these optiom for a more •. opbis'tk:atl d reading of the' text, Jel us return to the conrrasr bet\V. en the picture of sainthood in. The UnM~ qf Set1ils and the \~ay that :Ril.~bihi,n~3 sairuhoed was

portrayed by his hagiographers. This, &o,ntta~n will permIt a more refined evaluation ,af the pr-ecise characteristics of the' eeneept and rhetoric ofsainthood in. bod. kinds of sources.

The 'most noticeable diB"erel1ce between The ,Ufmei!iij1(l' ql S~tJ

- 'd ;Io~1!... h "'. h· ·..:L h 1.:' t...";. s ~11L

an I, U~e ~ a-il0grapl~'l' 8, IS tnat ~ .. e nagtograpmes omn me mos

.... A~ ....._ • ., r" n,. - h' ill.. -, ... :L '. ..,.,. tC:'.. UJ'l J(ir.. ...

extraemmary \1swns- ,.)'11, Nl1z :(l~,i1ia:n S authority, 1 ;,1'£ ;j'/Jinl ~' me

'Gardetu do ;5, in" lude som€ notable visions, such as 'the . ·'.ttIe lear (§ 19--2 O)~ the 4n:ea:n ot Mne (~10h ~h.e. elilting of the scriptures (§3 2J~ ud me naming of Ru'zhilii.n .as vlcegerent of Gad (§49), All in all, 'ho·wever,. 'the t'WQ' hagiographers cite only ,3, small fr4cdon ,of the

. . ,. . ., .•. f"'1""1. r :r: • 'l' ",{, ('11 :....~..J •.•. d j,

rnmanc VlSilLons 0: .,lJlil: t.lnveUUJg)f!/ det:reiS;. a~lU sometimes with rasnc

,oOlwssions or tm(nSfOnnaDons that radically alter thff sense of the text. As we have seen, the- hagio,gr,aph. rs were also atpains to secure Rfi,zbiha;n;;s reputation as a. saint by ]nsistmng - on his membership in an accepted lineage, and :510 'cb._y sop'plied him with several spirl.tllaJ. grel1,e,aJo,gl'ru;" Why d1id. the bagiographers .~a1 more stress on Ruzbiliin)s genealogy than on mS'r;isiDnS?

The ans~r~ I think, lies in d1,e logic of mystical experience as it ptayed out ~n tb cultural environment of early Sililfism. The experiences of unJveiHng and ,cloth~ng "With iivinity constituted the fundamecQw mode of m'ystical le~ede.noe fot zhihin. h~ tension, beVween the 'MO experiences ,cl1eated. a ,di:rdocti.e be1lJNeen

. ~ d d- T'L~:"," .\ i ..;[III • .~. th

Vlsron a.n,,~ ttansnen eru:;.e.. 'Im t,enno,n. e'Xlst:eu. plimaruy 1Jn. _ 'e

I'v€l'tic~ u' mm~nsion of ,ascensj19n~ which Rfizbiliin re ehac~ i.n

his dla:ily :mtd~tatiu:ns. raditions "Q'f prior 8:piri~wal a:tlt'h~)rity~~ owhich

, a , .' Co ' ~L. ' 'L In... -' , -, ,if ..... - u'

are normruly seen as €:]{ertru~g J.Q-rte- UlOO'lJgU,.i\. ~J!i~rr];z,~rhm

dim~Qlsi~il'J. ~~ mstory~ are re-~~,la1uat~d in th!e ascension 'e~-p€rie'ncf! and in ~hs literary l~-w,orki~gs. 'I he m,IDst Gom.pleK_ rom:rn;ple o~ suc~ re .. .e~ruuatiofi ot traditien dlT[)lJlgh an. .ascension narrative is pl7lo'ba1bly Dame's Divine C'Om~" ,~th its m,any j~d!gniM'tS, '0:[1 the ~piri;t1J,al ,and pJjHclcal lead~f"S,h1p ot IChr.i~,tian Europ~'. S ~- attl'ac~ve was th~ ,a$oon~iQn as ,pr-ovlding am, Arebi:medean P9l'[\t from \~h]ch to j~dgt: sociJety that ~h.e Arab POf{ al-'Ma'a;rri _empl(~yl~_]:t in 'Pal~ody lO'fJn In his Epistle' l!f ~en~$ .. The ,i~tiIIta,c:y ~f direct ,eUOOilultet ~~h 'God a;t 'the ,ape~ 'Of the' ascensiea "rn~egates past prophets and saints to 8., seconda,~ry' role as ~messtg tit} '~~e ascension cf dle Ill"stiC., Hmtory and ~,adition~ 'whl€~ rernam ll>OlnmElitJr;v~ in Ble ,~,egal and 'Ike:rrgwl~:iic'u 0r~~,tatiJ,Ql~, of Iss'mk law, are th us 're~,€~t'ed to 3\ serolJ;~:iU·y pMitinn ~, ilie ~mysb.c~l experience, What is. dis:tinct_iv,e about the Sufi rh~tl~r.i,c of :~afn'm'h~od is tha:t unabashed boasting is permiued and even erruG{)~r.~ged as a.means i@,findicating . on.e').s, .direct eontae I ~'~h C?®d,. Ecstatic utterances partook of 'the aneient Ar.ah~c rhett)ric of the boasrlr:J,g ccntest ('ntdfJkbar~)" a pO'~nt w'hi,eb, m!;; explicitly recognized in ,ear1y Sufi manuals Q~~ ,condl[;]ct. The spiritu,a] oneupmanship that is recorded in the C0n~(rmtjon.s ef m,any ,e.a:rly Baghdadia.n and Kburasanien S:uf;is is typkw 0,[ d1i~ rhetoric e:f buasting.

'When the rhetoric - of' bo~s'firlJg' is oo,mbill,ed ~th, the reevalq~tiQn of tfQiditio(o ill) the ascension exp~:[m.e8ce~ (h,le 'p:rop-bet',~ ,atJS'els~ and [~gal, ~c:holar-,s are tur~ed 'int>Q1 ,adjuDicts. !Olt the mystic's ascent, aRd in par~lctilla.r d1!:e '~periefDJ0e!'l,Ql the boldest !~,f the 5:w6 saints are 'f](n,1\i' reduced to, a seeondarystatus. So it i~ iliIDt the geat, of Fars :a-ppear,atily as, 'w]tnes;sje~ hailing thlesta"tu:s _?f Rfi,z'biha:n; while the ,ees~atti.c ,Ab'u Ya,zid ili-Bis:ta. m:iI meffeetuaUy ~ha~illenges RU:lbihall~ only te ~Qi~N' to his $.up;r~ma~ ill rhe ~nd. Abu 'Y'u~ d)s role -as the ~fi[S~ Sufi to a,rtiCtl],~t;e, -an ascension and the first to speclaize in ou trageous ecstatic sat¥in~ ensured that !a:tel Sum \'V(ndd nse mm as the miattdfU~d, to ex;c,~e4 in outt,~geQusness" it is :nOJt. arcc;id.ental tha~, Was_~ti and 5hilbli ~e1t Ic.ornpelletl 'to bdilit:l1,e A1Dil V\t\\zid 'in, 'weir O'\t\i1l ecs,~'llc Sityi'~rgs 1 Ibll ~~Arabl ci'b~s ,a,'nd 'refe:rl '[161 Albiu ltazid p:oobab~y mon~, maflJ any ather- I~,ady ~ufjJ' brut h,e alWlma1kes ob~],qtle: (rilti~~ :rtmarks ,about hrum" djsmif~sing ch€ claim's ,of ,"cstauJiC, .speech o:n the part ,0£ o,the:rs wbile'ngenllot_l~'~'r' eThaimin,~ that hi~ ,~~ rlaims a~ :8imply ,God~'s tomm~ncm,2 This


t; rhetoric of hype:rbo1e' eontalns lIvirrun itself dl~ un[o([~een l'e:suit th~t sUQOeS;SE;Ve gen€~"adon$ of S,ll'fb ~]1 en~ge in the devaluarion of tr~ti(}n and the inflation cf wleir own claims to a; sometimes asro]li$~ins d~~ee. This is patticldadt ,ervi,cle1l.t in '[hI{! ]a(t~:r ,Naq~bb~ndl}).ra,; as, when AlJrmacl Siir]'inj~ll annouoeed tha:t he had, 'trnnW'rendea 'the ,QlSitill.oilsl of 'Ebitl ~ t\;rabl and, ,~evi tably ~ Abij ,¥'azid al- Bi8~i)T,li. " .... ~eologi~m ran ramp(a:nt·.as aucceeding "~~-Uiiykhs had. to coin new terms to indicate nO'-\JIi,f t'ht:iir ,~n tt'iftainme:nts transcended those of previous masters. One imagine~ dls:t there was it 'p~Fpably Dll0a:n1fo'ftabh~ ~a~m:Qsph~r;;e in ~~'tu,a;tJQ,Ds like ~rugh~eend~-ce(ll bUjf" D~lh~~ when dift'elien~ r~raqshbanrdi masters $uch M,lvUr narn,,~ Shih 'VV3J~ 1\llahj and Mli-~,i :MtqharJa.n-iJina,n all claimed remarkable posi6~rtL_S of s-piri'ttlW ;statlilS' sRnuitml,eomrusly",

Ruzbmi~~s ,iono~rm f6und 'tba:t his Iclgt~m, ~Q ha~ gon,e beYJOl1;d the states of ,Ab'li y'aiijd and 6il1iJ was ,the most controversial ~s,p ect of hb lexperi,efi~~, The hl;~IO\gJaphe:rs r;nus:t ha\1t felt that s~:re~sing this, aspect 0(' ]tuz,bHlan's \-'~riti]1§8 would be a lllislak-e. \tva,en it; came '[101 bui]d~.!lg' his i'ma.g~ as a saint. AlthiOugl1 frorn R,u,zb~h[n's perepeetive if is perhaps ,rumplliidt ~1'i~hin, the lo~c of sai~t:hood UU)(t his aSlrensic;tl should take him b,e¥~nd. Abil Y'it~"id~ the ]agj'c of bag;i(lIgtap,hy so~gh[ a s~rer COMISle. Instead of ha:l!ifil¥i him rt:;o:eiVie 'sainthood direetly fhun. GGd in the v~Ftwe-_aJ .dimell~Cfn of ascension, dle h~giQg~aph:ern :fouud it be~rer to deri\l€: h~s, ~ai~'ul,()od 'thf-IQugh the hori~onta]. and "hit~:rica1 ~dimensio'n bf the genealogy, more sober Sufi masrer.s, s,uch. a;.~ Jur1a.y€t, lOR one' :~e'v:eil.~ thIS ~\p~eal to [ralcl~,ti,IDtJl agne1es M tih 'the .appi~~'rante ef ~M Su:!1s of Fars in iR~lzhihiJ.l,~s V]Si(;;Hl.S~. blessj~g him a,flIJd co[~flrmin,g him, in :~lis :p0g],tlon. But ~liz ~Iiha.n hi-nlseU~ ~fd~ no need to insist con an unbroken master-disciple chain. lin kill'A,g him to Ibn Khafjf 3.{nd Abu. I~q Ki;z~~l!ll; he ,S1l.;W them .per,h,di~illJ In 'the- course o:fh~s visions, !Q, he had no need of ,3 ~n.eallQ,gi€aJ eonneetion, One SUSJU~C~8 that Olllle' reasen for the.' €"X,ti,nctio([( ,of the Ru z:bih_i ~i)ryra order aft,err a f:e~1' ~Ai~rati,Qns was that Ruzbib~hfs de~cgnoo~_t;s, r,tdefinJ~,d, his sainthood in 'terms that be.:tte:~"'fit the ;COrJJvenuon,S, of the l~merg]ng p~pulax.iz3;tion of d;].e Sun l)!1(h;:{fs~ The cin:ulabon of Tl~ IUnt,..,iliffg qf S~ ,~n a dr&stica~hy a,bridged. ,mItn.uJ$i3r1,t ed51li!@:ft (disoolv1:€r,ed by l::HJth N~~ al1i~ H~G'ca)~ l~s. dla'Eru oR~fifih, of ~he, olrigih;al~ jncliCi1\te'6 th,at ° readers fa,u.nd, ~h~: complet~ 8rGGOunf: or Ru:z;'hi~~in;;s, 'wmon to be ,simp,ly 'to(} m[l,ah. Hi3J,gi,,a:~her~ (4 11Mruand Tombs~ Jaml) r:efJea:ted dlE: l'le'mark dlati, I~'be [R.-U zbih_an]


bas sa~n_gs ilial! have pou;~ "forth '[m.m him, i~ d~~ s~a!te of

._. . .' - .,.;::. . . d eesta , -'w- hi ~ L m~t ;a.'t"J'e"' .A -n.... ,""~" - , nderst -, ~ .....'III n3

ove~@'lw"""nng an .~.J; as)', . -ww lUI ,M_'V. ~ -.;-~ry'l,j,l! >",''''' ean ui ~~~\il ~ aDUIi,

Th~B 'respe~tful ~ob3e:rvatifJn ab~iut 'his ino9\mpre.bm5W:h~n'ty· permitted RUJ.!:billil,an to he brackj;t~d and. ignored by Flea1de~ ]Mking' tlie p~'iienG:e to aJbsorb his clitIicult :Sit;y'~e,,,, In ,(be later h~qgraphm traditiiQ!Yn Rfi zbihi n has bee~ reduced to a primati~y ~eSL~,etie: 6gute~

i0 ," e 'l.. kh 'It.., -..l b th '-l r-

one Om,1 ,3, senes O~: cB~,a:y - _ s Wn'O 3;1'"g: '~llrap~u:r~iIlill 'y .t_~ __ e iove '0"

beaut~Ful y~UJ)g' men ..

111 @(,de~ ro recover ~ (uay M, p·ossib~,e: d~1e mys11ieal rfe ,~f ~. figure

.- R" .r. ". • . "Jib ..

such M -:ij2ibilia:n; It 18, essential [,@' ,e~aro.'m,~ t!.n.e st~etur,e' or

esperience tl)~t uAelerllii:e:s the '~l"u~~6ple 'w~or'rus of The UlNJnlm,' rf

(II ... iF~ Th"' .J k, . .JI ,"",~I", • '''b,~.l '" r- "')I!...~ ... t.JeC1ltfi.l", ,'_'~S s'tuQy nas u~um~!3n. an L['U!~, rnapp]ng ,® - I~rm

,remarbble t,e%t~ thougb much remains to be done, The Ifdfort has

'L C: :~I'· d b '" "",l. th ilk n - L."iL"

neen :tacu:l'taJ:e.. 'y 'some ~ij[nplaf]sQ:n"s \iVlu;t 0: ". le,r t~'~ts, !~Iy l'-.U ZIJ.IW·Wa.n"

wmch lUl:w pennitJred t1;8 t~~ u~(ijkl in. deta~ the unveilings aad ~dothiDP ¥lirul ~clf"ivird\ry, the ,t~ophames of maj~sty ~ and the the~phanie$ ~f beauty th~t filled. the m,editalcio(l'lS ef Ri~bibi:n .. It has also been irrtporttmt to, use the ~d~n~ !If. the '~agi5gr.·hies~ Ilm'UY'Q!) chart ~ett,er 'the CQ11~lme l()rR:U2bih.a:n)~ h~Btariealle~~ and ,p~tly to e~11ie:are Rii':l,d,iban iro--mme .image of eainrhood in 'which his descendants tried ~~ID fix b~$ S"ir.i~lilility. Their limiLtt~ eapaeity .proha~,~y made the transmission of his, injighlt1i :~mr.!,ossibl,e 'Withm the ru~sltitu.tioftal r~ork. of an org~~d SuS. o(l;,der" It 'VVa~ always possibli€' 'for ind1iV]d.llaJ~ in tbe g~fi. traditioll), ~ enOOOJl~ 'the: legacy 0'1' RQzb,fllin in 'l1l1€ ~rQDE of one t~~d or another, and the mmustript~ of 'his 'wrIcin~ 'have been preserved and tr,ansmwttoo in IrM" 11lclm~ C-:entrru Asia.~ NtDrtb. .Afliea~ .E.g)Pt; and S euthe aste rn EUI~C1f;pe~ It :rus

• • 01.;1.-. lv i :"'L_ ] • ..L 'k. . ;, ,-

1W'~lC tnat on ''1 m tne tate 'twl~tiei:ji"l oontur]l [las n~ become possible

·ru..ll...,1) ~I- f e:. _.e: :u.. m: - b:;;:u..:~ ,. .. L.. f

.~ l:e~ml~;l€l u'le '\rVOfli" 0 OI~n;s' ~UCu ,:[8 ~UZ- '~w'n,. 1TI ane OO'lloo~t (')";'

humaJ~tic ~nquiry in ~~ unt~ersity ,mthef than. in the meditative ~tn1oophere of the ,~hJllfi hoepiee, mmough. .a'~w· J;n,00],ern Suf.ll, '~Jead=s

~I~'O • h . . :i1" '[) 'L;a~ -

PR'S'e'nit ,3" w.;.een lu:.tereiSJt .. In t,·~, YIiTlillL~~, nil' ,~Uzu~~~~,.

Th~ emphas'ls ~f 'this, ~t~dy' has been upon th.e :reoo&lery qf'me :ruystieal ]ife' of R:{i:z·bihiu,. ·particulaxly.· hi$~ 'visi0wary 9perience~ 'whi,ck is one of me most ,e'xtr,aordiluu~y eases e,f its ktmd in mystical UterarrUf€. :Slut P !.irmp& I!, '\!vtiuld be fitting to close Mm a nod to, the h-agiogra:~h1.c tra,ditiou" .acknowledging that M1Iils'llirn saints i\!cmeve thewt status De,t only by m,ts.ucw experieupe but ab-o tbrou;g;h ,the dev;g~i~n of their fo:lcrwers,. So it IS that :RJ}zbiba.tCS- ~a~t-gt,andSlij!n

~l £ _ 1 n- t.. 1Il..:'. • P . ~!"'

~ nara . W-Llln' ItUlO,gtZe:S ~1S ,anee'S~fjr In ~ . I' ,erSlan ~;yftc::

The peao~.ofGod be '~pon the St:1g~ ,O'f ·Ro. zh:rubi,H for the

. .,. .. . ... , ' r the l' ,.. R" ~ b"-

LreaSUf"jl 0: ~: t SO~S mYSLen~, IS . 'Q-Z JhaJl ..

Lo"\~"S~ p~~1lun,~,_ G~~ln~s. from '~he dust of his, shrine ~ go, and l!Vltb ~eyelashes sweep H1.'e, theeshold of Rflz bHlin" KnO~f :fOlr certain that ·theY· ,giv'e' you freedom. from the ·\vorld if th,~ give yo~. l~f~wen, from the. table of'

Ru Z<~l·it...,5. n -

_' llJ.;J ,[,~~, III

T1h,tg .bidQ,en '~_hin,gt3, ~ait are veiled :fro~. the' sight of men are open.~ by 'God"~ gI'avec:, to the vision o:f Ruzbih§in., The knowers ·pf n~aIruty are :firm1:y aware that the :key to _ the treasure fif maJirie.s .is the: tongue nf R:ilzbihin~

The secret :meal1ing o:f III am the Truth" and the

m·'!jJ;_-.I!!:·"""Ii""!D" ..... f· uG' '~I b . .. Ii' .. ::~ d

~1 aL'IL,'_: J" !d\_ ., .. 10ry,~· '!dO _ :~f:: lS, not tln\lEru.~.. ~X)Cept

when explained by Rllzbihin.

8h~mf~ tho~:gh ~ child of :his by d~~cent, :rus mS6 the: v,eIY

least {jf the slaws: of .R''uzb.U:rui:IL 4· ~



A di A'

P~ pe "n" rnx s: ....

'-- . : ," '.' - " _ _:_ .:_- -,', _" '_ "

Th c 'W····.··,· .. ·'··nt ~ing.~r:' 0" f R··', ~ zbih .. a:'" n Ba qh: A',··",·.·'·

, .., u __ ~, S . ~~ c_uzu ,~ _ _-,. ., . _DOl" ,,'


T'l... G t bi .... J·:: .[..':: ~.~.~ a_ d ihe th . .. f R bib

.ne nest ,': ul!JJograp.ui!JJl,:dII. I~uort:l, to ,: escn 'e tne 'vn'lttng5 '0" ,,:~uz:: .L[.ta'l1

are 'tOUmld, :in the 'b~dgl".a:phi~,$ 'Written b~' his ·~o!Jjg Sharaf .a~,":D~,n Ibri~b:lm and Shafllrs a]-,Din ~'Abd ,a1=U;~if. Sharaf al ... :D'in observes in the :6rst ,Chap'tet of TUkfot ahl' al:- '~n; that some :sixty-,o,?d boo~ '~ere ~mtt'el~ br' .·~e s~a;y~; 'but 'Cbat m;any of them wer-e .rirus_persed after hIS ·death~ .He hlWS.elf: etl[a]fi1_etare~ twent)t'-:t·wo ~tru'tJeg in the '6r~t chapter of his bwography} di:vidwng t·hem. into the

ICUstfl!t"t'li'!illnJ' ~'n~;;:!! ,t')of' Our'ani ., .... 00. mm ~~,i'-..s.rv ~¥li'Jt. Islam 'I;'C law ."' ..

_, '_ JI;"JI\I. .... ...." .. _ 1:' :5,.... JI. ..... '" "'-'!'. ~I,A G, "'-" .. \tttU, , ~_, ~'~1'" ft~fUit:'); J;:;i(lI!1, .. Al, . , "

j'l!JrisP,ru-den.c'f; and :Sufism~ 2 In the fifth ,c_ha.pb~!~ elf ti"u;' same W(i'irk'~ Shand:" ,aJ-Dln. ,a.ue~ts a mere cQm.p~ehen.~w.V'e ~ppr,O<~t.h t,O the:

_.'L 1,~t ... :; ., • ....]1: •. .JL.... 'h. '" L ... 1 :~...:!I.-

:nlaym.l, s Vi/n.-tings; wv1l:W;~g tt~em ~n to tnree eiasses aOCdluing te

IlL ~..J! l~ "I. a, .:J11:='f.'C 1 . ...:a. '~II n .' ., 'L" ilL.

thesr audrences: J me mo,se. ~jJ)lCU~ r any JlJOdty 'Y'llltm~" W'li:lCw:w most

people cannot UndefSQncl;, 2) ehese .intend·eli 'for Swfi mRst,ern; S) those meant ·fo:r the reiptls :~bQ1a!fSl. H~ dam. not, however attempt

.,",,1 .:-i·fb 'R La...' • • . ~ ., I""PL... ..L

'00 .(;il3J!~;r-· .'. 11 Z'uiu;U, s \m'ongs by' the:se·'nj~ 'QYJ.,et'

'I. .. J. h 8' ..... "............ _·1·n-::.: • 1D."i:".,i'i, ~ I -, ~ ,.- ,. .'L .... 1 f'

[M:~gr,ip\ ~'ef ~. :'. narns I~.= v:mn. Wi ai, ~j'.tW~,., li[k:e~e pu~s tne to'!l!.U 0'.1

:RuzbihatJ1)s. 'writi_n_g~l at SiRty-codd,", giving s~1Dstaut12d e~tta"OU, from sixteen.~ but he lists forty tid~s,. $c Ibn J unayd ShIra zI illisa \~en'o/'-

·'·:1 4 TIIk.. ,. 1.~ -l~ f ·",1 .' . fbed i

nine nnes, ~ .nere JIS aise a. ,1St -or "twIemty""\sev~en uues mscrmea l~.

a plaqu·€ ,on a wan ,0:( the restored tomb of]tu ~tibihil1. in, Sh:~ra~.~' My cona~tion Qf these sources yie~ds a tota~ ~:f :far:ty-fi~ titles m-a;[ can be feH,aJi),ly .assigned to R.l1z~bmilm; of these, t1gh~'eeD no lon;gt!r survive, lealving' ·mre:ney·,"Wen texts (nin~~e~n iu ,i\ra.blcj, leight ln Persian) w.ho:Uiy or p3!"rtid~,¥ preserved ~fl manuscripr, The: ti[]~s, below' ,~J;1e, cOOted I~ooo,.ding ~ their ~U'm~e'r~l1g 'in the lists of 8:n;ar,d :a,W=Di'fID ,If:l.d Shams al-Dtn (,as .pubHahed. 'by Di[Wis!b:-PlIzhu b in Rfi:~j,i~n nam~), 'M'[h, cu"ft,f!ft't infQi1Jl'ation ,albout the 13\~__guia!e: of 1~:xt2Ul.t works, extracts, k110Wn. n~anu .. ~Cdpts, and '6(riitio.ns,,, Als@ listed aj;~ d.~tails of th!t two, biographies ztn.d several 'wt)·F'~S .dubiously ,aJ!lri.buted 'CI@I

'D-:-'-'b"·IIl..,=~·· TC;-;·· .... 1'. " -, alehab Iii'~ d ' .. '""L}·. ,"'hi ...... ~ '.' .m,tL.,. t AU~, nnan, . rues are a. pl'Jij.,e,~ze_ ea ..... 11 ,~~a;lj,.c ..... gQry wi U.,[]!JI!]j.


Riizb~hin Ba~,n

reference to the definite article al~ or the terms iili/J (1fllbo~k'i) 0If' mala e!treatise",). PubliBh~d worts, are described wn full in the bibliography ;,

TUlJfot ant ai~~rfln. by Sharaf ,a], ... fnn Ibrah~ru~

R. Rll~ ai··:iinan by Shams al .. D'in 'Abd al .. ,La;pf

ft. ... .''' -,. -~ ~ EXep',egis. ~~ ,,;me ~-~ D ~~.

1. ~m ls ,(i:l-,bayill1.1f bfifJ:a. ~iq at=,qur'an l Tile Brides: qf.Elplo,1l4titl'n on flu Realities q.f tke .Qyran.< (Arabi,c: T no. 2'~ R no, 2)...

Extracts; T '6:~~81; R 2~2-58

,,'or fl~U iufol1ll;ati.on abou IDitho,~tapbed edmtions~ ,over' 6r~ MOYm, MSS,. and .3.. partial critical edition and translation, see the forthcoming W1o,tk of Alan GodlIDas,.

2; l.a{rt 11 al:"blglln min tq{tiT (Jl-gur'i", I The· of Exp/arlation r;o\mmmtitlg. on .Ute Ci.¥r'ln {Arabic: T ~O. I, R no, :] ).. . _ _ _

'. : ragments discovered by G()d~as mll be described in a f().rthco'ming study


3. ,ai=Mflfon-i,! fl J~ al~a'ilJl71M' Kgs m JJu: C~mV ~n the ,. AtabL: T no. 4~ R. rto. 2' l],

~ III • ~ ,

': ,ot extant.

4.. ,Sluzrk ~in (J,t=koditk lTIM Commentat')J1 ~n .. the Hidilm ,CJJRttwf{ rf lJatlflA {A'mbic:' T no, .a;, R no, 3).

Ex.tracts: T l81--92', R :258'434

MS: Mar~~ud]i~,. Qum, dared 8,95.1:1 490

(. "-~.!-l S.uuDM; " aw

5. ''lIm al-jari'iq'lT1lc Samet: ef'~tit5 (R. no, 29)..

I .. ot extant,

16,. (Jt~MuwaJlulMJ!,l The ~~fmnntnt (Ar,abic:: T' ,nOI, ~,; ,R, no, 1 '9)",

'E" . 'f'i;;.a i1~· R ~ 17-:- - ~I 0

, !Xiu:, !,.!jo; .::..;;J! . ~ ,w. 0


.~pend]K. A


1. td-:/faqll l'.fii~(aqi 1dlThe ,&.aliJie.s in ,fAt Cree4 (Arabic: It no, 15)m ,Extr,act.s;, 'R 2-80

ft ,(ll-lntiqa;dftl~~tJ,qfuIIThe Value of lkli((R. no, 3,2)]1 Not extant,

'91• Masilik ,al-ctlw/fi4! "lie PaIAs q{ U,~itp O!r- MaslaJr: ,ai-taw/fEd I TllfJ Path

rI Uni~ (Arabic:: T oo, 36;. R no, .~~). _. ..

MS: Ahmet SaIDis 1460/35b-.56Ia Topkapi Museum Library, Istanbul

Edl.W.don:: P. Ballanfat~ fO'fthooming.

PriDclples ,ot jran •. pru.dence'

10. ,al-IrtkadlThe 'GUidM-CiJ (T no, 16,; R. ne, 22,)., N,ot extant.

.. ~. ,fJ.laMgti~J11w,~ ~ no, 2!4)~

. ,at ex:fa'- It,

Laaguage and, Gr.amrma~E'

_. . • " ;;c,. I .~ ~.l /. n..';:J '.~. '''''""''' fD .'. '3' "gl\

12. ,ai=:Hidaya J. dm. a~rttui~tW"· ~~e Ul 1;j.l11~ \,A,"" no, . ,'. '"

N or extant,

. 3'· ./j'i~A..(';~~,;,~IfJ-;ad(liullTke Path to C-Ol1DtlRes ~. no. .33)',.

- !i' ~~: ;t1g~~MU\Ji~ ~. ~ ~. . \IL~

Not extant,

14. T ~fi. .Kishi jil~ lTm: BOtJk on G(mj~atii!J.~ (R no, '''O~.

N:ot ,e:K'ta:Of.


15 .. ~blu!it al"·'iskirPnlTht.]a.smine 'rU tJi.e Ltmds (persian: .. no, 32" R

·1IF!i,O· Q~I ,w~.~ til I~'JU).


.yasofla 1959

Dr. ,Kh~ veri) 5hirn;z~ 12th c.

Konya Izzet KoyunO,g]u M-UZlesi; KutUphine kismi,. fOO.


Majlis~ 2a11 131; dll~d ~2'OBll7~4' Malik. 3;971/4" dated 128611816.8

Ni matullihI liibr.ary, Tehran, 2 . ". 'SS

Tehran tJniversi.ty 41}QI1 ~ clat·ed 12'431'1827


H C·' 'L._,. . d 'M'I 'M ,t... IT h '~IIIi1i~'@')'

., " .D.fUrUJ an ' ,c I" " .n.-In \ ... ·e~-'~n; ~~.20 '.

J. I, iiroakh~h. (T ehran, :[349/ ,1'971 ),

Traaslarion: H. 'Col'bh'1 (French);. ch, l only (Tehran ~ 1958}J :pp., ~ 12~'26,

:~, ,6. DtZUm;-i;' md. 7ir:jfl Ai;J;gtit;(l.i Poerm (p'ersian~ T ne, 41 s R no. 20).

Ex.t:r.aots:: 15J, 99, 122:-3, 1; R lpl ~B, '~:1' '~~ s, ~ ss, ;2 3 7'--4{)~1 :3 24-

41". 343-45

M·· r ·~'~',·

_ .. -·~UII

Kaura lZzet K,oYl.~n~"glm:w MijJ} Ktitiiphine kismi, :('Ol8,. 66bl""'"7',3b

Excerpts On 'marrgW1l1s of DiiJ"M:=i "~=i DfM~a~ (d" after 11 :3,51 :~ 123-=2'4}, Eth~ f169,31 Br4.,a~ India. 'Ofllce Library ~ London

EX~ctrp~5 ila Ask~\r-i mid~a'i :E'cht '1747' 168b~ India." Offke lJbraryl London

UCtrp~s ilJ another aJw'thclo,gy, E'th,e 1766l30~) India Office' Ub(f,ary, Leoden


N. Heea, Ru.<:b~ ol-&U;lE' (Is~n'~,'!il" 197: l], pp, :~,,21-3~l. M~ 'r, ,l\Gt (S:hitaz, L3541 1'915), pp~. 5,2'-HB.

G~ Arya (Tehran, 131613l1984)~ pp., 78-=12'2~

1 7',. GJuzlalJ~ .(j/t-~il!in lTlw' Emrs, tI ~ Wq].fi1rers· (p~rsian:' R. no; JGB).

Exu~acts:' It, 3,]. 5-} 7'

MS,;: Ni,~ma'rtdm~hrn, libr.ary ~ 'T ehran, dated 822'.1]. of N 9 KdHd6n~~ J ~ N G,rl~aId1s.h~. Ri$ilat ,rJl~qudr; wa ,1liaitJ4ll,l ~t-s7ilAm:

[Tehran, ']. 35 :ll'.1 '9ij 2), ,pp., S 1-1 Q2'., H(J;;:;ar u Jik maqilm. See Mas/n:fI/J al-,mBli~t

IS,. HiJA7a~ 1l1"=1)i,'rS~s tit no, 2j)O' ,='. ot extant.

al- /gIiltna. S~~ S:harJ~; ,~l'..JpJjub :rtml-asmrfi ~imit alit' al~;n~t wol aJiaf. 19," al-"lrfirufi kna:iq' rli-iIMftt1!lGnom ,(}H du: Cr.e(ltipn of HummJ.itY' (i\ra'bic:

R no. 10).. Extta,~ts: 'R ;2 69~'7' 1

,A .MS discovered b~' Godias 'win be described in a .fQr.'tbooroing' stlJ.]dy~

20..~:mt: ~l1flCft.1j; l'lfte TteQJlttw' (! '~do~;f,' (R. no, 3;8)r. :N at ,e~utant

~ 1 :~,,,,,l~:f ~'~n,~o£.,""I'P -; if r.~,!i'I\ilfl:'.rt"fJjJ A_I" t":,",~~,'\i" t . .Ji; .. rabi "f". - 'IIfIi,O ?"S"· 'R:.. 'IIfli.A .,;1)

,.(_ ~. i!l ~I~~'ltl ~t· ~if ~I' :. .1 I~ V-~"~~"'~~~~-""'aJ ~' ~,~'I~ibJl ~r,u ' .. _. ,. ~,. " ,~,II! '_ 'II! ..:} '_ ,. •.. ,W.W,Ulll ~"Ill

buacm,: 1.3, 33,;. R :Ui,1--74, 232-,3,3:; 3,50


Mashhad 829 (ca:talog IV~ 220; no" 911,lJ; dated 10641'1654

M- <!ii ,;ej!!,:0Cn1"""i!"1i\ iD~ ~,,,, .,.;1."" ,;;:._....JI ~'6 ~ /. '~I '~uG'~

~~ ','" ~~.;!i.II';~,&'Lt.o\'!II~ I' riU'l'W~~ UU!l!..el,W. U .. ..;; ,W; 4,!!IDU


p" ~8alillla'r.rfa;t!, fQ,:rth:c0 min,g.

NT. Hoca, Ru;;hiMn al- B~fi (Isitan'bul, 1 ~11' 1), pp" .~ 0,3='18 (abrid~d velrs:ru,on), from. MS in :Kon:~ :EzZitt Koyundglu 'Mu.'z,es.i, K.'itilp:hine Wsmi; .59a-6!Sa.,

P. Ncwyia~ 'in al-:MasitriJj LXN l~!j .(19 iO)~, pp. 3,85-406 (albrld,ged version), B,ased. on :US from Baghdad copied by :na;M~;sh lj'ai.san. ibn '~'J\ll :a1,~l{b:ilw,aJIt1 in 112\6;/1? 1 ,4,; also bears ~a;me of ShayJkh ,$ha'b[fi Q.astamfi~i,


P;. BaDRn.fat CFr,mcll)" :furmcoming,.

C,., &mI$t~ 'Tlj.'e lktwili'W of ~ets (Chapel Hill NIC,: ,f!awatdi,gcftr.

Press; fOftlle,omWng),.

2:2. u''i:li al~iima lfJeo:,U' rI' W~dom (R no, ;H5)" Not i~~tant.

23,. L.awimi aJ-,m~iJl D.laslres rJj' Uni~ (~bjc:: '1' no, g,;" :R nD", 8).

ExtTIti:t~\: n. ;iH34--66

MS.:' Ahmet SMs 1 '46{Oll-S,5,a,~ T~pkapl, Mus€um. Library; Istanbul

EdirltOn:' P,. 13a[~anfalt, flQt't~c@:mrul1g,.

24. Man#f tl~~turir'/ Tlw, lqf'~lillg~ if ComcWM;iS (Arabwc: T' ne, 7; It ne, ,2:5)..


Ma'shhad 15,6 Qikma:t 1] ,kaii'M (ca~a1~gue I~ '4l1), da,~d 11451


Masbhad 8~ 1 I. (cata~Qgue iv, 1 !tH}!)~ dated 1 064{ ~, '54 Massi,gn.,n, Paris, dated 665 f 126~

Tsshkent, (enddelcl 'rpr al'=s;iD:flJ!J!iil' hi-lM~ al-~~l ,~10ny.rnous)

Ediban:: P Balanfa:t and C" Ernst,. :f~rthcomm«,.

2S.Mttqi'lS a;l:"smne;iJ/'The .M~tes. Of wlEilMg w M~ (f no .. ,~O; R.

no" 213)~


26 .. Masntt!le (JJ~/11K SpinlJ s Font! ~,:kn~vm by the :P;enlan title Hazjr 1J.:.ylk 1fMDl7iln J 1 fJ(;ll' Sttt'tWns {Arabic:. It nOI. ~ 1)1.

ExtrnC't$: ~ 27 :~-1'1

,Apflem:lx ,A

MS: I~lif~riba1!d1' 'GerDJeJ KiJU~ph'n~si 152:911;; copied in 8121' 140~t

1O'_.,,]" • '1('1' H ,hi' b .'~I '& A "'1'4\

lUul(10f1iJ: ,1~.. "QCB. \-Il.stan, leu; ],:~ 'r: ,1m

2''7,. M'iuJzllj al-qnwflli", lTJ~il Filth tf tAft /JiJS~Itks_ (R no, 31) ..

Not extant.

2.S~ Minhij ,al-§llWtJ. or M~tiIlgi at~saliJ~J!; I Tkt' Ram ,t' ,d;;g 'W~farers (ruabiic': T }lQ" 3'9 ~ R no. 12)"

,:Extracts,: R :22,2~ ,27'3'-'76

2'Ql. NidclU tl:l-'llUttas"awwifa al'_hllfhi'fl~~" Ris~ l(l~/StitiS:t~ Points of Rit~i"lit1: (pe:rsian: the l~dco(n fronjJ. ,Shr;;il~.-·i sha#~!r:N~ ciJoCulal1ted ~e,paratdy).

MS:: :Suppl~m,eJlt Persaae 1 ,s,5 :~, l148b-166b~ Paris, dated 891l 14,Sl-:i' (Bl[n:m~t' rv, 200~, no, 22.5{J)

30. {!Jph~ R~iile.l ai- or R~:Xil(!;~ ai:'..f~lJ!Yt!1 The T'rmtif€ ~n ,Holiness' {perm~: T :O(L 4:2;, R, no, 7)~,

E~U'aets,: T 19--21; ,R, 2'2'1~3'O


lS'~~'[lbul 'U'l1l:vel'si~J!, 144l5~ da'~~, 9aOl [57'26.3

Konya h~e.t Kaiytl,no,gIu M'lb~e:s]" KH;mphane :lIdsmi~ fob~

7A1 ~ Ci,Al,~ TlQr--=;:1-~rt.l

Khiv€r1 (bnectiQn ~ S,hi'rntZ:; dated m:(j~5J '~, 1655 Majlis, B21121, Tehran

M~ 402'0/1 ~ Tehran, da:ie~ 10 1,5:/ :~, 606 Miutjsa 'Gene! KitapJjl l489

Mashhad (catalogue IV, 3'~ 4)

Naisi 373/5], 6rifiOH; Tehran, dated 1024l.1615,

Ni ~mamJlah_i :tibmry, Tehran, 3 MS:S;, one da'ted ,8,'221 :~, f 19',~,

..l ..:all 'D31/'~11 AI '0 7 0 ...... ...]! d

o,n~ ua~~ ~:i' ~,' ~,~~, '~j one nt...ui1lte:-

SIU!p'pltmmt Persane 13,5,6/:~ 60JY= ] 951b, Paris (Bloch,e~, I,

12''2') no. 1 ,5t91), da'~ed 8'7 '7,1147.2-,3 .


N8lj1b ,al,~Din. Rj"i,,,,yi, Tabrizl, ,&b~' al~dtSttl (S:~, 1 ~l4,2'1

'~Ir.a,(:l.~'_ .. (\ p'lJfl, 9:.'.11 AL.::.cQ!O,,) on H'\V<"50'~:iII'1io~ "~4;::J-T;.'J ,. ",r'l. a~~;;J~f~ y __ J'~'~~~_jitil~lI!-lIl~!I

J,. Nurhakhsin (Tehmn, ,~, 35~, lI912) ..

Q ] ~v1. ol;,.)io""il'~' I, ~,,;, S':~~;";f '-iI#·,jl,~, ~~" /1): no ~,}-

~ ~, !! a~~ ~!PiI!~' -I' iFi4.1.~' ~; 1;,* ' ';PIN ~ If(} IUU;; ~yc~1l ,~, ~~~ " ,'VI. .J _' .\!]

:N:o[ extant,

3:2. $a~t mashli/nb' ~1;.,u1ujlTkR ~mlGJl~e' Dj"fJUJ FiJnt.s d',lf!de (T no. ,3'l;. ~k ne, '37).

NOit. 'eJ(;ta:nt.

,33,. SWwal ,(ll~ a.fitirpnj TIM lJ:m81Jl ICOMfJ/atirm, (T no, gB;~ It. no, 30).



3rBw Sllu4~ mr:{ilwa'imlThe Commmm~ on, die Tawi;,;nn (Antbmc:: T no. ,fJ;.

R. no, 1 '4)~

Part of Mfm#q al-asra;r, circulated separately; Deft extant in this ·fiOlnn.

39 'T::f:.,/;' J' c~ /"T1.. r";~:"J.I ']If' ,d .... en' . (" 1L.. - ,

I., ,j 'U'9,'a/: at-'lu:an: .l it(J. ,(Tv~~ ''!J me [ ~-,-;()s:tu:S __ efsma_=:: ]nat!ll~na:WI v rse) .

. . S: Istanbul U nivers~ty 5 3Bl18~ dated .8.26/1423


M. T. D.anish~JPuzhfib .RlizlJiJaan nama) pp .. 3,75--8,6, ..

,G .. Ary~i) $Iif9kh-i sh(l~'~~. ehran, 13,63/1984), PP'. 1 :23-33. 4{Jr. rrlif~; at'=muljW·Ofn l ne Gifii of tfu u'()Q1S 'Amb~c:: T no. 94; R no, :~.3).

Extracts:' R. ~'"i 6

f I .. (J'l-" rfi~l td=qt(l/;~llntlm'(Uy in till Spirit ifHo.ii'MSS (T no" 30[' R no, .34) .

. ot lextallt .·-ossib~y the $am, as R'i..fojaJ) al-q-udS)., 42,. "Uqfid o.l=lti'iIiISt'rings. Of A(J1,l$ (R no" .:l51),

,'. ot extant.

43". al- ~awajj'it,. lfltabl71'fJ Book of tl (. -'. .aJ],i,e), inspired by ·th. Kifib

a~~m ,of' :I;IaJlaj. -

Extratts,: ]t 2 76r-7 9

44~ Prayers (Ar.ab~c).

Extrnct:s: :R 8 is-is 45'., (P'ernian).

Extracls;: T 11 7-21" R 31'9-:24


1, TuJyiJt (J)hl' al- 'itja n J dh.ikr ~»ifl ,~l-a,{i,h Riil;biJianl Th~' Gift qf (Jl.'e' Pe.rJjJlt- f/.Gno.ruj in MRlWry q{tltrt' ChiifAxis ~tAe 'World Ril;;iJiJzin, by Sharaf al ... D1n. Ibr.~ him ibn ~dr al-Dtn &fi-zblliin I.' (persi,an). MSS.~

:~~f'aJjk ~20~ Tehran dated lOru5/1606 N~'~~matu~maJli library" Tehran, dated 13'01/1942

S~~) a.;,q~d, by ]vana:\V~ ninthlfifteenth. cent, ((mgtl~enta.ry).


M D·_ .. h- Pu t..-iiJ,. R-' .j.~l.-' - rr h 13'" '17/'196' 9')

. . . .·aulS· . - " Zntl.lI:.Ii!~ . ~R..i!pu.tan nama. \ .!a. e . 'mn~ . '. .:, _, ' : '. ~

pp. 1 .... 14fl

]., -: iif1~&dl5h - ehran, 1349/ I 970).

2" Rl.lJ,. al-jUtll1zJi Sinli al-slrtgAh Rflz/Jikalz/1lu! Spin't._ oJ IiuJGa.rdens~ tm the Lifo rtI~ litc' Master Ri.!ilm«i·n;, by Shams al-,Din 'Abd al- La:~i:f


Appendrux A

']brw ~adr al-Din Rii.zbihan II (persian)..

". ~. Ak .... ademia ,,~ 11'''!Ii'1'1i- D··JitII~i6-',_ .. ninarad5

_" '~I! ,~_~~, "', ~1L;£!K., .. ".~.J ",1 i, ~ .' b~'" .'

Edition: M~ T',. Danish- Puzhuh, RizJiIliill .MflU! (Tehran, 1 Sc41 I 1969[), pp., 152-3'10.,

'Wo·:rks dubie'.sly 'RI.ttrib'lilt,ed 'to, lbiZ:bihad

1. ,ai .. AIJa¢iyyll-c. /12~alall The ~. rcalise on Si1t:g(tme-ss ( .. s. . abi ).

. :: , .. : !Sehit A.l~, Pasa 1 g,90/ 78-1 008., SUJleinlani:¥a~ . slanb1!l17

2'", ai-Anwar ft· ittLv/if al"...tlS1'Ia.rlVu: Lights u~veilmg (Jie' SeCJets {A:rn.bic)", MS:: Tasbkem 2'5;78(2, dated Muha:r.nml 789/1.3878 entry and its title are m'i'S~en conjectur:es of the' cataloguer m Ballanfat has concluded d]Jat this is part. of another treatise,

3. Bqpa'1.i ,al~lQ,qam(jJ/The &jJltmtlrWn of $tatJ.OllS (Arabic: a. tT\· arise on one hundred spiritual states).

MS:' Tashkent '2578/4; dated M:u·i;tal"ra.ll1. 7'S9/ru 38'7.,9 Brulanfat has" ·xamined. this and Co nd it to be erroneously catiJ.ogued~ it is instead the Ta,byr~al~qa,mQ;t' of~')Ji" al ... DI.a;wIDa Simnani. ·4," Shh'rh :Sir" ifil~WliluloJI The ,C(;imm61lta;ry on Me Sfcret (til' OnfffieS!l1J

~ ~ ~ ~ ~J

"ext by ·&Uzblhin. and commentary bY' Sadr al-Dfn iQuna:-wi

(Arabi)~ .,

'MS T,.;, b -] U· . A' b Y tQ5'l..1 ]0

. ) c.: Istanbul _ mvenJJ:y ~ ._ ~ ra ·iYa.·um.a ;Jl z; o.Jr •.


1. T.~ al,t at- ·itfo.:fl~ 'p. 18,.

2. Ibid~, PP'. 1.8-19.

3.. RfJ~; al:iman~ :p. 2 ~ 1~340 {atr-.acu)~ 341,~45 (tides)~ .

,4., n~r malZi1', pp", 29(}-91; M~s~gnon~ ~~la. 'V:"e/~ :pp. 45'7'-51, rglliv:es a lryo:rki!l1g list of manascrlpts of Din" te~~u,.

5 Wr~ Sk(Jm-i /ii,' second photograph ,after Pl. 20 (one tide ~ al=lfntJlJt,.,

ia listed 'h~(:~ iJJS no. 13, and a,p~n. as no. ] 8). _ _

6. N'~ D. Mildukllo M:aJda~~ (~pfJ&~;bJ 'Ta:d~kiIih i PersitbfriJfA 1WJtQpisei :ltuti'luta }larodtJ'1J A..e~ii ,'. loscow; Mzd.ate.11stbeVQs,ttmchnoi Literaturi,

] 96,1), .11, 93-99'. _

1. Osman Y,~hia~. .Hi:sI!Ji~ Itt .(:mssi/it.atWn dB l~_~ d~llm ~rabi (~' vuls,."

Damascus: bi:Si~l~ut FllllU;:aruS, de I :.ama:sl) l 96~),. I, ] 4*5:, tal~ng the W(H;i1_ "ina ~,ee ."

8. A.···. Semennva, $r;bmnie Vosmdmikh Rulwpi.sei .Aka,Jtmii - f\~k .U;:bekikl1i SSM rTashk:ent. l"l.;dateJ.'iS'tvo Jlkad;elnjjNau~ U!Z .. 8,.$.,R., ~ 96.5)~ 1]1" 1 7'0, no. 2' ~ 88,.

R Ibid ~ m, 1 77, no, 2' .89",

'] 0.. Corbin, Introducdon 'to ~bJl_ar al~ ~'ibki4i'll; pp. '90=---9].,


R- ~i .b ih :- .. " ':: T' .:' .. -':. C' ..... , .. , 'j'YI" '.-'-" " tar '. ".:': I th '-". ,uz ,', I la ,. ,S . wo " . ,OfnDlenlanes on I l_ce

"Ascension n of Abu Y azid al-Bistami

13e'~OlW is gi,ve'ml_ a 'tabula'f comparison I~.f 'RlJij zll~ha n's two commentaries on th.e.'vWsion of Abu Yaztd often, called his "ascension" (mi~iiJ).. The Arabie ori,ginal is found in. 'the Ma'U~iq a'lasrar :'.' S Massign,on, fot 67b-6Ba) and its, Persian translation is njwen in the Skarn-i' sltalkiU'ilQ;l (no" .36,., P'O;. ,s] ~82), althoush the t\+vo

,i:jF! -.Ii III II r:;T/" ,;! r ~.&

texrs on~Y' partially corr spend, . : ese are arranged in tile

,. ~ 1 rd f th ~I:" • 'h,.:r 'R' C' Z' '1.;. '!' 1 'f

numencar '0:, er 0 . ne nnes as gtven uJ ,<' .'. ..: aenner s ana yrns,

of the ascension narrativt (Hindu and Muslim Mysticism, Appendix B..I, pp. 198~ 1,8), with some changes to my 'previously published translation ,et the Persian (w:o.r~ o.f&tasy 2n S-¥/ism'~ Appendix, pp. 168-6gl)~

Lia.e PersillD tr,ansJ.aiion 342 ,AJbu. Yazld said,

343 llIn unicity

3,5.l. I became I: bird

3,5,2 (wilt~h.) body of oneness 3,5,3 and 'Mngs of [eyenasthlg-


354 was Hying run an atmo ...

h '. h ~ ~) , .. J!'"

S}) . ~r-e \-vtt:out \sic: quanty

for some years

355 un:ti~, I entered an ,abBa ... spher{e .. AAtt that 3:000- spbe1re (;n) whlcll I was,

3516, I fl,ew -a mili,on times :in that atmosphere; until] entered the plains [of pre-eternity ~

I saw the tree o:r oneness,

."- ..... b- .,. _'iII

~a_: lie onpna:..

Abu Y,az,id also said,

"~At B'rst I went to unkity and became a laird,

whose body 'was, pf oneness. and whose ¥Vi .. were o( everlastingness,

I kept fl~ng in the' atmosphere of quality for ten years

tlnill, I \i\i"ent to an atmosphere like. that

a. bUfldrled mlllion tim~s.' kept Hying'

[In-til ] W€P,t 00, the p1ains of

:pre-eteIlI~,ty .

In it, ] sa.w ·tbe tre~ of oneness .' ~

R'-' 'b:-IL-. ~ B '!it:: , U:Z - :u'J'an 'aqlllw

It bad its r()~D!'t in the earth of erem~if!y and its 'bntnth. in ,.,''''_ e atmosehere '0, ~ 'f: - pn ""~-

'Ill - ~ '~-r U •. r - ." .... 11:.

.. - "lr"L, , (,.. f d

elterruty. JL u<& truns 0- aat

tree' \'fel'ie' Majestr and Bea~uty. I at~ the fr-ui!ts of '[hat tree,

\iVhien I looked wen~ saw tll3.,t all 'was trick up10n

lck 'ill -


IIJil .1,_ ,Ill

lUI wag R)ri,~g by the H~glu: of et~rrd.'ty ,and subsistence in the :m,y;st~ries, of the depth of etJllt.n"ity, seeldng urdotJ] \vidl the re;ali,ty l~f eternity," And that ID$ th~ meaniroog of his :s,ayin,g,~r !~'1. ke,pt :Hying in the ,a~mtJ~ph,ere of quality :apd of no 'q"u;a}i~m'~i IrilQf no quw.ity'u ,m considered ~fiOQUsh, b~[ I willi], ~hOJW 'Y~U' how' to reach dle Umits in g;no,s:is gf' ['he known; ,W11l this, is ,3" way 'that GaBnO'~, he blbcl.ed~, and a siglht that cannot be missed, ,His- sa~ng", ~'~rOt ten ftl;f,S~

until] reached an atmos~hete~'~ ;1S, an l~'x_pr~ss'iaft1 of hils Un"erin,g in, his tJe,ginning stage, in onn,templ~bng dueD,e'S$. But this is not W~ expression of dlos€: wbt:l are -finnly sBtcl,acll;. (or ~mong them ,i~, ,is, €OflSi-d.eted. f~oHsh to cdllceive irrJJ 'rer,rJ;.t'91 '!If time and spaoe'.,

His sa:ying', Ua, 'hundred miJ]lion. times" is .an ,ohstacle to intelIeets, mlot t'Q :reaJjtie~; Uie mn~e:[~tt is ]gnor.a:nt: of ~be oo'mpreb~n$IDQn ~f'p're-ete~ ]libeS~ so .it abides 'in [external] ltaoo8;" ,tfw,e hal:ut -of e-xis~emlc~) find, the states of flesh, These' descriptio,n:s are Jikenesses


-' e said, "I [~ooledJ' and I knew that: this was WI d~ceit'n [C,,olmm,entary',:] This sa:ying is: similar to~~he finlt saying; their :me~' is one, but here his conscienee 'wefJr~ up and IDs :heJlrt came back 'Mm the nature of uniqr.

Bu.t his sayjn,g;j' ~ iFirs~ I 'entered

'UFlI~,n,i'If\1' 'n m ,Q,!l:I;':irtI,;fo "Th 'e' \fi'~iIi'

. .g:'~\.4~};. ,1\r."~~'JI _' It. ~ I L.~~I!l..

't~iag I scented w,aJ.; the ITa,,.,

~"",r-n'l"""ec ..... f- ''iI'~'Fi'~'l1\t ~ ~

5& ~ I ~v, '!,.!!, ~~~ .. }' .'

uAnd I' 'became a bird," (bat is,

n'Pii;;\f,v "'n~:r-i't ~'i;"iI...!I11 "',i"iiirn,o.;t""~""'iirn'i"";o!II1 be-

,J4.y.~·t ~ir'~~l~~' a~~tt!IJ ~VJjj-~~';J~,~-lI1~'~ : ~ -

carne like a bird

~ ch 'b..JI'~ -" ,hi'l I ~

W ,ase _ ·ou:y' 'IS sJ.'!m~'e:n€:5S. -

That rru~~n-s humanru,ty \Va:$ exchanged for the' Attrihu.t~ of

oneness "Th ~ j,'L·1iFw f

""l'" , Il"o-!L-II!~;;;;';':" : e ,aU.'OJiOrI,~,. 0 '

power conquered me and aRJI~hil2fted me, .so ,that I WM annihilared in it. Oneness sub,.. sis"t~d and ,humarr~ty was ann~hiat:ed.~' This is. also part of the stcation of 'Unm,caEio,tL,

"I ilew' 'Mth the 'MBgs, of 'UWh,fi.Se" wr-i~, WWf' of ever ..

the :~b.t ~f umty and lUtiDgness~if means, '!IGnd

· - - 1 +i '. d ........._ .... ,_~C...]I ,.

iso auon In pre- an", :PQ~t- mamtestec to' my' conscience

eternity., ,MEr I became, 'mth the light of 'e!CIr!.nUl;y' and

isolated r~om self and the Hght of ~slit.sis;L-efllce,. He

emre~e~ ,G(jd clothed me gave me 'e~emity as ,3 vast

,villi, 'the ~n nent of ever- 'body.· ~, that _';'i;!: as a nrin s» inle

.0..... ~ - . , - - -~) -~ .Jl"".' !!(..J'F ....

]asDilg)less and pre- . from Q-nene,sS,; "and he pi~

[CDUlm,en.tary= ] TIlls state is h~D'her than the 'fir~t.

~ ,

s~a;ky because there gnosis,

came ,~th the nature ,of un~ty,; 'tJrrat ,rus,




~I c,.1rJ; ,~,V,~

which he' sees in the' unvellimlgs 'of mar.n~Domce~." ~e:i.tt_n~ss~. ' :majes.ty, beauty ~ sptendo r,

.",.;:m· . .. - ~;to - -.J' 'M');6 -~ oOi

,s.wory:!i oneness, ana r~Ju~P...'"

nence, They ha:v;e DO founda ... d,nn in ·tUliry;, they ,aJ'€ only an expression from the 'hitlg]]'t of in:~oDtati~n and expansive ... ness.

Q,5'" :)._ .. t

u A. ,4 I' '11... -:'~,~...

:i'U:l:etr .. Sgu:gllJ:~t r:e;·,i:l£I,ty· :~n

dl,e d~p'chs, ,of the deserts of' q~W.i,tyt he burned :rn1{

~';i;~"na"" ";I·"':~,i-,L 'if'iIl"", .,C:......,;>. of - 'f.'!i!'._[ ." 'e;'.:Ji ~'II' .wJM 1 ~WJJ:.L ll:~~ 16 c.l .

~a'tml~5S", [ ~' ~onsum",d in, the '~I t of 'the caniUe of l~re-;~t~l;'.ID1.ity m H.~ cast the

~ ~ .

s~em,g eye mto pure pn-

~tI! ... 1~ 'U "

nUl~1;llootym Lie' cast me In

m,e endless ocean, in tbe sources of the A:ttclbntes" I

- . -, .

b - b ~ - .- .. iI!.... :a,..

ecame su ~s]!tent ,tlUf!()U,g~J.

we i\tt;Fibu~e'S. iN'

"I r€ceived tbe :~its o(F subSdtence from me lFee ,o;f etetnrity", My ,asmnjs'~m.en~. lncreased in ast,6In_ishm€nt~, $ubS'jswno~ took :roy 'hand. froomc ~nj'hill:1io.n _ r put 'OIl the garment of :kn,o,~ylled_ge~ I fell in:to gn.()f)Js, ~Vi,~, know:rn,edge" ]. saw the des~res I~f UnKpOlWng8 M~h the eyes 6'f gnDS:~S,.'fI

H" " ~ U1l' ll.,.._ '1..- d' d J('

- IS :sa::rrng~ .I wo.~e ~;) ani __ '

mew 'dlat this was all dec~r:I~


tion, II is HUe. He oijly com-

pn~hen_d~d dlJat w,hich be did,

- 'L~' Co' ~L

not w'mpre!ll,~,~n~ ,Iroiij]. i-ue- ey'~

of etern~.t¥:, less Ulan a mustard seed :~n ·~stenee .. iGod aston-

- . -



~16.l11 ,[I:. "T,

n ~I k~ew that everything I saw", all was I, It was not God, I[ 'WM, the dece,ptiort't of :m~lIifestation i~ I[ apparent] declaration o:f (Jod,'\s 'sanctity ~ Transeendenee in an Action was ~, ruse, Intimate m,sbca'~ states W{~:r-e [carnal] dl.oug-hlS,. Thoughts were :mfi,de~tie&,. God was G~clL I was not,"

That which,' he said ]n describing the. bird and the wee w,a~llan 21 ,likene&s;" The mean~,ng of I~iquatlh:;~f" was "to seek the depths ,of emm;.ty" ~'~ 'ii Ai til and

"space" are greatness upon. ~atlless; n'~ye:a-r~1 and "month il'1 a:'. re timeless time

, " . ;UI .... .,... _ _, _ _ . )

:f:@(f' muminat1ed consciences Oth~~:; what sort of ,soory is :~:t?" iEDsrenGe.


i{~es. H1~: people Cil ,g;rl!~sis \vi~ 'the plunderings, of 'frtlernity .. The. a'p,p-~:arnrn't.~ of uniciry i~ the station of ~_J.othlng' 'M.t.h d_hrin:ity is, 3,., ruse lID the people of unityJ because m their jeru'''~sy about Ood~ s oneness,

Gad, 'salid ", III,N one is ;safe from God?;S ruse' i (1 :'9'9) .. vVha;t: AbO Y·azid. 'found l'rDJ 'this Sla'lJOml was 'the ~,evem of his beginnih,g stages, JUI1~Y'd. (God have on. h~m) said, ~ni\Vhat

A.1~,'=' 'U '-'d d a, d" '.'tl,.'" :G11UU t filZl. '. . .~. eserine , :run '~~:wlS

s'tati.tDu 'w~{Hll~t part ,of the

P"ll.'~"L. Ii a\l,H.,"

is not worth .an atom in me' beat of tb~ 'w~ste;r-n, p~enix: o.f erer:rd,ty. Tem,po:raI 'forms and b@dies are not a [divi:uf:] ruse. He &d not dispID~y tbat wlrlch he 'did not give. 'He d1d nait give that wbich be did, not ~makle' known, WherrJb dle gH'G).stie {mlll in, the ocean of pre=e:l!emity; he became a .gI"ten ,dJm,p' il1, the sea of pre ... etl6:truty~ He becomes dl3!'t: ocean .. A drop fmm -that ccean takes: on the eoler ,~f tile 0 eean, so malt it is consumed in the billow' 'Or subs:tan.t:iali(y~ The $00], 'Chat is eloquent witheuta tonglJje~, ~h~ f~mlliat bearing that ,rn~ d,~a:( the :Firsr [nteiU,ect mat ms oonfu.8ed~ the nre, '~~t ,rus ]i£~],ess, the

~Qul 'tba.\t is S'''ldill,~~s~ see ftlQdlin,g but the: wrath of one of ' the, crashing 'IN'aV'I!S of the luminous eeeans ,of pl',e-eternity,. When that ocean casts the foam of 'tempQf,l]lity on thetemporal, that drop thinks that it has encompassed the ocean, ru,tb.ou-Iffij ft is more

d 'II!... Oth·

1Ii-\1 IjJlW_W~ !1! ... m~ I:'., 1;If§m:~:f.i,e-,·e

.... .". II,. - ':"__~, _ "'Ii"II,." . .' '".'~~''~_''' ,

dm~re :a:re a hundred thousand desertg of wa~ed,e$s mirage, on the of ,[\lm-, eternity, That which he nlenti,@ned concerns the ecUpM: of ~he Attribu.t,es; :if


not, iJtt. concerns rt~l,e 'ec~ip·. 8'!;'] ,~f th~ E'6lSl6iI1~~

= ' ,


'I ,t;~'." -.lLIilJ! 'I

'nn,n •. if'.'!;','n"t.f.' ..t.inl';\ .' m"1iI'(""I! Ail\·JFli1iI '.' 'DE'D"C'lI! ,,':I'I;;,'iI' 'TI1'VTft." D'1iJ'i \, 'FIii.·TT'\1 '. A, D"QU" y'

,ClX,U'!f'JL.l.""'LI"i,:iI ,~J1!;.".ii ~~U .I.--',~.wri1,'1!1 "lJooA" 1li.Ji ,Q;II };lcli:''''4J,;;!',i."W~" •



~lW -.


MOD,ER_l\~'SEe'DNDARY STUD1ES QI" RUZB,IHAN' Arbeny" Arthur J.. Sh.Ua4 Pffr~a~ Q'fy if $'a~'M linii PtJets, .N·o'l1TIan: ~ 'U']]:fuve~~~;y Oif Oklahoma Press, R 9S0.

.A.tiyi., Gh.u];run. ~.Ali. Sh()/t:~_,~, ~~~Ml wa aln-at Wtl ~'mi ~(J;-i tfsli~r h.a.~5t

amtul:a~i Slt(1;t!!/i -i Sh.rdtah ,lilu~.bmarl .BaaJ:j T'ehtan ,. R··' i~ ..... 'bH"fI,\i 'I"" _. ] '!l,Ci: Q 1-

7" mnr II ~- - --- - ':1. , ,- .!II l 1. ~~- ~J.!~~.~,~ _, .;J{JL~~_,


Bauamf~'t~ i?auJ. ~'1,Mpe.-cts de. ']a. pffi~ee: de Ruzbehan '8SlIQni SQufi, it S.h]ri~ au J{:II,eme ktecle:.!~ 'Ph,D', diss., S,gfbQ!i1nie~ 1994.

Co~b:in~ Henry, u'EAbhar ai_foAseqlin"li Ef$fjtd~ia ,b'lmit;{l~ D" 214-1,jt.

_ ~~_ ~s:lar1!t uw~i~~~ ~/J6cls SPi'fi:il~!t1J el phil(jj;;JpJ~~ue£j' vat 3,,- les Fidem d~mnoW'~ Shf\si'f]'i;' e~ ,f()~ne., Bibli,Qtl'teque des Idees. Paris: Gallimum"j, '~9 72 _

- ,L'k~;e' de lttm.iim daru It, s(Jtl/ume- irtmia~. 'Con,ecti~n. "Le S,oleil dans le 'P0~r .'tl: Paris: Editions, Pr-esefjt.€" 19' 1 ~ ~~lffi~h 'edjtl@fJ~:;· Th~ Ma~,i 1!~1. m /)l;artUl'll Sf!Ii:sm. Trans, Nancy- :Pe~'rsan.. 1B~u~de:r: Sham'~a~ l 917,8.

- ,"~'lt-uzbeihi:n B~'1i de 5hil:a;~. u lu, H~~ Cl)t/J,m, ed, Ctl'ristian J a:mb~t~ ~5} ,C~hi~~,s, de I'Herne (~'rls~ ,Ecl~~OIlS d~ .]~H~.~n~~, Hla:3)~t pp. tSQH6i. _. 'Tbe V~silo:nary D~~am III Islamie SpJDtUality.1I In '171$ Dm.~ tmd' ,"u~!tJ:R SO~~it5~, ,~(J.. G, E, ~~ ~'roneba\Um. - :rr1nd Rog(ff' Caillois (Be;d::cley:~l U mi\\f€r-sity of C:mIDiforjl~a ·Pre~~ 119(6)~ p:p" 38 ~ -41l8,.

Durl~g'~, .Je:~n. Mwifw eJ. rxt:ase;' L 'iltuJiMJt mJjid9;~~ dt!'M ,m trgdit~ $~e..

Spiritl1ahl:eS 'Vivan:tes. Faris: ,Albin :Miche1, l'9Sfl. ,Ant:'.u~~~,e I~ ~~ Le 1~mi,)

et le d~.ikr. de R.iI~beMll BaqH Shim~i~ u p,. 201~ 16~ _

,Ernst, Ca;d 'W', ,r,':Y)ntical 'kngua;ge 7~nd, 'the Tea,c'&mg CiOnR~t. in the R_M~.y Sufi umoons, II In ~stitisrm lJ.nJ lA{J!!JlOff1~ 00,. S®eve.n T" Kihtz (o,~rQlrcl: Q,J.uro U:nj\t,er$~ty Press~ I. 9 92)." pp", 1 ,8 r-eo 1.

= uRii,~bih,in B~q]]. an ~~ M ~'R8s~n~~al Desire, ~ I~ III GrJll is ,scl},~ mtil Er

IM~,t. die ~'hfJ11l~~/Gr;d iJ I1f()~~l aml'.h~ &im~;' Pttstsd~jtjil!f A~~~ie ~ml~ ecL_,~3l, GiesE ,M~dJ'" Ch.riS1li0pIH :Bu~gd {ll~m.: Peter Lang, ID 994}". pp.. 1'9,1-.89",

_ ,! ii1ie' Sta,ges of:tove in Eady-J?'e:mi~ffi1. S~&m from'C~ 'to Rm'~' n

In r!:lmskllt '-wsitm $Vfi~ ,fo,m ilf ~IJ' w, Rtun~, ,00. Leonard Lewisohn ~fld0n: Xh~lliq(~, NimatuHahi} 1 '994)~ pp., 4:35='55; .am in g~' 14 (1. 9921~ pp. l &,-2'3;, ~et~dan translation by 'M~jd\C'-j, JBa~f-~t ~j; 'H,MaTi,hD~:i, ~ishq dar nakhugfin ,~dvi](-=i. ~~~VVi!JJr .. i. 'I tin." az, Ribjl',~ ta Rl[bib~ha;'. u $i!.fl' is "1 g711 ~. g~1), pp,. '&--'1 7,

- "The Sy.m.boJism (~f B~rd~ and. Jlli~gh:t ])1 the llVri.tin~ of R'u~b~hi n Ba{J_i, It In. 1Jw ,ifgtqp rf MetiimU eersffln SiJjJ:m} ed, LeQ;n,~r:cl U\visCD.nn (London:: ~amq,ahi :NimatJllIllahi" ll99~)~ PPI. g'J1r66,;, a1s~ in i.¥ 11 V\1JJ:tlttmn, :~'991J, pp. 5~ ]2,

- ,W?t:ds 'Jf' &;sil1~ i~,_ Sf/am. SU~ Series ,~n I$l~m. AJlban:Y~ $,'mte U'r!'l,ve~ity ef ,N,ew' YOI'k. Pre-ss, I ,gas.

,E1¥.ing'~ K:~Jtth~rinJ; p_ 'liThe 'Dream of' :;piritllla I nidation wd. thte

Or,ga~~~tio~,_of Se~f ,RepfeS-el'1lJ~n'on arn,iong ]?~tanru ,Sum.'t!' ~aN: ,Et~ll~.l (] ggnL 'pp .56-1'4.

G0(!l<l$"Al:an. ;'The. '!I~ii~ .i-~ii" 'Ih~ My£ttl:ru. Q.ur'amc ,Exege:m of '~.9~~I~l~Jl ,~-Baqill~ri'~' Fh .n diss., U nive:rs:ity' ,~r C'am~rlJ~~n:~a! at Berkeney ~

Boca} N;a)~~f, "Das arabisehe \\1:erk lGli~ mm~ (l1~~~,~' In ~ t1a VII.

KQ!JI!~ for A~'(J;b.i5tj'Jc unti' hkrtlwi.s~~, lJlJltiJrgfffJ J 5. ,~iS 2 g~ .A~t !9.\~l4~ ed, A~ben Dru,e'tri,ch} A'bhaud]u:rus;en .der Akade'mie' d~r W]~$en$dlaimn ill Gotting,~ij" Phio~Dgi~e[1,-bi800(clSlch,e Klasse, Dritte Foj,gt~ UG. '9i8 CG~td:ngen; Vandenholeck &. bp,retht", l'9<;'6'l' ~~,_ 2\OS":'

]. L. 'J J;""',iF

!\Thtrlow! '~,' H~ ~,iQ~pililY o,~ Ruzbihart al-~~9li. ij JotJmfJl aMhf}(;lmdinu qf ~t~ A~ttt ,~te~' lJ/~Bmgal ,N; S. XXlV' ~'~ 928)~ 'pp. ,353,--,6 '[ .

_ '!~ld;~O're._,~n. ,mio~aphy ofRnz'bihan ,~kBa:q.]ili,,.~~rJiMmalj)JYJu· B~mb.qy ,Bml'tdJ,;

of I~' Rfjt11 Amzt:re Saci~~ Vll (193li)~ p~ 1=7.. _

:Ma:~aU~'ti~~a~ a[~:rnn. M,*,lM=i Dlt'ri~1l1J.:"-£A4{lbivalr'i S}W:al .Ill (134,51 .l196i-B~, PP'. 2'2-43,.

M~;rQln~,1~~~~'· D~;S::2~: H!l.!at:o"j Ib3 M~~ Hall4j m:a;~ ~fltiq\i#' tl8

_ ,-~ ' __ 'm ex~~,~ ~ ~~(la U'i -' ~- mQr:$ it,i:.'~~ ~tu,tIt d~wil,e religiB-lls6'. 2nd, ed, 4-

~dJ:s,,,~; Paris; _ ~al1hriJill~" 1 gl7.§. ,BngLi;sh edijti'~:m.: Tl~f: .RfJS~ it! tJi~H{;liiJ~ ~$'~I aM Ma~~eJ. .lsb1m. Tr.,~Sr .. H~~:t M.a~,. 'Bolli~ Series ~cvn.:t 4 vols .. ~ Prioceton: P:n.Jl00W(rn Umvemt)' Ptte'SiS, 1918,2'.

,~ ,I~~ Vle' e~ las eeuvres de ltjj~!behan. ]~t~,gLi. II In S~ mi&l1t~ilM ,p~i P~ffl :Jepfifilg~u{l .. rio ... -n. ,a:. col. 4isapu;/is ~1t:iJ; ,fl~ (Oc.wenha,g;en: E" ~,~nbgaard) ~ 9~·3:)~ pp, 2'7'5~a8:;, reprmted in Lenis Ma.9sigmD~ i Dpua _ M~f$~~, 00., Y. _ Mo~bar.a~ {B:e)trilJ.ll~: Dar aJ.-Ma.'i.rlf~ 19·63,J, rr~ '-is, ,[ -65. ~:r, M1ilbamm;~d T;~"i. Sltmh-i hid wa (i tlm'r wa ttEh ~}'-i Slw)IUJ. Ri~lJiJilm

Atgli. Tehr.~ll; :D,inrnsh,giUl~i' P~W~m, 1304/-~~91!L " .: ' "._, . - ..

M1!l,gj:n~) A. ~t uLel!1f~ngw~d~kay,~ Ru_kapis s 'Zbr~t)~)opi$jamya Shtina '.' ~uz=bwh~n~.~'!~ ~(;rMtsli'»t y~.'s~vtM~i~' t951~ '00. 5, pp. 114-1 'LB .. N,~:r[u ~ Ohnlimhusi1l(yn.. ,Rii~iiiliii4I-:) fo I~-:i .Fars S-hir,arz' FtiJllii bkli~ na-i

Ah,madru, 't345 i 19'615,. . , .. . .'" . .. ".""

N,QJsf'j, B:~ ~~m" i~b.~am _and The ·V.~(Si {};f &ll~ba;hin . Baql'j, '~~ P:UrOll s'runt of ShlIL",U ." $tti~. ~lTtptra,'tW.~ Religi~n 10" 1-9'i'6J~ PP', 31-40.

:lte]lder,~ It. M,. 1111 Jasmm des foJiiks d~amour: R,evmew hdele II Muslim W~"

53 (:l96J)) pp, 314-2'3. _ -", .'. '. ,... . ..).' ",


{A_b.d at.,;~aqq M1Li~addith Dllil~Wi; ]] ~ Abd al~Qi~[' FilLui Fisit 9

'Abd, ruA8d~[" Gh~i Fis"i~ 9

~Abd a!~QJdjjr Ta~m,' 8;

~ iII.'bd: .] C'_lIJ- 9

n.. •• ' ~. ~~;a,rrt.l'· '

",Abd ZIl· W'adiid IChiJlllM Fmid 11, .. ' ,~ n,


AbrMam], !H3.], 6B~ ] 2 ] AIYl1 aJI-;Far.aj~ 6, :127 l [:28 Abu ,al-QJSlm, ~~~ 'Arlr; 99

Ab~ a]~aJi! ,al&Wisi~i!F ,3, '~ 21~ 126 Abu BM~} 27

Abii ,&lb- rum Sa~?d~ 13,7', [$8 R. 36 AbG, ,Blail« ibQ Shihib ,a;]amJl~ 'La] Abu :Oakr Qutllijgh, KhAn 134 ALbii :t.lam-wlm, 52'

,AbG, Mu~~mmad a!··J!awza_k~ '[ 2' n, 8

Ab- 'ii!..f - "'loll

U Jl~U~ I';:'

Abu Sa ~d-i ,Abu ,al-Khayr" u 1.

,AbU 'V:u1:d ~'I~~,irniJ 54J 55.,~ 56,. 9t, 9511 9'j\ 98, 99, ].1 8~ 1445, ~4 7 AdaJmj 5]], sn]1 56) [60, 6,2', 66~, 67', 68,

,691 12 ~

,A_W--~ ~aqq, 1 ~,8 n, ,~4.' J\.\tmadJ Bibi S'udJiriil 9[ ~ad. ihn, ~~lmibiid" 29 53

MrrJad ibn l\\luhammad N,Rhmwin" Q'

til • ""'~


~ad S~ndl', n, ~47 ,A~~iMid ~~fi,~ []8

~AJla~ ait.:Daw]a Simr.fli.n:i :I. '[ 12'

~Am ibn Abi., aJib;. 27', 52" 64~ 12"2

12,3, l.~Nj

An~_rl~ !~Abd iUlib" ]8 Aq,..I~ruu;~, 6 Arab.ia,9'

.. ~ad aJIl-Din NaYEl'~l, 3, ruh'iliM'is, '29.~ S1~ 99!

Ba;dr iI=Um Si hindi" ] 1. Baghdad; ID.; [ ,8, ] 25

Bah.:Ea'~ al-:l)1:n Y~zdi~ ]40 inl. 81

Binii SilbLh~ 2

Bat:a!i~, 129

Bayazld. Set ,AbU 'Yu'id aJ,~.Bjs~iMi Dist:iMl: Soo ,Abu Y:~ld al-]Ji5tiiml

. .

Bu[u,pin, 1.3.i6

Brury.ids! M·

Chis'h'lis, U)

:Oi,'"] Slilmz~~ Shih~. 10 DaJiI1'te.j 9'1', L 4r6

Darn Shiik!mh, io, _[] 'D~fd, ~41

Da'mni~ JaJaJ ai-Din, ., ~ 10 Da:wd" 5]

Da,[ami~ I. OQ' n, l4

D\Oc:can~ II

DdltJri., II

El']lij, w="' _"9,-, ],5 n. 47',( ;'3

Egypt, 129

ErmQpiii;~ ] 28

E2:eJd~[ 1k] ,...J~. 5]

l~iikhr ,d .. Dln, Al}nlad 'ibn .Riz;biHin~ 9! 89~ '91~ :[29]1 ]:'0, 131

'akhr ai-Din ~bn M'arr'a;m~ 3,. 94, '95


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful