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nor has any part been written for me by another person.Home work Title No. Student’s Signature: prem kumar Evaluator’s comments: ___________________________________________________ __________________ Marks obtained: ___________ out of ______________________ . I have not copied from any other student’s work or from any other source except where due acknowledgment is made explicitly in the text. pawan kumar Date of submission: 10/09/2010 Student’s Name: Student’s Roll No: Section No: prem kumar RD3804-A-12 D3804 Declaration: I declare that this assignment is my individual work.: 01 Course Code: CAP402 Artificial Intelligence Course Instructor: Mr.

Which objective still carries weight? Are his refutations valid? Ans:-. In one room sits a man.according to question. of either gender. then the computer must be a passable simulation of a human being and hence. Read Turning’s original paper on AI (Turning. in the second a woman.1(A=5 liter) Step 2:-. and which the machine. in which instead of a man and a woman as contestants. Turing proposed that if. Use production system to solve the problem. 1950). a judge were less than 50% accurate. so she will attempt to deceive him. A is full of 5 liter B is an empty jug of 2 liter. each connected via computer screen and keyboard to the others. intelligent.we have to map 1 litre water from two water jug. The woman's job is to trick the judge. and the judge's job is not to choose between two contestants. proposed a test called "The Imitation Game" that might finally settle the issue of machine intelligence. he discusses several potential objections to his proposed enterprise and his test for intelligence. no more than the initial 5 liters is available. Ans:-.CAP402 Artificial Intelligence HW-1 Part A 1. offering whatever evidence he can (the computer terminals are used so that physical clues cannot be used) to prove his man-hood. but simply to decide whether the single contestant is human or machine. in a 1951 paper. there was a human. Water-jug A Step:-. and a computer at the other terminal.call him or her the "judge".(A=3 liter) B=0 B=2 liter Water-jug B Result A is fill 5 liter water but B is empty A is fill 3 liter and B is fill by 2 liter(from transfer A . however. if a judge is as likely to pick either human or computer.Alan Turing. The judge's job is to decide which of the two people talking to him through the computer is the man. how can one obtain precisely 1-litre in the 2-litre jug? Water may either be discarded or poured from one jug to another. The man will attempt to help the judge. and in the third sits a person . under these conditions. In the paper. that is. The game has been recently modified so that there is only one contestant. Now the judge's job is to decide which of the contestants is human. in hopes that the judge will erroneously identify her as the male. What does any of this have to do with machine intelligence? Turing then proposed a modification of the game. Given a 5-litre jug filled with water and an empty 2-litre jug. and counteract her opponent's claims. 2. Imagine three rooms. The first version of the game he explained involved no computer intelligence whatsoever.

(ii) One or more knowledge/databases that contain whatever information is appropriate for the particular task. rank 2) to Square( file e. rank 4) is empty. Ans:--. (I) Its structure corresponds to the structure of problem solving in two important ways: (a) It allows for a formal definition of a problem as the need to convert some given situation into some desired situation using a set of permissible operations.to B) Step3:-(A=3 liter) B=0 liter A is fill 3 liter but discarded the water of water jug B A have remain water 1 liter but B has 2 liter water(transfer water jug A to B) Step4:--(A=1 liter) B=2 liter >>>solved the problem in 4th steps. 3. the more succintly we can describe the rules we need. (b)It permits us to define the process of solving a particular problem as a combination of known techniques (each represented as a rule defining a single step in the space) and search. In general. then move the pawn from Square( file e. each consisting of a left side that determines the applicability of the rule and a right side that describes the operation to be performed if that rule is applied. the less work we will have to do to provide them and more efficient the program. the general technique of exploring the space to try to find some path from current state to a goal state. Name some problems where production system can be used in a better way than state space search. For example: White pawn at Square( file e. . (iv)A rule applier inorder to solve a problem for producation system: We must first reduce it to one for which a precise statement can be given.The state space representation forms the basis of most of the AI methods. This can be done by defining the problem’s state space ( start and goal states) and a set of operators for moving that space. Production system A production system consists of: (i) A set of rules. rank 2) AND Square( File e. Example of state space:-We need to write the rules describing the legal moves in as general a way as possible. The problem can then be solved by searching for a path through the space from an initial state to a goal state. rank 3) is empty AND Square(file e. rank 4). (iii)A control strategy that specifies the order in which the rules will be compared to the database and a way of resolving the conflicts that arise when several rules match at once. (c)Search is a very important process in the solution of hard problems for which no more direct techniques are available. while other parts of it may pertain only to the solution of the current problem. Some parts of the database may be permanent.

Branch and bound algorithm k = 0. where large subsets of fruitless candidates are discarded enmasse. Lk+1 := minQ2Lk+1 ©lb(Q). The N _ N extension of the 8-puzzle is NP-hard. (IV) DFS has need less memoy space. Describe how the branch-and-bound techniques could be used to find the shortest solution to a water jug problem. (III) If we use to solve a queue problem than it is better to solve by the BFS as like DFS. while Uk ¡ Lk > ². L0 = fQinitg. k := k + 1.The process of solving the problem can usefully be modelled as a production system. form Lk+1 from Lk by removing Qk and adding QI and QII . L0 = ©lb(Qinit). (II) If there are more than one solution for any problem than it will consider the minimal solution in BFS but DFS has not capacity to like BFS.difference between Breath-First search and Depth-First search-(I) it is necessary to find it but in the DFS has not surety that it will find it. split Q along one of its longest edges into QI and QII . Ans:-.if we have less memory space that it is better to solve by BFS. It consists of a systematic enumeration of all candidate solutions. 6. Following is the 8-Puzzle Problem: .First Search would work better than Depth –First search and vice-versa? Ans:-.definition of Branch-and-bound:-Branch and bound(BB) is a general algorithm for finding optimal solutions of various optimization problems. f pick Q 2 Lk such that ©lb(Q) = Lk. How does Breath. It is simple. } 5. Write the method to solve 8-puzzle problem using hill climbing method? And also find the heuristic search function that would works on it? Ans:-The 8-puzzle is the largest puzzle of its type that can be completely solved. Uk+1 := minQ2Lk+1 ©ub(Q). and yet obeys a combinatorial large problem space of 9! =2 states. Part B 4. U0 = ©ub(Qinit). especially in discrete and combinatorial optimization. by using upper and lower estimated bounds of the quantity being optimized.

Where w(n) is the number of misplaced tiles in node n. . Otherwise. go to Step 2 Solution: 9p1=9 in this 8-puzzle problem. Test to see if the top element in the queue is a goal node. to the top of the stack according to order computed by the evaluation function. Otherwise. 2. stop. if any.we have solve a particular square by 9 way. Step4: If the stack is empty. Steps Included in the Solution: 1. Remove the top element from the stack. go to step 3. Step1: Form a one-element stack consisting of the root node. Add the first element’s descendants. If it is. then signal failure.start 1 8 4 2 5 7 Goal 1 4 7 2 5 8 3 6 3 6 Step2: Step3: Evaluation functions for the 8-Puzzle Problem: F (n) = w (n).

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